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Lecture 7 3-D motion

a = const v = v0 + a t r = r0 + v0 t + 1/2 a t2

Quiz, Thursday and Friday


The first quiz will be On Thursday in your discussion session, group quiz On Friday at 8.00am, individual quiz Last names beginning A-R in room 150 Last names beginning S-Z in room 166 The quiz will be on the lectures up to Tuesday and on Fishbane Chapters 1 to 3-4. There will be one long problem in the group quiz, two long problems and 5 multiple choice problems in the individual One question will be very similar in principle to one of the questions you have done for homework. You can bring into the quiz one side of normal sized paper with hand-written notes and formulae. You will be given a template as in the Competent Problem Solver. Try to use it.

Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 1

Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 2

Reminder: 3-D Kinematics 3The position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle in 3 dimensions can be expressed as vectors: r = xi+yj+zk v = vx i + vy j + v z k a = ax i + ay j + az k We have already seen the 1-D kinematics equations:
x = x(t )

3-D Kinematics
So for constant acceleration we can integrate to get: a = const v = v0 + a t r = r0 + v0 t + 1/2 a t2 (where a, v, v0, r, r0, are all vectors) Each component (x,y,z) is independent and follows the same equations

(i , j , k unit vectors) i

v=

dx dt

a=

dv d 2 x = dt dt 2

ax=const vx=v0x+axt x=x0+v0x+ axt2

ay=const vy=v0y+ayt y=y0+v0y+ ayt2

az=const vz=v0z+azt z=z0+v0z+azt2

Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 3

Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 4

Cannon and Ball


A ball is shot straight up in the air from a cannon. It will fall straight back from where it came. If the cannon is moving with a constant velocity?

Cannon and Ball


Now let the cannon be accelerating (pulled by a falling mass). What happens? The ball falls behind the cannon as the cannon is accelerating but the ball is not, the cannon has gone further in the horizontal direction than the ball

y
The ball and cannon have the same horizontal (x) velocity x The vertical (y) motion of the ball is independent of the horizontal and the ball will fall back in the cannon, just as if the cannon was not moving xball=x0+v0t xcannon=x0+v0t
Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 5

Xball=x0+v0t Xcannon=x0+v0t+1/2at2
Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 6

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Cannon and Ball


Now let the cannon be rolling down a slope

Cannon and Ball


Now let the cannon be rolling down a slope

y x
Will the ball land (a) behind (b) in

?
Will the ball land (a) behind (b) in (c) in front of the cannon?

(c) in front of the cannon?

Draw axes parallel and perpendicular to the slope The motion of the ball and the cannon in the two axes are independent. Both the ball and the cannon are falling under gravity. The x coordinates are always equal xcannon=x0+v0xt+1/2gxt2 xball=x0+v0xt+1/2gxt2 When the ball lands (y=0,t=t') the cannon will be there.
Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 8

Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 7

Mombasa fort
Fort Jesus, located on the edge of a coral ridge overlooking the entrance to the Old Port of Mombasa, was built by the Portuguese in 1593 to protect their trade route to India and their interests in East Africa.

ICQ : Mombasa fort


Large stone walls rise vertically from the shore to protect the fort from cannon fire from pirate ships. Walking around on the ramparts, you find the fort's cannons mounted such that they fire horizontally out of holes near the top of the walls facing the ocean. Leaning out of one of these gun holes, you drop a rock which hits the ocean 3.0 seconds later. You wonder how close a pirate ship would have to sail to the fort to be in range of the fort's cannon? Calculate the muzzle velocity necessary to hit a pirate ship 300 meters from the base of the fort. Is it: a) 10 m/s b) 30 m/s c) 100 m/s d) 300 m/s

Fort Jesus Museum


Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 9 Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 10

ICQ: Mombasa fort


Calculate the muzzle velocity necessary to hit a pirate ship 300 meters from the base of the fort a) 10 m/s b) 30 m/s c) 100 m/s d) 300 m/s The x and y motions are independent t to hit the pirate ship is the same as the time the stone took to hit the ocean (3s)

Car over a cliff


A car drives off a 50 m cliff. Assume the car has an initial velocity of 30 m/s horizontally. How far from the cliff does it land? What is the angle of impact? What is the speed of impact First draw diagram and axes We know all the quantities in the y direction. Calculate the time to impact

x = vx t x 300 m m = 100 So muzzle velocity vx = = 3s t s 1 2 2 Height of fort H = gt = 4.9 (m / s ) (3s) 2 = 44. m 2


Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 11

1 y = y0+v0 y t gt2 2 2 ( y 0 y ) 100 m t2 = = m g 9.81 2 s t = 3 .2 s

Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 12

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Car over a cliff


Next calculate angle of impact Given by the two components of the velocity vy can be calculated from the time vx does not change (no accn in x)

Car over a cliff


vx
v

vy

How far from the cliff does it land? x = vxt= 30m/s x 3.2s = 96m What is the speed of impact?

tan( ) =

vy vx

Speed v = vx + vy = 43m/ s
2 2

v y = v 0 y gt = 9.8

m 3.2 s = 31 m / s s

v x = 30 m / s
31m / s = tan ( ) = tan ( ) = 46 vx 30 m / s
1 1

= (30m/ s)2 + (31m/ s)2

vx
v

vy

vy

Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 13

Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 14

Shooting the Monkey (tranquilizer gun)


You want to tranquilize a monkey hanging from a tree You know the monkey will let go as soon as you shoot ! Where should you aim to hit the monkey?

Shooting the Monkey (tranquilizer gun)


You want to tranquilize a monkey hanging from a tree You know the monkey will let go as soon as you shoot ! Where should you aim to hit the monkey?

(a) above him

(b) at him

(c) below him

(a) above him

(b) at him

(c) below him

The components of motion are independent The dart falls as well as the monkey.
UIUC Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 15 Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 16

Shooting the Monkey...


If there were no gravity, simply aim at the monkey r = r0

Shooting the Monkey...


With gravity, still aim at the monkey! The dart falls the same distance under gravity as the monkey in the time it takes to reach it

r = r0 - 1/2 g t2

r = v0 t - 1/2 g t2
r = v0 t
Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 17

Dart hits the monkey

Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 18

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Shooting the monkey...


Consider this situation instead

Homework
Homework Continue to read Fishbane Chapter 3 sections 1-4 Try Chapter 3 problems 2, 24, 27, 31, 44, 71

Dart: x = v0 t y = -1/2 g t2
This may be easier to think about. Its exactly the same idea!!

Monkey: x = x0 y = -1/2 g t2
Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 19 Physics 1301: Lecture 7, Pg 20

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