Crystal City Streetcar Project

Conceptual Engineering Basis of Design
DRAFT
October 26, 2012

Prepared by URS Corporation

Octpber 26, 2012

Crystal City Streetcar Project

TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................................................................................. 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 2 2.0 GENERAL ................................................................................................................... 2 2.1 Other Ongoing Projects ................................................................................................. 2 2.2 Streetcar Vehicle ........................................................................................................... 2 2.3 Alignment Geometry ..................................................................................................... 5 2.4 Design Speeds................................................................................................................ 6 3.0 STREETCAR STOPS ...................................................................................................... 7 4.0 CIVIL ENGINEERING ASSUMPTIONS ............................................................................ 8 4.1 Cross Slope and Roadway Reconstruction .................................................................... 8 4.2 Lane Width .................................................................................................................... 9 4.3 Track Structure/Pavement Reconstruction ................................................................... 9 4.4 Special Trackwork ........................................................................................................11 4.5 Drainage ......................................................................................................................11 4.6 ADA Accessibility/Upgrades ........................................................................................11 4.7 Bicycle Facilities ...........................................................................................................11 5.0 SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ASSUMPTIONS .................................................................... 12 5.1 Traction Power Supply System Requirements ............................................................12 5.2 OCS Infrastructure .......................................................................................................14 5.3 Streetcar Operational Control .....................................................................................15 5.4 Additional Systems Engineering Considerations .........................................................16 6.0 STREET LIGHTING ..................................................................................................... 16 7.0 UTILITIES ................................................................................................................. 17 7.1 Conflicts & Relocation Assumptions............................................................................17 7.2 Areas of Importance ....................................................................................................17 8.0 TRAFFIC ................................................................................................................... 17 8.1 Traffic Operations ........................................................................................................18 8.2 Traffic Signals...............................................................................................................18 8.3 Pavement Markings & Signage ....................................................................................19 9.0 STRUCTURAL............................................................................................................ 19 10.0 SURVEY ................................................................................................................... 19 10.1 Survey Control ...........................................................................................................19 10.2 Base Mapping ............................................................................................................19 10.3 Utility Field Mapping .................................................................................................19 10.4 Geotechnical Boring Locations ..................................................................................20 11.0 MAINTENANCE AND STORAGE FACILITY ................................................................... 20

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1.0
This report documents the proposed Basis of Design for conceptual and preliminary engineering of the Crystal City Streetcar. Presented herein are basic design parameters and assumptions that will form the basis of the civil, track, systems, structural, and utility engineering design effort. The objective is to deliver a preliminary engineering package consistent with Arlington County standards and within the established project goals and budget. The criteria herein are presented in an abbreviated form for higher level decision making. It is important that the assumptions stated in this document be reviewed and concurrence obtained to avoid miscommunication; an early consensus is also important to avoid impacts to the project design cost and schedule. This Basis of Design has been developed using information received from the County, from URS’s experience with streetcar projects in urban environments similar to those found in the project area, other similar projects in the area (such as the Crystal City Potomac Yard Transitway, Columbia Pike Streetcar, and streetcar projects in the District of Columbia), and using guidelines such as WMATA’s Tram/LRT Guideline Design Criteria. This is intended to be a “living document” – upon entering advanced engineering efforts, the Basis of Design should be developed further and reevaluated to ensure that it remains consistent with the project goals and the County’s desires.

2.0
2.1 Other Ongoing Projects
There are other planned future projects that may impact the Crystal City Streetcar. It is important to consider these projects when developing conceptual designs or evaluating alternatives, as they could impact the feasibility and/or cost of this project. Provided below is a list of known projects in the vicinity of the Crystal City Streetcar. Coordination with these projects will be required during future phases of project development. Crystal City Potomac Yard (CCPY) Transitway Potomac Yard developments Columbia Pike Streetcar Pentagon City development between S. Eads St. and S. Fern St. Crystal City street improvements (including Crystal Drive, and reconstruction of Clark and Bell Streets) Future redevelopment in Crystal City

2.2 Streetcar Vehicle
For the Crystal City Streetcar, a modern streetcar vehicle will be used. The vehicle will be capable of operating in exclusive or semi-exclusive alignments, or in shared lanes with automobiles. Articulated segments on the vehicle will allow it to negotiate the tight curves that are common in urban environments. The vehicle will have the capability of being operated in either direction, with a fully-equipped operator’s cab located at each end. The design will accommodate only single-car vehicle consists. In some locations along the corridor, the ability to extend the platform length to accommodate longer vehicle consists is limited because of right of way availability or conflicts with existing features such as driveways. DRAFT Conceptual Engineering Basis of Design URS Corporation 2

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Assumed values for critical vehicle dimensions are shown in the table below. These values are based on characteristics of streetcar vehicles that are currently available for procurement in North America. Table 2.1 Assumed Ranges of Critical Specifications Desirable Max -

Specification Turning Radius

Min 82 feet (25m) mainline; 66 ft (20m) yard/storage track 66 feet 50% 1 mile 500 VDC

Vehicle Width Vehicle Length Boarding Height Percent Low Floor Wireless Operating Range Vehicle Weight (at crush load AW41) Axle Loading (at crush load) Consists Acceleration Braking Grade (sustained) Grade (< 1/4mile) OCS Voltage
1

8.0 feet (typical streetcar) 14 inches 2 miles 1-car only 3 mph/sec 3 mph/sec 750 VDC nominal

8.7 feet (Std. LRV) 82 feet 100% 141,200 Pounds (25m vehicle) 25,700 Pounds (25m vehicle) 6% 7% 925 VDC

AW4 represents the weight of the empty car plus the weight of the full capacity passenger load.

The vehicle will be capable of drawing power from conventional overhead contact wire similar to those commonly found on light rail or modern streetcar systems. Supplemental means of propulsion through on-board power storage may be identified, but they are not essential. Information on dynamic vehicle envelopes will be assumed using conservative values until the time a specific vehicle is selected. This assumption anticipates the largest envelope that would be expected from readily available streetcar vehicles present in the U.S. market and any selection that deviated from this envelope would require less space. The following values will be used for preliminary engineering design: Curve radius ≤ 200 feet: 6.0 foot minimum offset from centerline Curve radius > 200 feet: 5.5 foot minimum offset from centerline The vehicle loading criteria was determined based on a range of values from typical modern streetcar vehicle specifications. Where applicable, the design shall consider loading conditions from both a two-truck 20-meter streetcar vehicle (such as the United Streetcar vehicle or the DRAFT Conceptual Engineering Basis of Design URS Corporation

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Kinkisharyo Ameritram) and three-truck 25-meter streetcar vehicle (Siemens S70 or Kinkisharyo LRV). These conditions are shown in the figures below.

Figure 2-1 20-Meter Modern Streetcar Loading Condition

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Figure 2-2 25-Meter Modern Streetcar Loading Condition

2.3 Alignment Geometry
The track for the Crystal City Streetcar will be positioned either in a shared lane or in dedicated transit lanes that will be constructed as part of the CCPY Transitway. The streetcar alignment will be constrained primarily by the existing roadway (or future transitway) geometry. In certain locations, such as sharp curves, the dynamic and operational characteristics of the vehicle will limit the alignment geometry. Where applicable, the conceptual engineering for the Crystal City Streetcar will be based on the WMATA manual entitled Tram/LRT Guideline Design Criteria (2003). Further guidance for development of the streetcar alignment will come from Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 155, Track Design Handbook for Light Rail Transit, Second Edition, and through application of nationally accepted streetcar design practices. Where roadways and traffic control devices are affected, the relevant County or VDOT standards will be used.

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The geometry will incorporate desired operational features of the streetcar and its interface with automobile traffic. These include the following: Offsetting the streetcar alignment within shared lanes so that automobile drivers can avoid driving directly on the rails. Developing the track profile in order to minimize impacts to the existing roadway pavement.

2.3.1 Alignment Description
This section details the assumptions for the location of the Crystal City Streetcar alignment within the existing conditions and the Transitway that is anticipated to be in place at the time of streetcar construction. The Crystal City Streetcar Project will establish a fixed rail streetcar line from the vicinity of Potomac Avenue and South Glebe Road to the Pentagon City Metrorail Station in Arlington County, VA. The project will include both a northbound and a southbound track extending the approximate 2.5-mile length of the corridor. The northern terminus of the Project is proposed to be in the vicinity of 12th Street South and Eads Street in Pentagon City and would coincide with the eastern terminus of the Columbia Pike Streetcar project. Should the Columbia Pike Streetcar project be delayed, the Crystal City Streetcar Project will be extended two blocks west to the vicinity of 12th Street South and South Hayes Street. The southern terminus would be in the vicinity of Potomac Avenue and South Glebe Road. The streetcar end of line design will allow for a future extension south into the City of Alexandria, and it will be designed with consideration for planned widening of Potomac Avenue and the shared use of the CCPY Transitway with buses.

2.4 Design Speeds
The streetcar alignment will be developed to allow the streetcar to operate at or below the posted speed of the roadway on which it operates. By industry standards and the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), the design speed shall not exceed 35 miles per hour (mph) on all routes where the streetcar operates within the existing roadway and is only controlled by traffic signals (i.e. no crossing gates). Some areas where slower speeds should be expected are shown below: 90 Degree turns: Where the streetcar turns from one street to another, the speeds will be limited to approximately 5 mph. Lane changes: Where the streetcar shifts from one lane to another at an intersection where it is performing a transit-only maneuver, slower speeds (approximately 15 mph) should be expected. Streetcar stops: At all streetcar stops, the alignment may have to shift slightly closer to the curb for level boarding. In addition, the vehicle will stop and briefly dwell (potentially in mixed traffic). Turnouts: Most turnouts (switches) for a streetcar system in an urban environment will be very tight and limited to speeds of around 5 mph.

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3.0
The proposed stops for the Project will be designed to accommodate a typical modern streetcar vehicle which measures from 66 to 82 feet in length. An example of a typical stop layout is shown below.

10”

(Optional bypass sidewalk shown) Figure 3-1 Typical Stop Layout The Crystal City Streetcar Project will incorporate two types of stops: those that are modified from the CCPY Transitway and those that will be newly constructed for streetcar use. Passenger amenities that are found with the Transitway stops will also be included with the new streetcar stops. It is assumed that the modifications required to the Transitway stops will be limited to structural improvements that will allow streetcar vehicles and buses to use the platforms while maintaining compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Typical streetcar stop design parameters and assumed amenities for each stop are reflected below: Track Grade through Platform: The track grade will meet the existing roadway or transitway grades; desirable longitudinal grades should be less than 2%. The platform grades will be in accordance with ADA guidelines. Stop Length: Streetcar stops will be approximately 75-90 feet long with a 60-foot long platform that is long enough to permit boarding from all doors on the vehicle. At some locations, existing conditions and right of way constraints may preclude the extension of streetcar stops beyond the length of a single car. Vehicle-Platform Interface: Bridge plates will be required for the streetcar vehicles in order to serve the stops that will accommodate both buses and streetcars. In order to provide ADA-compliant accessibility, accounting for the 14 inch boarding height of the streetcar vehicle (above top of rail) and the 10 inch height of the stop platform, the streetcar must be fitted with bridge plates. Stops located on the left side of the vehicle could be designed with a 14 inch height for level boarding without bridge plates, since those would be specifically for streetcar use and not shared with buses. DRAFT Conceptual Engineering Basis of Design URS Corporation

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Track Alignment: Where possible, the track alignment should be tangent horizontally and vertically through the streetcar stop platform and for approximately 40 feet from either end of the designated boarding areas. When bridge plates are used, wider gaps between the vehicle and platform are acceptable because the bridge plate provides ADA-compliant access to the vehicle. Of the CCPY Transitway stops that are intended to be reused for the Crystal City Streetcar Project, only the stop at 23rd Street and Crystal Drive is on a curve (with radius greater than 21,000 ft); all other Transitway stops are on tangent. Width of Stop: The desirable stop platform width should be 12 feet or a minimum of 10 feet. Transitway stops that are along Crystal Drive will be constructed as a shared platform and through sidewalk. Platform Height: Typical curb height at the platform edge is approximately 10 inches to allow boarding of buses and streetcars at the same stop. Ingress and egress from the streetcar vehicle will therefore include bridge plates for ADA accessibility. In order to have level boarding for streetcars, provisions to accommodate shared use of stops by streetcars and buses would need to be made to ensure that there are no conflicts. Detailed evaluation of platform and vehicle (streetcar and bus) interfaces will be required in final design to address accessibility. ADA Access: Grades must be considered at all platform locations. Where the stop is to be integrated with the sidewalk, no steps may be used along the pedestrian route. New streetcar stops will have passenger amenities consistent with the CCPY Transitway stops. These are assumed to include lighting, shelters, benches, and identification signage, transit information, and trash receptacles, at a minimum. Other amenities, if any, will be determined as the design is developed further.

4.0
Significant project savings can be realized by minimizing unnecessary reconstruction and civil engineering improvements. It is assumed that a simple cost effective approach will be taken for the Crystal City Streetcar. The following sections describe some of the common features that have been used to deliver similar types of street-running transit systems around the country. These assumptions will serve as the basis of design.

4.1 Cross Slope and Roadway Reconstruction
It is assumed as part of the Project that the limits of reconstruction will be limited to only what is necessary to install the streetcar track structure and appurtenances. This assumes that no additional overlay or reconstruction beyond what is absolutely necessary to construct the streetcar guideway will be included in the project scope or cost. Special conditions may also be considered, such as limiting reconstruction to the edge of the nearest pavement joint in existing jointed concrete pavement if it proves to be more cost effective. Detailed grading is generally not completed until final design. For the purpose of approximating the amount of pavement reconstruction, the approach mentioned above will be used. The approach is further outlined in the figure and table below. Cross slope between the rails in tangent track or reverse superelevation is undesirable and will not be used unless no other solution exists.

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Figure 4-1 Potential Cross Slope Table 4.1 Proposed Roadway Design Parameters Location on Cross Slope Desirable Maximum A (grade change) B (cross slope) C (cross slope) D (cross slope) E (cross slope) F (curb exposure) 3% +2% ± 2-4% 0% - 4-6% 6 inches ± 5% (2-3% at cross streets) +5% ± 4.5% ± 1-2% -7% 10 inches (at stops)

4.2 Lane Width
For shared auto/streetcar lanes, widths should be 12 feet desirable minimum (in tangent) and 10 feet absolute minimum. This is based on the static envelope of the assumed modern streetcar vehicle and may need to be modified after the vehicle is selected. The static envelope of the vehicle mirrors are typically used as the minimum offset for lane striping. All lane widths are measured from the face of curb to the lane line. In transit-exclusive alignments where the streetcar is operating by itself or shared only with buses, such as the CCPY Transitway, the minimum lane width will be based on the dynamic operating characteristics of the design vehicle.

4.3 Track Structure/Pavement Reconstruction
All track for the Crystal City Streetcar will consist of rail embedded in concrete that will allow buses to operate in shared lanes; ballasted, grass, or direct fixation track will not be used. There are numerous designs for light rail and streetcar embedded track structures in use throughout the country. The design of the track slab will ultimately depend upon factors such as the choice of rail section, local soil conditions, pavement design life expectations, and the potential for spanning utilities. In a typical installation, the track slab is poured over a compacted base course; the base course thickness will vary depending upon the pavement design life and bearing capacity of the subgrade. The rail will be installed in an elastomeric rail boot that is continuous to the surface of the pavement on both sides, which is a standard treatment for stray current protection. Special trackwork will be electrically isolated in a similar manner. The standard rail gauge of 4 ft, 8 ½ in. will be assumed for this project. Track gauge narrowing in curves will be examined during future phases of the design, as the streetcar wheel and axle design are identified. DRAFT Conceptual Engineering Basis of Design URS Corporation 9

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Most modern light rail and streetcar systems that include shared lanes have been constructed using embedded girder rail in a concrete track slab. The girder rail has a flangeway integrated with the rail head, which allows for a consistent flangeway that is suitable for mixed traffic applications. However, girder rail is only produced in Europe, and it will not satisfy Buy America requirements for projects that receive federal funding. Alternative rail sections produced in the United States can be used for embedded track, including traditional tee rail (e.g. 115 RE), which has been installed in several locations, or a 112 lb block rail section that has only recently started to be rolled domestically and has been installed in limited quantities in the U.S. and Europe. Figures 4-2, 4-3, and 4-4 show typical track slab designs for embedded track using girder, tee, and block rail sections.

Figure 4-2 Typical Girder Rail Track Structure

Figure 4-3 Typical Embedded Tee Rail Track Structure (115 RE Rail Shown with Elastomeric Snap-on Flangeway)

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Crystal City Streetcar Project Figure 4-4 Typical Unreinforced Embedded Block Rail Track Structure

4.4 Special Trackwork
Special trackwork refers to the units necessary where tracks converge, diverge or cross one another; such units include turnouts, crossings, and crossovers. All special trackwork for the Crystal City Streetcar will utilize the AREMA based (115RE rail section) design except as modified to meet the special condition of streetcar system. Special trackwork conforming to European standards (25 meter or 50 meter turnouts that can be manufactured in the United States) may be considered if it will best meet the turnout’s functional requirements, desired speeds and local geometric constraints. Special trackwork insulation for stray current protection will utilize a combination of poured in-place elastomeric grout and/or preformed rail rubber boot. The location of turnouts and crossovers will be established in coordination with streetcar operational requirements. Embedded turnout switch machines will be either manual or powered, depending on location. Turnout switch points will be provided with switch heaters.

4.5 Drainage
Existing drainage patterns will be maintained throughout the project wherever possible. Trackwork drainage will require the addition of inlets at the low point of sag vertical curves and near special trackwork switches. To address potential existing drainage concerns, minimum longitudinal curb grades will be maintained or introduced within the reconstruction area to the extent feasible. Drainage area maps for the Crystal City Streetcar Project area will be developed using a combination of survey, aerial photography, field observation, and GIS data. The existing drainage will be evaluated to determine if adjustments to existing inlets or the addition of new inlets is required. Arlington County and Virginia Department of Transportation methods and standards will be used for drainage analysis. Because the Crystal City Streetcar will be constructed in developed areas, it is expected that no additional stormwater management (i.e., BMPs) will be required.

4.6 ADA Accessibility/Upgrades
Although impacts to existing facilities are expected to be kept to a minimum, ADA accessibility must be maintained or introduced if a facility is altered. Pedestrian facilities along the project corridor will be evaluated during the design process to determine if upgrades are required to meet ADA guidelines. Necessary upgrades to sidewalks, ramps, and crosswalks at intersections and other affected locations throughout the project corridor will be included as part of this project.

4.7 Bicycle Facilities
The streetcar route is located along several bicycle facilities identified by the Arlington County in its bikeway plans. The interface between the streetcar tracks and bicycles will be considered at intersections, along designated bikeways, and other locations where bicycles are likely to use the roadway. Designs for the areas around new streetcar stops will consider providing bicycle

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racks or lockers. Bicycle facilities included as part of this project will be designed in accordance with County standards.

5.0
General systems requirements typical of a streetcar system similar to the proposed project are listed below. The systems elements that will be required and discussed are: Traction Power Supply System (TPSS) Requirements Overhead Contact System (OCS) Infrastructure Streetcar Operational Control

5.1 Traction Power Supply System Requirements
The assumptions for the TPSS requirements based on similar types of projects are listed below. The final size and spacing of the substations for the Crystal City Streetcar will require a detailed analysis based on the selected vehicle, frequency of service and headways, track alignment profile, passenger stations, and the speed and load cycle over specific time intervals. This information will determine the actual transformer/rectifier (system appurtenances that transform AC supply power to DC) ratings and will confirm utility power demands. The traction power system assumed is a single trolley wire operating at a nominal system voltage of 750VDC with rubber-boot insulated rail. The trolley wire size for the positive side of the traction power system is based on the amperage and ability to meet minimum voltage requirements for a streetcar vehicle furthest away from any substation and drawing maximum starting current. The running rails will be used as the traction power system’s negative return from the streetcar vehicle to the substation. To avoid costly duct banks and with a trolley wire approach, the typical loading requirements require the use of a minimum 480/240 Vac 600amp (typical peak demand of 300amps) local utility services with 500 kW substations spaced at approximately ½ mile intervals on wired sections of the alignment. Final determination will be based on the supply analysis study. The substations can be located in several locations along the alignment including parking structures, at-grade in adjacent parcels, in the maintenance yard/shop area and even in underground vaults. Consideration should be made to evenly space the substation sites along and near the alignment (within 1 or 2 blocks) in order to minimize costly voltage drop duct banks and feeder lines. Several types and sizes of substations are available for use. The most cost effective substations are prefabricated traction power units. If required, these units can be dressed with architecturally designed external finishes. In addition to space and location, other factors to be considered include security and accessibility, ease of replacement/installation of equipment, proximity to utility feeders and to the street feeder pole locations, as determined by the load study analysis. The use of underground vaults as an alternative has the obvious advantage of being unobtrusive and also provides greater flexibility in meeting the spacing requirements. However, these are usually less convenient with regard to access and equipment maintenance/installation, and have

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additional fire safety and drainage issues to be resolved. The power control equipment layout would likely require a unique, site specific design, which would be more costly and require additional installation, site testing and commissioning work tasks. Because of these reasons, underground substations are generally not recommended. For the purpose of this effort, it is assumed that all substations will be above ground, prefabricated units with architectural treatment and/or landscaping. Future vehicle technologies may allow for partial operation of the streetcar using on-board stored power. The conceptual design for the Crystal City Streetcar currently assumes that conventional overhead trolley wire will be the power source throughout the project, and wireless technologies may be considered at some point in the future.

5.1.1 Substation Housing Size and Other Requirements
The typical size of a 500 kW prefabricated unit will occupy approximately 20 ft x 12 ft, housing the AC and DC switchgear, rectifier transformer, and rectifier units along with auxiliary transformer, AC and DC control panels, batteries and battery charger unit, cabling, etc. The approximate weight of the prefabricated unit would be 32,000 pounds. The substation sites will include provisions for electrical grounding. The ground mat shall be sized per code and soil condition requirements. Figure 5-1 shows a typical prefabricated substation without aesthetic treatments. Figure 5-2 shows a substation that has been architecturally enhanced for an urban setting.

Figure 5-1 Prefabricated Streetcar Substation (Portland, Oregon)

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Figure 5-2 Substation With Architectural Treatment (Norfolk, Virginia)

5.2 OCS Infrastructure
The Overhead Contact System (OCS) will be of an unobtrusive design consisting of a simple trolley wire supported by poles and cantilever brackets designed to be architecturally compatible with the streetscape. A single grooved trolley wire will provide power to the vehicle pantograph. The OCS will be segmented and overlapped to provide individual wire runs between feeding locations. Electrical sectioning and pole-mounted switching will be provided, as required, at or between feed points. Supporting poles will be spaced approximately 80’-120’ along tangent sections, with reduced spacing at connections and curves. Curved sections at the end loops will require bridle and spider (span) wire support systems. Poles can be of decorative design, painted, and with attachments for street lighting and possibly traffic signals to reduce costs and avoid “clutter” caused by too many poles. For the purpose of this project, it is assumed that architecturally enhanced painted OCS poles with cantilever supports will be used in those areas requiring overhead power. In order to meet the National Electric Safety Code (NESC), the trolley wire must be at least 18 feet under worst conditions above the pavement for shared lanes. Typically, the wire is set at 19 feet to account for wire sag. If there are any cases where the 18 feet minimum clearance cannot be obtained, the streetcar should be in an exclusive lane or, in some cases, a substandard wire height could be considered if supported by a detailed evaluation of truck traffic and other tall vehicles or where special approval is granted by the County and/or VDOT.

5.2.1 Corrosion Control

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In order to prevent premature failures of transit system facilities, utilities, and other underground structures, measures to address soil corrosion, stray current corrosion, and atmospheric corrosion will be included in the project design criteria.

5.3 Streetcar Operational Control
5.3.1 Streetcar Revenue Operations
A Book of Rules for the streetcar system will establish the maximum allowable speed for the streetcars to be equal to or lower than that currently signed for the roads on which they operate. It is expected that the streetcar operators will proceed by line of sight and obey existing street traffic signaling at intersections, as required. Where a special transit-only maneuver is required, the streetcar movements will be controlled by a two-aspect train signal and a separate streetcar-only signal phase programmed into the traffic signal controller. A twoaspect streetcar train signal is typically a light emitting diode (LED) vertical bar indicating that the vehicle may proceed and a horizontal LED bar indicating that the vehicle must stop. The streetcar signal head may include an advance signal to inform streetcar operators that the signal is about to change, such as a flashing vertical bar or a flashing horizontal bar. Intersections requiring a transit-only signal phase will be identified during the conceptual design.

5.3.2 Streetcar Non-Revenue Operations
The streetcar system will allow change-out of streetcar vehicles during daily operational service. Adequate space will be provided at the end of line stations for storage of additional vehicles, and the vehicle storage facility will be designed with operational considerations in mind.

5.3.3 Communications
Communications for the streetcar system are intended to be similar to other modern streetcar systems currently in operation in the United States. Dispatching of the streetcar vehicles will be accomplished via conventional radio equipment, similar to a transit bus. Automatic Vehicle Location is intended to be provided as well. At traction power substation locations, a limited Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system will be provided to monitor operations and detect problems within the unit. It is assumed that communication with the streetcar operation center will be via two-way radio or phone line.

5.3.4 Fare Collection

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The fare structure for the streetcar system has not been defined for this project, and a means for collection of fares has not been determined. Provisions must be made to allow for the following fare collection system methods: On-board On platform ticket vending Fare-less operation Contactless fare collection system

5.3.5 Signal System
Streetcars will operate along the alignment based on line of sight operating rules, requiring streetcar vehicle operators to obey traffic signals at intersections. At locations where the streetcar movements may be in conflict, such as at the maintenance facility entrance or where there is a single track at an end of line, a fully automated signal interlocking may be proposed.

5.4 Additional Systems Engineering Considerations
These considerations should be included as the project advances: Coordination with the Columbia Pike Streetcar project will be required to ensure compatibility with the traction power system implemented with the Crystal City Streetcar. Both lines, once constructed, will share a maintenance facility, and vehicles will need to have the ability to operate on the entire length of both projects’ alignments. If vehicles that can operate without wires are used, the traction power requirements for such a system will need to be evaluated. Charging locations would be identified based on the details of the selected system.

6.0
In future stages of design, a detailed inventory of the horizontal and vertical position of each light fixture will be needed to evaluate the position of the fixture relative to the proposed trolley wire. The main concern is providing safe maintenance access to change the bulb of the light fixture in proximity to the high voltage overhead trolley wire. There are Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulated clearance requirements that apply to minimum clearances and will vary depending upon if the maintenance crew is OSHA qualified or not. For the purpose of this Project, it is assumed that OSHA qualified crews will be maintaining the lights, which requires a minimum clearance of three feet, eight inches from the trolley wire to the luminaires on the pole mast arms. If non-qualified personnel are maintaining the lights, a minimum clearance of ten feet is required. Further discussion with Arlington County, VDOT, and Dominion Virginia Power will be required to establish guidelines acceptable to all parties.

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7.0
The approach to utility relocation is an extremely important design element to establish guidelines as early as possible during the project development phase. Utilities are an area in which every locality has unique guidelines based on the policies of a particular utility owner or agency. Existing Utility Composite Drawings will be prepared for the conceptual design submittal using record drawings, utility maps and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data obtained from Arlington County and the utility companies. In areas where more detailed utility information is critical for the conceptual engineering design or development of cost estimates, subsurface utility engineering (SUE) will be performed. The final designer for the streetcar should verify and obtain accurate horizontal and vertical information for all existing utilities using SUE methods as required.

7.1 Conflicts & Relocation Assumptions
The approach to identifying utility conflicts and relocation requirements is based on permitting processes and the policies of Arlington County and VDOT. A document detailing the Utility Rules of Practice will be developed in conjunction with the utility owners and the County. The Rules of Practice will define the methodology for identifying potential utility conflicts with the streetcar system and addressing relocations, rehabilitations, other utility adjustments, or procedures for maintaining utilities in place. It is recommended that all utilities crossing under the proposed streetcar be encased. The exception is storm drain, which is self-encasing. Encasing utilities will allow utility companies to access their facilities without disrupting streetcar operations.

7.2 Areas of Importance
In Arlington County, Crystal Drive south of 27th Street (near the Hyatt hotel) is located above an underground parking garage, and multiple utilities are believed to be in the right of way at shallow depths. Other parking garages extend under Crystal Drive as well, and the locations of utilities in those areas are not well defined. Portions of South Bell Street bear directly on underground passageways and parking structures. In addition, the proposed streetcar alignment crosses over existing WMATA Metrorail tunnels at 18th Street and Bell Street, and 18th Street and Crystal Drive. It is suggested that discussions with utility owners occur based on the preliminary data to start the coordination process and establish which utilities will be relocating.

8.0
The implementation of streetcar service within existing streets in Arlington County will require evaluation and likely adjustments to traffic operations and traffic signals. Many factors will need to be considered during the design. A brief discussion of typical traffic-related design issues that should be considered for this type of project are described in the following sections.

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Crystal City Streetcar Project

8.1 Traffic Operations
Traffic operations are an integral part of any streetcar service. As the project moves forward into design, it will be vital that a detailed traffic analysis be performed, which will identify areas of specific operational constraints, areas of impact on adjacent traffic, streetcar running times, and other parameters that can be addressed through design. In most cases, typical streetcar operation is similar to that of other vehicles in shared lanes by line of sight, with no additional traffic signal heads required unless a transit only phase is used and incorporated into the signal operation. This would typically occur if the streetcar is operating in a transit-exclusive lane, or if a separate phase is needed for the streetcar to transition from an exclusive lane into a shared lane.

8.1.1 Transit Priority
It is assumed that Transit Signal Priority (TSP) will be used for the Crystal City Streetcar. TSP helps ensure streetcar travel time reliability by adjusting traffic signal phasing to give a green signal for streetcars that are approaching, minimizing the amount of time that they are stopped at intersections. The effectiveness of TSP will be verified with the VISSIM model, and operational details will be developed in future phases of the design.

8.2 Traffic Signals
There are many signalized intersections within the proposed Crystal City Streetcar alignment. Traffic signals are expected to be installed or modified as part of the CCPY Transitway project, and other signals along the alignment may be impacted. Typically, any signal equipment located over the streetcar lane will need to be removed in order to provide adequate clearance to the overhead trolley wire.

8.2.1 Traffic Signal Equipment
Controller: The controllers along the proposed streetcar path will be inventoried and evaluated to determine if they are capable of accommodating advanced streetcar operations. The requisite modifications required, if any, for advanced streetcar operation will be noted in the inventory process. Traffic Signal Pole and Foundation: It is common for the trolley wire (single wire) to be supported by span wire connected to OCS poles or joint-use traffic signal poles. It is often desirable to minimize the number of poles within the right-of-way. One way to accomplish this is to have joint use poles on which traffic signals and OCS wires are supported, as shown in Figure 8-1. Detection: Equipment must be provided to detect the streetcar at intersections. This equipment may be similar to what is used for detecting other vehicles, such as video detection. If the streetcar needs to be identified separately from other vehicles, Opticom sensors or train-to-wayside communication (TWC) devices can be used.

DRAFT Conceptual Engineering Basis of Design URS Corporation

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Crystal City Streetcar Project

Figure 8-1 Joint Use Traffic Signal and OCS Pole

8.3 Pavement Markings & Signage
Pavement markings will conform to Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) requirements and the standards of the relevant jurisdiction (Arlington County or VDOT).

9.0
Assumptions for structures that may be affected by the streetcar will be described in a separate report.

10.0
10.1 Survey Control
The basis of survey control for this project is the Virginia State Plane, North Zone (1983). Existing Arlington County control stations will be used to establish survey control. Should any supplemental survey be required, additional control points will be created.

10.2 Base Mapping
For the conceptual design, base mapping will consist of georeferenced aerial photography and existing topographic survey data provided by Arlington County. As critical areas are identified during the design, supplemental survey may be taken of these specific locations if necessary.

10.3 Utility Field Mapping
Existing utility information within the project corridor will be obtained from utility companies, Arlington County, and from development projects in the vicinity. This information will be compiled into a single utility base map for use in evaluating alternatives and developing cost estimates for the conceptual design. Additional subsurface utility location information may be DRAFT Conceptual Engineering Basis of Design URS Corporation 19

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Crystal City Streetcar Project

obtained in critical areas along the corridor to supplement the mapping created from data records.

10.4 Geotechnical Boring Locations
Geotechnical borings are anticipated during preliminary engineering. For the conceptual design, visual investigation and a review of readily available geotechnical reports will be used to identify potential issues and evaluate the geotechnical conditions in the project corridor.

11.0
The maintenance and storage facility requirements for the Crystal City Streetcar Project will be coordinated with the Columbia Pike Streetcar Project. Potential sites and functional requirements for the maintenance and storage facility (or facilities) will be identified and documented in a separate report.

DRAFT Conceptual Engineering Basis of Design URS Corporation

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