By Henry George Fischer
Curator Emeritus of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art


The Metropolitan Museum of Art




ABBREVIATIONS ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CALLIGRAPHY A BEGINNER’S GUIDE TO WRITING HIEROGLYPHS By Henry George Fischer Curator Emeritus of Egyptian Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art FOURTH EDITION The Metropolitan Museum of Art New York 1999 .


ABBREVIATIONS Contents Preface Abbreviations Introduction The alphabetic (monoconsonantal) signs Other signs Addenda Sources of figures and supplementary references vii ix 3 9 15 53 61 v .


Aa2o). ¬ (Y3). and. and the Addenda may be consulted for the remainder. Only a few changes have been made in this portion of the book. which has been sorely tested by the intricacy of the layout. its price will nonetheless place it within the means of students. that its elegance may belie the fact that this is essentially a random collection of notes. the original edition of 2ooo copies has been exhausted after three years. He has succeeded so well. it may fairly be argued that no degree of elegance can do justice to that of Egyptian hieroglyphs when executed at their best. ö (V37). Preface to the Third Edition Only a single new variant (T25. Fig. S (A48). D (A33). ï (V32). in defense of its stately appearance. F36. At the very last minute an additional simplified hieroglyph has been replaced (G39). . It has been possible to insert a few of these in the main text (O28. . which have again been augmented. as have—to a lesser extent—the terminal references. I6) and minor readjustments. (A25). T25 and V18).ABBREVIATIONS Preface In preparing this publication I have once again been able to count on the editorial assistance of Janet Thorpe and on the typographic skill of Bert Clarke. but by no means enough to justify a reorganization of the main text. U23. T25. Thanks to the unfailing generosity of Lila Acheson Wallace. references have been introduced to the Addenda. (F12). ü (W4). D21. indeed. c) has been added to the main text. A considerable number of worthwhile marginalia have accumulated even in so short a time. a criticism of M. While the simplified hieroglyphic examples have scarcely been modified (only G51. á (not in Gardiner font). Van Hamme-Van Hoorebeke in a review that appeared as this edition was in the hands of the printer (BiOr 39 [1982]). where the pagination has necessarily been revised. in part. Preface to the Second Edition Contrary to expectations. brought together for use in the classroom. most of the additions being relegated to the Addenda and terminal references. several additional variants of ancient models have been provided. following. But the Addenda now contain remarks on several signs that are not listed as such in the main text: ) (A9). Wherever possible. ó (R5). a (O22). in this section of the book. vii .-Chr. [ (G7). which contains no more than a few other additions (G17. ù (D41).

ƒ (Y5) and È (Aa20). 2 (N18). which contain additional comments on (D2). F (N37). Nearly all of the relatively few changes in this edition refer to my Egyptian Studies III. viii . ´ (W14). which unaccountably disappeared from the third edition. has been restored. and to follow the design of the earlier editions so faithfully. Colish. And the detailed Old Kingdom example of < (N28). = (F29). ’ (E31). 4 (N20). and most of these are to be found in the Addenda. It is a tribute to Peter Der Manuelian that he has been able to reconstitute them on the computer. which no longer exists.ABBREVIATIONS Preface to the Fourth Edition The production of the present edition was very nearly precluded by the loss of the photographic “flats” prepared by the Press of A.

IV (London. Die südlichen Räume Brunton and Engelbach. Ll. Dewachter. W. Beni Hasan I–II. M. Borchardt. 1907) L. 1933–1958) R. E. Re-Heiligtum BMMA Borchardt. Borchardt (Berlin–Cairo. Le Temple d’Amada IV (Cairo.. et al. 1974) Calverley. H. Newberry. Grabdenkmal Ne-user-re™ Borchardt. 1977) G. Temple of King Sethos I Caminos. M. von Bissing. Engelbach. The Temple of King Sethos I at Abydos I–IV. Gurob (London. Cairo Bibliotheca Orientalis. Borchardt. Beni Hasan III (London. Buhen ix . Brunner. Caminos. Gurob Cairo CG + number Catalogue général des antiquités égyptiennes du Musée du Caire: Denkmäler des Alten Reiches (nos. Grabdenkmal Åa£¢u-re™ Brunner. Leiden F. assisted by M. 1910–1913) H. Das Grabdenkmal des Konigs Åa£¢u-re™ I–II (Leipzig. 1964) A. Brunton and R. 1893–1900). Griffith. Die südlichen Räume des Tempels von Luxor (Mainz. Chicago. F. Milan Mohamed Aly. A. New York L. 1896) Bulletin de l’Institut français d’Archéologie orientale. Das Re-Heiligtum des Königs Ne-woser-re (Rathures) I–III (Berlin–Leipzig. 1295–1808) I–II by L. Fouad Abdel-Hamid. 1927) BIFAO BiOr Bissing. edited by A. 1967) Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Egypte. Das Grabdenkmal des Königs Ne-user-re™ (Leipzig. 1937. Calverley. Gardiner (London. F. editor. Le Temple d’Amada IV Aegyptus: Rivista Italiana di Egittologia e di Papirologia.ABBREVIATIONS Abbreviations Aegyptus Aly. Broome. The New Kingdom Temples of Buhen I–II (London. 1905–1928) Bulletin of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Cairo ASAE Beni Hasan P.

1935) H. The Monuments of Sneferu at Dahshur II. Firth and B. 1902) Johanna Dittmar. Wenig. Pt. Pt. 1979. E. Monuments of Sneferu at Dahshur II Firth and Gunn. G. G. 1974]) H. I. 1976). 1976. Ancient Egyptian Epigraphy and Palaeography (New York. Quibell. Excavations at Saqqara: Teti Pyramid Cemeteries I–II (Cairo. 1964] ) Firth and Quibell.ABBREVIATIONS Caminos and Fischer. Caminos and H. 1933]) Davies. 1964]) E. 1955. The Mastaba of Queen Mersyankh III (Boston. Pt. 1974) Deir el Gebrâwi Dittmar. III: Varia Nova (New York. Firth and J. Edel and S. Mitteilungen aus der aegyptischen Sammlung 7 [Berlin. I: The Temple Reliefs (Cairo. 1977) D. and of his Wife Senet (London. Simpson. Reversals (New York. Epigraphy and Palaeography Cottevieille-Giraudet. Jahreszeitenreliefs Egyptian Studies Fakhry. 1977). Dunham and W. Mersyankh III Edel. Gunn. Excavations at Saqqara: The Step Pyramid I–II (Cairo. Fischer. Teti Pyramid Cemeteries Ahmed Fakhry. M. 1961) C. Altägyptische Grammatik (Analecta Orientalia 34. Step Pyramid Fischer. Coptite Nome x . K. Die Jahreszeitenreliefs aus dem Sonnenheiligtum des Königs Ne-user-Re (Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. 1926) Cecil M. Hieroglyphen-Schreibfibel (Leinfelden-Oberaichen. 1920) Norman de Garis Davies. G. Inscriptions from the Coptite Nome. The Tomb of Antefo˚er. 1 [Cairo. Antefo˚er Norman de Garis Davies. Egyptian Studies I: Varia (New York. Hieroglyphen-Schreibfibel Dunham and Simpson. 1987) Rémy Cottevieille-Giraudet. Rapport sur les fouilles de Médamoud (1931): Les Monuments du Moyen Empire (Fouilles de l’Institut français d’Archéologie orientale du Caire 9. The Valley Temple. Médamoud (1931): Les Monuments du Moyen Empire R. Altägyptische Grammatik Elmar Edel. Dynasties VI–XI (Analecta Orientalia 40 [Rome. The Rock Tombs of Deir el Gebrâwi I–II (London. Fischer. II: The Orientation of Hieroglyphs. Fischer. 1996) Edel and Wenig. Vizier of Sesostris I. 39 [Rome.

A Collection of Hieroglyphs: A Contribution to the History of Egyptian Writing (London. Fische und Fischkulte im alten Ägypten (Wiesbaden. 1970) A. Hayes. Egyptian Grammar GM Göttinger Miszellen. by T. Mass. 3rd ed. 1968) H. 2nd ed. 1937) F. Pt.” MMJ 13 (1978) pp. N. G. Excavations at Saqqara 1937–1938 I–III (Cairo. James and M. H. Hieroglyphic Texts I2 The British Museum.–Princeton–New York Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. G. Tell Basta (Supplement to ASAE. Cahier No. 1961) T. 1932– 1960) W. 22 [Cairo.ABBREVIATIONS Fischer... Cambridge. Dendera H. The Texts in the Mastabeh of Se’n-Wosret-™ankh at Lisht . 5–32 Fischer. James (London. in The British Museum. Gardiner. 1953) Journal of the American Oriental Society. Apted. Khentika JAOS JARCE JEA xi . (London. Excavations at Saqqara Hassan. Fische und Fischkulte Ingrid Gamer-Wallert. “Notes on Sticks and Staves in Ancient Egypt. H. 1957]) Selim Hassan. R. H. Hieroglyphic Texts from Egyptian Stelae. Göttingen Habachi.Y. G. Tell Basta Labib Habachi. Dendera in the Third Millennium B. Fischer. Ll. Se’n-Wosret-™ankh Hieroglyphs James. “Notes on Sticks and Staves” Gamer-Wallert. Fischer. down to the Theban Domination of Upper Egypt (Locust Valley. Griffith. I. 1898) Hassan. Egyptian Grammar. 1975) Selim Hassan... (New York. 1957) Gardiner. London James and Apted. Excavations at Gîza I–X (Oxford–Cairo. G. etc. Baltimore–New Haven Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. C. The Mastaba of Khentika Called Ikhekhi (London. Gîza Hayes.C.

Khartoum P. Lacau and H. Les Frises d’objets des sarcophages du Moyen Empire (Mémoires publiés par les membres de l’Institut français d’Archéologie orientale 47 [Cairo. Denkschriften [Vienna. Medinet Habu I (Chicago. Frises d’objets G. 1933) Oriental Institute. R.ABBREVIATIONS Jéquier. 1904) Lexikon der Ägyptologie. Blackman and M. 1938) Medinet Habu I Meir Menkheperrasonb Mereruka xii . Epigraphic Survey. 1930) A. Denkmaeler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien. The Mastaba of Mereruka I– II (Chicago. Sakkarah Expedition. Apted. Chevrier. Amenmose™ and Another (London. 1936– 1940) Journal of Near Eastern Studies. E. Gîza en-Amun Kêmi Kush Lacau and Chevrier. 1929–1955]) Norman de Garis Davies. M. M. Westendorf (Wiesbaden. Philosophisch-historische Klasse. Text. A. Lepsius. The Rock Tombs of Meir V–VI (London. edited by W. 1969) C. Jéquier. Jéquier. Wiesbaden and Mainz/Rhein Oriental Institute. by Eduard Naville. ed. Helck. 1975–1992) Jéquier. Gîza I–XII (Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. The Rock Tombs of Meir I–IV (London. Une Chapelle LD Text II Lexikon der Ägyptologie MDAIK Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Abteilung Kairo. Paris Kush: Journal of the Sudan Antiquities Service. Junker. 1930) Kêmi: Revue de philologie et d’archéologie égyptiennes et coptes. Chicago H. 1914– 1924). R. Blackman. II (Leipzig.1921]) G. Le Monument funéraire de Pepi II. The Tombs of Menkhkeperrasonb. Monument funéraire de Pepi II JNES Junker. Vol. W. 1953) Nina and Norman de Garis Davies. The Tomb of en-Amun at Thebes I–II (New York. Otto. Une Chapelle de Sésostris I er à Karnak (plates) (Cairo. I–III (Cairo.

Brunton. The XIth Dynasty Temple at Deir el-Bahari I–III (London. F. Sedment I–II (London. Kahun. M. Abydos I–III (London. Newberry. E. Die Felsengräber von Elephantine (Glückstadt. Naville. Bersheh Northampton. Spiegelberg. F. 1917) W. Petrie and J. 1958) Petrie. 1892) W. P. Newberry and F. Naqada and Ballas (London. Petrie et al. M. Petrie. M. M. F. Gurob and Hawara Petrie. Gizeh and Rifeh (London. M.. Petrie and G. 1941) Metropolitan Museum Journal. Lahun II (London. 1907) W. 1924) W. Griffith. Petrie. Petrie. Medum Petrie. Picture Writing in Ancient Egypt (London. M. M. Report on Some Excavations in the Theban Necropolis during the Winter of 1898–9 (London. M. F. Quibell. Lahun II Picture Writing xiii . Spiegelberg. 1895) Marquis of Northampton. Petrie. E. M. Medum (London. XIth Dynasty Temple at Deir el-Bahari Newberry and Griffith. 1902–1904) W. F. Sedment Petrie and Quibell. Gurob and Hawara (London. H. 1923) Nina M. F. Naqada and Ballas Petrie et al. Felsengräber Hans Wolfgang Müller. Petrie. El Bersheh I–II (London. F. 1895) W. Ll. Newberry. F. 1900) W. E. New York Müller. Dendereh W. Tools and Weapons (London. W. Petrie. Koptos (London. Petrie. 1908) Orientalia Orientalia: Commentarii periodici Pontificii Instituti Biblici. F. 1896) W. Nova Series. Theban Necropolis E. Gizeh and Rifeh Petrie. Dendereh 1898 and Dendereh Extra Plates (London. 1940) Naville. Kahun. F. 1890) W.ABBREVIATIONS Miscellanea Gregoriana MMJ Miscellanea Gregoriana (Rome. Tools and Weapons Petrie and Brunton.. M. Abydos Petrie. Rome Petrie. Davies. 1907–1913) P. Koptos Petrie.

1905). The Tomb of Puyemrê I–II (New York. 2nd ed. Three Old-Kingdom Tombs at Thebes (Mainz am Rhein. 1942) Oriental Institute. 1957). Sethe. 1977) M. K. Khafkhufu I and II (Boston. Murray. Ramose Norman de Garis Davies. 1978) W. 1937) Wolfgang Schenkel. 1 (Chicago. (Leipzig. Saqqara Mastabas II (London. Mass. 1976) Studies in Honor of William Kelly Simpson (Boston. The Tomb of the Vizier Ramose (London. Reliefs and Inscriptions at Karnak I: Ramses III’s Temple within the Great Enclosure of Amon. 1936) Norman de Garis Davies. Frühmittelägyptische Studien Sethe. Simpson. 1962) K. 1922–1923) Pyramid text reference. A. 1963) Norman de Garis Davies. Simpson. Hamburg Mohamed Saleh. Pt. 1943) RdE Reisner. 1996) Schenkel. Khafkhufu I and II Simpson. The Mastabas of Kawab. Reisner. Lesestücke Simpson. M. Sethe’s arrangement in Die altägyptischen Pyramidentexte (Leipzig. Saqqara Mastabas I (London. 1900–1901) Norman de Garis Davies. IV: Scenes from Some Theban Tombs by Nina Davies (Oxford. The Mastaba of Ptahhetep and Akhethetep at Saqqareh I–II (London. Ägyptische Lesestücke. The Tomb of Rekh-mi-Re-™ at Thebes I–II (New York. The Mastabas of Qar and Idu (Boston. 1928) W. Sethe. Murray and K. Paris G. K. Mastabas of Qar and Idu Simpson Studies xiv . Säve-Söderbergh (Oxford. History of the Giza Necropolis I Reliefs and Inscriptions at Karnak I Rekh-mi-Re-™ SAK Saleh. in terms of K.. Frühmittelägyptische Studien (Bonn. Kawab. Three Old-Kingdom Tombs at Thebes Saqqara Mastabas Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur. 1941) Revue d’Egyptologie. A. A.ABBREVIATIONS Private Tombs Private Tombs at Thebes I: Four Eighteenth Dynasty Tombs by T. A History of the Giza Necropolis I (Cambridge. 1908–1922) Ptahhetep Puyemrê Pyr.

1952–1978) Vandier. pt. Ll. Verzeichnis der Hieroglyphen-Typen der Reichsdruckerei in 25 Klassen geordnet (Berlin. Urkunden des ägyptischen Altertums I: Urkunden des Alten Reichs. Manuel d’archéologie WZKM Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes. Manuel d’archéologie égyptienne I–VI (Paris. by K. 1. 1937) Le Tombeau de Ti. 2nd ed. Tylor and F. The Tomb of Two Sculptors at Thebes (New York. 1895) Ti Two Sculptors Tylor and Griffith. Griffith. Vienna ZÄS Zeitschrift fur ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde. Pt. Stevenson Smith. Daumas. Sethe (Leipzig. by K. Dynastie. (London.ABBREVIATIONS Smith. Paheri Urk. by K. 2 and 3 by Henri Wild Norman de Garis Davies. J. 1906–1958). A History of Egyptian Sculpture and Painting in the Old Kingdom. 2nd ed. P. 3 parts (Mémoires publiés par les membres de l’Institut français d’Archéologie orientale 65 [Cairo. G. History of Egyptian Sculpture and Painting in the Old Kingdom Wm.. IV: Urkunden der 18. 1935) Jacques Vandier. F. VII: Historisch-biographische Urkunden des Mittleren Reiches. Wall Drawings and Monuments of El Kab: The Tomb of Paheri (London. Pts. Goyon. 1933). Montet. Sethe (Leipzig. Sethe and W. Helck (Leipzig–Berlin. I by L. 1925) J. Leipzig and Berlin xv . 22 pts. 1939– 1966]).. 1949) Theinhardt font Ferdinand Theinhardt. Epron.


INTRODUCTION Ancient Egyptian Calligraphy 1 .


If one makes such an effort. which primarily seeks to simplify the signs to the point that they can be easily executed. indeed. 3 . This emphasis is rather different from that of Johanna Dittmar’s recent Hieroglyphen-Schreibfibel.1 Artificial as it is. And he will also. N18. with which some others might be included: Ø (D58). pp. approximates the same kind of simplification. which is to encourage a better standard in writing Egyptian hieroglyphs. since the ancient scribe would not ordinarily have written hieroglyphs in ink without simplifying them to a still greater degree. or have given somewhat different interpretations (A48. the facsimiles of hieroglyphs have been drawn to uniform size F 1. wood or metal. To facilitate comparison. U23. 438–548). however. U24–25) or of accuracy (A49. A49. the style adopted here nonetheless seeks to avoid forms that are alien or grossly inaccurate. incised on stone. we shall at least keep the ancient model in mind. (2) those whose form particularly requires explanation. that the standard set here is too high. it nonetheless states my aim. a semi-cursive style of hieroglyphic writing which. if sufficiently conscious of what he is drawing. Similarly. M3. – (M23. 5 below [6]). G27. so as to give a somewhat fuller idea of the range of possibilities (and here it should be emphasized that an earlier form may unexpectedly reappear in inscriptions of a subsequent period). The last two objectives are primarily accomplished by the addition of many Old Kingdom examples. to attempt a shaky fidelity to form rather than be satisfied with a sure-handed circumvention. T4. N37. S34. supplementing the remarks of Sir Alan Gardiner in his Sign List (Egyptian Grammar. to which one may add Õ. however. with the leaves separate and parallel. reducing forms to linear thinness (cf. Some may feel. Aa31). G47). third edition. D56. p. In either case the result is something of a compromise. D46. F35. Mention is made of this style in reference to some of the alphabetic signs: G43. D45. for I too have proposed a degree of simplification that may not always correspond to what the ancient Egyptians would have done. It seems preferable. E31. among the other signs. he will be rewarded by an increased appreciation of Egyptian draftsmanship and will acquire a sensitivity to palaeographic variations that may be of value in establishing date and provenance. At a few points I have also indicated errors of orientation (P2. in view of the fact that Egyptian art and writing are extraordinarily interrelated and complementary. In some other cases the prescribed simplification of Gardiner’s hieroglyphs calls for the emphasis of a detail such as the long tail of the cormorant (G35) or the long nose of the oxyrhynchus fish (K4). There is. rather than blinding ourselves to it. A1 and W17. There are also some observations concerning the date when certain forms were introduced. By doing so. (3) those that require additional comment.INTRODUCTION Introduction I my use of the term “calligraphy” may seem pretentious. T13. S23. G51. P5. My selection of signs emphasizes (1) those that most require practice. M36). and a few of later date. ¢ (I10). That is inevitable. O34. ° (I9). acquire a considerable knowledge of iconography.

for this reason. in funerary texts located near the body. then the Sign List reference. such as á (P7. New 4 . and this consideration is in turn affected by the way the signs are grouped. so that they correspond to the orientation of the Gardiner font: the “shadow line” has also been eliminated from those copies in which it appears. p. Thus the relative size of the sign may be affected by the space available. preceding a bird. and the reversals are marked with an asterisk (*). The references to these examples are given at the end. also the comments on O (O4). alter the proportions of a sign: e. And for ± see Addenda. of human figures or certain animals. p. 35–36. Addenda).g. but it should be added that this rearrangement derives from the composition of columnar inscriptions. §56). pp. and finally the phonetic value that is most frequently associated with the sign in question. p. (3) A certain degree of meaningless stylization was operative in some cases. where a tall thin sign in this position. (4) Throughout the history of Egyptian hieroglyphs there was a progressive increase in the use of composite forms. was initially responsible for the substitution of ± (D60) for older & (A6). in some cases. for aesthetic reasons. See also the comments on { (G36) and [ (B1. 99). and which. 33 and note 21. The other signs follow the normal sequence of letter and number. The same factors may even. The increasing use of horizontal lines also affected the proportions of signs in other ways.INTRODUCTION and reversed. The same arrangement was sometimes carried over into horizontal inscriptions. of groups such as Uê > êU in £¢t “field” is described by Gardiner (Egyptian Grammar. was often shortened. Occasionally the relatively larger scale of a hieroglyph may serve to emphasize its importance as pointed out in Caminos and Fischer. wherever necessary. so also. but the initial sign was then less apt to be shortened. the student should be aware of certain general considerations that affected their form or proportions: (1) The transposition. 104–107. it is doubtless responsible for the more elongated net-sign < (T24) which tended to replace the narrower Old Kingdom form . pp. as compared with L (O1: Ti. For details of the last two cases see Caminos and Fischer. such as ≤ (D61) and the replacement of 8 (T20) by later 7 (T19). 47 and note 69. where there was no need for it. Epigraphy and Palaeography. Middle Kingdom and later) or j (G20. 54 below. For the latter see Egyptian Studies I. Before examining the changes and variations in the hieroglyphs. has been given special attention. Each item is identified by the Gardiner type (which is much less clearly printed in the third edition of the Egyptian Grammar than in the original letterpress edition). and of † (R14) for ü (R13). In some cases the nature of an implement has been illustrated from scenes of daily life—again nearly always dating to the Old Kingdom—and the references to these are combined with those given for the hieroglyphs. and cf. the use of Æ (S3) for ∞ (L2). My presentation of the signs begins with the monoconsonantal series—the so-called alphabet—which must be mastered at the outset. Epigraphy and Palaeography. pl. as Gardiner points out. (2) The avoidance. a descriptive phrase.

49.). §38). tools and weapons) and of fashion (e. the remainder in black and white. Epigraphy and Palaeography. the same explanation is doubtless to be applied to Gardiner’s ≥ (D62). for 9 (T21).g. 5– 19. pp.2 The following compilations of detailed facsimiles are available.E. clothing and furniture). also. Ã (M12. and not only hieratic (for which cf. see the remarks on m (O34). 34. 2. pl. Epigraphy and Palaeography. but also the semi-cursive style of incised hieroglyphs described in Caminos and Fischer. 14. by the iconographic context of an inscription. the hieroglyphic style normally reduces a series of projections to a continuous and unbroken contour. 439). some signs occasionally retained their normal rightward orientation (Egyptian Studies II. 18. 2. as in the case of C (F35). as exemplified in Mohamed Saleh. replacing ≤ (D61). For other examples. see Caminos and Fischer. pp. Walter B. But it sometimes had a more lasting effect. which. This evolution is described in MMJ 12 (1977) pp. In a very few cases the retention of rightward orientation might affect only part of the sign. Gardiner. 40–42. pl. Grabdenkmal Ne-userre™. pl. in some cases. p. 1939) pp. some in color (col. M22). This list does not include hieroglyphs of the Eighth Dynasty and the Heracleopolitan Period (Dyns. 186 (and Fig. 15. 7) and in Caminos and Fischer. Excavations at Saqqara 1937–1938: Ìor-A¢a (Cairo. in the late New Kingdom. Rekh-mi-Re-™. JARCE 2 [1963] p. sometimes shows the head bent low as in the contemporaneous å (G52). IX–X) which sometimes provide evidence of provenance as well as date. both points are illustrated in Egyptian Studies III. This explains the occasional use of forms such as for ∆ (M17) or (Borchardt. see Egyptian Studies III. 102) for < (N28). Epigraphy and Palaeography. This phenomenon explains the incorrect orientation of Gardiner’s Ö (P5) as well as √ (Y4). which he correctly explains as a nonreversal of what should be ¬ (Y3). Some New Kingdom examples of u (O42) also show partial reversal. and cf. Three Old-Kingdom Tombs at Thebes. Egyptian Grammar. (7) Graphic assimilation tended to be operative only in specific cases (e. or s (G28). but see Addenda). pls. 30–31. e. with the signs facing leftward. 5 . (8) The forms of signs are affected by changes of technology (e. pp. 27 [20]). and the supplementary references for – (M26). the remarks on A47 below). pp.INTRODUCTION Kingdom onward. 194–201. the nome emblem of U. 37 and n.g. 37. 225. 83–112. (6) Cursive writing sporadically influenced the forms of hieroglyphs. Egyptian Hieroglyphs of the First and Second Dynasties (London. Petrie.g. Those who wish to make further palaeographic comparisons may find it useful to have a checklist of sources. ARCHAIC PERIOD Hilda U. (5) In reversed inscriptions. Emery. pp. for this too occurs in an inscription facing left (Rekh-mi-Re™. which was partly assimilated to D (F36).g. also Addenda: ¡. Semi-reversed is common in the Old Kingdom and down to Dynasty XI. 1927). 1 (T13) and @ (T28).

Saqqara Mastabas II (London. Murray. pls. (Meir) A. In addition to such compilations one may. The Decoration of the Tomb of Per-neb (New York. (Theban tombs) Nina M. Medum (London. Collection of Hieroglyphs (London. but these are sometimes lacking in respect to 3. Note that A47 should be labeled A49. 37–40.). 1937) pls. and especially the second and third fascicles. 41–91 and pls. 96–97.).). Saqqara Mastabas I (London. 1905) pls. 6–7. 4–17. M. of course. 71–73 and pls. B (col. A History of Egyptian Sculpture and Painting in the Old Kingdom (Oxford. Beni Hasan III (London. 65. Griffith.. 1–22. Rapport sur les fouilles de Médamoud (1931): Les Monuments du Moyen Empire (Fouilles de l’Institut français d’Archéologie orientale du Caire 9/1 [Cairo. Ll. for which one should now consult the newer publication in Mémoires de l’Institut français d’Archéologie orientale du Caire (Cairo) Vol. 1940) pls. 5–6 (col. Rock Tombs of Meir II (London. Collection of Hieroglyphs. 1900) pls. (Deir el Bahri) Dieter Arnold. Planches (Cairo.). 1–2 (col. Ll. 6–10.).3 W. 1940) fig. Ll. and that the example of D40 is Late Period. Une Chapelle de Sésostris I er à Karnak. 1933]) pp. MIDDLE KINGDOM (Armant) Robert Mond and Oliver H.). 5. Davies. 1898) pls. 1932) pls. Die Felsengräber der Fürsten von Elephantine (Glückstadt. Davies. Murray. See also the extensive tabulation of colors of Old Kingdom hieroglyphs.4 Caroline Ransom Williams. pp. 27–43. 366–382. find much more material in the various publications of hieroglyphic inscriptions.5 (Karnak) Pierre Lacau and Henri Chevrier.). 18 (col. 1958) (col.). Margaret A. 1892) frontispiece (col. 17–18. de G. (Assiut) P. Der Tempel des Königs Mentuhotep von Deir el-Bahari II: Die Wandreliefs des Sanktuares (Mainz. (Medamud) Rémy Cottevieille-Giraudet. 43. Margaret A. M. 6 . (Bersha) F. 1946) terminal pls. 1969) épigraphie et détails. Myers. 1915) pls.). admirably executed by Henri Wild. Blackman. A. (Beni Hasan) F. 46–52. (El Kab) Ibid. 1974) pp. (Aswan) Hans Wolfgang Müller. 1896) (col.INTRODUCTION OLD KINGDOM N. M. 1–4 (col. Petrie. 7–9 (col. Griffith. Montet in Kêmi (Paris) 3 (1930) pp. Picture Writing in Ancient Egypt (London. From the mastaba of Ti. Mastaba of Ptahhetep and Akhethetep at Saqqara I: The Chapel of Ptahhetep and the Hieroglyphs (London. pls. Wm. Griffith. 4. NEW KINGDOM (Deir el Bahri) F. Stevenson Smith. pls. but this project was forestalled by his death. Wild planned to publish an additional fascicle devoted to palaeography. F. Temples of Armant I–II (London.

Texts in the Mas tabeh of Se’n-Wosret-™ankh.7 For the Old Kingdom there are Henri Wild’s drawings of the mastaba of Ti (cf. The proper way to honor a tradition is to improve upon it.INTRODUCTION fidelity or detail. Hayes. A50). 6. 1963). 2– 14. In championing a better standard of Egyptian calligraphy. F. rather than the expected Old Kingdom form ¡ (Y2).6 For the Archaic Period a good source is Peter Kaplony’s Die Inschriften der ägyptischen Frühzeit III (Wiesbaden. and it is my hope that future teachers and students of ancient Egyptian will be inspired to make a conscious effort in that direction. Problems of this kind (and others) are also encountered in the damaged texts recorded by Alexander Badawy. This criticism is sometimes applicable. to the drawings in Junker’s Gîza. M. for ¿ and V (Y1. and to stimulate the student’s interest in that superb analysis and exposition of the subject. 8. I am again simply reaffirming a tradition set by Gardiner and his colleagues—notably Battiscombe Gunn and Norman de Garis Davies. Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty (London.. one may rely on the numerous epigraphic works of Norman de Garis Davies. 6. C. it should be emphasized that this introductory guide is designed to supplement Gardiner’s Sign List. for the Middle Kingdom abundant material may be found in Wm. note 3 above). Petrie. even to the extent of including everything on such publications as W. Although the compilation by no means constitutes a complete corpus. The Tomb of Nyhetep-Ptah at Giza and the Tomb of ™Anthm™ahor at Saqqara (Berkeley. A51) read ¡ and U (Y2. in Meir V. for example. 1978) figs. pls. and for the New Kingdom . 7 . In conclusion. 1900–1901). 7. One cannot help wondering about the validity of ¿ (Y1).

42). the joints in the stem were rarely indicated in the Old Kingdom (Figure b).g. Even in the New Kingdom all the fingers are clearly distinguished in the most detailed examples (e. ∆ M17 FLOWERING REED. 13). Old Kingdom examples (and those of later date) often represent the flowering portion as a series of striations. The facsimile shows this detail in an Old Kingdom example. accompanied by the same detail as seen from a living specimen (Figure b).g. but this is also true of signs such as a õ (D39). continuing with the rearward leg. If this much is correctly executed. but appeared more frequently thereafter. The outline is most easily controlled if one begins with the head. then draws the front of the bird. it is relatively easy to add the rest. 9 . Note the sharp angle at the back of the head. en-Amun. which is explained by the fact that the feathers in that region tend to stand out. as in Gardiner’s version. The upper part widens slightly at the bottom. Later the palm tended to be slightly cupped. ¡. particularly if fanned by a breeze. ò D36 ARM. And the most detailed New Kingdom examples often show the hand as in the Old Kingdom (e. ™. Ramose. pl. The Old Kingdom form shows the full breadth of the palm. £. pl.SIGNS ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY The alphabetic (monoconsonantal) signs U G1 EGYPTIAN VULTURE.

The shape is easier to control if the angularity of the body is emphasized. If drawn quickly. p. The rise of the body is slight. pp. The owl is distinguished from all the other birds in that its head is turned to one side. Ø D58 FOOT. 109 ff. this sign was often very short in Dynasty 1 ( Kingdom was often shorter than the full height of the line. this one is the easiest to draw. ). Of all the bird-hieroglyphs. The height is normally greater than the width. w. g G17 OWL. The procedure is the same as has been suggested for the Egyptian vulture (G1). f. ° I9 HORNED VIPER. The indication of the wing is optional. and the tail remains flat on the ground.SIGNS ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY É G43 QUAIL CHICK. down to the end of the New Kingdom. Gardiner cites Keimer and Newberry for 10 . As Gardiner notes. and even in the Middle é Q3 STOOL OF REED MATTING. and from this period. the head tends to be summarized. b. The most difficult of the bird-hieroglyphs. m. it was sometimes stylized as : Egyptian Studies I. so too the summarization of the eyes and beak. and is viewed full-face. and it is therefore a good choice for the beginner to practice. and this summarization actually occurs in semi-cursive writing: . The indication of the wing is optional. Old Kingdom examples often show the detail of matting. Another distinctive feature is the fact that the hind toe (which is reversible) does not appear.

Buhen II.. pl. 35. When carefully executed. 11 . BMMA.SIGNS ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY discussions. 23. 86). 18. The use of the twisted flax is well illustrated by an Old Kingdom lamp. The procedure shown here is ultimately easier than drawing a series of loops. The number of angular ripples is variable. 72–74. compare the (ibid. pl. but the two ends always slant downward. one above another. n. etc. 47. ê V28 WICK. JEA 37 (1951) pp. March 1918. h. Davies. In the Old Kingdom this sign is often taller than it is wide.). pl. r. 70). as in the Old Kingdom example illustrated here. this sign often shows a pronounced narrowing at the corners. 18). although it may also resemble the square Gardiner version. O O4 COURTYARD. á D21 MOUTH. Newberry. I (1951) pp. The uppermost loop is often larger than the others. ¢. group (Caminos. C N35 WATER. (II. I. but does not supply the references: Keimer. II. pls. and the top is more curved than the bottom (cf. depending on the amount of space available. Annals of the Faculty of Arts. These terminal strokes may be a little longer than the others. This is one of the signs that is most apt to change its proportions. Sect. 73–83. Cairo. Ibrahim Pasha University. p. and it is closer to ancient examples.

p. The second form (as in the Theinhardt font) occurred only rarely before the Libyan Period: Caminos and Fischer. fl. the door is locked. as is usual in examples down to the end of the New Kingdom. although the ancient Egyptians summarized the protuberances by using a pair of rounded dots rather than two short strokes. The third form. note 78. m O34 BOLT. 12 . is typical of the Archaic Period but recurred occasionally in the Old Kingdom (Fischer. Epigraphy and Palaeography. beneath the third fastening. p.SIGNS ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY ◊ Aa1 PLACENTA (?). The striations should be horizontal. with crosshatched detail. MDAIK 27 (1971) pp. The operation of the bolt is shown in Figure c: the protuberances at the center limit the degree to which it can slide back and forth between the two fastenings at the right. viewed from the underside. Aegyptus 39 (1959) pp. Old Kingdom names sometimes show m in place of ® (R22–23). 49. Coptite Nome. Most Egyptologists use the form shown here. The belly and tail of a mammal. Some Old Kingdom examples (Figure b) seem to show a string placed between the protuberances. see Graefe. 20). The interpretation of the sign is disputed by Curto. but it is doubtful that the bolt was ever secured in this fashion. 226–261. when the bolt is pushed leftward. ∞. 148 ff. z. referring to the god Min (Orientalia 60 [1991] 296–297). @ F32 BELLY.

F N37 POOL.e. but a more controlled result may be obtained by drawing the longer part downward. See also Addenda. 13 . ß. s. For the interpretation of this sign cf. ì V31 BASKET. i. The detailed Old Kingdom example (Gardiner’s N39) shows vertical ripples of water. The checkered detail was added much more rarely in that period. but it is known from hieratic of the Old Kingdom and later. = N29 HILL. but not infrequently thereafter. Old Kingdom examples often reduce the basketry pattern to a series of horizontal lines. k. MMJ 1o (1975) pp. then adding the remainder. beginning at the bottom. The second form (as in the Theinhardt font) was rarely used in hieroglyphic inscriptions until the Late Period.SIGNS ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY Ã S29 PIECE OF CLOTH. that Old Kingdom examples are sometimes more triangular. The handle is drawn in terminating the lower contour. one must visualize it as a single crest and slope in the hieroglyph for: mountain (N26) mountain range (N25) It must be conceded. however. To draw this sign properly. less rounded at the top. This may be drawn with a single line. ˚. and occurred occasionally in semi-cursive hieroglyphs of that date. 14–16.

SIGNS ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY ® W11 RINGSTAND. 89 [9]) shows the bottom curved. and something like this was used by the ancient Egyptians in semi-cursive hieroglyphic texts. Draw the loops first. ∑ X1 LOAF. as though viewed from above. Almost a hemisphere. The back thickens towards the point where the tail curves downward. d. This effect may also be obtained simply by raising the line of the back at the same point. t. This implement was used for “seating” round-bottomed pots. ∂. g. The Old Kingdom form generally shows the bottom edge straight as well as the top one: ® (W12). Å V13 TETHERING ROPE. The later form (very rarely evidenced in the Sixth Dynasty: Fischer. p. ¢ I10 COBRA. †. ¢ D46 HAND. as shown in the accompanying figure. The first alternative is usually preferred by Egyptologists. Dendera. 14 .

The hands (if indicated) are fisted. 88–93. the rearward arm is pendant. and the rearward arm must meet or overlap the body. 15 . such as . wrd. pp.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY Other signs (arranged by category) ! A1 SEATED MAN. FATIGUED MAN. As in the following signs. Unlike A1. " A2 MAN WITH HAND TO MOUTH. # ' . For the various readings see Egyptian Studies I. These two signs are not always clearly distinguished in inscriptions of the Heracleopolitan Period. A12 SOLDIER. 153–154). Both arms must be flexed. even the most simplified forms. A3 A7 MAN SITTING ON HEEL. The rearward arm is slightly flexed. do not turn the head into a circle. Variants of the Heracleopolitan Period show the figure drawing the bow ( JNES 21 [1962] pp. wr. ¢ms¡. 5 A19 OLD MAN. ™£. mß™. smsw. and A2 was therefore sometimes replaced by to make the distinction clearer (RdE 28 [1976] pp. 50–52).

also in a writing of the feast ÜRû. Make the back of the wig vertical. note 55. the latter being nothing more than a variant of the same sign. 12. 48–49). p. 120–122). K A40 SEATED GOD. mn¡w. “Notes on Sticks and Staves. The beard is slightly curved at the tip. From Dyn. 13. in Simpson is ∞nmt (Junker. See also Addenda (A48). while Studies 1. pp. In the Old Kingdom example shown here the herdsman carries a staff and goad (for which see Vandier.” p. 55.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY 7 A21 COURTIER. The distinction between this and S (A48) is nonexistent. 273–274). 9 and fig. sr. 16 . Beni Hasan I. note 70). The stick is normally straight in examples prior to the Middle Kingdom. 133) the sign was used for ¡ry (ZÄS 1o5 [1978] p. The rearward arm is straight. R A47 HERDSMAN. pp. 24. “Notes on Sticks and Staves. z£w. Gîza XII. From the Heracleopolitan Period onward (Fischer. : A24 MAN STRIKING. pl. see ZÄS 100 (1973) p. 12 and note 36). XII onward the figure sometimes held — (S34) as in the case of c (C2). Manuel d’archéologie VI. ¢w¡. Dendera.” figs. in Middle Kingdom examples it is usually curved (Fischer. The supposed Old Kingdom prototypes of A48 are actually to be read differently: is to be read ¢tst (Fischer. Old and Middle Kingdom examples occasionally show assimilation of the stick and goad to the feather (î) that is held by the foreigner in A49: Fischer. 26. 4b). Old Kingdom writings of ¢w¡ sometimes show the stick beating the sign ê(V28: MMJ 12 [1977] p. See also Addenda (A25). pp.

ßps(s). IV. X A53 MUMMY. Z A55 MUMMY ON BIER. XII. The front legs of the chair are covered by (or fused with) the legs of the man. Not used until the Middle Kingdom. this is not the normal ideograph for ßps(s). so also Brunner. 162. applied to kings at the beginning of Dyn. 614) this is actually a throwstick (2 T14). 18–19. 759 (1). Die südlichen Räume. p. U A50 MAN ON CHAIR. “Notes on Sticks and Staves. col. Contrary to Gardiner. V A51 SEATED MAN WITH FLAGELLUM. 516).” note 41.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY T A49 FOREIGNER HOLDING STICK. p. 40–41. a man sleeping. and Fischer. and probably Urk. The Old Kingdom form probably shows. in most cases. Gardiner’s version shows a curved stick. Sesostris III) occurs in Meir VI. An early example of A51 for ßps (temp. it is a secondary substitution for U (A50). 17 . then to nonroyal individuals at the end of the same dynasty (Lexikon der Ägyptologie II. pls. but in the clearer of his two examples (Urk. used thus. but it is often similar to Gardiner’s version. MDAIK 16 (1958) pp. The more traditional form of the older periods shows a feather: Clère. pl. It was initially used as a name-determinative. IV.

and does not stare. As a rule the pupil is partly covered by the upper lid. it is traditionally colored yellow: Smith. 3. etc. The back of the wig should be vertical (as in the case of A40). { D10 EYE OF HORUS. w∂£t. Although the face is that of a man. p. s D2 FACE. with a squared-off beard. History of Egyptian Sculpture and Painting in the Old Kingdom. 135–137 and fig. make the curve steeper at the front. The one shown here (longer than in Gardiner’s example) is more common in the Old Kingdom. the spiral is a stylization of the pattern of feathers behind this patch. The style of the wig varies ( JAOS 76 [1956] p. The vertical element represents the dark patch that appears beneath the eye of the falcon. Used in the Old Kingdom as determinative of b£k. 103). The lower edge is almost horizontal. [ B1 SEATED WOMAN. ¢r.: for examples see MDAIK 16 (1958) pp. u D4 EYE. 375. In drawing the upper edge. forming a slight curve. r D1 HEAD. 18 . tp.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY A56 SEATED MAN WITH STICK. See also Addenda. ¡r(t).

° D45 ARM HOLDING MKS -STAFF. ´ D54 LEGS WALKING. î D33 ARMS PADDLING. A somewhat longer pair of legs sometimes replaces ∂ (W25) in Old Kingdom inscriptions (BiOr 33 [1976] p. in which ¥ is replaced by á. §§41–42. In such cases the lettuce is colored green.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY Ü D20 NOSE. the example illustrated here (Figure b) dates to the reign of Tuthmosis IV. and for the kilt see also the Addenda. See also Addenda. The legs occasionally show a kilt in inscriptions of the Old Kingdom and later (JARCE 4 [1965] p. note 5). less so in the New Kingdom: MMJ 12 (1977) p. pp. fnd. 19 .” §9). The New Kingdom form was at least occasionally interpreted as a head of lettuce. note 51. 50 [a]). The alternative form (Figure b). ∂sr. “Notes on Sticks and Staves. The upper element has been explained as a fire-fan (™-flnw): Junker. used in all periods. show the shorter n¢bt. 10. as he says. Gîza IX. but the Gardiner form may. which is otherwise similar (Fischer. fln(¡). A more summary form of Ö (D19). Old Kingdom examples show a pair of arms holding the mks-staff. For uses of the reversed legs (D55) see Egyptian Studies II. 44–47. 23. is fairly common in the Old and Middle Kingdoms.

The relative shortness of this sign in the Gardiner font is difficult to justify.. 8 (14). 5(5). 17. pls. 67. For the anomalous form ≥. where the height of the signs is variable. 18. 11. pl. A more valid example. JEA 47 (1961) pl. rd. Figure b is early Dyn. for tall examples see Bissing. pl. Mastabas of Qar and Idu. KID. V (Sahure). en-Amun. Bersheh I. 17. Re-Heiligtum II. in a horizontal line. . (D62) see above. but elsewhere. Two Sculptors. free of the hindquarters. 12 (1). pls. 23. p. ∫ º 20 E6 E8 HORSE. µ E1 BULL. is to be seen ibid. It may be based on examples such as Rekh-mi-Re ™. 15. See Addenda below. The rump of the animal projects so that the tail falls straight downward. 15. in the same period. k£. pl. pls. ¡b. s£¢. Une Chapelle. Puyemrê II. Beni Hasan I. pl. 15. but these. fig. 29. and a few other such cases. 16 (12). Figure a is the somewhat more naturalistic example cited by Gardiner (early Dynasty IV). pls. 4. pl. Lacau and Chevrier. occur in columnar inscriptions. pl. 1). It is true that the leg is often relatively short in Old Kingdom inscriptions.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ≠ D56 LEG. 5. but these inscriptions again show a good deal of variation in the height of other signs. For tall examples of the Middle Kingdom see Newberry and Griffith. the sign is taller: Nina Davies. 60. ≤ D61 TOES. pl. 19. 15 (21). Mereruka. 66 (frag. ssmt. Private Tombs I. 16. Simpson.

Dendera. figs. rw. In beginning the lion. Õ E23 LION. ⁄npw. [F21] meaning “rear”) and finally the underside. p.” then continue to the back (6. as in Archaic representations of the lion. 84 (14). and more regularly after the Old Kingdom: Fischer. ¡w. start with $ (F4). which means “front. Note. Khafkhufu I and II. ≈ E16 ANUBIS ON SHRINE. cf. 31. Kawab. ∆ E17 JACKAL.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY æ E9 NEWBORN BUBALIS. z£b. however. that in Õ the tail curves around the haunch. 60 and note 3. Old Kingdom examples already show the end of the tail as the feathered end of an arrow. The nascent horns are usually omitted in Old Kingdom examples. but are shown in Simpson. Stfl. 21 . WZKM 57 (1961) p. Ã E21 RECUMBENT SETH-ANIMAL. 32. The shrine began to appear beneath Anubis in funerary formulae of the Sixth Dynasty (Pepy I onwards). while in 6 it curls up over the back. The Old Kingdom form commonly shows a very long tail (descending below the baseline).

The goat without a seal is also used. pl. 9 (so interpreted by Newberry. As Gardiner notes (in connection with ¿ S20). Une Chapelle.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ’ E31 GOAT WITH CYLINDER SEAL. As Gardiner notes. for the earlier Old Kingdom examples show nascent horns or none. pl. Beni Hasan I. line 5. pl. 4 and 8 (cf. 6.g. 6. this identifies the problematic determinative in Prisse I. XI ex. Miscellanea Gregoriana. The horns of the adult goat were added in the Sixth Dynasty (e. JEA 4 (1917) pl. 30 [b]). p.: Gardiner. the later £t-sign was in use as early as 22 . HEAD OF HIPPOPOTAMUS. 85 (2). also a late Dyn. 27). The animal was originally a kid. 8. ÷ ÿ ! # E32 BABOON. Dendera. 14 and note c). épigraphie pl. but the kid (as well as the goat) reappears in the shrine of Sesostris I at Karnak: Lacau and Chevrier. more appropriately. The small ear and rounded nose are equally characteristic. The eye projects. the seal was occasionally omitted from the goat: Clère. this sign is sometimes replaced by the seal alone. wn. pl. also Davies. Gardiner. F1 F3 HEAD OF BULL. ¡™n. 33 (center [4]). and in inscriptions of the same period at Saqqara: Firth and Gunn. 83. 459 and note 27. as an ideographic writing of £f™ “greed” in Beni Hasan I. to allow the animal to see above the water when almost totally submerged. See also Addenda. pls. Fischer. Teti Pyramid Cemeteries. this sign for £t replaces an earlier one resembling ) (F9). Antefo˚er. and notably in funerary texts. £t. E34 HARE. Conversely. JEA 32 [1946] pl. p. s™¢.

5 [310]). In the earlier periods. 8. 254–255. 5 7 F21 EAR (OF BULL?). See also Addenda.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY the beginning of Dyn. §43). ' F7 RAM’S HEAD. this form is preferred for ∞pß meaning “strength. % F5 HEAD OF BUBALIS. pl. pl. 23 . . RdE 25 (1973) pp. XII (Davies. F12 NECK (OF CANINE). The long muzzle and lyriform horns are characteristic.” while 8 (F24) is used to refer to the foreleg as an offering (Egyptian Studies II. ßs£(w). Further evidence for the reading is given by Roccati. 9 F25 HOOF (OF BULL). Hayes. Se’n-Wosret-™ankh. ∞pß. F23 FORELEG OF BULL. w¢m(t). Antefo˚er. down to the mid-Eighteenth Dynasty. The ends of the horns are turned upward. wsr(t). s∂m. The long neck should begin at a point midway between the ears. ßft.

SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY : F26 SKIN OF GOAT. . 2). XI: MDAIK 31 [1975] pls. = F29 BULL’S HIDE PIERCED BY ARROW. 18. pl. So also the Middle Kingdom example in Hieroglyphs. < F27. In the Old Kingdom the arrow does not reappear beyond the hide. See also Addenda. 21–23. p. as Gardiner says. the body is angular. ßd(w). but the later form is attested as early as Dyn. Minor Cemetery at Giza [Philadelphia. to fig. 1924] pl. > F30 WATER SKIN. the short tail erect. 24 . pl. and the tail is drawn more convincingly. and in the same context it is once replaced by (Urk. 46). The first was often used in Old Kingdom writings of the title g. 51 [2]). As Griffith notes (Beni Hasan III. I. 267). this shows “the skin of the legs forming straps and the skin of the neck hanging down. Meir I.” But in the earlier example (a). 231). the water-skin is evidently tied with cords. fln(t). The second sign. st¡. this may represent the hide of some other animal. was regularly used for s£b “dappled” (an exception in Clarence Fisher. F 28 COW’S SKIN. One Middle Kingdom example shows a shield impaled by two arrows ( . p.d∑ ¡wn knmt ( JNES 18 [1959] p.. Represents a headless goat. 9 (167).

sometimes slightly separated and sometimes together.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY B F34 HEART. that the Old Kingdom scribe regarded the lower element as the heart and not the stomach (contra Vycichl. Examples of the Archaic Period and Old Kingdom often show a double pair of projections at the top. but was frequently indicated thereafter (Hieroglyphs. 9 [164]). ¡m£∞. zm£. ¡b. p. the “mouth of the heart”). 5 (5). in contrast to F35. It is clear. See also Addenda below. The second form (c) was often (but not always) used as determinative of ¢£ty in the Old Kingdom. nfr. pls. For semi-reversed forms see above. JEA 39 [1953] pp. [49]. The normal form (a) may be compared to a sectioned sheep’s heart (b). D F36 LUNGS AND WINDPIPE. Probably this detail is a secondary reinterpretation (by assimilation to D F36) of what may originally have been the esophagus (the stomach being r-¡b. C F35 HEART AND WINDPIPE. 112–113). In this case both the shape and the striation of the trachea are apparent from the beginning. 25 . G F39 BACKBONE AND SPINAL CORD. The striation of the tracheal cartilage (as in F36) fails to appear even in the most detailed Old Kingdom examples. in any case.

p. 79 (1). and the contour of the back are distinctive. §32. n¢. The very hooked beak. note also nY for hm. Coptite Nome. p. Fischer. nr(t). 254). (Theinhardt font G5) was used in the Late Period. Sethe. There is a good deal of variation. p. 94 and n. note 820). Dendera. m(w)t. 141. d G14 VULTURE.¡ in a Dyn. tyw. This sign sometimes replaces [ (G7) as the divine determinative in the Old Kingdom and later (Fischer. Principally distinguished from G1 and G4 by the presence of crests and a wattle.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY H X F40 BACKBONE AND SPINAL CORD. XII inscription. 211. The two ends hang almost symmetrically downward. and the wing more completely envelopes the body. £w(¡). In the Old Kingdom the phonetic value was sometimes biconsonantal tw: Edel. Lesestücke. The head is round. although it was occasionally shortened: Egyptian Studies I. p. Ìrw. thus: 26 . rately single. 82. The form . BiOr 38 [1981]. and the tail is often shorter. the back begins higher than in the case of G1 and G4. and again in personal names of the Late Period (de Meulenaere. k G21 SENNAR GUINEA FOWL. Y G5 FALCON. sometimes the wattle becomes ê. The only significant difference between this bird and G1 is the rounded back of the head. Normally the tail should come down to the baseline. p. G4 LONG-LEGGED BUZZARD. In earlier examples (Old Kingdom) the crest is more accu. Altägyptische Grammatik. the dip in the neck.





l m n


p r

See Addenda below.

G27 FLAMINGO, ∂sr.
Earlier examples generally emphasize the large round head and curved beak, and the same is true of those dating to the Eighteenth Dynasty (Hieroglyphs, pl. 6 [79]; Picture Writing, pl. 4 [4]). The sign in Gardiner’s font does not show these details satisfactorily, and the beak is too long.

s G28

BLACK IBIS, gm(t).

As Keimer remarks (ASAE 30 [1930] p. 23), the Gardiner form is replaced, in the New Kingdom, by one that shows the head bent down, as though “finding” ( , equivalent to Theinhardt font G46); but this development does not seem to have begun much before the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty (my example is from Calverley, Temple of King Sethos I, II, pl. 1o). A further development of the new form, in the reign of Ramesses III, shows a fish in the bill of the ibis, like the Old Kingdom form of G51 (Medinet Habu I, pls. 27 [15, 37], 28 [44], 46 [15, 21]; Reliefs and Inscriptions at






Karnak I, pl. 42 [E-9]). This replacement seems only to have been sporadic, and did not eliminate the older form. See also Addenda.

u G30

The heads may be lined up by drawing the beaks with a single stroke of the pen. The legs may likewise be simplified by drawing them continuously: . Old Kingdom examples of the jabiru show the wattle just beneath the head (so also in the Middle Kingdom: Beni Hasan III, pl. 2 [3]).

v w x z

G31 HERON, bnw. G32 HERON ON PERCH, b™¢¡. G33 EGRET(?), sd£. G35 CORMORANT, ™˚.

This fishing bird has a long serpentine neck and a very long tail for swimming under water. Note also that the head slopes upward.


G36 SWALLOW, wr.
The wing may be drawn initially, along with the head, so as to guide all the rest. Since scale is frequently ignored, only the wide tail distinguishes this bird from the sparrow






(G37); and the ancient scribe did not always indicate the difference very clearly. Some C Old Kingdom examples are relatively large, however; cf. á | and ∑{A in Saqqara Mastabas I, pl. 1 (center): rn n∂s, t-wr. In this period the large tail was sometimes allowed to overlap an adjacent border: MMJ 12 (1977) p. 8, nn. 35, 36.

| ~

Scarcely distinguished from } (G38) except for the slightly different tail, which is only discernible in detailed examples. The neck was sometimes lengthened to goose-like proportions in the New Kingdom.

Ä Å á


The Old Kingdom duckling is decidedly less vertical than Gardiner’s G47, and that is equally true of most examples down through the early New Kingdom. My model is Rekh-mi-Re™, pl. 15 (18, 19). Cf. also Picture Writing, pl. 4 (2), from the same tomb.


To be distinguished from

à (G48), zß, as is pointed out by Montet, Kêmi 4 [1931]

î H6 OSTRICH FEATHER. The top falls slightly backward under its own weight. p.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY pp. the bird was originally a crested heron. Deir el Gebrawi I. ™ß£. but normally reversed (cf. pl. 5 (1). The Gardiner form is known from the late Old Kingdom (e. ö 30 I3 CROCODILE. 334). The New Kingdom examples (as in Gardiner’s font) represent a gecko. ã G51 HERON ON FISH. but examples from the Old Kingdom show some variations. cf. . This form is usual in all periods. sn∂. é G54 TRUSSED GOOSE. to judge from Old Kingdom examples. mz¢. ßw(t). since the crest was in line with the bent neck. it soon disappeared. Picture Writing. and. Not unlike ∆ (M17). 30 and pl.g. Kush 10 [1962] p. but the Old Kingdom form more usually does not show the bird standing on the fish. ¢£m. 3) and onward. 174–178. ò I1 LIZARD.

Beni Hasan III. Lower Egypt 16. 31 . 6 (102. K4 OXYRHYNCHUS. 72 and pl. 1oo). Kêmi 3 [1930] p. The Gardiner version became usual in the Middle Kingdom: e. the tail became horizontal in the Middle Kingdom (Montet. ™∂(w). the long snout is distinctive. pl. 19]). The fish characteristically slopes upward. As the Greek name indicates. ™ ´ K3 MULLET. K1 BULTI-FISH. But the Old Kingdom form is attested in the reign of Sesostris I: CG 20539 (I b. Fische und Fischkulte. which represents Schilbe mystus (Ingrid Gamer-Wallert. ¢fn(r). p. The Old Kingdom version shows the tail curved downward. † • ® © I8 TADPOLE. 11).g. 103). The Old Kingdom form is more rounded. km. I13 ERECT COBRA. ¡n(t). fl£(t). 7 [13. K2 BARBUS BYNNI.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY û I6 CROCODILE HIDE. bwt. as in the Mendesian nome emblem.

New Kingdom examples resemble a branch. 57. ∞pr(r). The stylization of this sign. but earlier examples depict a trunk with all branches lopped except for the one at the very end. det. ¢n(¡). b¡t. but Old Kingdom examples show a great deal of variety. ßpt. BEE. Sr˚t. See Addenda. omitting the tail and its venomous sting. The hind leg. ∑ M2 RUSH. ∞t. 32 . Puffs up when annoyed (ßpt). The thorax and abdomen must be drawn separately. 49. This form is found in all periods. is one of those modifications that derives from funerary texts in the burial chamber: Lacau. Ø ∞ L1 L2 DUNG BEETLE. ZÄS 51 (1913) pp. and the sign is usually described thus. under the abdomen. ∏ M3 PIECE OF WOOD.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ≠ K7 BLOWFISH. was often omitted. becoming a spiny balloon that is proof against the attack of carnivorous fish. µ L7 SCORPION.

although more rarely. AND RHIZOME. Clusters of two or more signs are also known from the Old Kingdom (Figure b). as though floating on the water. w£∂. wdn. sometimes showing the open flower. See also Addenda. ¡ M12 LEAF. sometimes a bud. Archaic examples again show variation: in some the leaf is upright. Archaic examples show projecting leaves at the base of the stalk. p. A certain amount of variation is also found in examples of the Middle Kingdom. with the leaf turned forward. OF LOTUS. The Old Kingdom forms vary considerably. ¬ M13 PAPYRUS STALK. as do some dating to the Old Kingdom (illustrated here) and even later. Gardiner’s form. note 423). in others it is turned forward. 33 . ∞£. and in either case the signs may be joined at the base to form a plurality of thousands. STEM.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ¿ M11 LOTUS ON A LONG STALK. was usual from the Old Kingdom onward. 129. but the upright leaf reappeared sporadically (Figure c) and especially in numbers. in one case the flower is replaced by the head of a goose (Egyptian Studies II.

for example.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ƒ M15 PAPYRUS THICKET. whereas forms like those used by Gardiner appear in Tylor and Griffith. 1o (M22. Paheri. 17. pls. In earlier examples (Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom) the top of the plant is distinctly shorter than it is in Õ (M23). The group Ãà is regularly replaced by ÕÕ in inscriptions of the Heracleopolitan Period (nomes U. sw. and examples such as the one in Figure b (emblematically representing Upper Egypt) are sometimes mistakenly identified as a lily or lotus. 77. Fifth Dynasty forms (b) begin to depart from this arrangement. the form is simplified to ≈ (M16). and that is sometimes true of examples dating to the early New Kingdom. compare. and JNES 18 (1959) pp. Dendera. from the Old Kingdom onwards. 6). For details see Fischer. and the occasional assimilation of à to Õ is also known from later periods. Naqada and Ballas. 34 . Ãà nn. £∞. p. Menkheperrasonb. M23) and 14 (M23). Petrie and Quibell. See also Addenda (M12). ßm™(w). m¢(w). In this sign. In the New Kingdom the flowering end of this sign was stylized so that it resembles a fleur de lis. pl. Quite often. The base represents the water in which the papyrus is growing. 5. as in the next. 4. 1. 269–271. and often elsewhere. Õ M23 SEDGELIKE PLANT. – M26 FLOWERING SEDGE (?). which otherwise has the value ¢£. pl. later (c) the leaves are often joined symmetrically. the earliest Old Kingdom examples (a) show the leaves overlapped alternately.K. à M22 RUSH WITH SHOOTS.

in fact. In the Old Kingdom this sign resembles a leg. In my Dendera. 58. But hieratic occurred in the Old Kingdom. 2 N18 BOLT OF CLOTH. XI. but these two signs were consistently differentiated. Aa12) became E (N36) in Dyn. d£¡w. fi M40 BUNDLE OF REEDS. RHIZOME ÷. and not “a garment” (MMJ 10 [1975] pp. Ò (Aa28. II. bnr. Berlin Pap. Old Kingdom examples show a considerable amount of variation (see also ZÄS 93 [1966] p. See also Addenda. likewise read rd. M31 STYLIZED OF LOTUS. 60. also LD Text. This sign must be carefully distinguished from Ô. ’ M32. the sign ≠ (D56) is. fig. 22). 7 N23 IRRIGATION CANAL. 8869 (Smither. n∂m. 35 . 17. 3). M30 SWEET-TASTING ROOT(?). p.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ” ‘ M29 SEED POD. 29). rd. ¡z. The forms are variable. and hieroglyphic 7 in Meir V. 1 (N20–22. pl. p. this represents rolled up linen. and 7 late in Dyn. As a sign for cloth (listed after Gardiner’s S26). line 11). 14–20). VIII. pl. 26 (and cf. 9o (15). I note that the Old Kingdom determinatives 4. JEA 28 [1942] p.

the outer curve defines the rays of the sun. and even in much later periods. and somewhat later.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY 9. ∂w. ¡wn. and this feature persists to some extent in the Old Kingdom (b). Medum. ∞£st. Dendera. 12). p. : N25. as shown in Figure b. In Archaic examples the sides are sloping rather than vertical. 9. . O29 WOODEN COLUMN. ™£. but the curved forms appeared occasionally. The curved example shown here is Dyn. as well as E (N36). ? N31 ROAD BORDERED BY SHRUBS. The notched top began to appear in the Sixth Dynasty (Fischer. pls. See also Addenda. V. 84). ∞™¡. In Old Kingdom examples the column is sometimes fluted. w£t. is apt to be curved (Petrie. 36 h The capital of this column was usually simplified after the Old Kingdom. Thereafter it was usually straight. g O28 STONE COLUMN. In the earlier Old Kingdom inscriptions this sign. < N28 SUN RISING BEHIND HILL. As may be seen from the detailed Old Kingdom example. N26 MOUNTAINS.

Dendera. w O44 EMBLEM OF MIN TEMPLE. 75. pl. O43 FENCE. 68. Die südlichen Räume. fig. 25–26. The second form is occasionally found in Old and Middle Kingdom inscriptions. 10). pls. 62 (12). ¢™w. pp.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY u. 4f on p. v O42. ßzp. New Kingdom examples of u are frequently reversed. Ä P1 BOAT. For variations of the second sign. n¡wt. 37 . Old Kingdom examples usually omit the oar (Figure a). Buhen I. 48. | O49 CROSSROADS. Brunner. and more frequently in those of the Heracleopolitan Period and Eleventh Dynasty: cf. An early variant (Old–Middle Kingdom) shows the sign in an extended hand: (MMJ 12 [1978]. With seat and steering oar. either wholly or in part. used in the Old Kingdom. and a boat with high prow and stern (Figure b) is preferred in titles of that period. 78–79. ¡£t. see JARCE 2 (1963) pp. dpt. 94. Used in all periods. pls. 92. but Old Kingdom examples show some striking variations. and even in inscriptions that show the normal rightward orientation: Rekh-mi-Re™. 9 and n. 63. Fischer. Caminos. p.

The second Old Kingdom example (b) is a less common variant. like the ships in Old Kingdom titles. See Addenda. Another example. shows a catfish (w¢™) in place of the net. from the Middle Kingdom (c). which should move forward rather than backward (Egyptian Studies II. as illustrated here. pl. w¢™. ∞nt¡. É P3 SACRED BARK.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY Ç P2 SHIP UNDER SAIL. and it carries a shrine containing the god’s image. Gardiner’s reversed form applies only to a few very special cases (Egyptian Studies II. †£w. This one shows a high prow and stern. §39). The forms vary. w¡£. The Gardiner and Theinhardt fonts wrongly reverse the direction of the sail. Old Kingdom examples show no orientation in either direction. Ö P5 SAIL. The Old Kingdom form usually has a high prow and stern (as also in the Middle Kingdom: Beni Hasan III. Ñ P4 FISHERMAN’S BOAT. 38 . The ship should be moving forward. det. 3 [23]). and the example illustrated here (a) also shows the pattern of the fisherman’s net. §40).

was usually horizontal. 1977] p. see MMJ 12 (1977) p. n†r. ú R10 Combination of R8. the bottom. fig. N29. but sometimes also slanted as in Gardiner’s version. cf. See Addenda. to a lesser extent. wound around the pole. ¡£bt. rarely triple (for the latter see Ancient Egypt in the Metropolitan Museum Journal [New York. ° R15 FEATHER ON STANDARD. which reappeared occasionally in the Old Kingdom (Fakhry. Old Kingdom examples have a shorter stem at the base. Normally the top is quadruple. below.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY Ü P6 MAST. 3 (a– i). the forms of later periods. and so too. T28. in the Old Kingdom. The Old Kingdom examples show many variations. 9o. 39 . ™¢™. 9. Caminos and Fischer. 48 and note 76). ù R11 ÎD-COLUMN. Epigraphy and Palaeography. ö R8 PENNANT. 160 and note 13). p. In the Archaic Period it took the form: . flrt-n†r. The top of the pennant is slanted. fig. The pennant consists of strips of cloth. EMBLEMATIC OF DIVINITY. Monuments of Sneferu at Dahshur II.

T£-wr. The emblem of Upper Egyptian Nome 8 shows a good deal of variation. Ancient Egypt (London 1917) pp. The New Kingdom version misinterprets the old sign as a pair of flagella (› S45) and the ßn-sign (| V9). Jéquier. cf. n(t). 72–77. for the amulet see Margaret Murray. 132–133. RED CROWN OF LOWER EGYPT. 11–15. For the difference between this sign and “ (V39) see MMJ 5 (1972) pp. — S34 AMULETIC BOW. dm∂. Originally represented a neckband from which an amulet was suspended. 50–53. in Archaic examples these two ends are sometimes widely separated: . ¢∂t. 34. It does not seem possible to explain it as a sandal strap. and some later writings in WZKM 57 (1961) pp. in which the lower part represents the two ends. S23 FLAGELLA AND ÍN-SIGN. § R17. R18 THINITE NOME-EMBLEM. as shown in the Old Kingdom example. BIFAO 11 (1914) pp. Originally resembled an elaborate bow. some Old Kingdom forms are displayed in JAOS 74 (1954) p. 40 .SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY £. ™n∞. ¨ Æ ƒ S1 S3 WHITE CROWN OF UPPER EGYPT.

The orientation. Meir II. cf. 41 .. 4. “Some Notes on Sticks and Staves. reflects the way the stick is carried in early representations down through the first two reigns of Dyn. Lahun II.” 0 1 T12 BOWSTRING. rw∂. The Old Kingdom form often shows a base. but it seems doubtful that the latter originally had any connection with the sign for rs. pl. rs. T4 PYRIFORM MACE.” §9. 226. Frises d’objets. 3. so that this can hardly be “a strap to pass round hand. ¢∂. See Addenda. as attested in Pyr. as in Figure b. The New Kingdom form is similar to that of the p∂-™¢™ implement. §45. which began to replace the simpler form ¤ (M37) in Dyn. $ T3. 1245 (c. In most of the earlier cases the loop is near the top. IV: Egyptian Studies II. with knobbed end downward.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ÿ S40 W£S-SCEPTER. pls. ¤ S43 WALKING-STICK. T13 SHELTER(?). M). The second form is known from the Archaic Period and was used fairly frequently in the Old Kingdom and later. XII: Petrie et al. #. The looped tie may have been suggested by that of ⁄ (M36). 29. Jéquier. This seems originally to have been a herdsman’s staff: see Fischer. p. mdw.

but often a more realistic representation was preferred (b). My model is Picture Writing. ∂b£. The Theinhardt form U37. w™. 42 . For details see Vandier. The Old Kingdom sometimes used the schematic form T27. 9 (6).SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY 5 T17 CHARIOT. pp. Fig. which evidently shows the two overlapping halves of the trap. with the wheel located beneath the center of gravity rather than (as in the Amarna Period and after) behind it. pl. 307–313. >. and at least as early as the reign of Tuthmosis III. My own drawing is closer to the earlier examples. also shown in en-Amun. = T25 REED FLOAT. d is an unusual example. also Addenda. The tie is normally in front. with two barbs ( ). XVIII. T27 BIRD-TRAP. Figures c and d show the net opened and closed. but there are many exceptions. This shows the earlier New Kingdom type of chariot. 13. pl. See also Addenda. 9 T21 HARPOON. s∞t. wrrt. began to be used in Dyn. ? T26. Manuel d’archéologie V.

See also Addenda. evidently by assimilation to ® (W11) or to the sun-disk in ' (N7): en-Amun. 172–174. 43 . XVIII the bottom of this sign became rounded. pls. b¡£. X U16 SLEDGE WITH HEAD OF JACKAL. m£. Pl. as in the case of the hoe (U6). pls. The Old Kingdom hieroglyph shows the flint blades along the cutting edge. M U6 HOE. pl. 40. 59. 68 (62). which subsequently became quite common (MMJ 12 [1978] p. Here the blade is directed forward rather than backward. Gurob and Hawara. Some Old Kingdom variations are discussed in Orientalia 29 (1960) pp. For an actual example see Petrie. Kahun. Private Tombs I. pl. 25 39. In the second half of Dyn. 16. hb. mr. 52) also shows . 13. 9 (22). Tools and Weapons. 11. sk£. H U1 SICKLE. May show either one or two crosspieces. 8. flr. as explained by the single or double rope in Old Kingdom hieroglyphs. U U13 PLOUGH. 39. For the same feature in ' see Ramose. 11. below. For an actual example see Petrie.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY @ T28 CHOPPING BLOCK. Ramose. The latter (pl. pl. and note 142).

pl. Sedment I. stp. ] U21 ADZE. as shown in the detail from an Old Kingdom scene (Figure b).” used in the Old Kingdom as determinative of ™nt “nail. The Old Kingdom hieroglyph is taller than the New Kingdom version of Gardiner’s font.” often shows the form illustrated here. ^ U22 CHISEL. A detail from an Old Kingdom scene shows the tool in action. Note how the metal blade is fastened to the handle. 21 (5–6).SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY \ U20 ADZE (OLD KINGDOM). Used with a mallet. the ancestor of the plane. Actual examples may be seen in Petrie and Brunton. nw. Gardiner’s “somewhat similar sign. mn∞. 44 .

Picture Writing. pl.K. ` U24 (M. 93 [4]. and this was evidently provided to keep the thumb from slipping. en-Amun.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY _ U23 HAND CHISEL. which occurs in many examples including those of the New Kingdom (e. as demonstrated by Figure c. The drawing in Figure c shows how the drill was operated.). and the orientation of this detail in Figure c. fig. 8 [1o]). Step Pyramid II. pl. Firth and Quibell.g. 124). pl. As Gardiner notes. pl. Grabdenkmal Ne-user-re™. Borchardt. mr. became common from the reign of Tuthmosis III onward. the same sign is used for £b. a piece of flint or sandstone inserted in the fork at the bottom does the drilling (cf. An early example of this period (e) shows a wider cap. Gardiner’s U25 and 24 wrongly show the top slanting backward instead of forward. Old Kingdom examples normally show a projection at the front of the handle. Rekh-m¡-Re™. 36.K. and also explains the jog in the stem (Figure b). a U25 (O. Weighted at the top with stones. ¢mt. cf. 13. The same feature is sometimes found in Middle Kingdom examples: Hieroglyphs. The second of the Old Kingdom examples has already begun to resemble Gardiner’s New Kingdom form.) STONEWORKER’S DRILL. 45 . with a narrow cap at the top (Figure d). In the Eighteenth Dynasty a slightly different form. pl. 8 (107).

). Gurob.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY c U27 (O. b U26 (N. f U30 POTTER’S KILN.K. shows the drill penetrating the wood. Old Kingdom examples often distinguish the brick walls of the kiln from the opening at the bottom and from vertical lines at the top. e U29 (O. illustrated here. representing glowing heat.) FIRE-DRILL. as seen in the Old Kingdom example illustrated here (Figure b). Occasionally the top is a rounded heap of glowing coals. A variant often used in the late Old Kingdom.). See Addenda. pl. wb£. 46 . The figure shows a craftsman drilling a hole in a bead. 46 (19). d U28 (N.K.K. ∂£.K. For an actual example see Brunton and Engelbach. as well as at least two examples from the New Kingdom. t£. Gardiner’s U27 is probably taken from the caption of this scene. DRILL FOR SMALL OBJECTS.).

MDAIK 27 [1971] pp. The Old Kingdom scene illustrated here (a) shows coarse fiber. ¢m. s†£. and let the spindle twirl freely in the air to twist the loosely gathered rove. 47 .SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY j U34 SPINDLE. The earlier examples (Old and Middle Kingdom) are usually broader at the base. but perhaps a yoke for oxen(Graefe. being twisted to make rope. u V2 BOLT AND STRING. The Old Kingdom form (a) evidently does not represent a bolt at all. probably papyrus. Figure b illustrates an additional New Kingdom example showing the protuberances of the bolt. ∞sf. See also Addenda. In preparing flax thread for cloth (b) the spinner stood. Thus the recommended simplification is less inaccurate than it might appear. and are narrower above this point. 149–150). n U36 FULLER’S CLUB.

unlike the determinative of this word. however. Pyr. as is assumed by the authorities whom Gardiner cites. and from this period onward the bottom of the z£-sign was usually divided. Teti Pyramid Cemeteries.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY w V4 LASSO. ˚n¡ (Firth and Gunn. w£. b). Ö V17 LIFE PRESERVER. is not divided at the bottom (a. An Old Kingdom example clearly shows the structure.K. If this sign represents the papyrus bandoleer worn by boatmen (Figure d). z£. ã V23 (O. 52. It should be noted. 2044a) and that V18.).) WHIP. m¢. Easily drawn with a single line. 48 . then it most probably is a life preserver. 231–232.K. that the bandoleer is evidently termed pl. as proposed by Oric Bates in Harvard African Studies I (1917) pp. The knot of the lasso is rarely indicated. ä V22 (N. But the determinative of ˚n¡ is virtually reduplicated by the Middle Kingdom example of z£ shown in Figure c. Ü V18.

and the name of the 49 . 10). ù. ú W2. Y1). Figure c. in which case it may easily be confused with # (T3). Koptos. resembling Gardiner’s V29. W1 SEALED OIL JAR. note 6). has ù (Petrie. w£∞. ç V25 (later) CORD WOUND ON STICK. it first came into use toward the end of Dyn. for which see also GM 122 (1991) pp. 42). XII (JEA 61 [1975] p. As in the case of ¡ and ¿ (Y2. The cord is sometimes moved higher on the stick. the later form shows the ends of string beneath the seal. instead of two.). Although ù sometimes continued to appear in the name of Bastet after the Old Kingdom. pl. this usage was by no means as regular as Gardiner indicates. But Old Kingdom examples often omit the seal altogether. dating to the early Middle Kingdom. One example. ë V29 SWAB. The Old Kingdom forms show a certain amount of variation. One of the earlier examples of V25 (Figure b) still shows the cord at the center. w∂. pl. The three-looped form also occurred fairly frequently in the New Kingdom. soon became the most common of these. sk(¡). 246. and they may also show the veining that is characteristic of alabaster. while another of the same reign has ú (Lacau and Chévrier. however.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY å V24 (O. It is doubtless for this reason that the later form ç was devised. but it sometimes has three loops or (rarely) a single loop. b£s. mr¢t.K. Une Chapelle. 23–24.

pl. Tell Basta.g. 8 [141]). Moh. but usually assumed a form like (Clarence Fisher. ibid. in the early New Kingdom simplified forms such as became quite common. µ W24 POT. Theban Necropolis. Ø W18 (O.) ÌZ-VASES IN A RACK. p. 49 [3]. 31. and in Aa31. 50 . not everted. Minor Cemetery at Giza. fig. 34 [2]). Begin with the caps of the vases. but examples with three jars were not uncommon in that period ( Junker. pl. ∞nt(¡). nw. Spiegelberg. above. The simplified version of this sign was occasionally used from the Old Kingdom onward (e. MMJ 9 [1974] p. note 1) as also in the first dynasties. pl.. The form with four jars is more usual in the earlier Old Kingdom inscriptions. Petrie. fig. C24. Newberry. the same is true of the later New Kingdom. the tops of the second row rising behind the first. Aly et al. Æ W17.g. below. In Old Kingdom examples the rim is rounded.. so also the example cited by Gardiner: Northampton. Temple d’Amada IV. which were exploited as decoration. 149. û W3 ALABASTER BOWL. 44). The lozenge at the center is a simplification of the variegated layers of the stone. Gîza IX. as distinguished from Gardiner’s New Kingdom form.K. 40.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY goddess usually shows ú in early New Kingdom writings (e. pl. In a very few cases the row of four jars is reduplicated. and so too in the Middle Kingdom (Hieroglyphs. Habachi. This veining also appears in W2. ¢b. 7D). 26 and pl. Gizeh and Rifeh.

SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ¡ Y2. The two Old Kingdom variations both occur repeatedly and both favor the interpretation as a “lid” (Iversen. later form is generally agreed to represent the cover of a quiver. 17 [E]). XII onward: Hayes. XII. and shows other differences). pls. The first dated occurrence of the later form. note 1). 5 (306). Á Aa17. Ê. the quiver he compares.. Se’n-Wosret-™ankh. ⁄ Aa5 ÌPT-IMPLEMENT. ¿ Y1 PAPYRUS ROLL. 393). 11 (= II. but was replaced by the later form in the Twelfth Dynasty: Blackman. §2). 7 (391. Meir I. 54–57) rather than a “quiver” (Goedicke. Hayes. XII. 19 [H]). s£. Newberry and Griffith. The second. pls. Often replaced by hieratic in early Middle Kingdom inscriptions (ZÄS 100 [1973] p. 99–1oo. 7 (384. belongs to the first reign of Dyn. pl. the reigns of Sesostris I to Amenemhet II (Wolfgang Schenkel. 18. JEA 45 [1959] pp. but occurred sporadically down through the Second Intermediate Period (RdE 24 [1972] p. in an unpublished relief from the Userkaf pyramid temple. Aa18. 386). 17 [66]). JEA 42 [1956] pp. is suspended from a sling tied at each end. It appears in the earlier writing of the prenomen of Nb-¢pt-R™ Mentuhotep (Naville. The variant showing a single string is most commonly attested from early Dyn. and is differently oriented. Se’n-Wosret™ankh. pl. Frühmittelägyptische Studien. 12 [E]. showing the ends of the strings projecting from beneath the mud seal. pl. The Old Kingdom form is slightly different. Bersheh I. pl. 51 . etc. It is known from the beginning of Dyn. XIth Dynasty Temple at Deir el-Bahari I. LID. m∂£t. 70.







The first of the Old Kingdom forms shown here is anomalous, but it suggests that in that period this sign was understood as a kind of sack. An unusual Middle Kingdom variant (d) resembles a tunic. See also Addenda.



If the lower part of this sign is effaced, this may be (and sometimes has been) mistaken for C(F35).


A variety of forms occur in Old Kingdom inscriptions. In general this sign is thinner than fi (M40), which it tends to resemble, and in Old Kingdom examples the protuberance is usually near the upper or lower end. For the nature of the implement, see Hieroglyphs, p. 49, and Badawy, JNES 15 (1956) pp. 177–179; for further Old Kingdom examples see ZÄS 93 (1966) p. 58, fig. 3 (aa–j j).


Aa31 JAR, Ú Aa30 CHEVAL DE FRISE, flkr.
The Old Kingdom form represents an inverted alabaster jar, as Griffith has already noted in Ptahhetep I, p. 37.



) A9—The form of the basket is somewhat variable in the earlier Old Kingdom examples; it
may be very shallow, as in Fig. a (from Junker, Gîza I, pl. 23 [early Dyn. IV, reversed]; cf. LD II, pl. 64a [late Dyn. V]), and may, in addition, bear a single pellet (Junker, Gîza II, figs. 11, 33 [both early Dyn. V]). In one case, dating to the beginning of Dyn. IV (Fig. b, reversed), the basket is deeper but shows a series of pellets: Louvre B1, cf. Christiane Ziegler, Catalogue des stèles… de l’Ancien Empire (Paris 1990) p. 99. In another case it is quite deep and has a single pellet; Cairo CG 1790 (seen from the original).

; A25—This was used occasionally as the equivalent of R (A47) in the Middle Kingdom, and more often (along with : [A24]) throughout the New Kingdom; see Egyptian Studies III,
pp. 177–179.

D A33—There was little or no use of this sign as the equivalent of older R (A47) before
the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty (temp. Ay), although an example is known as early as the Twelfth Dynasty: see Egyptian Studies III, loc. cit.

S A48—A clear Old Kingdom example of this variant of R is shown in Ptahhetep I, pl. 4
(1o). For the context see R. F. E. Paget and A. A. Pirie, Tomb of Ptah-hetep (London, 1898) pl. 31 (top), where a ⁄S ∞rp-mn¡w supervises herdsmen. Conversely R could be used as the determinative of ¡ry in the New Kingdom (Ramose, pl. 42).

[ B1—Although the group ![ is normally of equal height, Old Kingdom inscriptions frequently show the woman slightly smaller than the man: e.g. Junker Gîza III, fig. 16 (but not fig. 27); Hassan, Gîza II, fig. 206, III, figs. 1o4, 156; V, fig. 101; Borchardt, Grabdenkmal Åa£¢u-re™ II, pl. 20 (but not pl. 19); Bissing, Re-Heiligtum III, pl. 11; Tomb of M†n (MDAIK 21 [1966], pls. 3, 5, 6); Egyptian Studies I, fig. 14, p. 47; James and Apted, Khentika, pls. 5–6 (B16, but not B13; D3, D6, but not D10).

á D (not in Gardiner font)—Herman de Meulenaere (BIFAO 81 supplément [1981], pp. 87–
89) confirms that the reading of this term for “repast” is to be distinguished from ¡™w-r “breakfast” and read ™b-r or (to my mind less probably) simply ™b. Cf. Pyr. 60a (and 110e–f), in which it is introduced by a paronomastic statement: ¡™b n.k s¡ r r.k “unite it (the w∂£t-eye) to thy mouth.”



as a writing of “overlord” at Beni Hasan in Dyn. XII: Egyptian Studies III, pp. 190–191.

s D2—A deformation of this sign evidently explains the sign

sr ¢ry-tp

ù D41—For the Old Kingdom form
pp. 180–186.

as the dual of

ò (D36) see Egyptian Studies III,

° D45—Possibly the New Kingdom reinterpretation goes back to an Old
Kingdom example such as the one shown here, from Dunham and Simpson, Mersyankh III, fig. 6 (reversed). In this particular case, however, the object is not green but white, with red detail (Smith, History of Egyptian Sculpture and Painting in the Old Kingdom, p. 375). (with kilt) is also to be seen in Old Kingdom hieratic: Paule PosenerKriéger and Jean-Louis de Cenival, Hieratic Papyri in the British Museum, Fifth Series, The Abu Sir Papyri (London, 1968) Pal. pl. 3. This detail probably explains the flat top of some early Middle Kingdom forms such as (Davies, Antefo˚er, pl. 8; K. Dyroff and B. Pörtner, Aegyptische Grabsteine II: München [Strassburg 1904], pl. 1 [1]) and (Metropolitan Museum of Art Neg. M7C 133), which shows the bottom edge of the kilt.

´ D54—The form

± D60—It is generally assumed, and rightly so, that this composite sign goes back to the
Pyramid Texts of the Old Kingdom, but note that (1) there the two signs are not united; (2) ; and (3) other writings of the same word they appear together in the writing of w™b as show variations such as and É1Ø (the last including the biconsonantal ™b-sign in the composite F17). All three variations occur, for example, in Pyr. 127 a, b. The use of ± in inscriptions aboveground is first attested on Eleventh Dynasty stelae: e.g. J. J. Clère and J. Vandier, Textes de la Première Période Intermédiaire et de la XIème Dynastie (Brussels, 1948) §§14, 20 (B), 22, 23; in these cases the two elements are still slightly separated, but soon they were more often fused: ibid., §§27 (t), 32 (14), 33 (4). The separation often persisted in Dyn. XII: Meir III, pls. 14, 24; Newberry and Griffith, Bersheh I, pls. 13, 15; Petrie, Antaeopolis (London, 1930) pls. 4, 24; but also joined, pls. 26, 27.

º E8—Contrary to Gardiner, JEA 17 (1931) p. 246, this form was, on occasion, replaced by
(E8*) as early as the mid-Eighteenth Dynasty: Rekh-mi-Re™, pl. 86 (right, col. 9). And in Dyn. XIX ’ might also be assimilated to the lively movement of the latter (Clère, RdE 11 [1957], p. 26).


and provides the origin of the phonetic value nfr. The Beni Hasan reference. F12—Occasionally assumed the form pp. 47. see JEA 68 (1982) p. 192–194. an example occurs on a stela that may well be as early as Dyn. 46 (A). cites Ptolemaic examples of C∑ S meaning “throat. 74 (Siut I. pp. The writing of the title occasionally took the same form in the Middle Kingdom: Beni Hasan I. Karnak-Nord VI. XVIII. errs in omitting the seal. Kêmi 3 (1930) p. Excavations at Giza 1949–1950 (Cairo. XVIII: Helen Jacquet-Gordon. fig. 1988) p.ADDENDA ’ E31—Lahun II.” “gullet. fig. as may be seen from the original inscription. For the hornless kid see also Mereruka II. 46. see Egyptian Studies III. p. fig. also MMJ 11 (1976) p. 48. 130. cited in the first edition. fig. 187–190. in dw£ n†r “praise god” (thank). and in any case is earlier than the New Kingdom (Hieroglyphic Texts from Egyptian Stelae &c. 30 (58). pl. pl.” this favors the interpretation of the sign as the esophagus. now in the Oriental Institute. comments on R15 below). 6 [BM 334]. in Dyn. VII. Chicago. where Old Kingdom examples are cited of the title áà ∑ f C¤[¡ “he who is privy to the secret of the god’s words (scil. [ G7—Although Kaplony gives abundant evidence for this sign as a logogram for n†r “god” in the Archaic Period (Chronique d’Egypte 41 [1966] p. this also recurs. 9. Montet. j G20—Although this composite form did not become usual until Dyn. 12 55 . as an archaism. is corroborated by LD II. 73. XIII. in the British Museum III [1912]. 1953). pl.” for which see also MMJ 12 (1977) p. in the Middle Kingdom: Egyptian Studies III. pl. hieroglyphs)” and flrt-n†r “necropolis. = F29—For other variants. 334). 13 and 74. including C . Le Trésor de Thoutmosis I er: La Décoration (Cairo. 213.f “possessor of reverence with his god” in Hassan. cf. 17. added in the second edition. Gîza III. An even earlier example is given in Urk. this usage is more common in Old Kingdom inscriptions than he indicates: a striking example appears in the phrase nb ¡m£∞ ∞r n†r. 104: For other evidence see Abdel-Moneim Abu Bakr. 237 and pls. pl. 8). 3 a–c. . s F n. 72. 90]. F35—Fairman (ZÄS 91 [1964] p.

70) and (b) after Drioton. MDAIK 3 [1932]. Catalogue des monuments I [Vienna 1894]. µ L7—The abbreviated form appears aboveground in at least one Old Kingdom chapel: Hassan. 13. in place of the entire sign. facing p. line 8) and the surrounding area is evidently damaged. fig. 500. ASAE 43 (1943) p. as well as the origin of the writing ∏ (X2).. As demonstrated in the article that is cited. Egyptian Coffin Texts V (1954) p. fig.ADDENDA (17).g. 44. which is known from the end of the Heracleopolitan Period. The much more complete Old Kingdom examples shown here are (a) traced from the Hildesheim chapel of W¢m-k£ (cf. XII (Amenemhet II: Balcz and Bittel. s G28—The bill seems occasionally to have been elongated downwards to ground-level in some earlier examples. 27. 17.g. p G26—In examples of the Old Kingdom and later the perch shows distinctive peculiarities. a three-dimensional version of it was placed in the 56 . Die Mastaba des Uhemka [Hannover. one as early as Dyn. 7. pl. But the form shown in Fig. ¡. Gîza II. p. this form is also to be found in the reliefs of Djoser (e. Ã M12. 205–208. pl. the horizontal line. Later the legs were placed on both sides of the body: e. pp. pp. 25. another dated to the beginning of Dyn. 1964] pp. These details are discussed in Egyptian Studies III. de Morgan et al. Step Pyramid. 2 N18—This sign was often used as a generic determinative in the Old Kingdom. but this is less complete in the publication from which it is taken (Beni Hasan I. Firth and Quibell. 22. as is shown in Egyptian Studies III. 142. As Jean-Philippe Lauer has reminded me. 201–205. M22—These two signs were very occasionally assimilated in the Old and Middle Kingdom. 37. interpreted as an arm. Hans Kayser. 28). figs. Beni Hasan I. 67 (both reversed). is probably accidental. 41). pl. 85 [13]). a reappears in Adriaan de Buck. XVIII (Tuthmosis I: J.

In my opinion. 13). Ä. thus. 7). 182 [3]). the replacement of this sign by G (N38) became common only in Dyn. ASAE 38 (1938) pp. in attempting to explain this in terms of religion and ritual (SAK 13 [1986]. RdE 29 [1977]. Fischer. g O28—Jean-Philippe Lauer has called my attention to the fact that such columns. s˚dwt “sailing” (ibid.. [1977]. pp. I. it is written in the plural. fig. appears as the determinative of words such as s∂£ “travel” (Urk. The ship with high prow and stern also. for the most part. 124–125. of course. equally exceptionally. Gîza I. Similar hieroglyphs were also. and hence are the equivalent of New Kingdom É (P3). 214 [13]). only the context distinguished it from z¢ “pavillion. 82–83. very occasionally. a O22—The word ¢b “festival” was originally written with this sign. In the Old Kingdom N38 is normally used for grgt “settlement. ∞nt¡ “sail upstream” (ibid. figs. É P1. 24. This observation also agrees with the color data for O28 given by Wm. For these and other hieroglyphic forms of sacred barks see Anthes.. word. cf.” s†£t “aroura. ZÄS 82 (1958) pp.” this usage survived to some extent as late as the Middle Kingdom. 379. in the Djoser pyramid enclosure. p. As in the Middle Kingdom inscription just mentioned. and ¢™w does have such a determinative in a Middle Kingdom inscription (Abdel Moneim Sayed. 29 a). to commercial expeditions (mining and trade). w¢™). P3—The Old Kingdom ship with high prow and stern. and. prior to the Fourth Dynasty. pp. one such example serves as the determinative of dpt-n†r “divine boat” (Hassan. 208–209. applied to sacred barks in the Old Kingdom. but this term is not known elsewhere. p. pl. Coptite Nome. has unnecessarily complicated a simple matter. Fischer. 40–41. 184). 16 (b) lines 3. the context of the Old Kingdom titles in question refers.ADDENDA fisted hands of statues from the Fourth Dynasty onward (see also Ancient Egypt in the Metropolitan Museum Journal. Gîza V. but it is evidently a masc. p. Dendera. 367. cannot be proven to have the value ¢™w. 33. 4 N20—For variations of this sign and 6 (N22) see MDAIK 47 (1991) 132–133. 183 (9). Smith in History of Egyptian Sculpture and Painting. 55–94). XI and later. used in titles. p. p. also ZÄS 86 (1961) p. One Old Kingdom title precedes the determinative by phonetic kz (Junker.). 5 a. where the form resembles Ñ (P4. and evidently down through the reign of Djoser. S. F N37—Contrary to Gardiner’s observations. Conversely. pp. See Egyptian Studies III. apparently in imitation of wood. cit. Albrecht Fehlig. 57 . Fakhry. were painted red.” and rarely sp£t “nome” (loc.

= T25—A curious Old Kingdom variant in known from Giza and Abusir: see Egyptian Studies III. pls. and Wm. Scott. §38 and Lexikon der Ägyptologie V. Cf. col.i-gm.ADDENDA the high-prowed form of P3 is employed for w¢™ in Edel and Wenig. XVIII (Earl of Carnarvon and Howard Carter. Kêmi 19 [1969].8. 172) cf. 214–216. JNES 18 (1959) pp. where the Dyn. 53. pp. 189. Toronto. although he mistakenly interprets the curved projection as a handle in those Old Kingdom examples where the sign is reversed. 64 (with p. XVIII. 215. 6/3 (May. fig. this also appears on monuments from Theban Tomb 15. pp. the detachable decoy in the early N. 1959) p. 1925) p. Hoffmeier argues convincingly against the identification of this sign as a bow-string: Newsletter. For details. ó R5—H. The Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities. XIII example he deals with ( ) evidently combines ° and Ø. Five Years’ Explorations at Thebes. 1976) pp. 270–271. op. 12. C. cf. > T26 A particularly detailed hieroglyph is to be found in the tomb of K£. ° R15—Gardiner adopts Sethe’s interpretation of this emblem as a “spear decked out as standard. pl.” but Sethe’s evidence actually indicates that the standard bears a feather. JEA 33 (1947) p. 58 . cit. fig. or . 18). Sauneron and Vérité. pl. 70). Scepter of Egypt II (New York. 83)—an error that Gardiner avoids. BMMA 35 (1940) pp. 3. pp. 12a.n. 79–96) should be noted. rather than a stream of smoke (p.K. Hayes. 26 (1). fig. No. Brunner’s study of this sign and its successors (Nachrichten Göttingen 1965. For the reversal of Old Kingdom ò (R6) both rightward and leftward (Ti III. cf. 6–11. pl. 17). The adjacent drawing is from a photograph made by Alexander Badawy. trap shown by Carnarvon and Carter. E. Egyptian Studies II. 8 (p). A and 12 (as opposed to pl.221): N. as pointed out by Hayes. pl. 0 T12—James K. A similar form combines _ and Ø as ( ).. viewed from the front. 210–214. 2. Jahreszeitenreliefs. The duck’s head reappears in an ivory model of such a trap (MMA 30.¡ at Saqqara. Scènes de la vie privée (Strasbourg. 163–164. For a much more detailed discussion of this question see Egyptian Studies III. see comments on G20 above). which occurs on a stela that may be equally early (BM 334. The confusion of ° with _ began somewhat earlier than Dyn. dating to the very beginning of Dyn. the very inexact version in Pierre Montet.

17. This detail may be compared with the single pellet on the basket of ). ü W4—The addition of û to a (see O22 above) dates from the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty. Rekh-mi-Re™. Private Tombs I. XI. Dyroff and B. figs. pl. pls. 216–219. 26. for which see BiOr 36 [1979]. Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian (Oxford. 63 (fragments from the temple of Amenophis I). 124). fig. the writings of s†£/st£ quoted by Raymond Faulkner. and the two signs only gradually became fused after the Old Kingdom. cf. pp. dating to the end of Dyn. these and older forms are discussed by Edel in Studies Presented to Hans Jakob Polotsky (East Gloucester. so too in Petrie Abydos II. the other in Firth and Gunn. 1978) pp. 33. and also in another inscription of the same reign. Hassan. During the 59 . pls. as Gardiner does. Tomb of Renni. Simpson. 213–214. The gradually more frequent addition of this detail was probably reinforced by the pattern set by ú (W1) and ¿ (Y1) in the Middle Kingdom. 1974]. fig. The ties appear in a Dyn. IV–V at Giza show the form . b8. as Gardiner points out. III example (Ìzy-R™: Cairo GG 1426). Teti Pyramid Cemeteries. pl. Fischer. 1981) pp. Egyptian Studies II. that the ties are omitted in examples earlier than Dyn. cit. K. quoted by Clère.A. IV. col. figs. 219. one shown here (from Wild. 86.. XVIII. with a single pellet on the top: LD II. XIX. u V2—An odd Middle Kingdom variant on Louvre stela C3. 218.. W. 2). The Four Egyptian Homographic Roots B-3 (Rome. Mass. 378–389. pl. Ward. 1962) pl.F. terminal pl. Une Chapelle. see the comments on A9 above. 4. 15) assimilates the horizontal element to the arrow of = (F29). Bersheh I. And at least one Middle Kingdom occurrence may be cited: Munich Gl. pl. 6. RdE 22 [1970]. and perhaps in Newberry and Griffith. 46.f ). Terrace of the Great God at Abydos [New Haven. p. ö V37—Middle Kingdom forms are discussed by Wm. 89. ï V32—It is not quite accurate to say. Also Abydos I. and at least two other Old Kingdom examples are known.ADDENDA @ T28—The round-bottomed form also occurs very sporadically (along with the normal form) in the earlier Eighteenth Dynasty: Tylor. f U30—Some examples of Dyns. 124. both from the reign of Sesostris I. For a further example of Old Kingdom see Egyptian Studies III. op. 21 [GG 20539]). of the latter. 35 (K. VI/3. pl. 24). But the ties are lacking in line i. Similar examples are also known from the early Middle Kingdom (Lacau and Chevrier. 56. pls. pl. Ti II. 255. 119. Pörtner. 62. Gîza II. 166–169. 5 (in the name R™-n-flrw. pl. pl. line 5 (Wm. 25.

IV– XII. a and ü were occasionally interchanged. finally curling outward on either side. more rarely later. Aa20—The Middle Kingdom variant (d) also occurs in A. Khafkhufu I and II. 219–222. But the top of the case soon.ADDENDA Middle Kingdom the forms Studies III. pp. 1935) p. variation at Bersha shows legs beneath the gameboard: Egyptian Studies III. In later examples these striations tend to become more everted. For details see Egyptian Studies III. È 60 . fig. pp. Other variants show a spout. 27 [reversed]). the thin case for the reed pens has a plain cap at either end. 222–225. pp. the most common of which shows a projecting stopper at the top of the jar ( ) or a flat-topped cap ( ): the first is known from Dyns. began to show vertical striations (the example shown here is from Simpson. as early as the reign of Cheops in Dyn. 86 (from Assiut). De Buck. ¬ Y3—In the earliest detailed examples. such as the one shown on the title page of this volume. Egyptian Coffin Texts I (Chicago. while the second is known from Dyns. 225–227. IV. 208–209. pp. See Egyptian ´ W14—There are several variants of this sign. Further details are given in Egyptian Studies III. VIII–XII. Kawab. ƒ Y5—An Eleventh Dyn.

For a Dyn. pl. Meir IV. 5.* Private Tombs IV. Gîza V. but perhaps again a mummy. also Menkheperrasonb. since it is the determinative of a circumlocution for “die. 23 and fig. 1942) p. 1928. 3. D36 D45 a b Simpson. of z£ and ¡ry like the one illustrated. from the New 61 . 4 (left.* Ptahhetep I. 164. Keimer. and Jéquier.* Ti. Die Gartenpflanzen im alten Ägypten (Berlin. M. and. col. XII occurrence of the type shown in Figure a. 7 (identical to A55 and certainly a mummy in this case. cf Smith.” it is not possible to follow him in concluding that: “It always appears in the hand of the hieroglyphic sign for ‘doorkeeper’ but usually so small as to be unrecognizable” (loc. Dec. but showing two projections rather than four. fig. as is represented more distinctly in a representation of the same doorkeeper on a fragment of his coffin: H. 24. pl. 42. Edel and Wenig. 27. Some Old Kingdom exx. 13. Gîza I. 1). pl. Khafkhufu I and II. II. fig. 101. A49 A55 Jéquier. Deshasheh (London. pl. 1 (and cf. 19. BIFAO 19 (1922) 74. the head is not distinguishable). 167. Petrie. Winlock. III. III. pl.). may be seen in M. the sign in question does not appear in the ¡ry-titles until after the Sixth Dynasty. Kawab.* For the later form (b). pl. XXVI example (MMA 28. Sect. 1978) Plans 22. Ptahhetep I. 124. 153. But even though Winlock may be right in considering the broom as the doorkeeper’s “badge of office. pl. 23. pl. XXVI exx. Lahun II. D21 D33 a b a b Ti. pl. 11 (determinative of s∂r.* For the goad cf. 1924) p. pl. that are more similar to Gardiner’s version: W. pl.” the figure carries a broom.” zb¡ n k£.” ¡ry-™t being only one of the several titles in which ¡ry is used. A47 Ti. For a more detailed example like Figure b. cit. see Petrie et al. 9. Das Grab des ™Anch-hor (Vienna. Monument funéraire de Pepi II.SOURCES AND SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES Sources of figures and supplementary references An asterisk (*) indicates that a hieroglyph has been reversed in the figure. 111. there is no hieroglyphic sign for “doorkeeper. E. from Davis. 4). p. see also RdE 30 (1978) p. F. pl. pl. 52). 17. 89 and n. History of Egyptian Sculpture and Painting in the Old Kingdom. Ti. secondly. Temple of King Sethos I. pl. Jahreszeitenreliefs.3. Calverley. see L. pl. Reiser-Haslauer. pl. In a semi-cursive Dyn. 5. Beni Hasan III. pp. 308–309 and fig. Hassan. 26 (figs. 167 (26). BMMA. The identification as lettuce is borne out by the fact that the same plant is. Bietak and E. also Junker. 1898) pl. Other Dyn. 4. Tomb of Siphtah. 153.48) belonging to the title Rj ¡ry-™t “doorkeeper. showing a slightly cupped hand. In the first place.. Excavations at Deir el Bahri 1911–1931 (New York.

pl. 179). History of Egyptian Sculpture and Painting in the Old Kingdom. Mersyankh III.. 8]. 1o7. of c: Ti. 6. pl. etc. 14 (as opposed to B in the same context. With nascent horns: Junker. 6 (c[1o]). pl. 1977) figs. Tombs of Two Officials of Tuthmosis the Fourth (London. pl. fig. 5. p. 7. B. 58. 21 (1). Another Middle Kingdom example without horns. fig. 13. reign of Sesostris I (seen from a photograph). (without horns): A.* Hassan. MDAIK 21 (1966) pl. 457 [n. Excavations at Saqqara 1937–38 I. 40. 455 [nn.SOURCES AND SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES Kingdom onward. N. pl. pl. Medum. Dunham and Simpson. reign of Sesostris III: Berlin 15801. 8]. D54 D61 a b James. 4. Abu Bakr. After Cottevieille-Giraudet. Egyptian Studies II.* Borchardt. Gîza VII. so too probably Hassan. pl. 67. 21). 11). de G. Arnold. 49. Excavations at Saqqara 1937–38 II. Ti. F29 F30 a b F32 F34 a b c Ti. 58. Manuel d’archéologie III. also CG 20026. Gîza V. 6. 39. 173.. ASAE 42 (1942) pp. Mereruka. 6. pl. referring to pl. 6.). Other exx. 5. 34 (b) (cf. 154. pl. Firth and Gunn. 138. Hieroglyphic Texts I2. Labrousse et al. 129. but this detail is correctly noted). 1913) pp. pl. cf. fig. Petrie. fig. fig. pl. fig. fig. 163. F35 Ti. Similar exx. Der Tempel des Königs 62 . Médamoud (1931): Les Monuments du Moyen Empire. Hassan. 41. the head of lettuce refers to ° “holy”. 29). fig. pp. Mersyankh III. Gîza XI. Other exx. 198–205. 1978) p. pl. pl. 452 [n. 84. Khentika. van de Walle. Ti. ibid. fig. Aegyptische Inschriften I (Leipzig. n. pl. 163. Keimer.* Ti. 14. fig. Giza. E9 E17 E21 E31 a b Ptahhetep I. p. For archaic forms see Godron. ASAE 54 (1956) pp. frontispiece and pl. 48. Egyptian Studies II. 38.* From photograph: Goedicke. 66 (7). For the striation of the tracheal cartilage after the Old Kingdom see D. but there termed “épi”). pl. Dunham and Simpson. 213 (B). 11]. figs. Teti Pyramid Cemeteries. fig. Davies. Le Temple… du roi Ounas (Cairo. 268 (badly drawn. 14. Chapelle de Neferirtenef (Brussels. 70B (and cf. At all events it seems likely that.* Smith. Grabdenkmal Åa£¢u-re™ II. 56. Saqqara Mastabas I. History of Egyptian Sculpture and Painting in the Old Kingdom. With long horns: Cairo CG 1435 (cols. held in the hands of block statues (Vandier. 1923) p. fig. 121. 258 f. 4. 27. in such cases..: Junker. Smith. James and Apted. 11 (as opposed to B on pl. 9. pl.

pl.* Ptahhetep I. 5 (but less rounded in pl. M. Dendera. Une Chapelle. Capart. Junker. 23.* Ti. G54 a b c Firth and Gunn. The crest reappears in an example from the Late Period (Dyn. épigraphie pl. Bothmer et al. Das Grab des Nianchchnum und Chnumhotep (Mainz/Rhein. F36 G1 a b Ti. Dendereh. Cottevieille-Giraudet. fig. see also Fischer. Une rue de tombeaux à Saqqarah (Brussels. 6). 70. pl. pl. 5. 155. Moussa and H.. pl. More rarely. Médamoud (1931): Les Monuments du Moyen Empire. Hieroglyphic Texts I2. 128. M2 a b c d Meir V. 99–101. also a Dyn.* Saqqara Mastabas I. pl. pl. N. 82 (7). Old Kingdom examples occasionally show the feathers projecting more separately from the back of the head. 23. Bissing. I6 K2 Meir V. the back of the head may be rounded. 40. Altenmüller. cf. 1978) fig. 270. 5 (B5). Khentika. A. 23.* Other Old Kingdom exx. cf. 1977) pl. Capart. 106. 5 (B9). Teti Pyramid Cemeteries.K. James and Apted. Vigneau. 12 (left). p. pls. and again in James. fig. Fakhry. JNES 18 (1959) fig.: Petrie. 261). fig. pl. 11. pl. pl. as in Ti. Ti. 26. pl. Hieroglyphs. pl.K.* From a photograph. Tomb of Nyhetep-Ptah at Giza and Tomb of ™Ankhm™ahor at Saqqara. pl. V. pl. pls. 4 (49.SOURCES AND SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES Mentuhotep von Deir el-Bahari II. pl. 9 (164. pl. fig. Alexander Badawy. 1960) pl.* James and Apted.). 32 and fig. James and Apted. Gîza III. XXV–XXVI): B.). 8. Re-Heiligtum II. Khentika. Ti. pl.* 63 . with pendant tail: Alexander Badawy. p. pl. Egyptian Sculpture of the Late Period (Brooklyn. as noted by Griffith in Hieroglyphs. 1o1. pl. IX ex. Lacau and Chevrier. in the Sixth Dynasty and later. Monuments of Sneferu at Dahshur II. also LD II. Tomb of Nyhetep-Ptah at Giza and Tomb of ™Ankhm™ahor at Saqqara (Berkeley. 7. 8C (bottom right). 1935) pl. 11. 181. J. Khentika. 22. p. 16. 15. pl. G27 G30 (G29) G35 G47 G51 a b Ti. Iike b: A. 15 (corrected from a photograph). 59.* Ti. 1930] fig. as in Ti. 34.* Leiden mastaba of Ìtp-¢r-£∞ty (from a photograph. Other exx. Encyclopédie photographique de l’art: Le Musée du Louvre I (Paris. 17. 29. Memphis [Brussels. 27. 6. pl. 111. 1947). 14.* Another example of b: J. pl. pl.

pl. 23. pl. Wb. Dyn. 51. Pyramid of Unas (Princeton. 22. 19. Jéquier. 1900) pl. 1932) pl. 64 . Re-Heiligtum III. 24. and for later exx. II. Mackay. like the one illustrated: Junker. Ó£r : W. Gîza V.¡). Gîza V. Cottevieille-Giraudet. Griffith (London. épigraphie pl. M. History of the Giza Necropolis I. 109. 54. 12. Beni Hasan I. 4. pl. II. 1968) pl. 303. 23 (but not pls. 5.* From a photograph: Alexandre Piankoff. XXVI: Clère. 26. Other exx. RdE 24 (1972). Une Chapelle.* For another Old Kingdom example like Fig. pl. Gîza I. 182. 59 (1). fig. fig. fig. 114. pl. Kuentz.. For Middle Kingdom exx. pl. Davies. 15. 55. pl. 174.* Junker. 30. Stèles de la XIIe Dynastie (Paris. Petrie and E. Montet. Kêmi 6 (1936) p. 34. 5. Dyn. XII exx. 38. b see Hassan. Firth and Gunn. Kafr Ammar and Shurafa (London. Beni Hasan I. M17 a b Ti. Fischer. 1o (16). N. Gîza X. 190. pl. 28. Also N: Hassan. Monument funéraire de Pepi II. 1930) pl. Antaeopolis (London. Bersheh II. 29 (408). Tomb of Sebeknekht (London. fig. fig. in Newberry and Griffith. Studies Presented to F. M15 Ti. 30. Urk. 111. Lacau and Chevrier. pls. pl. fig. 42. Gîza VI/3. pl. 9. Borchardt. Borchardt.* For the group ÕÕ in the Heracleopolitan Period. Gîza IV. 19. pl. see R. 24. XVIII exx. M22 Ti. 193. 8. pl. The same in a New Kingdom place name. 16.* Petrie. 34. A remarkably detailed New Kingdom example appears in Ramose. 8 (N-s∞£. F. observes only that there are examples from the Ptolemaic Period. Grabdenkmal Åa£¢u-re™ II. of Õ for à (Second Intermediate Period onward) see J.: A. Ch. Tomb of Renni (London. J. Ll. 1886) pl. Other clusters of two or more leaves as in b: Junker. 1971) pls. pl. Teti Pyramid Cemeteries. J. Coptite Nome. Médamoud (1931): Les Monuments du Moyen Empire. pl. 133 (10). Petrie et al. M13 From photograph: Reisner. M12 a b c Saqqara Mastabas I. 11. Leaves like b and c. 1. fig. 122. Gîza V. pls. pl. VII. p. Gîza II. Mond and O. etc. 39 (17). Temples of Armant. fig. 119. 20 (b).* Meir V. 1896) pls. fig. Bissing. Meir II. Also Dyn. 31. pl. 70). Tombs of Two Officials of Tuthmosis the Fourth. Lahun II. 97. p. pp. pl. pl. Pl. 15. 7. 1915) pl. Grabdenkmal Åa£¢u-re™ II. 64. de G. Myers. 20 (Grgt-⁄s∞£∞£). fig. 5. 40. Dendera. pl. Gîza V. Heliopolis. Hassan. see Fischer. Gayet. 37. La Face sud du massif est du pylone de Ramses II à Louxor (Cairo. H. but in other contexts (Old Kingdom names): Junker. II. For Old Kingdom examples of ≈ (M16) see Junker.SOURCES AND SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES M3 M11 a b c d e Ti. Tylor.

63. fig. Hieroglyphic Texts I2.* Reisner. Fakhry. N37 Saqqara Mastabas I. Khafkhufu I and II. 23. Meir III. Studies Presented to F. Middle Kingdom exx. Ll.SOURCES AND SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES M23 a b c Petrie. 1904) pl. 7. 8. 1967) pls. pl. pls. Une Chapelle. see Fischer. 17. Grabdenkmal Ne-user-re™. 27. 18. 112. pl. M26 a b Borchardt. pl. 1927) pl. W. 65 . Grabdenkmal Åa£¢u-re™ II. N.: Jéquier.* Jéquier. 9.* Other exx. pl. Saqqara Mastabas I. pls. M31 Junker. 86. 27. pl. Jahreszeitenreliefs. 6. 27. of a and b: Lacau and Chevrier. 3. 12. pl. Grammaire de l’égyptien classique (2nd ed. pl. 4o. 21 (1). pl. Edel. 19. Lutz. Junker. 31 and pl. 14–15. O4 O28 a b Ti. Newberry. 27. Temple of King Sethos I. fig. Jaarbericht. Monument funéraire de Pepi II. Simpson. Beni Hasan I. 17. dating to the end of the Old Kingdom and later. Egyptian Tomb Steles and Offering Stones (Leipzig. Monument funéraire de Pepi II. E. pl. unlike the following). Gîza III. figs.g. 117. F. N25 a b N28 N31 a b Saqqara Mastabas I. Other exx. Griffith.* Borchardt. Edel and Wenig. Davies. Capart. figs. M. Borchardt. pl. II. e. Grabdenkmal Åa£¢u-re™ II. 39. Cairo. Gîza III. Monuments of Sneferu at Dahshur II. 235. pl. 29. 1908) pl. Hassan. de G. 44. This is wrongly identified as “tige de lotus” by G. Monuments of Sneferu at Dahshur II. History of the Giza Necropolis I. Gîza VI/3. pl. 46. Lefèbvre. 34. 32. 105. Fakhry. Monuments of Sneferu at Dahshur II. 67. James.* For semi-cursive exx. of c: Cottevieille-Giraudet. fig. 257. II. Athribis (London. 14 (26). Dendera. Die Felsengräber der Qubbet el-Hawa bei Assuan II/1/1 (Wiesbaden. 403 (24a). Kawab. In an early Old Kingdom example.* Junker. Jozef Janssen. 1907) pl.* H. 55. Medum. Médamoud (1931): Les Monuments du Moyen Empire. Petrie. 108. Medum. the land-sign is detached from the bottom. Carter and P. see H. pl. 1955) p. IV. F.* From a photograph: J. Calverley. “Ex Oriente Lux” (Leiden) 12 (1951–52) pl. Junker. 18. Gîza I. pl. pl. Good hieratic exx. Iike b: Fakhry. 17. 33 (symmetrical. 97–100. 29. Middle Kingdom exx. fig. fig. 27. pls. in E. and for post-Old Kingdom exx. Gîza I. p. Bissing. 56. pl. 31 (N 11o). fig. Une Rue de tombeaux a Saqqarah II (Brussels. of the Theinhardt form. Saqqara Mastabas I.. fig. Tomb of Thoutmosis IV (Westminster. 7. pl. pl. Re-Heiligtum II. M40 a b c Petrie. In the Ramesside period the lower part of this sign is assimilated to the papyrus in G¬ (M24* + M13). fig. 1.

Detail of Hildesheim 1540 (from a photograph). 254 (3) (all confirmed). col. pl. pl. fig. 1952) pl. 420. Seven Memphite Tomb Chapels (London. 48–49 (same context). 6 (7) (= Müller. fig. 3 (42). Gîza III. I. 124. 4 (left. James. Firth and J. Saqqarah Mastabas I. P5 From a photograph: T. T. ASAE 29 [1928] p. 259 (cf. G. Deir el Gebrâwi II. Earlier exx. pl. pl. 14 (246). Saqqara Mastabas I. 42. H. Mastabas of Qar and Idu. pl. pl. pl. 5). VII. 1889) p. Picture Writing. Felsengräber. Re-Heiligtum III.* 66 . Petrie and M. 1974) pl. Mariette. pl. 6. 41. pl. O34 O44 P1 a b Meir IV. Tomb of Ìetepka (London. p. 23). 6. Mereruka. 134 (15 and note c). 231 (9) (= Newberry. Martin. Montet. figs. fig. E. Meir V. 25 (19). cf. pl. Step Pyramid II (Cairo. of a: Urk. fig. Gîza I. also Petrie. 123 *(facing left. Hieroglyphs. H. 139). Junker. 4. a: C. of c: A.* From a photograph: Petrie. From a photograph: Capart. another like it is from Aswan: Urk. 12. The last example is from Assiut. 21. 16. pl. 30. fig. 15. Kêmi 3 (1930) p.* Other exx. fig. pl. M. of this sign are sometimes even more slender than the one shown in Fig. The pattern of netting reappears in the New Kingdom example shown by Nina Davies. 1). Memphis. 1979) pl. But some independent exx. Quibell. Grabdenkmal Åa£¢u-re™ II.* Dunham and Simpson. Meir IV. VI inscriptions: Urk. Mersyankh III. pl. Dendereh. p. G. 40. pl. pp. Deshasheh. Les Mastabas de l’Ancien Empire (Paris. likewise show the oar in Dyn. pl. 34. 2. 8 (4). pl. 129 (15). Junker. 8 (116).* The oar appears in some Old Kingdom scenes where it reflects an adjacent representation: Simpson. but retaining rightward orientation). Q3 R8 Borchardt. I. a b P6 Bissing. Corpus of Hieroglyphic Inscriptions in The Brooklyn Museum I (Brooklyn. Monuments of Sneferu at Dahshur II. Ti. 52 and pl. 24 (and here the orientation likewise reflects the representation). 40. 1935) pl.SOURCES AND SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES O29 a b a b c a b c d Ptahhetep I. Fakhry. 1o. P4 a b c Ti. Murray.

Ti. Simpson. BMMA 28 (Nov. 29 (Nov. a faces left. I. 1o4. 17 [391] facing right). Tomb of Ìetepka. T13 a b c From a photograph: James. For the detail of the flagella see also Rekh-mi-Re-™. 27. XIX example see Ricke. Puyemrê. pl. figs. pl. 1967). 744b (T). Gîza IV. pl. c cf. 5.. JEA 2o (1934) pl. pl. Petrie. pl. figs. on the pattern of Œ (M24. Other exx. 120. 16. Ramose. VI/3. b. pl. see Saqqara Mastabas I. 17. For the later form. b faces right. Pt. 2). and for other Middle Kingdom examples of Fig. pls. Exx. Seven Memphite Tomb Chapels. Old Kingdom examples occur sporadically in the Pyr Texts: 157b (W). en-Amun. 3. 63 (reign of Amenophis I). 1933. this occurs on an unpublished block from Reisner’s Giza tomb 2043. 6. 20. Petrie and M. Rekh-mi-Re-™. B. The Terrace of the Great God at Abydos [New Haven. James. Koptos. 47. 27. T21 Ti. T25 a b c d Ti. Hieroglyphic Texts I2. Jahreszeitenreliefs. For another example like Fig. 1974]. 61. 40. rs). 17 (391). Davies. 20. reign of Sesostris I). pl. pl. For simpler forms of Fig. Hughes. 15. Terrace. 8 (18).* Ti. 25. fig. pl. Ti. Edel and Wenig. 3 (42). 32). pl. Calverley. 43. S34 T4 a b Saqqara Mastabas I. cit. 3. 21. en-Amun. pl. K. 170. Two Sculptors. pl. 56. (39). H. 25 (same) and Louvre C 34 (Wm. 8 (3. 1o6. 270b (W). 46. loc. c see E. Hassan. Martin. pl.. Fig. with the tie behind. For a Dyn. 27 (23). 3–4. while Fig. pls. 29 (1). see Menkheperrasonb. 24. 12. 1o. Wente. 67 . 1o (but not vol. fig. Beit el Wali (Chicago. in the name K£(. Junker. Corpus of Hieroglyphic Inscriptions in The Brooklyn Museum I. Murray. 2). pl. pl. Giza. 9 (reign of Sesostris I). fig. pl. Gîza IV. 6 (6. see Ptahhetep I. Gîza IX. pl. a see James. like b (with | inverted): ibid. 34. 4 (frontispiece). 5 (photograph). Egyptian Studies I. fig. 20. pl. 11. pl. 32 (1946) pl. fig. Pt. Also note that Gardiner’s primary reference for the meaning of ∂b£w as “floats” should now be revised to Mereruka. for other such exceptions. Petrie. 1934. fig. pl. III. pl. 68. pl. L. 4). 20 (same. 1612–1613 (N). Abydos. pl. 88. pl.* Junker. 36. Ptahhetep II. pl. 9. pl.* For Fig.SOURCES AND SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES S23 a b Ti. 1589b (N). pls. Temple of King Sethos I. 13. with a double barb. Gîza II. like b: Abu Bakr. pl. Also . 38. pl. 1968).¡)-rs. pls. Hassan. pls. Egyptian Paintings of the Middle Kingdom (New York. 38. 28.

25. fig. Loc. Another example like d for £b : Moh. 46 (£b). £b). pl. 68 . Fakhry. 20. 129. G. 105. pl. Rekh-mi-Re™. 10. 174. en-Amun. fasc. Herta Mohr.SOURCES AND SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES T26. Gebel es-Silsilah I. pl. 126. from the Middle Kingdom. 3). pl. 13 (£b. 112. 1974]. pls. W. Jahreszeitenreliefs. Buhen II. p. The Terrace of the Great God at Abydos [New Haven. of a: Edel and Wenig. pls. Davies. Abydos I. 133. pl.* Deir el Gebrâwi II.. 1963) pl. Mastaba of Hetep-her-akhti (Leiden. 40 (mr). cit. 234.K. pl. pl. mr).* Loc. 13. Petrie. I (1909) pl. 46. 1943) fig. 68 (mr). pl. pl. pl. pl. dating to the beginning of the following reign. Quibell in Le Musée Egyptien III. Aly et al. 13. 18. For mr: R. pl. U1 U6 a b Ptahhetep I. pl. A. pl. pl. more similar to b: Dunham and Simpson. Meir V. 27 a b c d Petrie. U23 U25 a b c Saqqara Mastabas I.* Ti. pl. The M. 24 (£b). also. 39. Mereruka. 24 (mr). 6. Simpson. Grabdenkmal Åa£¢u-re™ II. Medum. Ti. Other exx. A.* From a photograph: J. pl. pl. 15. Puyemrê II. Borchardt. James. 13. cit. Caminos and T. pl. pl. 36. and from the New Kingdom. Ti. Temple d’Amada IV.* Ptahhetep I. Mersyankh III. 62 (reign of Amenophis I). 62 (mr). cit. D. H. C29. Offering Chapel of Sekhem-ankh-Ptah (Boston. a b a b c d e U13 U20 U21 U22 Ti. U27 Deir el Gebrâwi I. again shows the cord at the center (Louvre C5. K.* Ti. E. Ramose. example of V25 dates to Sesostris III. Tombs of Two Officials of Tuthmosis the Fourth. 1976) pl. 13. 129. another relatively early example. fig. pl. Teti Pyramid Cemeteries. Firth and Gunn. Caminos. Monuments of Sneferu at Dahshur II. 15 (17. Other exx. 4. 17. The Gardiner form _ appears in Rekh-mi-Re-™. pl. Simpson. pl. 12. pl. 22. Gebel es-Silsilah I (London.* Reconstruction of use. Loc. Caminos and James. Beni Hasan I.

Buhen II. pl. U34 a b Firth and Gunn. 143–146. 19. Iike a and b: John Garstang. 114. 152. pl.. 7. 4 (3). Gardiner. V28 V29 a b c d e From a photograph: Goedicke. 42. 18. épigraphie pl. 44. pl. from the New Kingdom—Rekh-mi-Re-™. like the one illustrated: James. 85. Howard Carter in Beni Hasan IV. Mariette. p. 35. 3. Pt. pl. pl. 17. fig. 8 (3). T. Khentika. 164. p. similarly Ramose. Ti. Ti. 26 (2). ASAE 43 (1943) fig. pls. MDAIK 21 (1966) pl. 1903) fig. Gîza I. fig. 36 (newly drawn from a photograph). pls. Hassan. For a New Kingdom ex. Also at least one Middle Kingdom survival of this type: J. 156–157. pl. Further exx. 173. 8.* B. a slightly different form in JNES 16 (1957) pl. 25 a b Ti. 34 (all in names). p. Other exx. 124. Mastabas of Qar and Idu. Hassan. 1902) pl. like e: from the Old Kingdom—Simpson.SOURCES AND SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES U29 Mereruka. 3. Egyptian Studies II. pl.* Ti. pl. fig. James and Apted. 21. p. figs. fig. H. pls. 24. pl. pl. 1952) pl. E. pl. 15. Hieroglyphs. pp. pl.” see also Lexikon der Ägyptologie II. pls. Junker. 366. pl. 40. A. 168. 18 a b c d Borchardt. from the Middle Kingdom—Meir II. 19 (28). For the term ∞™t “wick. U30 a b Saqqara Mastabas I. 80 f. Die südlichen Räume. ◊erny. Mastabas de l’Ancien Empire. Menkheperrasonb. pl. Lacau and Chevrier.* Firth and Gunn. 174. van de Walle. U36 V2 a b Ti. 19 (C1). pl. 33.* Caminos. pl. 22. Ptahhetep I. 9 (180). de Morgan. note 2 and figure. Mastabas of Qar and Idu. 1978) pl. 26. 128. p. Grabdenkmal Åa£¢u-re™ II. 52. 35. 26 (8). Brunner. 21. 67 (corrected from photograph). 16. Peet and J. 500. 67. Mahâsna and Bêt Khallâf (London. 69 . 16. 174. pl. 19. Teti Pyramid Cemeteries. Fouilles à Dahchour en 1894–1895 (Vienna. of Figure b see Picture Writing. fig. Other exx. Inscriptions of Sinai I (London. fig. 35 (top left). Chapelle de Neferirtenef (Brussels. pl. V23 V24. 18. Hieroglyphic Texts I2. Une Chapelle. pls. Meir V. Drioton. Gîza VI. Ramose.* V4 V17. pl. 22 (a). Ti. Teti Pyramid Cemeteries. Gîza V. Ti. 33 (G). 37. Simpson.

Une Chapelle. 1. 71 (context same as c below). 1927) pl. ZÄS 45 (1908) pls. fig. Martin. Monument funéraire de Pepi II. 2 (16. MDAIK 5 (1934) pp. Hieroglyphic Texts I2. 3 (acc. VII. like b: Jéquier. Iike a: Ti. 70 . Early examples of the second form. 165. pl. pl 8. 54. 20. 12 (40. This amount of detail is also shown in Middle Kingdom examples: Lacau and Chevrier. Borchardt. pl. 16. 31 (and cf. W3 Junker. 124. Grabdenkmal Åa£¢u-re™ II. 19). H. pls. pl. F.9. 19 (9). are most apt to occur in semi-cursive writing: e. 9. Hieroglyphic Texts I2. of the double tier of jars: Jean Capart. JEA 45 (1959) p. pl. fig. 9. pl. BMMA 31 (1973) 127.* Other Old Kingdom exx. Cottevieille-Giraudet. 79–85. 28. For other exx. Egyptian Tomb Steles and Offering Stones (Leipzig. no. W. E. pl. History of the Giza Necropolis I. 33. 40. Lutz. 1935) pl. 45). fig. 35B). Saqqara Mastabas I. Scott. fig. New Kingdom examples could also be cited. having a shoulder and everted rim ( ). fig. 39. Macramallah. 166. Fouilles à Saqqarah: Mastaba d’Idout (Cairo. 49. pl. Recueil de monuments égyptiens II (Brussels. 18. 129 (= Borchardt. 241). fig. Aa27 Saqqara Mastabas I. Grabdenkmal Ne-user-re™. 11 (11). 3 (3). pl. In one Old Kingdom example (James. Other exx. Simpson. p. 1. Aa20 a b c d Borchardt.g. 19 (6). R. Grabdenkmal Ne-user-re™. pl. For the last cf. W24 Aa1 Ti. Quibell. Saqqara Mastabas I. El Kab (London. 169. Excavations at Saqqara 1937–38 I. Other exx. p. with diagonal striations. 40.5). 14). Borchardt. 7 (9). Felsengräber. Gîza III. Mastabas of Qar and Idu. Tomb of Ìetepka. pl. W11 W18 Adapted from J. 1898) pls. 6 (9). 120. Grabdenkmal Åa£¢u-re™ II. 26 [BM 658]) the shape of the bowl is different. see Balcz. Goedicke. fig. Grabdenkmal Åa£¢u-re™ II. 1905) pl. Müller. pl. James. II. 43.* a b Y2 Aa5 Aa17 Borchardt. pl.* Junker. Médamoud (1931): Les Monuments du Moyen Empire. pl. Iike b: H. Gardiner. pl. pl. 52. épigraphie pl. From a photograph: Reisner. Ti. 1oo ( = Hassan. W2 JNES 18 (1959) p.SOURCES AND SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES V31 a b Ti. Other exx. Gîza II. pl. This is normalized in Urk.

Gîza VII. E. fig. 50. 54.* 71 . 1903) pl. pl. Quibell.SOURCES AND SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES Aa29 a b c From a photograph: J.* Borchardt. Excavations at Saqqara (1911–12): Tomb of Hesy (Cairo. Grabdenkmal Åa£¢u-re™ II. 32. Junker.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. viii + 201 pp. Some Emblematic Uses of Hieroglyphs with Particular Reference to an Archaic Ritual Vessel. New York.00 $40.00 ANCIENT EGYPT IN THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM JOURNAL SUPPLEMENT. Russmann. numerous illustrations. An Egyptian Glass Vessel in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 7 x 101/4 . EGYPTIAN TITLES OF THE MIDDLE KINGDOM: A SUPPLEMENT TO WM. Herman De Meulenaere. WARD’S INDEX Second Edition. The Evolution of Composite Hieroglyphs. Edna R.00 ANCIENT EGYPTIAN EPIGRAPHY AND PALAEOGRAPHY With Ricardo Caminos Third The Recording of Inscriptions and Scenes in Tombs and Temples (Ricardo Caminos) Archaeological Aspects of Epigraphy and Palaeography (Henry G. 6 figs. Paper. La Statue d’un Chef de Chanteurs d’Epoque Saite. 83/4 x 111/4 . 56 pp." ANCIENT EGYPT IN THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM JOURNAL Volumes 1–11 (1968–1976) With other authors: Cyril Aldred. 9 figures in the text and 7 foldout drawings. The Statue of Amenemopeem-hat.00 Available from Book Sales Department. Birgit Nolte. An Elusive Shape within the Fisted Hands of Egyptian Statues. Fischer. Cloth. Volumes 12–13 (1977–1978) Three articles by Henry G. Fischer. Henry G. New York 10028 U. 81/2 x 11... Cloth.S.00 THE TOMB OF ⁄P AT EL SAFF 1996. More Emblematic Uses from Ancient Egypt. Notes on Sticks and Staves.. xxxiii + 264 pp. 48 duotone plates... 1987. Offering Stands from the Pyramid of Amenemhet I. Russmann Third printing. Redundant Determinatives in the Old Kingdom. Index by Edna R. 81/2 x 11. in the Egyptian Delta." $25. Second printing. Old Kingdom Cylinder Seals for the Lower Classes. Some Royal Portraits of the Middle Kingdom in Ancient Egypt. Some Early Monuments from Busiris. Paper. revised and augmented 1997. 9 x 111/2 . Cloth. 91/2 x 121/2 . More Ancient Egyptian Names of Dogs and Other Animals. 1996. vii + 60 pp.50 $15." $7. Sunshades of the Marketplace." $5. Fischer) edition. numerous drawings in the text. isbn 0-87099-934-6 ." $5. xvii + 88 pp. Paper.. 63 figs.A. 5 duotone plates.Other Egyptological Publications by the same author from The Metropolitan Museum of Art EGYPTIAN WOMEN OF THE OLD KINGDOM AND OF THE HERACLEOPOLITAN PERIOD Revised edition in preparation. xiii + 44 pp. The Mark of a Second Hand on Ancient Egyptian Antiquities. Duotone frontispiece. 1987." EGYPTIAN STUDIES III: VARIA NOVA 1996. 3 color plates.

and a selection of other signs that are either difficult to draw or that call for additional comment—a total of about 200 in all. along with the points made in the Introduction. emphasizing Old Kingdom models. at the same time learn a good deal about hieroglyphic palaeography. students will. to supplement the observations of Gardiner in the Sign List at the back of his Egyptian Grammar.copy t flap cke eft ja ide l Ins FISCHER ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CALLIGRAPHY The aim of this book is twofold: first. By familiarizing themselves with this material. is presented in 175 line drawings. The examples include all 24 of the common forms of “alphabetic” (monoconsonantal) signs. Comparative material. and secondly. Fourth Edition . to provide beginning students with stepby-step guidance in drawing hieroglyphs.

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