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Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure.Intrinsic motivation has been studied by social and educational psychologists since the early 1970s. Research has found that it is usually associated with high educational achievement and enjoyment by students. Explanations of intrinsic motivation have been given in the context of Fritz Heider's attribution theory, Bandura's work on self-efficacy, and Deci and Ryan's cognitive evaluation theory (see self-determination theory). Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they: attribute their educational results to internal factors that they can control (e.g. the amount of effort they put in), believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck), are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades. Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards like money and grades, coercion and threat of punishment. Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A crowd cheering on the individual and trophies are also extrinsic incentives. Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to overjustification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be (and were) rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition and to children who received no extrinsic reward. Self-determination theory proposes that extrinsic motivation can be internalised by the individual if the task fits with their values and beliefs and therefore helps to fulfill their basic psychological needs. Internalised extrinsic motivation has been shown to lead to more positive outcomes, such as wellbeing, increased productivity and task satisfaction. The self-control of motivation is increasingly understood as a subset of emotional intelligence; a person may be highly intelligent according to a more conservative definition (as measured by manyintelligence
tests), yet unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence to certain tasks. Yale School of Management professor Victor Vroom's "expectancy theory" provides an account of when people will decide whether to exert self control to pursue a particular goal. Drives and desires can be described as a deficiency or need that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or an incentive. These are thought to originate within the individual and may not require external stimuli to encourage the behavior. Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger, which motivates a person to seek food; whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise and approval, which motivates a person to behave in a manner pleasing to others. By contrast, the role of extrinsic rewards and stimuli can be seen in the example of training animals by giving them treats when they perform a trick correctly. The treat motivates the animals to perform the trick consistently, even later when the treat is removed from the process
Techniques of Motivation
There are two types of techniques of Motivation: financial techniques
Financial techniques of Motivation : Wages and Salaries Wages are normally paid per hour worked and workers receive money at the end of the week. Overtime is paid for any additional hours worked during the week. However salaries are annual (based on a year’s work) and are paid at the end of each month. Advantage Simple and easy to use for businesses Disadvantage Workers may resent being paid the same as colleagues who they feel is not so productive
Piece-rate Piece-rate is paying a worker per item they produce in a certain period of time. It was recommended by the motivation theorist Taylor and had close links with working on production lines. Advantages Increases speed of work and therefore productivity Often workers not entitled to sick pay or holiday pay which reduces cost
Disadvantages Workers do not concentrate on quality of work as emphasis on speed of work
Workers may ignore company rules, such as Health and safety issues, in they try to speed up output
Fringe Benefits These are often known as ‘perks’ and are items an employee receives in addition to their normal wage or salary e.g. company car, private health insurance, free meals. Advantages Encourages loyalty to a company so employees may stay for longer Helps meet a workers human and social needs
Disadvantages Widespread use to a majority of employees will increase costs sharply
Performance-related pay This is paid to those employees who meet certain targets. The targets are often evaluated and reviewed in regular appraisals with managers. It is system that is being increasingly used in businesses in the UK. Advantages Easier for managers to monitor and control their staff Reduces the amount of time spent on industrial relations (negotiations with trade unions) Disadvantages It can be difficult to measure the performance of employees in service based industries
It does not promote teamwork and can lead to workers feeling they are treated unfairly if colleagues are awarded more
Profit sharing This is a system whereby employees receive a proportion of the company’s profits. This means staff are in the same position as shareholders. Advantages Should improve loyalty to the company and break down the “them and us” barrier if all staff given same amount Workers are more likely to accept changes to their working practices if they can see that it may decrease costs and so increase profit
Disadvantages The share given to employees is often too small to provide a worthwhile incentive Workers may feel that however hard they work it will not have a noticeable effect on the company’s profit level, so therefore no incentive
Share ownership This is a common incentive for senior managers who are given shares in the company rather than a straightforward bonus or membership of a profit sharing scheme. It means that some staff are also shareholders.
Advantages Employees will work harder as they have a stake in the company, just like a shareholder has Workers are less likely to leave the firm
Disadvantages Often only available to senior managers so can cause resentment among other staff.
Non –financial Techniques of Motivation i.Job enrichment Job enrichment means giving workers more interesting, challenging and complex tasks. Workers should also be given the opportunity to complete a whole unit of work rather than individual separate tasks. This is motivating for several reasons: It gives workers the chance to test themselves and use their full range of ability It is more motivating than job enlargement or job rotation (see below) as it increases the complexity or challenge involved in the task, rather than just simply providing more variety to the work. Workers should obtain a greater sense of achievement and possibly more praise or recognition of their work when they have successfully completed a tougher task
Workers respond better as managers have shown trust in the fact that they possess the ability to handle the increasing complexity and pressures of the work. The managers need to judge carefully however what an appropriate task is for a worker to handle- if it is too complex for the workers or they do not posses the correct skill level, then expensive mistakes could be made. ii.Job enlargement Job enlargement means simply giving workers more tasks to do of a similar nature or complexity. This will reduce the monotony or repetition involved in a persons work but over time this will not increase a person’s satisfaction or sense of achievement. Job rotation is a part of this and involves having a wider variety of tasks to do, perhaps rotating jobs with other members in your team, but not increasing the challenge of the job. iii.Teamworking Teamworking is where employees work in groups or teams. This can meet a worker’s social needs as a person can more easily build friendships and feel a sense of belonging to a unit or group and hopefully to the business as a whole. This applies in much the same way as being a member of a sports team or any other team representing a school or college. A business can create a number of different types of team; examples include production teams (often known as cells), quality circles and management teams. Teamworking has other advantages to a firm over and above improving motivation. It can lead to greater flexibility of production, as employees are likely to be multi-skilled (able to do more than one persons job) as they have learnt from other team members or undertaken formal job rotation. This means they can cover any absences and can quickly adapt to a new production technique. iv.Empowerment Empowerment is like delegation. It is when power or authority is given to employees so they can make their own decisions regarding their working life. For instance workers have control over how to use their time and deciding the priority of tasks that need to be done. They are encouraged to consider problems they face and come up with some solutions. For empowerment to be successful, workers must have adequate training and/or good skill levels in order to be trusted to make the correct decisions. If they do not, then expensive mistakes can be made that could affect the whole business. It is the manager’s job to judge whether a subordinate can cope with more authority and decision-making power. It should be noted however, that even if managers pass down authority to their subordinates, they are still responsible for the work that is done by them.
Benefits of motivation People perform at their best when they are inspired and motivated. These people care to do things right and deliver well. Studies show that people are more likely to climb up the corporate ladder or succeed in any venture when they are motivated and inspired. These two elements are proven to bring out the best in people. Parents, corporations, teachers, and leaders understand the power of motivating their people to realize pre-set goals. This is the secret behind successful businesses, excellent academic records, and good citizens of the country. People maybe inspired and motivated by both tangible and intangible things. In the corporate world, they usually inspire employees through monetary rewards, promotions, and praises. As a result, their employees feel good about their job and feel that they are valuable members of the company.
The power of motivation and inspiration cannot be underestimated. Here are some tips that can motivate and inspire people: People need motivation when they feel that they are about to lose their jobs because of the company’s instability. Letting them know that their employment is secure saves them from worrying and feeling unsure about the organization. This will bring their focus back and will motivate them to contribute in order for the company to succeed. Motivate people by trusting them. People are generally responsible and inspired when being told about projects instead of step-by-step procedures they have to follow strictly to complete the task. Trust people to do things right and expect more innovation, more initiative, and ownership. Inspire people with success stories. Many leaders use this tool to motivate people in driving for excellence that will take them to the next level of their employment. When people are presented with potential advancement, they are more likely to work on it. On personal issues, people desperately need motivation and inspiration when they are down. These kinds of people loose the ability to see the good side and resort to self-pity. Encouraging words from their loved ones and friends can make a whole difference in their lives. They can also get inspiring words from religious groups that will surely help to get them back on track.
People who would like to do a life-changing task or event also need inspiration and motivation. Example, obese people who are desperately in need of help to loose weight and get their lives on track, need somebody or something to fire up their desire in reducing their dress size. People who are constantly depressed and simply cannot see the bright side of life must be inspired too, in order to attain happiness and confidence. This will teach them how to get rid of negative thoughts and ultimately regain control of their lives. Personal relationships also need motivation and inspiration to last. People stay together because they have motivating factors in continuing their relationships (ex. Love, appreciation, companionship, etc.)
In brief advantages of motivation can be as follows:
i) It keeps the employee cheerful thus imparting delight on group by keeping them merry. ii) Each member of organization feels for the company and tries to gives his sincere effort in achieving new goals. iii) Changes can be easily brought in a firm if employees have complete faith on its firm. This happens only when they are motivated regularly.
iv) Motivation gives job satisfaction. v) Productivity is the outcome of performance. Performance can be improved by motivation. vi) It raises self respect and raises discipline among employees. vii) It helps to improve the interest and attitude of employees which is useful while training employee which require their complete attention and devotion. viii) It helps to avoid strikes and other such activity that hampers company’s production. ix) It helps in making the efficient use of available human resources.
Limitations of motivation
Limitations of Motivation are few in numbers, let us analyze some of them:
i. They are restrictive and don’t consider the broader concerns influencing people in organizations. ii. The models of motivation are narrow. It places the responsibility for actions on individuals rather than the context in which they find themselves. iii. These theories are unable to explain poor quality, low productivity, and high absenteeism. iv. The recession reduces job mobility as workers stay on rather than take risk by changing job. There could be a high correlation between employment stability and dissatisfaction. v. Research has tended to focus on motivation of lower grade workers rather than management. vi. The meaning people attach to work varies considerably and may account for why individuals’ contributions to work vary enormously. vii. The theories and approaches to motivation have a homogeneous view of individuals. However, people’s motivation and attitude to work are influenced by age, sex, income, job type and differences in organizational structures. viii. Managers need to discover how motivation varies in different cultures. The reason for sharing these limitations is to make you aware of the different influences on motivation of individuals.
Examples of motivation
Some of the best examples of motivation are as follows:
Your motivation to do something is the reason why you want to do it. If you have motivation, you do something because you want to do it — and not because you have to do it. The lazy man does not have the motivation to do what must be done. The lazy learner needs a bit of motivation to help him get through the pain of learning. The need to communicate in English can be a good motivation for learning English pronunciation. Her teacher told her that she had made much progress, and this increased her motivation to keep on learning. My interest in medicine was my biggest motivation to study chemistry.
Examples of Intrinsic Motivation
Writing short stories because you really enjoy writing them, reading a nonfiction book because you are curious about the topic, and playing chess because you enjoy effortful thinking are some intrinsic motivation examples.
Examples of Extrinsic Motivation There are many possible extrinsic motivation examples. The writer who only writes poems to be submitted to poetry contests would be one example of extrinsic motivation. The person who dislikes sales but accepts a sales position because he or she desires to earn an above average salary is another example of extrinsic motivation. A third example of extrinsic motivation is selecting a major in college based on salary and prestige, rather than personal interest in the major.