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## Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 1

Lecture 31: Rotation, Kinetic Energy and Lecture 31: Rotation, Kinetic Energy and
Moments of Inertia Moments of Inertia
r r
1
r r
2 r r
3
r r
4
m
4
m
1
m
2
m
3

v v
4
v v
1
v v
3
v v
2
i i
i
I m r =

2
2
2
1
I K =
I = 2mL
2
I = 2mL
2
L
m m
m m
I = mL
2
m m
m m
I = mL
2
a a
R
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 2
Recap: Comparison angular and Recap: Comparison angular and
rotational kinematics rotational kinematics
Angular Linear
constant = constant a =
t
0
+ = v v at = +
0
= + +
0 0
2
1
2
t t x x v t at = + +
0 0
2
1
2
And for a point at a distance R from the rotation axis:
s = R v = R a = R
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Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 3
Example: Wheel And Rope Example: Wheel And Rope
A wheel with radius R = 0.4 m rotates freely about a
fixed axle. There is a rope wound around the wheel.
Starting from rest at t = 0, the rope is pulled with a
constant acceleration a = 4 m/s
2
.
Find the angular velocity after 10 seconds.
How many revolutions has the wheel made after 10
seconds?
a a
R
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Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 4
Wheel And Rope... Wheel And Rope...
a = R
= a / R = 4 m/s
2
/ 0.4 m = 10 rad/s
2
=
0
2
=100/2 =15.9 revolutions/sec
s revolution
rev
80
2
1

2
0
t
2
1
t + + = = 0 + 0(10) + (10)(10)
2
2
1

a=4m/s a=4m/s
R=0.4m
After 10sec?
# revolutions?
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 5
Rotation & Kinetic Energy Rotation & Kinetic Energy
Consider the general case of N masses rotating about a
common axis. Assume the masses are attached to the
rotation axis by massless rigid rods.
The kinetic energy of this system will be the sum of the
kinetic energy of each piece:
r r
1
r r
2 r r
3
r r
4
m
4
m
1
m
2
m
3

## Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 6

Rotation & Kinetic Energy... Rotation & Kinetic Energy...
r r
1
r r
2 r r
3
r r
4
m
4
m
1
m
2
m
3

v v
4
v v
1
v v
3
v v
2
i i i i
i
K m v , v r = =

2
1
2
( )

= =
i
i i
i
i i
r m r m K
2 2 2
2
1
2
1

2
2
1
I K =
Moment of inertia Moment of inertia ( (I) ) about the axis
units kg m
2
.
i i
i
I m r =

2
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Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 7
Rotation & Kinetic Energy... Rotation & Kinetic Energy...
The expression for the kinetic energy of a rotating system
looks similar to that of a point particle:
i i
i
I m r =

2
2
2
1
I K =
2
2
1
mv K =
v is linear velocity
m is the mass.
is angular velocity
I is the moment of inertia
In rotational dynamics, the moment of inertia I appears in the
same way that mass m does when we study linear dynamics!
Point Particle Point Particle Rotating System Rotating System
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 8
Moment of Inertia Moment of Inertia
Inertia = resistance to change
Moment of inertia = Rotational Inertia = resistance of a body
to change in its rotational motion
Mass = resistance of a body to change in its linear motion
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 9
Moment of Inertia Moment of Inertia
The moment of inertia I depends on the distribution of
mass in the system.
The further the mass is from the rotation axis, the
bigger the moment of inertia.
For a given object, the moment of inertia will depend on
where we choose the rotation axis (unlike the center of
mass).
2
2
1
I K =
i i
i
I m r =

2
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Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 10
Calculating Moment of Inertia Calculating Moment of Inertia

=
=
N
i
i i
r m I
1
2 where r
i
is the distance from the i
th
mass
to the axis of rotation.
Example: Calculate the moment of inertia of four point
masses m on the corners of a square of length L, about a
perpendicular axis through the center of the square:
m m
m m
L
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Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 11
Calculating Moment of Inertia... Calculating Moment of Inertia...
m m
m m
L
r
L/2
N
i i
i
L L L L L
I mr m m m m m
=
= = + + + =

2 2 2 2 2
2
1
4
2 2 2 2 2
I = 2mL
2
L L L L
r r
| | | |
= + = =
| |
\ . \ .
2 2
2
2
2 2 2 2
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 12
Calculating Moment of Inertia... Calculating Moment of Inertia...
Now calculate I for the same object about an axis through
the center, parallel to the plane (as shown):
N
i i
i
L L L L L
I m r m m m m m
=
= = + + + =

2 2 2 2 2
2
1
4
4 4 4 4 4
I = mL
2
L/2
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Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 13
Calculating Moment of Inertia... Calculating Moment of Inertia...
Calculate I for the same object about an axis along a
diagonal (as shown):
N
i i
i
L L
I m r m m m m
=
| | | |
= = + + +
| |
\ . \ .

2 2
2 2 2
1
0 0
2 2
I = mL
2
m m
m m
L
r
L/2
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 14
Calculating Moment of Inertia... Calculating Moment of Inertia...
Finally, calculate I for the same object about an axis along
an edge (as shown):
N
i i
i
I m r mL mL m m
=
= = + + +

2 2 2 2 2
1
0 0
I = 2mL
2
L
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 15
Calculating Moment of Inertia... Calculating Moment of Inertia...
For a single object, I clearly depends on the rotation axis!
I = 2mL
2
L
m m
m m
I = 2mL
2
I = mL
2
m m
m m
I = mL
2
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 16
ICQ: ICQ: Moment of Inertia Moment of Inertia
A triangular shape is made from identical balls and
identical rigid, massless rods as shown. The moment of
inertia about the a, b, and c axes is I
a
, I
b
, and I
c
respectively.
Which of the following is correct:
a) I
a
> I
b
> I
c
b) I
a
> I
c
> I
b
c) I
b
> I
a
> I
c
d) I
c
> I
a
> I
b
e) I
b
> I
c
> I
a
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a
b
c
L
L
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 17
ICQ: ICQ: Moment of Inertia Moment of Inertia
A triangular shape is made from identical balls and
identical rigid, massless rods as shown. The moment of
inertia about the a, b, and c axes is I
a
, I
b
, and I
c
respectively.
Which of the following is correct:
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a
b
c
L
L
a) I
a
> I
b
> I
c
b) I
a
> I
c
> I
b
c) I
b
> I
a
> I
c
d) I
c
> I
a
> I
b
e) I
b
> I
c
> I
a
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 18
ICQ: Moment of Inertia ICQ: Moment of Inertia
L
a
b
c
m
m m
L
( ) ( )
2 2 2
8 2 2 mL L m L m I
a
= + =
z Calculate moments of inertia:
2 2 2 2
3mL mL mL mL I
b
= + + =
( )
2 2
4 2 mL L m I
c
= =
z So (b) is correct: I
a
> I
c
> I
b
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Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 19
Calculating Moment of Inertia... Calculating Moment of Inertia...
For a discrete collection of point
masses we found:

=
=
N
i
i i
r m I
1
2
For a continuous solid object we have to add up the mr
2
contribution for every infinitesimal mass element dm.
r
dm
dm r I

=
2
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Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 20
Moments of Inertia Moments of Inertia
Some examples of I for solid objects:
Same for a thin hollow cylinder,
R is constant
2
2 2
MR I
dm R dm r I
=
= =

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Thin hoop of mass Mand radius R
about an axis through its center,
to the plane of the hoop.
2
2
MR I
dm R I
=
=

## Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 21

Examples of Moment of Inertia Examples of Moment of Inertia
Thin hoop of mass M and radius R, about an axis through a
diameter. Mass per unit length = m
R
Mass of small element (m
s
) = mRd
Distance from axis = Rcos
s
I m r R cos mRd
mR cos d
mR M Rm
MR

= =
=
= =
=

2 2
2 2 2
0 0
2
3 2
0
3
2
2
1
2
d

mRd
Rcos
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 22
Examples of Examples of I I for solid objects.. for solid objects..
Solid disk of mass M (mass/unit volume m) and radius
R, about a perpendicular axis through its center.
I r dm dm rd drdhm = =

2
H R
R
I m r rdrd dh
Hm r dr
mHR M R Hm
MR

=
=
= =
=

2
2
0 0 0
3
0
4 2
2
2
2
1
2
z I is independent of H. Solid cylinders have
the same I as disks about an axis through the
center. The distribution of mass is the same.
rd
dr
r

d
R
H
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 23
Examples of I for solid objects Examples of I for solid objects
Exercise for the student to calculate this
More examples of Moments of Inertia of various objects
and how to calculate them in Fishbane Section 9.3
2
5
2
MR I =
Solid sphere of mass M and radius R,
about an axis through its center. R
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 24
ICQ: Moment of Inertia ICQ: Moment of Inertia
Two spheres have the same radius and equal masses.
from a hollow shell of gold.
Which one has the biggest moment of inertia about an
axis through its center?
solid
hollow
(a) solid aluminum (b) hollow gold (c) same
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Page 5
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 25
ICQ: Moment of Inertia ICQ: Moment of Inertia
Two spheres have the same radius and equal masses.
from a hollow shell of gold.
Which one has the biggest moment of inertia about an
axis through its center?
solid
hollow
(a) solid aluminum (b) hollow gold (c) same
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Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 26
ICQ: Moment of Inertia ICQ: Moment of Inertia
Moment of inertia depends on mass (same for both) and
distance from axis squared, which is bigger for the shell
since its mass is located farther from the center.
The spherical shell (gold) will have a bigger moment of
inertia.
I
SOLID
< I
SHELL
solid
hollow
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 27
Moment of Inertia of a rod Moment of Inertia of a rod
Thin uniform rod of mass M
perpendicular axis through its
end.
2
0
3
0
2
3
1

3
1

ML
x
L
M
dx
L
M
dm dm x I
L
L
=
(

=
= =

L
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Through its centre
L
2
2 /
2 /
3
2 /
2 /
2
12
1

3
1

ML
x
L
M
dx
L
M
dm dm x I
L
L
L
L
=
(

=
= =

## Moments of inertia are smallest about the center of mass

Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 28
Parallel Axis Theorem Parallel Axis Theorem
Suppose the moment of inertia of a solid object of mass M
about an axis through the center of mass, I
CM
, is known.
The moment of inertia about an axis parallel to this axis but
a distance h away is given by:
I
P
= I
CM
+ Mh
2
Given I
CM
, it is easy to calculate the moment of inertia
See Fishbane 9.3 for an indication of how the parallel axis
theorum can be proved
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 29
Parallel Axis Theorem: Example Parallel Axis Theorem: Example
Consider a thin uniform rod of mass M and length D. Figure
out the moment of inertia about an axis through the end of
the rod.
CM
I ML =
2
1
12
We know
2
2
2
3
1
2 12
1
ML
L
M ML I
END
= |
.
|

\
|
+ = So
L
D=L/2
M
x
CM
I
CM
I
END
I
END
= I
CM
+ MD
2
As we just calculated
Physics 1301: Lecture 31 Pg 30
Homework Homework
Homework problems, Chapter 9 #8,22,28,36