You are on page 1of 59

 



     
    
   http://www.mathematica.gr

      

  
  ! 
!  http://www.mathematica.gr
"
 ! 
LATEX#  
   $ %# 
    %
#  
   
  $ &' #    %


 
 LATEX
"
    
   



(




  
     Leonardo da Vinci

 

 
    (
  )*+,
 - 

   ! 
!  '
 
 ! .
 */  
!   ! ! 
!   '  (
    ( 
   
&  
! !    
 !  
         
      
 

 ,      
  (
   (  

 ( '   '  
    !   !  , 


       ( 
   
, quasiregular (
     $  

  
  
 ( (!
 '  
!
         )  
   0 ,

 - 
 

  


  
     

!    '
!
  
 
! !
   ! 

!



 (0, 0, )$ 12 , 2 , 1+
$    ! ! 1+2 5
'    (
 
   0   
 
2
1#http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icosidodecahedron
2# 1 ! 3 !

 
mathematica.gr             
 
  
   http://www.mathematica.gr 
     


  mathematica.gr
*
 ( < @: 2)<5 

 

 @ & matha


      
$ /(  &
 /(  &

 
 !" Mihalis Lambrou #  ' 8&&
 ( emouroukos
$ % &
 nsmavrogiannis #  , 3& " #&  gbaloglou
' "( !
 !
 "( )"(* 1 5# A "#
 R BORIS
+
!

, - . chris gatos )"(* /&!!0 4 
 % 
 %
!(
= 
 /"" /"" 

1   /"&
&
 m.papagrigorakis )"(* > 6
!
 
 dement
2!3
? "!"
 & "!"
 &
4 3& 5. 3& 5. )"(* +#
 
 #& swsto
#! 

   A#"  achilleas



&#
  grigkost 6
$  <
&A <
&A 3
 7 & 
 cretanman 6
' A! <"
 A!

  
, - <A
 xr.tsif 

  stranton
1 
 -"
 polysot
  89
  %65+  8 58+5 :
4 6
!
 -A
 Demetres
$ "( 8 #"  spyros
 
'  8 vittasko
- 
 -5:<2  56 :
, 6
!
 ; 6::<5:
 @
 "
&
 mathfinder
1 8
 9 KAKABASBASILEIOS
$ @! 5B#A
 @! 5B#A

4 3&
  *
 exdx
'  5(!
 rek2
= "( " 
 s.kap
, 3& 5#"  hsiodos
> % "
 nkatsipis
?  3
 3
 
1 8
 A
 bilstef 

, ,

10 22.


1 ( KARKAR) :
11, s s , 11,
s s
.


.
4 ( )
:

.. 917356 s = 9 + 7 + 5 = 21
sa = 1 + 3 + 6 = 10, s s = 21 10 = 11 = o11.

N=

: 917356 = 1183396.

2012
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
12 23 34
2012 2013
1

10 9876543210. 10
9.
8, 11 ( ; )

, , 8, 9, 10, 11

5 ( KARKAR) A ,
AB , AC . S , T B .
,
, ;

2 ( )
. !

6 ( )
5
2
a = 22 55


7 ( ) 1 .
ZE


3 ( )
.

8 ( ) ABC ,
a, b, c
:
a2 + c < 2a + b

b2 + a < 2b + c
c2 + b < 2c + a
ABC .

,
9 ( ) x2 + x + = 0 :

|| > 0

|| + || < ||

(1 )
(2).
,

13( )
: 2(sin t + cos t) = tan3 t + cot3 t.

10 ( )
f (x) = ax2 + bx + c ,
a < b f (x) 0 x R.
P =

14 ( )
P(x), Q(x)

a+b+c
.
ba

Q(x2 ) = (x + 1)4 x(P(x))2 .

11 ( )
K AB. = 150 . AC , C ,
C , B AC

CD = AC . D
AB .

15 ( ) ABC
(C) .
BC T AB
AC S .
T Z, S E (C).
BE, CZ A .

12 ( )
xCy = 600 . B Cy
BA C x. ABD
C, D AB.
1) P CD AE
ABD, AC = PE .
16 ( KARKAR) (K) (O, R) . S T .

2) P M AB
C x S Cy T , T M = MP = PS .

4. |z w|

h
i z C
22 ( )

z2 + z + 1 = |z + 1| , : Re (z) 1, 31 .
, , ,
23 ( Mulder) f : R R , c R
f (x) = c .
24 ( )
,

1.

f (0, +)
f (x) > 0 x > 0,
 
1
g g (x) = f (x)
+ f x1
(0, +).

17 ( ) AB = 2,
.
18 ( ) A(a, b) a, b , 0 a , b
~ 2 , O
~ = OA
~ A
K(k, 0) (0, ) AK
.
1) K
(), OA.
2) () (1 ) : x y = 2 P,
(OP) = 2, A
() : y = x .

2. h (x) =
1

ex

+ e x ln x

3. e2x + e 2x

> ln 2 x + e

, ,

25 ( ) :ex +
ex + 2 cos x 4, x R

,
19 ( )
( xi ): 0, 1, 2, ..., n ,n N
2k + 1
d=
,k N.
2
1. n

26 ( ) f : R R
f (x) = f (x + 1) 1, x R . f .

2. n = 2k + 1
3. k = 2 .

, ,

4. yi = axi + b,ab < 0


x = y sy = sx a, b.

27 ( )
f : [0, 2] R .

20 ( ) A .

Z2 




3

2
x + x f (x) + 2 x + 2 f (x) dx > 8 f (2) .

1
[P(A)] + [P(A )] .
2
2

28 ( ) 0 < a ,
1 f R,
:

, ,
21 ( ) z w

|(1 + i)z 2 4i| =

18

Z1

w = 2z 11 + 5i.

f (x) ln(1 + a

f (x)

)dx = ln a

Z1

f 2 (x)dx.

:
1. z
2. |z|

, ,

3. w

29 ( ghan) f : R R
2e x
x R : f (x) =
.
1 + f 2 (x)

36 ( )

x2010 2006 = 4y2009 + 4y2008 + 2007y.

) f (0)
) f

Juniors,

) ln f (x) > 0.

37 ( KARKAR) ABCD (O) S


AB CD T AC BD.
A, T, D B, T, C, P.
A, O, P, B O, P, S
.

30 ( )

(x2 )x , x , 0,
f (x) =

1, x = 0

,
.

38 ( erxmer) ABC ,
BAC = 30o ABC = 70o . M
MAB = MCA = 20o .
MBA.

, ,

31 ( )

Seniors,

- -

 Rx 3 1 2 
lim x et sin( t )x dt .

x+

39 ( ) a, b, c
,
a + b + c = 3. :
ab2 + bc2 + ca2 + abc 4.
;

32 ( )

f, g :

[0, 1] (0, )
Z 1
Z 1
f (x) dx =
g(x) dx = 1 .
0

40 ( ) f : R
N

, [a, b] [0, 1] :

f (x) dx =
a

b
a

f (x +

1
g(x) dx = .
2

f (y)

) = f (y +

f (x)

x, y R. n N
f .


Seniors,
33 ( )
f : [0, +) [0, +)

x [0, +) f (x) = x

Z1 

x+

41 ( )

2

ABCD P, AD
(O), P , A , D. PR k AD
R AB PT k AC T CD. S PB AD,
R, S , T .

f (t) dt.

34 ( parmenides51)
f

f (x)

42 ( .)
ABCD AB = a, BC = b a = b 2.
CD , . M, MA, MB,
CD K, L, . AD
D DZ = KC BC C
CE = DL. KLEZ
a.

(x + y) f (y)dy = x x R.

Juniors,
- -
35 ( )
n

x4 2011 x2 + n = 0 4 .

43 ( - 1995) A B
3 3, ,

50 ( ) f : R (0, +),
:

x Q, y R Q

.

. ,
.

.

f (x) f (y) |x y| .


51 ( ) f : R R
. h, g : R R

g( f (x)) = h( f (x)) = x,
44 ( - 3
1995)
P(x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + + a1 x + a0

an , an1 , . . . ,a1 , a0 R. a0 > 0, an > 0 a21 + a22 + + a2n1


4 min a20 , a2n
(1), P(x) 0 x R.
n1

x R,

g = h.
52 ( )
, .


53 ( ) n   ,
22n 22n+1 1 .


45 ( IMC 2012)
na2n
1
a0 , a1 , . . . a0 = 1, a1 =
an+1 =

2
1 + (n + 1)an

54 ( )
12 22 + 32 42 + 52 62 +

X
ak+1

n 1.
ak
k=0

+ . . . + 20012 20022 + 20032 ?

(mod 2005).

46 ( IMC 2012) n n! + 1
(2012n)!,


55 ( )
R R.

47 ( )

56 ( )
S = {a1 , a2 , a3 , ..., a} (an ) 1 1
lim an = a.

G n
a, b G \ {e}, m N ab = bm a.
n
b (m,n) = e.

S 2
( ).

n+

48 ( ) G 2(2n + 1), ( n N),


2n + 1.

()
57 ( )
a, x1 , x2 , ..., xn R a 2.

A = cosx1 +

cosx2 cosx3
cosxn
+
+ ... + n1
a
a2
a

B = sinx1 +

sinx2 sinx3
sinxn
+ 2 + ... + n1 ,
a
a
a

49 ( )

X
n=1

arctan

n2 + 1

A2 + B2 > 0.

q
q

2+1
 q  22+1

2
e
+
e

21
arctan tan
q
q
2

2+1
2+1
e 2 e 2

58 ( )
n,


.
8

sin(na) cos(na)

= n 1,
sin a
cos a
a ,

k
2

, k Z.

61 ( ) z
,
,

A = |z2 + z + 1| + |z2 z + 1|

59 ( erxmer) ABC (C 1 , R)
(C2 , r). d
, (Euler) R2 2Rr = d2 .
;

62 ( ) :

a1 ,
a2 , .....,
an

60 ( ) a,
.

c =

an
a2 .....
a1

:


c 2

11. 9 + m k n 11.

mkn = 2, k, m, n {1, 4, 3}

1 ( KARKAR) : 11, s s ,
11, s
s
.

2 :
98765kmn40, k, m, n {1, 2, 3}
11 9 + 7 + 5 + m + 4 8 6 k n
/ 11, 11 + m k n /
11 mkn = 0
m = 3, k = 2, n = 1 m = 3, k = 1, n = 2.

9876523140 9876513240.
10, 9, 11
8 9876513240

.. 917356 s = 9 + 7 + 5 = 21
sa = 1+3+6 = 10, s s = 2110 = 11 = o11.
: 917356 = 1183396.
10
9876543210.
10 9.

2 ( )

. !

8, 11 ( ; )
,
,
8, 9, 10, 11

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=44&t=20063

( ) .
8, 4. ,
2 4
, 4.
,
:
1 :
98765kmn, k, m, n {1, 4, 3}.
9 + 7 + 5 + m + 2 8 6 k n
7

F : 14.
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=44&t=22167

G : , J : 24.
( )

H : .

A: .
B: 5.

I : 9012345678.

C : .

K:
13.

D : 7.
E : .

L:
.

3 ( )

.
,
,
10
22.



4 .
4 ( ) :

2012
1
1
+
+
+ ... +
12 23 34
2012 2013
.

N=

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=33&t=31086

( )
10 : 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=33&t=30872

( )

N=

22 , :
4, 5, 6, 7 ,

2012
=
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
+ + + ... +

1 2 2 3 3 4
2012 2013

2012
2012
=
= 2013, .
1
1
2012

1 2013
2013

5 ( KARKAR) A ,
AB , AC .
S , T B .
,
, ;

AB (O, R)
1
(AB) = 2R = R, .
2

[ BOS AOS
[
[
OBS , BS O,
[.
OBS

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=34&t=30934

(AS ) =
( ).

(AT) =

R 2
180

2R
180

R
90

90


.
, , ,
.
6 ( )
2
5
a = 22 55
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=34&t=27337
5

( ) : a = 22 55 = 232 525 =
225 27 525 = (2 5)25 27 = 1025 27 = 128 1025
(B, AC) 2R,
1
(AC) = 2 2R = R
4

128 25
, 28 .

10

7 ( ) 1 .
ZE

A ,K M
H AB ,ZE .

EH = K (1) 180 AB
AB A , B , H K, E .
KM
(2) Z AK (3) ZH =
2
AK M

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=35&t=19335

1 ( )
A K M.

ZH//K M H AM.
K
ZE =
(4) AK
2
EZ//K Z AK (3).

ZE K.

ZH = ZE + EH
K A .

K =

KM
2

1
.
3

KM
2

K
2

+ K

3K
KM
K =
2
3

ZE =

1
ZE = .
6

(1),(2),(4)

K
2

KM

KM
6

1
6

8 ( )
ABC , a, b, c :

2(Parmenides51)

a2 + c < 2a + b
b2 + a < 2b + c
11

c2 + b < 2c + a

(c 1)2 = c2 2c + 1 a b.

ABC .

(a 1)2 + (b 1)2 + (c 1)2

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=35&p=103474#p103474

(b c) + (c a) + (a b) = 0.
, a = b = c = 1.

( )

(a 1)2 = a2 2a + 1 b c,
(b 1)2 = b2 2b + 1 c a,

, , 1.

12

9 ( )
x2 + x + = 0 :

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=19&t=30621

1 ( )

|| > 0

ax2 + bx + c 0, x R

(1)

|| + || < ||



(a = b = 0 , c 0) a > 0, b2 4ac 0 .

(2).

a < b
0 < a < b b2 4ac 0 , c

b2
.
4a


http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=19&t=27655

( ) D 0 b2 4ac
2

P=

a +c +2|ac| < 4ac.

ba

b2
4a =

5
9a
b
b2 + 4ab + 4a2
+ +
=
=
4a (b a)
4a 4 4 (b a)
ba
3
9a
=
+
+
4a
4 (b a) 2
s
!
!
9a
3
ba
+ =3,
2
4a
4 (b a)
2

a, c 2
. a, c :

a2 + c2 + 2ac < 4ac (a c)2 < 0, .

2 .

. :

|a| + |c| < |b| 1 + |x1 x2 | < |x1 + x2 | < |x1 | + |x2 |
(1 |x2 |)(|x1 | 1) > 0

)
ba
9a
b2
=
a>0
c =
4a
4 (b a)
4a

b = c = 4a > 0.


1.

Pmin = 3.
2 ( )
:

,
c = 0
|ac| > 0.

0 < a < b c

10 ( )
f (x) = ax2 + bx + c ,

P=

b+c+a
=
ba

b2
.
4a

!2
!2
c b 2 b
b
b
b c

+1
+ + 1 a 2a a + 2a + 1
2a
a a

=
b
b
b
1
1
1
a
a
a

a < b f (x) 0 x R.

P=

a+b+c

ba

a+b+

a+b+c
.
ba
13

b
= x > 1 :
a
2
2
x
x
+1
+1
2
2
=

x
x1
2 1

(y + 1)2
2(y + 1) 3

3
w=y+1,w>
2

w=3y+1=3y =2 x =4
1
y= ,y>
2
2 2 (y + 1)
=
2y 1

4a

c 16a2
c = 4a.
=
a
4a2

b
=4b=
a

3 ( ) :

b > a > 0 4ac b2 . :

w2
2w 3

(b c)2 0 b2 2bc + c2 0 b2 2bc c2

3
: (w 3)2 0, w >
w2 6w 9 =
2
3
w2
3
3(2w 3), w >
3, w >
2
(2w 3)
2

4ac 2bc c2 4a 2b c

2a + c 2(b a)

2a + c

2
ba
a+b+c
2a + c
+13
3
ba
ba

P3

b c = 0 b2 = 4ac b = c = 4a.

14

11 ( ) K AB. = 150 . C , BAC


AC , C ,
CD = AC .
D AB .

12 ( )
xCy = 600 . B Cy BA C x.
ABD C, D AB.
1) P CD AE
ABD, AC = PE .
2) P M AB C x S Cy T ,
T M = MP = PS .
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=20&t=30565

( ) DD AB (D AB).
o

[
ACB
=
900

AC=CD

ABD

( BC ),
BD = AB = 2R
[

oo

15
BD =
BD =
[ BAC=
D[
2BAC
= D[

300

DD B ooo

o D

DD =

BD BD=AB=2R

DD = R
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=20&t=30530

D AB .

b 60o
( ) 1) ACB
: AC =

15

BC
2

(1).

AE, CB
E BD P CD BC
: EP =
(2). (1) (2)
2
AC = EP.

T M = MP = PS .

2) DM AC
P CD, P MS ,
: MP = PS (3).
BMT AMP
AM = MB
, T M = MP (4).
(3) (4)

16

:
2 sin7 (2t) + 2 sin6 (2t) 36 sin4 (2t) + 96 sin3 (2t) 64 = 0

13 ( )
: 2(sin t + cos t) = tan3 t + cot3 t.

P(t) = 2t7 + 2t6 36t4 + 96t3 64, t [1, 1]

P(1) = 0

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=21&t=28422

1 ( )
t .

sin t + cos t [ 2,

P(t) = (t 1)(2t6 + 4t5 + 4t4 32t3 32t2 + 64), t [1, 1]

2t6 + 4t5 + 4t4 32t3 32t2 + 64 =

2]

2t4 (t2 + 2t + 2) + 32(1 t3 ) + 32(1 t2 ) > 0 t [1, 1]

2(sin t + cos t) [2, 2]


3

, sin(2t) = 1 2t = 2k +

t = k + , k Z
4

2 tan t + cot t 2.

,
2, , ,
2, .

14 ( )
P(x), Q(x)

Q(x2 ) = (x + 1)4 x(P(x))2 .

tan3 t + cot3 t = 2 = tan t = 1 = t = k + , k Z,


4

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=21&t=28418
3

tan t + cot t = 2 = tan t = 1 =

( ) deg Q = n
deg P = m.

t = k 4 , k Z,

2 , ,
k .
2 ( BAGGP93)

m 2
2n = 2m + 1, .

m = 0 m = 1
m = 0 P(x) = c, x R
:

t , k + , t , k , k Z
2

Q(x2 ) = x4 + 4 x3 + 6 x2 + (4 c2 )x + 1,


x.

tan3 t + cot3 t = (tant + cott)((tant + cott)2 3) = (tant +


cott)3 3(tant + cott)

m = 1 P(x) = ax + b, x R
:

tant + cott =

sint cost sin2 t + cos2 t


2
+
=
=
cost sint
sintcost
sin(2t)

Q(x2 ) = x4 + (4 a2 )x3 + (6 2ab)x2 + (4 b2 )x + 1


x
a2 = b2 = 4 4 (a, b).

tan t + cot t =
sin3 (2t) sin(2t)

96
36
64

+
2 sint + 2cos2 t + 2 sin(2t) =
6
4
sin (2t) sin (2t) sin2 (2t)

3

2 sin (2t) + 2 sin (2t) = 64 96 sin (2t) + 36 sin (2t)

P(x) = 2 x + 2 P(x) = 2 x 2

Q(x2 ) = x4 2 x2 + 1 Q(x) = x2 2 x + 1.

P(x) = 2 x 2 P(x) = 2 x + 2

Q(x2 ) = x4 + 14 x2 + 1 Q(x) = x2 + 14 x + 1.

17

. . Ceva 2 ( )

15 ( )
ABC (C) .
BC T AB AC S .
T Z, S E (C).
BE, CZ
A .

F, (O)
ABC,
AD A AZBFCE,
AF, BE, CZ, ,
.


(AZ)(BF)(CE) = (ZB)(FC)(EA) , (1)

(1) BF = FC
(AZ)(CE) = (ZB)(EA) , (2)

AZT, ZBT

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=22&t=31113

1 ( )

AT
(AZ)2 AT
AZ ZT
=
=
=
=
BZ BT
ZT
(BZ)2 BT

[
[
[
sinCBE
sinCES
sinCES
CS
=
=
=

[
[
[
ES
sinABE
sinACE
sinECS

, AES , ECS

[
[ ZT
[
sinZBA
sinZBT
sinACZ
=
=
=
.
[
[
[
sinBCZ
sinT
ZB sinT
ZB BT

AS
EA ES
AS
(EA)2
=
=
=
=
2
CE CS
ES
CS
(CE)

, (3)

ES
S C S A BCkT S ES
SC

=
=

2
2
TB TA
ZT
ZT
T B2
CS ZT

= 1.
ES BT

(3), (4)

, (4)

AS
AT
=
, BC k T S , BT
CS

sin 2

sin A2

EA
AZ
(AZ)2 (EA)2
=
= (2)
=
=
2
2
ZB CE
(BZ)
(CE)

[
[ sinACZ
sinCBE

=1
[ sinBCZ
[
sinABE

, (2), (1)
.

18

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=22&t=30051

1 ( ) P
(O), (K) Q AB
(K).
P Q
o.AS B, P, Q, S .
C S .

[ = 90o OQPC S[
OQ = QPC
.
p

S T = S Q S P = S O S C = 2R.
2 ( )
.
3 ( ) T Z 2 = T B T A,

S E2 = S C S A

S = S B2
(O) AB ,
AB (O) .

TZ S E TZ S E
=
,
=
,
TA S A TB S B

T Z ZB
=
,
T A ZA
ZB EC
S E EC
=

=
.
S A AE
ZA AC

(K)
,

S T 2 = = S B2 S T = R

2.

ZB BL
=
,
AC LC
ZB AC BL
BC CL
=

=
,
ZA LA
ZA BC AL
:

EC AB C M
LB MA CD
=

=1
EA BC AM
LA MC DB
(L AB ZC, M AC BE) .

.
3 ( .) H, P, S
.

16 ( KARKAR) (K) (O, R)


.
S T .

, :

S HP

= .
OS .. KPH

= 90
HPB


OPS

OS P = (1)

KHP

19

KH=KP=

(2)

90
OPS O=

o (1), (2) OHS :

T S 2 = 2 R2 T S =

OS =R

OH(= R) = OS S S
S (K, )

T S 2 = S P S H (3)
SH
PH

OS H KPH
= R S H = R PH (4)
(3), (4) T S 2 = S P HP

(5)

OPS LPH

= LPH
= 90 LHP
= OS P = )
(S OP
OS
HP

SP
LH

S P HP = 2 R (6)

(5), (6) T S 2 = 2 R

20

2 R o..

:
2

BC + 2CA BC = 0,

17 ( )
AB =
2, .


BC (BC + CA + CA) = 0

BC (BA + CA) = 0

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=23&t=25883

2BC MA = 0, M BC.

1 ( ) :

, BC
, . h

4 ( ) cos C > 0 C 0, 2

a
2

BC = 2CD, AD A.

2 + a2 2
.
2a

.
5 ( ) = 2

, :

2 + a2 2
a
=

2
2a

~ = 2|A|
~
| B|

~ B
~
A
~ 2 = 2A
~ B
~
B
~ B|
~
|A||

~ AB)
~ (AB
~ ... |AB|
~ .
~ 2 = 2A
~ A)
~ = |A|
(A

a2 = 2 + a2 2

18 ( ) A(a, b) a, b , 0 a , b
K(k, 0) (0, )
~ 2 , O .
~ = OA
~ A
AK
1) K
(), OA.
2) ()
(1 ) : x y = 2
P, (OP) = 2,
A () : y = x .

2 = 2 = ,
.
2 ( ) a = b cos C + c cos B
( ), :

b cos C = c cos B

b cos B
=
c cos C
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=23&t=22924

b < c, c < b
.
b = c.
3 ( )

( ) AK = (k , b),

A = (, b) OA = (, b)
2
AK A = OA k + 2 b + b2 = 2 + b2
k = b(1).
!
k
1) K : M , .

a2 = 2ab cos C,

2 2

2

BC = 2CA CB

x =

21

y =

x =

k
2

(1)

x =

b
2

x = by x + by = 0.

( + b) x = 2b x =

2b

+b

(2) y =

!
2
P
,

+b +b

(OP) = 2

2
.
+b

2b

() : x+by = 0
b

= . OA OA = .
b

OA = 1 OA.

42 + 4b2

( 2) P (
x + by = 0
x + by = 0
.

x y = 2 (2) b bx by = 2b

= 2 22 + 4b + 2b2 = 42 + 4b2
( + b)2
2 + 2b + b2 = 22 + 2b2 ( b)2 = 0 = b.

A A (, ),
() : y = x.

22

:
n+1

19 ( )
( xi ): 0, 1, 2, ..., n ,n N
2k + 1
d =
,k N.
2
1. n

d=

1+ n+2 1
2

2k+1
2

n
2

n = 2k + 1.

3. k = 2, n = 2 2 + 1 = 5, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

2. n = 2k + 1

x =

3. k = 2 .

15
6

5
2

y= x

y = x + b (1 ) x = b(1)
yi :

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=18&t=26302

sy =s x

1 ( )

sy = || sx || = 1 = 1 = 1

1. n + 1.

= 1 (1) b = 0
ab < 0

n , n + 1 ,
d ,
d N .
2k+1
2

4. yi :

4. yi = axi +b,ab < 0


x = y sy = s x a, b.

d =

0+1+2+3+4+5
6

= 1 (1) b = 2 x b = 5

< N , 2k + 1 .

= 1 b = 5.

n .
( ) 2. .
2. n + 1,
.

n+1


2
n+1
+ 1.
2

m
1)
1
m + 1, d = 2k+
= m+(m+
k=m
2
2

m m + 1 = k + 1
n + 1.
m + 1 = k + 1,
(n + 1) (k + 1) = n k.


1 = 0 = 1
= 1
n+1 =

n+1

1 n+1 +1 =
2

n+1
2

( )
23

2 xy


0, .
3 ( )

k + 1 = n k n = 2k + 1.
20 ( )
A
.
[P(A)]2 + [P(A )]2

, f (x) = 2(2 x 1) xo = 21

1
.
2

f (x) f ( 21 ) f (x) 21 , x [0, 1]


f (P(A)) = (P(A))2 + (P(A ))2 21 .

4 ( ) :

1 ( ) [P(A)]2 + [P(A )]2 =

P2 (A) + (1 P(A))2 = 2P2 (A) 2P(A) + 1 =


2P (A)

2
2

2

1
2

2(x2 + y2 ) (x + y)2 ...


5 ( ) P(A) = x , P(A ) = y
0 x, y 1

x+y =1

1
2

P (A) =

1
.
2


1
1
1
1
x = a y = + a, a
2
2
2
2

2 ( ) x = P(A), y = P(A ),
[P(A)]2 + [P(A )]2

(x + y)2 2 xy

1
2

x+y=1

1
2

1 2 xy

f (x) = x2 + (1 x)2 , x [0, 1]

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=18&t=26233


1 2
2

1
1 y=1x
1
xy
x x2
2
4
4

:
1
2

1
2

1
2

x2 + y2 = ( a)2 + ( + a)2 =

24

1
1
+ 2a2 .
2
2

21 ( ) z w

|(1 + i)z 2 4i| =

18

w = 2z 11 + 5i.

:
1. z
2. |z|

2.

3. w

|z|
OK

4. |z w|

(OK) =

32 + 12 =

10

|z|min = (OA) = (OK) 1 =

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=51&t=8746

( )

|z|max = (OB) = (OK) + 1 =

10 3.

10 + 3.

1. z = x + yi x, y R.

|(1 + i)z 2 4i| =


|1 + i||z

2|z

|z

2+4i
|
1+i

2(1+2i)(1i)
(1+i)(1i) |

2(1i+2i+2)
|
2

18 |(1 + i)(z

2+4i
)|
1+i

3. w = x + yi x, y R.

18

w = 2z 11 + 5i 2z 6 2i = w + 5 7i
2(z 3 i) = w + 5 7i

18

=3 2

|2(z 3 i)| = |w + 5 7i|

= 3 |z (3 + i)| = 3

|w + 5 7i| = 2 |z 3 i| |w (5 + 7i)| = 6.


z K(3, 1)
1 = 3.

w
(5, 7) 2 = 6.

25

4.
(K) =

p
(5 3)2 + (7 1)2 = 10.
p

|z w|min =

(K M) =

() = (K) 1 2 = 10 3 6 = 1

|z w|min = (EZ) = (K) + 1 + 2 = 10 + 3 + 6 = 19

(11 3)2 + (5 1)2 = 10

|z w|min = (MN) = (MK) 1 = 10 3 = 7

z w
,

|z w|max = (M) = (MK) + 1 = 10 + 3 = 13

|zw|
,
z w

i
h
1, 31 .

) z C
22 (

z2 + z + 1 = |z + 1| , : Re (z)

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=51&t=28297

|z w|min = () = (K)1 2 = 10 3 6 = 1



(S T OPJOHN ) z2 + z + 1 = |z + 1|

|z w|min = (EZ) = (K) + 1 + 2 = 10 + 3 + 6 = 19


2
z2 + z + 1 = |z + 1|2

(zz)2 + zz2 + z2 z + z2 + z2 = 0

|z w| = |w z| = |2z 11 + 5i z| = |z 11 + 5i| =
|z (11 5i)|, (1)

|z|4 + 2|z|2 (Re(z) 1) + (Re(z) 1)2


(Re(z) 1)2 + 4(Re(z))2 = 0

z K(3, 1) 1 = 3
(1) M(11, 5) K(3, 1)
1 = 3.

3(Re(z) + 1)(Re(z) 31 ) = (|z|2 + Re(z) 1)


3(Re(z) + 1)(Re(z) 31 ) 0 1 Re(z)

26

1
3

23 ( Mulder)
f : R R ,
c R f (x) = c
.

24 ( )
1.

f (0, +)
f (x) > 0 x > 0,

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=52&t=15491

g g (x) =
( )

f (x)

+f

 
1

(0, +).

2.

< f () = f ()

h (x) =

x (, ) f (x) < f ()

+ e x ln x
1

3. e2x + e 2x

f (x) > f ().

ex

> ln 2 x + e

http://mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=52&t=17360

m f , ,

( )
1. 0 < x1 < x2 f (x1 ) < f (x2 )

) m
c1 (, )
(, ), c2 (, ).

f (x1 )

>

f (x2 )

(1)

( f . f (x) > 0)

) c1 , c2 (, ) c1 < c2

0 < x1 < x2

) y (m, f ())


x1 (c2 , ) , x2 (, c1 ) , x3 (c1 , )

 
1

x1

> f

 
1

x2

x1

>

x2

(2)

(1) (2)

f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) = f (x3 ) = y,

g (x1 ) > g (x2 ) g .


(0, +).

c1 , c2 (, ) c1 < c2 f (c1 ) = f (c2 ) = m

2. x > 0 0 < x1 < x2 ln x1 < ln x2

c (c1 , c2 ) y = f (c) ,

ln x1 > ln x2 (3)

x1 (, c1 ) , x2 (c1 , )

f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) = y

t (x) = ln x . (0, +).

( ) ,
.
27

3. e2x + e 2x

f (x) = e x . ,
1.
1
g (x) = f (x)
+f
(0, +).

 
1

e2x + e 2x ln 2 x >

e1x + e x .

h (2 x) > h (1)

h (x) = g (x) + t (x) .


h (x) =

ex +e

ln x . (0, +).

28

2x < 1 x <

1
2

0 < x <

1
2

> ln 2 x + e
1

x>0

+e

f R,
x > 0 f (x) > f (0) = 0

25 ( ) :e x + ex + 2 cos x 4, x R

x < 0 f (x) < f (0) = 0


http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=53&t=30908

(0, + ) f
( , 0) f .

1 ( ) 2

x = 0 f (0) = 0,

cosh(x) + cos(x) 2

f (x) f (0) = 0 x R .
4 ( ) :

x
: 2 + 12
+R
R ,
.
2 ( )
()

f (x) = e x ex 2 sin x, x R
.

g(x) = ex + ex + 2 cos x, x R.

A = [0, +).

g (x) = e x + ex 2 cos x 2 2 cos x 0,

f (x) 0, x A.

g R.
,


g(x) + g(x) 2g(0)

, g(x) = e x ex 2 x g (x) = e x + ex 2 0
x = 0,

Jensen

.
3 ( )

g(x) g(0) = 0, x 0.

f (x) = ex + ex + 2cosx 4, x R.

ex ex 2 x 2 sin x = f (x) 0 x 0.

f (x) = ex ex 2 sinx, x R

f (x) = ex + ex 2cosx, x R.

ex ex 2 sin x 0, x 0, , -

x R

ex

ex

ex ex 2 sin x 0, x 0.

2 2cosx 2

(I), (II)
[0, x], [x, 0], , .

e x + ex 2cosx 0, x R

f (x)

5 ( ) ,
:

0 x R.
29

x x,
x 0.

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=53&t=31186

( ) f ,

f (x) 0, x R.

p + 1/p 2, p > 0

ey + ey 2 cos y 0.

f (x + 1) 1 x R,

0 t, t 0.

f (x) 1 x R.

et et 2 sin t 0.

a, f (a) > 1.
f (a) > f (a + 1) f (a).

0 x,
x 0.

,
b (a, a + 1), f (b) = f (a + 1) f (a),

26 ( )
f : R R

f (a) > f (b), , f . -

f (x) = f (x + 1) 1, x R .
f .

f (x) = f (x + 1) 0.

30

27 ( )
f : [0, 2] R
.

Z1

( ) :

f (x) ln(1 + a f (x) )dx.


1

x = t dx = dt
t1 = 1, t2 = 1.

(1)
(2)

x R.

f 2 (x)dx.

I=

|x| x,

Z1

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=54&t=31050

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=54&t=26274

x R

)dx = ln a

Z2 




3
2

dx > 8 f (2) .
(x)
(x)
+
2
x
+
2
f
x
+
x
f

x2 + 1 2|x|,

f (x) ln(1 + a

f (x)

I=

f (t) ln(1 + a f (t) )(dt)

2



(x + 1)x f (x) + 2 f (x) = (x2 + 1) x f (x) + 2 f (x)


(1)
2|x| x f (x) + 2 f (x)


= 2 x2 f (x) + 4 x f (x)


= 2 x2 f (x)

(2) 
2 x2 f (x) .

=
=

f (t) ln(1 + a f (t) )dt


!
1
f (t) ln 1 + f (t) dt
a
f (t) ln(1 + a

f (t)

)dt + ln a

f 2 (t)dt.

(3)

g(x) = f 2 (x).

g : (1, 1) R

[0, 2],:

g(x) = f 2 (x) = ( f (x))2 = f 2 (x) = g(x)

Z2
Z2 

(x3 + x) f (x) + (2 x2 + 2) f (x) dx
2 x2 f (x) dx
0

, g ,

h
i2
= 2 x2 f (x)

= 8 f (2).

f (t)dt = 2
1

f 2 (t)dt.

(4)

(3) (4)
28 ( )
0 < a , 1 f R, :

2I = 2 ln a

31

f 2 (t)dt I = ln a

f 2 (t)dt.

< 0 (*)

29 ( ghan) f : R R
2e x
x R : f (x) =
.
1 + f 2 (x)

f (x1 ) f (x2 ) < 0 f (x1 ) < f (x2 ) f


R.

) f (0)
) f

) ln f (x) > 0 ln f (x) > ln 1

) ln f (x) > 0.

ln f (x) > ln f (0) f (x) > f (0) x > 0

ln x

(*) x2 + x + 2 + 1



x R = 2 4 2 + 1 =

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=55&t=22746

( ) ) x = 0

f (x) =
f ( 0) =

2e x
1 + f 2 (x)
2
1+ f 2 (0)

(1) :

x = f (x1 ) = f (x2 )
f (x1 ) + f (x1 ) f (x2 ) + f 2 (x2 ) + 1
2

f 3 (0) + f (0) 2 = 0


2 42 4 = 32 4 < 0

30 ( )

(x2 )x , x , 0,
f (x) =

1, x = 0

( f (0) 1) f (0) + f (0) + 2 = 0


f (0) = 1 f 2 (0) + f (0) + 2 = 0
= 7 < 0

,
.

f (0) = 1
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=55&t=30568

) (1) :

( )

f 3 (x) + f (x) = 2ex (2)


x1 , x2 R
ex

lim x ln(x2 ) = lim

x0

(2)

x1 < x2 2ex1 < 2ex2

ln(x2 )

x0

lim (2 x) = 0

x0

f 3 (x1 ) + f (x1 ) < f 3 (x2 ) + f (x2 )



( f (x1 ) f (x2 )) f 2 (x1 ) + f (x1 ) f (x2 ) + f 2 (x2 ) +

lim ex ln(x ) = e0 = 1

x0

f (x1 ) f (x2 ) < 0

f 0



( f (x1 ) f (x2 )) f 2 (x1 ) + f (x1 ) f (x2 ) + f 2 (x2 ) + 1

32

= lim

x0

x2

2x

x12

f (x) f (0)
x
x0

lim

= lim

x0

lim

ex ln(x ) (ln(x2 )+x


1

x0

( x2 )x 1

1
x2

2 x)

ex ln(x ) 1
x
x0

= lim

= lim ex ln(x ) (ln(x2 ) + 2) =


x0

33

lim x0+

31 ( )

sin(1/t)

> e2t

t3 sin(1/t)

dt >

et

sin(1/t)

x t3 sin(1/t)
e
dt
2

ex /x

ex

g(x) dx =

1
.
2

lim x0+

=e

i
h
f (t) dt , 0, 21 ,
h

1
>0=F
2

1
.
2

10
Z

f (t) dt =

1
.
2

 [0 , 1 0 ] [0, 1] 0

0, 21

lim e

1
F (0 ) =
2

sin(1/x)

x2

x3 sin(1/x)x2


, 

0 0, 21

x+ e (2 x2 1)
x2

x+

f (x) dx =

F(0) = 1 >

(2 x2 1)
lim
= 2 ,
x+
x2
3

g(x) dx = 1 .

0, 21

e x /x + .

lim

x + .

x+

( )

(2t2 /) + 1dt +

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=56&t=3264

> 2t2 / + 1 .

dt + ,

F() =

 Rx 3 1 2 
lim x et sin( t )x dt = lim

x+

f (x) dx =

, [a, b] [0, 1] :

0 < 1/t < /2 .

t3 sin(1/t) > 2t2 /


et

( ) :
2y
1) sin y >
, 0 < y < /2 ( Jordan)

e1/6

32 ( ) f, g : [0, 1] (0, )

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=56&t=27029

2) 2/ < 1 t x

DLH 1/6 .

 Rx 3 1 2 
lim x et sin( t )x dt .

x+

sin ww
w3

sin ww
w3

f (t) dt =

1
, a = 0 , b = 1 0 .
2

g .

34

34 ( parmenides51)
f

33 ( )

f : [0, +) [0, +) x [0, +) f (x) = x

Z1 

x+

2
f (t) dt .

f (x)

f (x) = x

x+

R1

2
f (t) dt =

f (x)

R1 p
0 f (x)dx 2 x 0 f (x)dx.
Z 1p
f (x)dx 0.
,
0
Z 1p

f (x)dx > 0 f

f (x) =

a=

a=

2 ( )

a=

f (x)dx b =

Z1 p

f (x) =

f (x)dx

Z1

f (x)dx 2 x

a=

f (x)dx 0 b =

a=

Z1 p

f (x)dx = 2b x a

Z1 p

b=
f (x)dx 0

b=

f (y)dy + 1 x +

R1
0

y f (y)dy

R1

f (y)dy b =

R1

f (y)dy

R1
0

y f (y)dy

R1
0

f (x)dx a =

(a+1)x2
2

R1
0

"

R1
0

((a + 1) x + b)dx

1
+ bx a =

a+1

R1
0

+ b a = 2b + 1 (1)

y f (y)dy

x f (x)dx b =

(a + 1) x3
3

bx2
2

#1


R1
(a + 1) x2 + bx dx
0
b=

a+1
3

b
2

6b = 2a + 2 + 3b (2)

Z1 


f (x)dx a =
2b x a dx

(1) (2)

3 1

2
4b
2b
2 x
a 2a =
a = 2b
a= 0
3
3
3

b =

Z1

a=

Z1

a=

R

(x + y) f (y)dy = x

f (x) = (a + 1) x + b

f (x)dx = 0 f .

c = c = c = 0 = f 0.
Z1

x.
.

R1

(x + y) f (y)dy = x x R.

(S tavroulitsa)

1 ( )

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=69&t=30094

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=69&t=27833

Z1 

3b 2a 2 = 0

a 2b 1 = 0

3b 2a 2 = 0

4b + 2a 2 = 0

b = 4 a = 7 f (x) = 6 x 4

a = b = 0.

35

,
,

35 ( )
n

36 ( )

x2010 2006 = 4y2009 + 4y2008 + 2007y.

x4 2011 x2 + n = 0 4 .

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=109&t=15584&start=960#p127711
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=109&t=15584&start=760#p106547

1 ( )
:

( )
m

x2010 = 4y2009 + 4y2008 + 2007y + 2006

m ,

, x
:

m4 2011m2 + n = 0 n = m4 + 2011m2

x2010 0(mod9) , x2010 1(mod9)


, x = 3k, k Z

x4 2011 x2 m4 + 2011m2 = 0

(x2 m2 )(x2 + m2 ) 2011(x2 m2 ) = 0


(x2 m2 )(x2 + m2 2011) = 0

x2010 = 32010 k2010 = o9

x2010 0(mod9)

x2 + m2 2011 = 0 x2 = m2

x = m x2 + m2 = 2011

x = 3k + 1

x2010 = (1 + 3k)2010 = [(1 + 3k)3 ]670 =

, x2 + m2 = 2011

(1 + 9k + 27k2 + 27k3 )670 =


= (1 + 9n)670 = 1 + 9n1 .

x2010 1(mod9)

:
1 :

m = 2k, kZ .
x2 + 4k2 = 2011 x2 x
x = 2t + 1 t.

4t2 + 4t + 4k2 = 2010

x = 3k + 2

x2010 = (2 + 3k)2010 = [(2 + 3k)3 ]670 =


(8 + 36k + 54k2 + 27k3 )670 =
= (1 + 9 + 9n)670 = (1 + 9n1 )670 =
(1)670 + 9n2 = 1 + 9n2 .

4 2010
2 :

x2010 1(mod9)

m = 2k + 1.
x2 + (2k + 1)2 = 2011 x2 = 2011 (2k + 1)2

x2 x .

x = 2t. :
2

A = 4y2009 + 4y2008 + 2007y + 2006,


(2t) = 2011 (2k + 1) 4t + 4k + 4k + 1 = 2011


4(t2 + k2 + k) = 2010

A 0(mod9), A 1(mod9)

, 2010 4.

A = 4y2 y2007 + 4yy2007 + 2007y + 2006 =


= 4yy2007 (y + 1) + 2007y + 2007 1 =
4yy2007 (y + 1) + 2007(y + 1) 1 = 4yy2007 (y + 1) + 9n 1

y = 3k + m, m 0, 1, 2. :
36

A = 4(3k + m)(3k + m)2007 (3k + m + 1)+ 9n 1. :

A 7(mod9)

m = 0 , :

m = 2 ,

2007

A = 4(3k + 2)[(3k + 2)3 ]669 (3k + 3) + 9n 1 =

A = 4(3k)(3k)
(3k + 1) + 9n 1 = 9n1 1 =
9n1 9 + 8 = 9n2 + 8

4(3k + 2)(8 + 9k1 )669 (3k + 3) + 9n 1 =

A 8(mod9)

= 4(3k + 2)(1 + 9k2 )669 (3k + 3) + 9n 1 =

m = 1, :

4(3k + 2)(1 + 9k3 )(3k + 3) + 9n 1 = ... = 9a 6k + 2

2007

A = 4(3k + 1)(3k + 1) (3k + 2) + 9n 1 =


4(3k + 1)[(1 + 3k)3 ]669 (3k + 2) + 9n 1 =

, 6k + 2 / 9
9 +1, () ,

= 4(3k + 1)(1 + 9k1 )669 (3k + 2) + 9n 1 =


4(3k + 1)(1 + 9k2 )(3k + 2) + 9n 1 =

A
0(mod9) 1(mod9).

= 4(3k+ 9k3 + 1)(3k+ 2)+ 9n 1 = 4(9k4 + 2)+ 9n 1 =


9k5 + 7

37

37 ( KARKAR)
ABCD (O) S AB CD T AC BD.
A, T, D B, T, C,
P.
A, O, P, B
O, P, S .

T AD + AT D = 180o BDA

BPA = BCA + BDA = 2BCA.

(2)

(2) BOA = 2BCA

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=110&t=26246

BPA = BOA.

(3)

(3)
BPOA
.

CPD = CPT + T PD
[]

= CBD + CAD
= COD
CPOD (L).

, OP, (K), (L), S ,


(O), (K), (L)
.

( )
38 ( erxmer) ABC , BAC = 30o
ABC = 70o . M MAB = MCA = 20o .
MBA.

APT D, BPTC

BPA =
o

360 BPC CPT T PD APD =

360o BTC CBT T AD AT D

(1)
www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=110&t=27314

(1)

BTC + CBT = 180o BCA

1 ( )
38

QBM = QOM
= OAC + OCA
= 40o .

MBA = ABC QBM = 70o 40o = 30o


.
2 ( )

MAB = MAC = 20o ACB = 80o

MCB = 60o

(1)

BCO ABC, (1)


O, M, C OB = OC,
O BC.
,

BOC = 60o = 2BAC,


O ABC

OAC = OCA = 20o

ABC = 70o BAC = 30o = ACB = 80o


AMD,
AB C .
C MA, C MD
C M MA = MD
C MA = C MD = 150o CA = CD
MDC = MAC = 10o MCD = MCA = 20o .
E AB CD AED =
180o ADE EAD = 70o EBC = 70o = EDA,
ADE, CBE AD = AE CE = CB.
ACE, DCB
CA = CD CE = CB ACE = 40o = DCB
DB = AE = AD = DM.
DBM DBM = DMB = 70o .

(2)

MAC + ACB = BAC BAM + ACB


= 30o 20o + 80o

= 90o =

ANB = 90o N BC AM.

Q BC AO BAM = 20o
= QAN = NAC = 10o , (2) BAC = 30o .
, AQC AN
.
MQC , M AN MCQ =
o
60 , QMC = 60o = BOC

OB k MQ.

(3)

MBA = DBM DBA = 70o 40o = 30o ,

60o

(3) BOC =
= OBC,
BQMO
(K).

DBA = DAB = 40o .


39

, ,

() :
: P(a, b, c)
3.

39 ( ) a, b, c ,
a + b + c = 3. :
ab2 + bc2 + ca2 + abc 4.
;

P(1, 1, 1) 0 P(a, b, 0) 0
a, b 0, P(a, b, c) 0 a, b, c 0.

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=111&t=30086.
, Secrets in Inequalities - Vol. 2
. , 3
. 310-311 1.10.2 . 312.

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=111&t=30064

( )

ab2 + bc2 + ca2 + abc

4(a + b + c)3
27

: a b, c.
bc2 + ca2 abc + c2 a
c(a b)(a c) 0
.

40 ( ) f : R N

ab2 + bc2 + ca2 + abc ab2 + 2abc + c2 a = a(b + c)2 .

f (x +

f (y)

) = f (y +

f (x)

x, y R. n N
f .

4(a + b + c)3
,
a(b + c)2
27

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=111&t=27499
3

(2a)(b + c)(b + c)

8(a + b + c)
,
27

( ) f .
n N An = {x R : f (x) = n}.
A R r R A + r
A + r = {a + r : a A}.
1: m, n N
Am + n1 Ak k N .
x, y Am z f (z) = n.
f (x + 1/n) = f (x + 1/ f (z)) = f (z + 1/ f (x)) = f (z + 1/m)
f (y + 1/n) = f (z + 1/m).
2: m N n N
x Am
Am + n1 Am .
f (x + 1/ f (x 1/m)) = f (x 1/m + 1/ f (x)) = f (x) Am .
f (x 1/m) = n, f (x + 1/n) Am
1 Am + n1 Am .
3: m N Am + 1
Am . 2 n N

- :

p
2a + (b + c) + (b + c)
3
2a(b + c)2 .
3

(a, b, c) (1, 1, 1), (a, b, c)

(2, 1, 0).

( ):

Algebraic Inequalities Vasile Cirtoaje, GIL, . 25, Inequalities with beautiful solutions, . 87, . GIL,
V.Cirtoaje, et. al. Secrets in Inequalities Vol. 2, Pham Kim Hung, . GIL, . 102-103,
( ) ()
40

Am + n1 Am . Am + n2 Am + n1 Am
Am + 1 Am .

6: m N A1 +1/m =
Am . x A1 y Am f (x + 1/m) =
f (x + 1/ f (y)) = f (y + 1/ f (x)) = f (y + 1) Am .
5 A1 + 1/m = Am .
5 n N
A1 + 2/3 = An . q = 2/3 + (n 1)/n. q q = s/t s, t t > 1.
r rq = k + 1/t k.
n1
1 n1
= An +
= A1 + q A1 = A1 + 1 = A1 + +

4: m N Am + 1 =
Am . x Am k x 1 Ak .
3 x Ak
k = m. Am + 1 Am
3 .

5: m, n N
Am + n1 = Ak k N . k (
1) Am + n1 Ak .
4 Am = Am + 1 Ak + nn 1 .
1 N
Ak + nn 1 A . = m.
4 Ak = Ak + 1 Am + n1
.

A1 = A1 +rq = A1 +k+ 1/t = At ,


.
: shortlist 6
2008.

41

(3), , R, S , T
.

41 ( ) ABCD P,

AD
(O), P , A , D. PR k AD R AB
PT k AC T CD. S PB AD,
R, S , T .

42 ( .)

ABCD AB = a, BC = b

a = b 2. CD , . M,
MA, MB, CD
K, L, . AD
D DZ = KC BC
C CE = DL. KLEZ
a.

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=112&t=31032

1 ( ) R
CD RP T PD = DBS , -

, ( )
R PT, ABD,
PD, BS .

SD
DT
SD
DT
=
=
=
DR
SA
AR
SA

(1)

(1), , R, S , T
.

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=112&t=31281

1 ( )

2 ( .)
Q AB DP L CD QS .
DA BQ BP DQ,
S DA BP
DBQ

QS QL BD = QL k PT

(2)

(2) PR k AD

LT
QR QP
=
=
RA PD T D

(3)

DK = x KL = y LC = z :
42

S AB MD T AB MC
P, AB
MT, D.
S A = x BT = y
AP = y.
DS P DA S P

(KLEZ) = (DCEZ) (DKZ) (CLE)


DZ + EC
=
(CD)
2

(KLEZ) =

x+y+y+z
2

(DZ)(DK)

(CE)(CL)
2

(x + y + z)

x(y + z)
2

z(x + y)
(DA)2 = (AS )(AP) =

(x + y + z)2 + y2 2 xz

b2 = xy =

(1)

2b2 = 2 xy =

, MC, MD KP k AD, LQ k
BC, :

a2 = 2 xy

DC k S T , , :

KP MK
ML QL KL
=
=
=
=
= PK = QL.
AD
MA
MB BC AB
, KLQP

DL KC DC
=
=
=l
SB
AT
ST

(KL)2 = 2(PK)2

(2)

y = 2 xz

KC = l(y + a)

(7)

(DL)2 + (KC)2 = l2 [(x + a)2 + (y + a)2 ] =


(4)

(DL)2 + (KC)2 = l2 [(x + y)2 2 xy + 2a2 + 2a(x + y)] =

(1),(4)

(KLEZ) =

DL = l(x + a)
DC = a = l(x + y + a)

(3)

(2)
(2),(3) (KL)2 = 2(DK)(CL) =
2

(6)

(6)

KDP, LQC (
KPD = LCQ,
) :

(KL)
DK PK
=
= (DK)(CL) = (PK)2 =
QL
CL
2

(5)

(DL)2 + (KC)2 = l2 (x + y + a)2 = a2 (8)

(x + y + z)2

(CD)2

a2

= ct

(7)
DLZ, CEK

2 ( )

KE = LZ KE LZ

(9)

ZDL = 90o =
KCE, .
, (8)
(10)

KE = LZ = a
(9),(10),

(KLEZ) =

(KE)(LZ)

43

a2
2

43 ( 1995)
A B 3 3,

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?p=128218

( )
:

, .

.

,
.

.



1 an1 xn1 + + a2 x2 + a1 x

q


a2n1 + + a22 + a21 x2(n1) + + x4 + x2 (2) -

CauchySchwartz.
2 xk

kxn + n k
(3) n, k n

k n.
-:
k

kxn

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?p=105278

( )
1 9
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9

. 5. .
:

+nk
n

nk
z
}|
{ z }|
{
n
n
n
x + x + + x +1 + 1 + + 1
n
p
n

xkn = xk

3 xm

(xm + 1)2

(4)
4

-.
4 (xn + 1)2 (n 1) 4

n1
X

x2k (5) n .

k=1

(A) 1. 9. ,
.

2X
m1

k=1

(B) 2. 8.

4. 6
.

xk


2m 1 m
x + 1 2 (6)
4

2X
m1

xm + xm + 1

k=1

44 ( 3 1995) P(x) = an xn + an1 xn1 + + a1 x + a0 n


an , an1 , . . . , a1 , a0  R.
 a0 > 0, an > 0
2 2
4 min a0 , an
(1),
a21 + a22 + + a2n1
n1
P(x) 0 x R.

xk

k=1

(3)

xm + xm + 1

xm +

(4)

44

X
m1

xk

m1
 X kxm + m k

k=1

m1

xm + 1

2

2m 1 m
x +1 2
4

2

(6) x x2 2m n
(5).


P(x) = (an xn + a0 ) + an1 xn1 + + a2 x2 + a1 x


(an xn + a0 ) an1 xn1 + + a2 x2 + a1 x
q
(2)

min (a20 , a2n ) |xn + 1|


q


a2n1 + + a22 + a21 x2(n1) + + x4 + x2

q
(1)
(xn + 1) n 1 2 x2(n1) + + x2
min (a20 , a2n )

n1
(5)

45

:
(n!)2012 .
((n!)2012 , n! + 1) = 1 (n! + 1)|(2012n)!

45 ( IMC 2012) 1
a0 , a1 , . . . a0 = 1, a1 =
2

na2n
n 1.
1 + (n + 1)an

an+1 =

X
a

k+1

k=0

ak

(n!)2012 (n! + 1)|(2012n)!

n
Strirling :

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=59&t=28869

n 2012n
22012n( 2012
(2012n)!
(2012n)!
e )

(n!)2012 (n! + 1)
(n!)2013
2n2013 ( ne )2013n

n 2012n
22012n( 2012
e )
=
2n2013 ( ne )2012n ( ne )n

22012n(2012)2012n
=

2n2013 ( ne )n

22012n
=
2013
2n
( 2012n2012 e )n

( )

nan (n + 1)an+1 =

an+1
an

(1)

n 1. n
an > 0. nan .
(1) = 0.
(1) n 1

Xa

n+1

n1

an

(2012n)!
1
(n!)2012 (n! + 1)

= a1 lim(nan ) = a1 .

0.


a1
a0 + a1 = 1.

2 ( ) (n! + 1)|(2012n!) n! + 1
(n + 1, 2012n).
p n! + 1 2011.
, n , 2013n/ log (2012n)
2012n

46 ( IMC 2012) n
n! + 1 (2012n)!,
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=59&t=28870

2013n

(2012n)2011 log (2012n) = e20112013n > n! + 1 n 1 ( )


. :

Stirling.

(2n)!
(2012n)!

n!
(2011n)!
!
!
!
3n
2012n
2012 2n
= (n!)


n
n
n

(2012n)! = n!

46

47 ( )
G n a, b G \ {e}, m N
n
ab = bm a. b (m,n) = e.

1 : H, K
G, 2. , HK (2n + 1)2
,
G
|H K|
Lagrange 2(2n + 1) = |G|. ,
2n + 1

2, ,
|H K|
|H K| = 2n + 1 = |H| = |K|. , H = K .

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=31024

( )
Lagrange xn = 1 x
G (a1 ba)m = a1 bm a = b.

n
.
(m, n)

48 ( ) G
2(2n + 1), ( n N), 2n + 1.

2 : HK G,

(2n + 1)2
2(2n + 1),
|H K|

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=31056

1
, |H K| n + 1.
2
, Lagrange |H K|
|H| = 2n + 1. 2n + 1
n, 2n + 1,
|H K| = 2n + 1 = |H| = |K|. , H = K .

( )
H, K G |H| = |K| =
2n + 1.

|HK| =

|H K| n +

|H| |K| (2n + 1)2


=
.
|H K|
|H K|

47

:
+
X

49 ( )

tan1

k=1

= lim

n+

arctan

n=1

n2 + 1

(1)


.
8

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=9&t=23581

( ) :
tan1 z =
tan1 x + tan1
lim

n+

i
2

ln

i+z 
iz

(1 )

x > 0,

(2 )

z C r N0 ,

(3 )

z C r N0 ,

(4)

z C r Z0

(5)

n!nz
= (z)
z(z + 1) (z + n)
(z + 1) = z(z)
(1 z)(z) =

z C r {i},

sin(z)

: z := x + iy x , k + 21 ,
y , 0.

kZ

50 ( )
f : R
(0, +), :

eix ey eix ey
eix ey eix ey

x Q, y R Q

(eix + eix )(ey ey ) + (eix eix )(ey + ey )


=
(eix + eix )(ey ey ) + (eix eix )(ey + ey )
1 + i tan(x) coth(y)
.
1 + i tan(x) coth(y)

sin(z)
sin(z)

z :=

k=1

k2 + 1

tan1

= tan1 (tan(x) coth(y))


8
!!
!!!

3
3

4
4
= tan1 tan 2 cos
coth 2 sin
.

sin(z) i tan(x) coth(y) 1


=
.
sin(z) i tan(x) coth(y) + 1

n
X

n
Y

i + (k2 + 1)1

= ln lim

n+
2
i (k2 + 1)1
k=1

n
Y
k2 (1 + i)
i
= ln lim

n+
2
k2 (1 i)
k=1

n
Y
k2 z2
i
= ln lim

2
2
n+
2
k=1 k z

n
Y
i
(k + 1)2 z2
= ln lim

2
2
n+
2
k=0 (k + 1) z

Qn
Qn
1
1
i

1z
k=0 (k + 1 z) n!n1+z
k=0 (k + 1 + z)
= ln lim n!n1 Qn

Qn
1
n+
2
(k
+
1

(k
+
1
+
z)
z)
k=0
k=0
n!n1z
n!n1+z
!
(1 z)(1 + z)
( 3) i
= ln
2
(1 z)(1 + z)
!
z sin(z)
(4),(5) i
ln
=
2
z sin(z)
!
!
3i sin(z)
i
= ln exp
2
4 sin(z)
!
i
sin(z)
3
+ ln
=
8
2
sin(z)
!
i
1 + i tan(x) coth(y)
3

+ ln
===
8
2
1 + i tan(x) coth(y)
!
i
i A1
A:=tan(x) coth(y),0 3
==============
+ ln
8
2
i + A1
!
1
(1) 3
+ tan1
=
8
A


A>0,(2) 3

tan1 A
=

q
q

2+1
 q  22+1

2
+e

21 e
arctan tan
q
q

2+1
2+1
e 2 e 2

k2 + 1

2 exp

3i
8

f (x) f (y) |x y| .

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=9&t=5563

1 ( ) fi

= x + iy
48

f fr f
.
, , q Q
lim fi (x) = 0. , r R Q lim fr (x) = 0.
xq

xn ,
y, f (xn ) 0. yn , x
f (yn ) 0.
h : R R
h(x) = f (x), x R Q h(x) = 0, x Q.

Q, , G ,
Q G .


xr

n N.
R In f (In ) (0, 1/n). An f 1 (0, 1/n)
.
, Baire, A =
T

nN An = , .

2 ( ) x Q y R Q,

49

:
x=g(y)

51 ( )
f : R R .
h, g : R R

g( f (x)) = h( f (x)) = x,

(2) f (g(y)) > y


(1)

h ( f (g(y))) h(y)

(4)

g(y) h(y)

x R,

(3) (4) g(y) = h(y).

g = h.
2. f (x) < y

3. x R , h > 0

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=64&t=15097

(hsiodos) f
.

g( f (x)) = h( f (x)) = x

xR

x R ()

f (x) < y < f (x + h)

(5)

( 2 )

(1)

g, h .
g ( h)
(1)

(5) g( f (x)) g(y) g( f (x + h))

x g(y) x + h

x1 , x2 R x1 < x2 =

lim x lim+ g(y) lim+ (x + h)

h0+

f (x1 ) < f (x2 ) =

h0

h0

x g(y) x

(1)

g(y) = x

g ( f (x1 )) g ( f (x2 )) = x1 x2 ,
.

h(y) = x g(y) = h(y).

f (R) = R (
)

g(x) = h(x) x R.

f (R) , R x f (R)
()

52 ( ) , .


g(y) = h(y) y R f (R).
y R f (R).

:
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/posting.php?mode=edit&f=64&p=50975

1.

f (x) > y x R.

(2)
( )
x > y

 ({x} > {y}) ({x} = {y}) (x > y)
x x {x} = x x.
,
x x + 1 x
x 1.

x=h(y)

(2) f (h(y)) > y


(1)

g ( f (h(y))) g(y)
h(y) g(y)

(3)

50

53 ( )
n ,


 22n 22n+1 1 .

54 ( )
12 22 + 32 42 + 52 62 +

+ . . . + 20012 20022 + 20032 ?

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=63&t=30730

(mod 2005).

A = 22n 22n+1 1 , n = 1, 3, 5, ..



A = 22(2k+1) 22(2k+1)+1 1 ,

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=63&t=30853

k = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...


2(2k+1)

2( 2k+1)+1

1 ( )

1 = 100 m + 28, m N.

k = 0 : A = 22 22+1 1 = 4 7 = 28.

A (k) = 2

2003
X

k=1



A (k) = 22(2k+1) 22(2k+1)+1 1 = 100 m + 28,

1+

1002
X

k=2

m N,

(1)k+1 k2

[(1)k+1 k2 + (1)2005k+1 (2005 k)2 ]


1 mod 2005



A (k + 1) = 16 22(2k+1) 16 22(2k+1)+1 1


= 16 22(2k+1) 22(2k+1)+1 1

(1)2005k+1 (2005 k)2 = (1)k+1 (2005 k)2

+ 16 15 22(2k+1) 22(2k+1)+1

(1)k+1 k2 mod 2005.

= 16 (100 m + 28)

+ 16 15 22(2k+1) 22(2k+1)+1


= 100 (16m) + 28 + 60 7 + 4 32 28k


2 ( )

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
12
|2 + 3 4 + . . . 2000
{z + 2001 2002 + 2003} =

60 7 + 4 32 28k = 100 x

42 + 24 32 28k = 10 x
8k

21 + 12 32 2

8k

21 + 384 2

2002

1 + 20032 20022 + 20012 . . . 42 + 32 22 =

=5x

1 + 20032 22 20022 32 . . . + 10032 10022 =

=5x

1 + 2005(2003 2) 2005(2002 3)+

1 + 28k+2 = 5
.




A = 22n 22n+1 1 , n = 1, 3, 5, .. 28.

51

2005(2001 4) . . . + 2005(1003 1002)

(mod 2005).

S = {a1 , a2 , a3 , ..., a} (an )

55 ( )
R R.

1 1 lim an = a.
n+

S 2
(
).

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=15569

( ) M R R

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=13&t=14065

( )
S 1 , S 2 .

f M S f , card(S f ) 0

f : S 1 S 2
1 1, ,

X R card(X) 0 MX

f 1 1

S f X , card(S f ) 0 .

card(S 1 ) = card( f (S 1 )) = card(S 2 )


X Q

card(S 1 S 2 ) = cardS = 0


c.

card(S 1 ) = card(S 2 ) = 0
a S 1

card(MX ) c

S 1 {a}

bn

MX c.

S 2 { f (a)} f (bn )

M =

MX card(M) c

bn a f (bn ) f (a)
a , f (a) S 1 S 2 = ,

f (x) = x + a, a R
, card(M) c

an
,

card(M) = c

56 ( )

52

j {1, 2, . . . , n}

57 ( )
a, x1 , x2 , ..., xn R a 2.

z j := cos x j + i sin x j ,

z j = 1

zn
z2

2
2

A + B = |A + iB| = z1 + + + n1
a
a

1 n1
n
2
= n1 a z1 + a z2 + + azn1 + zn
a

cosx2 cosx3
cosxn
+
A = cosx1 +
+ ... + n1
2
a
a
a

B = sinx1 +

sinxn
sinx2 sinx3
+ 2 + ... + n1 ,
a
a
a

A2 + B2 > 0.

an1

> 0.

2 ( )
http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=27&t=31000

A = B = 0.

1 ( )

:
n N n 2,
a R a 2 z1 , z2 , . . . , zn C
|z1 | = |z2 | = = |zn | = 1. ,

A + iB = z1 + bz2 + + bn1 zn = 0,
1  1i
z j = cos x j + i sin x j ,
b = 0,
a
2


n1
a z1 + an2 z2 + + azn1 + zn 1.

bz2 + + bn1 zn = z1 =

: n.

|bz2 + + bn1 zn | = 1 =

1 b + b2 + bn1 =

n = 2,
1

|az1 + z2 | ||az1 | |z2 || = a 1 1

1
1
1
1
+ 2 + + n1 = 1 1 n1 ,
2 2
2
2

58 ( )
n,


n 2.

sin(na) cos(na)

= n 1,
sin a
cos a
k
a ,
, k Z.

, :

n

a z1 + an1 z2 + + a2 zn1 + azn + zn+1
n


a z1 + an1 z2 + + a2 zn1 + azn |zn+1 | =




a an1 z + an2 z + + az + z 1
1
2
n1
n
|
{z
}

1

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=27&t=30159

1 ( )

a,

a 1 1,

k
2

, k Z
sin (na) cos (na)

=n1
sin a
cos a


n + 1 .

(1) a ,
53

(1)

k
2

, k Z

sin ((n 1) a) =

n1
2

sin (2a).

(2)

(1) a ,
.

(2)
a a ,

k
2

, k Z

, k Z ,

2 ( ) a = /4

sin(n/4) cos(n/4) = (n 1) 2/2

(n 1) cos ((n 1) a) = 4 (n 1) cos (2a),


sin((n 1)/4) = (n 1)/2.

h
i
lim (n 1)3 cos ((n 1) a) = lim [4 (n 1) cos (2a)]

a0

1 n {1, 0, 1, 2, 3}.
0, 2 1, 1, 3
.

a0

(n 1)3 = 4 (n 1)

n = 1 n = 1 n = 3

54

I ABC
( DB = DI =
DC , ),
BI

,

(
D).
ABC
I , r1 Euler :
OI 2 = R2 2Rr1 R2 2Rr = R2 2Rr1 r = r1 .

59 ( erxmer) ABC (C1 , R)


(C2 , r). d ,
(Euler) R2 2Rr = d2 .
;

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=62&t=27484

OI 2 = R2 2Rr, :
1) R > OI,

2) R > 2r.

60 ( ) a,

.

C2 C1 .
B C1
BI C1
D.
(D, DB = DI) C1
C.

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/viewtopic.php?f=62&t=30805

1 ( ) EB, AK .
EB

AKC ( 2)

AKC .


2
3

1
1
6
GH = CH =
=
.
3
3
2
6

A C1 DI ,
ABC .

55

.
2 ( ) O
AH BD
AH AC BD.

OM BD, AH .
CN AH
ACH

HN =

AH

: AM = MN = NH
OM
CN .

56

:
61 ( ) z
,

62 ( )
:

a1 ,
a2 , .....,
an

A = |z2 + z + 1| + |z2 z + 1|

c =

a1
a2 .....
an

:


c 2

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/posting.php?mode=edit&f=60&p=101658

( ) z = x + yi,
x, y R,

http://www.mathematica.gr/forum/posting.php?mode=edit&f=60&p=135540

A = (x2 y2 + x + 1) + (2 xy + y)2
q
+ (x2 y2 x + 1)2 + (2 xy y)2 .

( ) n = 1. n = 2
:

Minkowski

4(x2

y2

1)2

4y2

=2

(x2

y2

1)2


2
2
2
2
~a1 + ~a2 + ~a1 ~a2 = 2 ~a1 + 2 ~a2 4,

y2 .

3
(x2 y2 + 1)2 + y2 ,
4

Amin =



~a1 ~a2 2.

n 3.
n.
n 1. ~a1 , ~a2 , . . . , ~an ,
1.

3.

, y2 > 1,

(x2 y2 + 1)2 + y2 > 1 >



~a1 + ~a2 2

3
.
4

~a1 , ~a2 , ~a3 , ~a1 , ~a2 , ~a3

y 1 1 y 0.

, ~a1 , ~a2 ,


60 . , ~a1 ~a2 1,

~a1 ~a2 , ~a3 , . . . , ~an i {1, 1},
i = 1, 2, . . . , n 1 ,

(x2 y2 + 1)2 + y2 (1 y2 )2 + y2 =
y4 y2 + 1 = (y2 21 )2 + 43 .




1 ~a1 ~a2 + 2~a3 + + n1~an =
1~a1 1~a2 + 2~a3 + + n1~an 2


3
min((x2 y2 + 1)2 + y2 ) =
4
x = 0 y =

2
.
2

57