# Lecture Notes V compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.

com

Lecture on Vector Space: Lecture Set V
[ Discussed about minimum and characteristic polynomials, triangular matrix etc. ]

Suppose, the matrix corresponding to an operator is of the following triangular form: ( ) [Note: Precisely, an upper triangular form matrix.] The characteristic polynomial can be written as in the following, a product of factors: | | ( )( ) ( ) [Check this with a matrix.]

Theorem:

For a mapping,

be a linear operation, the linear operator , whose characteristic for which the

polynomial can be written as a product of factors, then there exists a basis in operator can be represented as a triangular matrix.

NOTE: The eigenvalues in this case are the entries appearing in the diagonal.

 | | | | | | | |  ( | | |( ) | | ) | | | as . ( || || || | ) | || | | | |

Since, the determinant of a matrix and its transpose are same.
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Lecture Notes V compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com

BLOCK MATRIX:

Consider a Block matrix, We can show, | | | || |

(

), where

are themselves matrices.

In the same way, for a triangular square matrix, ( )

For characteristic polynomials: ( | | ) | | | || |

Here also, the above can be generalized in the same way as we have done for determinant.
Minimum Polynomial:

For a square matrix , it satisfies the characteristic polynomial, ( )

|

|

. [C-H Theorem]

Now, there can be some other polynomials ( ) for which we may write, ( ) The minimum polynomial ( ) of is the non-zero polynomial of lowest degree with leading coefficient 1 (monic), which divides the characteristic polynomial, ( ). NOTE: The minimum and characteristic polynomials of matrix

have the same irreducible factors.

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Lecture Notes V compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com

EXAMPLE: Consider the following triangular matrix, ( The characteristic polynomial of ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ( )( ) , ( ) is | ( | ) ( ( ), ) ( ( ) ) ( )( ) or ( ) ( ) is the )

The min. polynomial can be one of the following, which is equal to zero and satisfied by : ) itself (which is zero by C-H theorem) ( ) , whereas, ( ) , ( )

[See Lect. Note: IV] , we can say that

Now if we see, min. polynomial.

How to actually find min. polynomial?
Example #1: ( Characteristic polynomial of ( ) | | )

[Example from Lipschutz]

(

)|

|

|

|

The 2nd term in the above is zero. ( ( divide ( ).
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)( ) (

)| )

| ( ) ( ) ) and ( ) and that will

The min. polynomial will have the same irreducible factors (

Lecture Notes V compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com

Thus we verify one of the options, ( )( ), ( ) ( ), ( ) ( )

Now consider the first option, ( ) ( )( ) ( )( )

For the 2nd option, it can be checked that ( ) ( ) ( ( )( ) ( ) =0 ) is the minimum polynomial.

Note: Sometimes, the min. polynomial and the characteristic polynomials can coincide.

Example #2: Consider the following block diagonal matrix.

2 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 2 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 4 1 0 0 0

0 0 2 3 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 3 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 5

Consider, ( ), ( ), ( ), ( )

(

)

Block diagonal. is the least common multiple of the minimum polynomials of ,

The minimum polynomial of , and .

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Lecture Notes V compiled by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, kg.abhi@gmail.com

The min. polynomials of , , ( ) ( ) (

and

are ( ( )

) ,(

)(

),

and (

).

Therefore, the min. polynomial of : ), for which .

NOTE:

A triangular matrix, where all the diagonal elements are same….

For example, ( characteristic polynomial. )

, n-square matrix

The characteristic equation, ( )

(

) , the min. polynomial will be equal to the

Theorem:

Let V be a finite-dimensional complex inner product space and let T be any linear operator on V. Then there is an orthonormal basis for V in which the matrix of T is Upper Triangular.

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