Principle of Holography, On-axis and Off axis Holography ,
Application of Holography , Optical data storage
Optical fiber sensors
Active and passive optical fiber sensor, Intensity modulated
displacement type sensors, Multimode active optical fiber sensor
(Microbend sensor ) Single Mode fiber sensor-Phase Modulates
and polarization sensors
• In conventional photography a negative is made first
and using it a positive print is produced .Positive
print is only a two dimensional record of light
intensity received from a three diamensional record
of high intensity received from a three diamensional
object.It contains information about the square of
the amplitude of the light that produced the image
and the information about the phase of light is
• What is not holography
– Holodeck from Startrek
• What is holography
– Photography on steroids
– Both amplitude and phase is
– Different intensity in different
Photo vs. Holo
History of Holography
• Invented in 1948 by Dennis Gabor for use in
electron microscopy, before the invention of
the laser
• Leith and Upatnieks (1962) applied laser light
to holography and introduced an important
off-axis technique
Word Origin
• Hologram is from the Greek word holos,
meaning whole and gramma meaning
How Holograms are Made
• Need a laser, lenses, mirror, photographic film,
and an object
• The laser light is separated into two beams,
reference beam and object beam
• Reference beam enlarged and aimed at a
piece of holographic film
Making Holograms
• Object beam directed at subject to be
recorded and expanded to illuminate subject
• Object beam reflects off of object and meets
reference beam at film
• Produces interference pattern which is
Making Holograms Cont.
• Film is developed
• Hologram illuminated at same angle as
reference beam during original exposure to
reveal holographic image
Applications of Holography
• Design of containers to
hold nuclear materials
• Credit cards carry
monetary value
• Supermarket scanners
• Optical Computers
• Improve design of
aircraft wings and
turbine blades
• Used in aircraft “heads-
up display”
• Art
• Archival Recording of
fragile museum artifacts
Point object hologram construction:
Intensity distribution on plate
• Reference wave
• Object wave
• Intensity distribution on plate
R O OR RR OO R O y x I
z y x r where
oe e z y x o z y x O
re e z y x r z y x R
ikr z y x i
ikz z y x i
* * * *
2 2 2
) , , (
) , , (
) , (
) , , ( ) , , (
) , , ( ) , , (
+ + + = + =
+ + =
= =
= =

Hologram construction
) cos( 2 ) , (
) cos( 2 ) , , (
2 2
2 2
kr or o r y x I
plane film z
or o r z y x I
+ + =
÷ + + =  
Maxima for kr=2mt or r=mì
i.e. if the OPL difference OZ – OP is an integral number of wavelengths, the
reference beam arrives at P in step with the scattered (i.e. object) beam.
Gabor zone plate
• When developed the photographic plate will have a
transmittance which depends on the intensity
distribution in the recorded plate
• t
– backgrond transmittance due to |R|
• B – parameter which is a function of the recording an
developing process
) (
* *
OR R O O B t t
+ + + =
Hologram reconstruction
• When illuminated by a coherent wave, A(x,y), known as the
reconstruction wave, the optical field emerging from the
transparency is,
• i.e. a superposition of 4 waves
• If A(x,y)=R(x,y), i.e. reconstruction and reference waves are
O R B O BR R BOO t t y x R
A BOR RA BO A BOO A t t y x A
b p
b p
* 2 *
* * *
) ( ) , (
) , (
+ + + =
+ + + =
Hologram reconstruction
• Three terms in the reconstructed wave
O R B O BR R BOO t t y x R
b p
* 2 *
) ( ) , ( + + + =
Direct wave –
identical to reference
wave except for an
overall change in
Object wave –
identical to object
wave except for a
change in intensity
Conjugate wave –
conjugate of
object wave
displaced by a
phase angle 2 ¢
• Transmission hologram: reference and object waves traverse
the film from the same side
• Reflection hologram: reference and object waves traverse the
emulsion fromopposite sides
Hologram– Reflection vs. Transmission
View in Transmission View in reflection
Hologram: Some Applications
• Microscopy M = ì

– Increase magnification by viewing hologram with longer wavelength
– Produce hologram with x-ray laser, when viewed with visible light M ~
– 3-d images of microscopic objects – DNA, viruses
• Interferometry
– Small changes in OPL can be measured by viewing the direct image of
the object and the holographic image (interference pattern produce
finges · Δl)
– E.g. stress points, wings of fruit fly in motion, compression waves
around a speeding bullet, convection currents around a hot filament
Holography – A Tase Of
• Fundamental technology
– Diffraction grating – bends light
– Can be superposed
– Effect (bending) persists superposition
– Hologram ¬super complex diffraction
Effect of diffraction grating on a direction of light
Holography principle
• Recording
– Encoding phase and amplitude as interference fringe pattern
– Two beams interfering
• Reference beam– known properties
• Scene beam– recorded light field
– Complex diffraction grating is created – hologram
• Reconstructing
– Hologram illuminated with reference beam
– Diffraction occurs
– Resulting light field contains original scene beam
Holography Principles in
• Recording
• Reconstruction
• Laser beam splitted
into two beam:
• Reference beam
• Object beam
Off-axis Hologram
• Recording
– Non-zero angle between reference wave
and object wave
– 3D opaque objects
– Higher spatial frequency
• Reconstruction
– Orders diffracted into different directions
– Clean original optical field
• Here the light
diffracted by the
figure interferes with
the undiffracted light
.The recordof this
interference pattern
forms the hologram.
In-line Hologram
• Recording
– Reference, object, hologram aligned in line
– Mostly transparent and planar objects
– Lower spatial frequency
• Reconstruction
– Images disturbed by blurred counterparts
and zero order
– Special setup: blurred image became
planar wave
In-line Hologram
• The radiations associated
with the virtualand real
images,propagate in the
same diraction.Hence when
the real image is viewed the
virtual image is
superimposed but it is well
out of focus.
Lens & Fourier Hologram
• Lens
– Different optical material: slowdown/diffraction of waves
– Use of thin lens: assumption on lack of diffraction
– Back focal plane = F {front focal plane}
• Fourier Hologram
– Recording through lens
– F {planar image} + F {point source}
– Reconstruction through lens
– Both virtual & real image in focus
Other holograms
• Holographic Stereograms
– Recording of multiple views through slit
– Reconstruction: only single focus depth
• Rainbow Hologram
– 2 Stages of recording
• Record regular hologram
• Record rainbow hologram through slit
– Visible on white light: multiple color images
• Color Hologram
– Common hologram: rainbow due to diffraction
– 3 holograms + 3 wavelengths: larger gamut
– Achromatic holograms: holographic stereograms
• Overlapping/coplanar colors
Physical Representations
• Thin Amplitude Hologram
– Zero and first order only
– First order: 6 % of energy
• Thin Phase Hologram
– Multiple orders
– First order: 33 % of energy
• Volume Hologram
– Multiple layers of fringes
– Reflective × transmission
– Sensitive only to selected wavelength
Applications of holography
• Three diamensional photography
a) image photography b) pulse laser photography of
moving object
• Image recognition
• Volume hologram
• Interferometery
• Computer generated holograms
• Lensless optics
• Three diamensional microscopy
Optical Fiber Sensor
Optical fiber sensor: A sensor that measures a physical
quantity based on its modulation on the intensity,
spectrum, phase, or polarization of light traveling
through an optical fiber.
Compact size
Remote accessible
Resistant to harsh environment
Immunity to electro-magnetic interference
Advantages of optical fiber sensors
Optical Fiber Sensor Types
Intrinsic: the effect of the measurand on the
light being transmitted take place in the fiber
Extrinsic: the fiber carries the light from the
source and to the detector, but the modulation
occurs outside the fiber
Optical Fiber Sensor Types
Point sensor: detect
measurand variation
only in the vicinity of
the sensor
Multiplexed sensor:
Multiple localized sensors
are placed at intervals along
the fiber length.
Distributed sensor:
Sensing is distributed
along the length of the
Output, M(t, Z
Output, M(t,z)
Output, M(t)
Optical Fiber Sensor Types
Intensity-based: measure physic measurand
based on the intensity of the light detected
through the fiber, e.g. fiber break, OTDR
Interferometric (phase modulation):
– Fabry-Perot Interferometry
Grating based (wavelength modulation)
– Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG)
– Long Period Fiber Grating (LPFG)
Intensity-based Optical Fiber Sensor
• Simple signal processing
• Inexpensive measurement instrument
• Susceptible to power fluctuation of the light source
• Susceptible to fiber bending losses
• Variation in modal power distribution in Multi-mode fiber
Intensity-based Optical Fiber Sensor
Reference: “Split-spectrum intensity-based optical
fiber sensors for measurement of
microdisplacement, strain, and pressure”, by Anbo
Wang et al.
Optical Fiber Components
• Fiber connector
• Broadband light source (BBS)
• Fiber coupler/circulator
• Mode scrambler
• Index matching fluid
• Wavelength division multiplexer
Fiber Connector
Fiber Connector Type
FC/PC: polished curved
FC/UPC: ultra-PC
FC/APC: angle PC
Broadband Light Source
Definition: a light source that emit lights
over a large wavelength range
• ASE source
LED spectrum
ASE spectrum
Fiber Coupler
Definition: an optical device that combines or splits power from optical fibers
1X2 coupler
(95/5, 90/10, 80/20, 50/50)
2X2 coupler
1X2 coupler
Definition: a passive three-port device that couple light
from Port 1 to 2 and Port 2 to 3 and have high isolation
in other directions.
Mode scrambler
Mode Scrambler: an optical device that mixes optical power in fiber to
achieve equal power distribution in all modes.
Mode stripper: an optical device that removes light in the cladding of an
optical fiber.
Other Mode Scrambler
Index matching fluid
Definition: A liquid with refractive index similar to glass
that is used to match the materials at the ends of two
fibers to reduce loss and back reflection.
• Reduce back reflection
• increase coupling between two fibers
Wavelength division multiplexer
Definition: a device that combines and split
lights with different wavelengths
Intensity-based Distance Sensor
• The laser beam
passes through
splitter to form
two beams
• Reference beam
• Object beam
Optical sensor system
• Optical sensor system:Optical
fiber sensors may be implemented as
intrinsic or extrinsic devices. The
former type is arranged such that the
physical parameter to be sensed acts
on the fiber itself to cause a change
in the transmission
characteristics.The latter type uses
the fiber as a light guide to and from
the sensor, which is configured to
allow the measured to a change the
coupling characteristics between the
feed and return fiber .
Phase and polarisation fiber sensor
• These devices cause
interference of coherent
monochromatic light
propagating in a strained or
temperature varying fiber
with light directly from the
laser source guided by a
reference fiber isolated
from the external
Active optical sensor
• In this device a multimode optical fiber is
inserted across a pipe such that the liquid flows
past the transversely stretched fiber.The
turbulence resulting from the fibers presence
causes it to oscillate at a frequency roughly
proportional to the flow rate.This results in a
corresponding oscillation in the mode power
distribution within the fiber giving a similarly
modulated intensity profile at the optical
• A popular technique for the
realization of an intrinsic multimode
fiber sensor involves microbending of
the fiber in the modulation
region.Deformation of the fiber on a
small scale causes light to be coupled
from the guided optical modes
propagating in the fiber core into the
cladding region where they are lost
through radiation into the
surrounding region.
• The test data corresponding to this
configuration is given in this figure.It
must be noted ,however that a
requirement of this sensor type is the
removal of the cladding modes both
immediately prior to , and after the
modulation zone.
Passive fiber sensor
• This shows the operation of a simple
optical fluid switch . When the fluid , which
has a refractive index greater than the glass
forming optical dipstick,reaches the
chamfered end ,total internal reflection
ceases and the light is transmitted into the
fluid.Hence an indication of the fluid level
is obtained at the optical detector.
Intensity modulated displacement type sensor
• In this light reflected from the target
is collected by a return fiber and is a
function of the distance between
the fiber ends and the target.Hence
the position or displacement of the
target may be registered at the
optical detector.