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In the most general sense of the word, a cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens independently, and

can bind other materials together. The word "cement" traces to the Romans, who used the term opus caementicium to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder. The volcanic ash and pulverized brick additives that were added to the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later referred to as cementum, cimentum, cment, and cement. Cement used in construction is characterized as hydraulic or nonhydraulic. Hydraulic cements (e.g., Portland cement) harden because of hydration, chemical reactions that occur independently of the mixture's water content; they can harden even underwater or when constantly exposed to wet weather. The chemical reaction that results when the anhydrous cement powder is mixed with water produces hydrates that are not water-soluble. Non-hydraulic cements (e.g. gypsum plaster) must be kept dry in order to retain their strength. Cement is a key infrastructure industry. India is the second largest market as well as the cement producer of the world after China. The production capacity of India is currently now 151.2 million tons. Major Players: 1.AMBUJA CEMENT 2. ACC CEMENT 3. JK CEMENT

PRODUCTION PROCESS OF KUMAR CEMENT

The production process for cement consists of drying, grinding and mixing limestone and additives like bauxite and iron ore into a powder known as raw meal. The raw meal is then heated and burned in a preheater and kiln and then cooled in an air cooling system to form a semifinished product, known as a clinker. Clinker (95%) is cooled by air and subsequently ground with gypsum (5%) to form Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Other forms of cement require increased blending with other raw materials. Blending of clinker with other materials helps impart key characteristics to cement, which eventually govern its end use. There are two general processes for producing clinker and cement in India : a dry process and a wet process. The basic differences between these processes are the form in which the raw meal is fed into the kiln, and the amount of energy consumed in each of the processes. In the dry process, the raw meal is fed into the kiln in the form of a dry powder resulting in energy saving, whereas in the wet process the raw meal is fed into the kiln in the form of slurry. There is also a semi-dry process, which consumes more energy than the dry process but lesser than the wet process. DRY PROCESS The basic steps involved in the production process is set out below: Kumar Cement plants are dry process plants. Limestone is crushed to a uniform and usable size, blended with certain additives (such as iron ore and bauxite) and discharged on a vertical roller mill, where the raw materials are ground to fine powder. An electrostatic precipitator dedusts the raw mill gases and collects the raw meal for a series of further stages

of blending. The homogenized raw meal thus extracted is pumped to the top of a preheater by air lift pumps. In the preheaters the material is heated to 750C. Subsequently, the raw meal undergoes a process of calcination in a precalcinator (in which the carbonates present are reduced to oxides) and is then fed to the kiln. The remaining calcination and clinkerization reactions are completed in the kiln where the temperature is raised to between 1,450C and 1,500C. The clinker formed is cooled and conveyed to the clinker silo from where it is extracted and transported to the cement mills for producing cement. For producing OPC, clinker and gypsum are used and for producing Portland Cement (PPC), clinker, gypsum and fly ash are used. In the production of Portland Blast Furnace Stag Cement (PSC), granulated blast furnace slag from steel plants is added to clinker.

Capacity and demand of kumar cement This profile envisages the establishment of a Mini-Cement Plant with a capacity of 1,00,000 tonnes per annum. The present demand for the proposed product is estimated at 1.9 million tonnes per annum. The demand is expected to reach at 2.6 million by the year 2013.

TOTAL INITIAL INVESTMENT COST

The total initial investment cost of the project including working capital is estimated at 150 million. SR NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 COST ITEMS Land lease value Building and Civil Work Plant Machinery and Equipment Office Furniture and Equipment Vehicle Pre-production Expenditure Working Capital Total Investment cost TOTAL (million) RS 10 12 100 0.5 2 8 17.5 15,00,00,000

Plant location Plant- Madhya Pradesh Head Office- Indore, Madhya Pradesh 4 Zonal Offices (North, East, South, & West) 80 Sales offices in all over india.

Manpower Administration-35 Marketing officer in different office- 300 Production & Technical-150 Worker- 1200 Dealer-1200

FINANCIAL EVALUATION ROI- 20% PBDIT-22% SALES-30 Crore PAT 16 %

RAW MATERIAL LIME STONE(72-76)% CLAY (6-10)% SANDSTONE(8-12)% PUMICE(2-4)% GYPSUM(4-5)% LAYOUT PLANT