Platform Issue Paper

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No. 7 | October 2009

Platform Issue Papers are intended to share information and knowledge to advance the role and potential of ARD for sustainable and more equitable development. The Papers do not necessarily reflect the position of individual Platform members. Previous papers include: No. 1 Taking Stock after the Bonn Climate Change Talks: an ARD Perspective; No. 2 Addressing the Technicalities: What ARD Stakeholders Need to Do to Deliver on a Copenhagen Agreed Outcome; No. 3 An ARD Roadmap to Copenhagen; No. 4 Why and How to Include Agriculture in a Post 2012 Agreement; No. 5 Agriculture in the LCA; No. 6 Agriculture in the Climate Change Negotiations.
In view of the tight timeframe to analyse texts and publish this paper it may contain some errors and omissions. The Platform welcomes comments, either on the Platform's website or to secretariat@donorplatform.org

Agriculture and Climate Change: Issues for Barcelona
 

This paper provides a summary of the key points relating to agriculture from the UNFCCC Bangkok meetings in September and October. It also revisits the wider reasons for including agriculture in post-2012 agreements, highlights recent research and indicates what further knowledge is needed if agriculture is to be part of these agreements. Detailed analysis of the amendments to texts can be found at donorplatform.org/ip7.
 

Key points
Agriculture, food security and poverty are inextricably linked; 75% of the developing world’s poor and most of the hungry live in rural areas where the impacts of climate change on agriculture will be the greatest. Recent research indicates that, without adaptation, the impacts of climate change on agriculture and food security will be high1. For example, in South Asia, decreased yields could threaten the food security of 1.6 billion people and, in Africa, the number of malnourished children could increase by an extra 10 million to a total of 52 million by 2050. Agriculture is part of the challenge and part of the solution. Agriculture is a major emitter of greenhouse gases (about 14% of global emissions) but also has a high potential to mitigate emissions and sequester carbon. Investment in land-based agricultural mitigation options can provide the win–win–win of decreasing poverty and food insecurity, increasing resilience to climate change and promoting wider environmental benefits, while reducing emissions and storing carbon in agricultural soils.

Key Developments
There is now growing recognition in the negotiations that agriculture is important from both mitigation and adaptation perspectives. While reference to agriculture in LULUCF and adaptation section of the texts is limited, there has been discussion on whether a mix of explicit and implicit references is sufficient, especially if an introductory paragraph is included. The Informal Agriculture Dialogue (IAD) group met twice in Bangkok to discuss the references to agriculture in the negotiating texts and a possible agriculture work programme. A Parties-only subgroup under the Mitigation Contact Group was established to develop text on Cooperative Sectoral Approaches in the mitigation section which is now contained in Non-Paper 17. A consensus is emerging on the need for an agricultural work programme. The main issues are what the scope of a work programme might be, and whether to propose a work programme in Copenhagen or at the next SBSTA session in June 2010. In any event, detailed content would be established after Copenhagen.

Agriculture, climate change and poverty
Links and challenges
Key challenges facing the world today are how to feed 9.1 billion people by 2050 and how to reduce poverty through agricultural growth. FAO estimates that agricultural production will need to double in developing countries by 2050 to meet projected demand. To do this, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and in the face of climate change, is very challenging. Major adverse impacts on food production, and consequently food security and stability, in the developing world are expected to come from changes in temperature and more frequent droughts and floods. A study by IFPRI “Climate Change: Impact on Agriculture and Costs of Adaptation”1 found that without new technology and adjustments by farmers, climate change could reduce irrigated wheat yields by around 30% and irrigated rice yields by 15% in developing countries, which would result in 25 million more malnourished children by 2050.

1] IFPRI (2009) Climate Change: Impact on Agriculture and Costs of Adaptation. Food Policy Report. http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/fil es/publications/pr21.pdf

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Platform Issue Paper | No. 7
Agriculture is the mainstay of 75% of the developing world’s poor, therefore any solutions to poverty reduction and to building resilience to climate change have to involve agricultural improvement. Agriculture and food security are fundamental to wider development initiatives. For example, the Global Hunger Index 20092 links hunger directly to war and conflict, and more widely to other development issues, for example literacy rates and access to education for women.
 

Agriculture is part of the challenge and part of the solution, as it is a major emitter of greenhouse gases (about 14% of global emissions) but also has the potential to mitigate emissions and sequester carbon.  The “2010 World Development Report on Development and Climate Change”3 and the “International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development”4 (IAASTD) encourage the promotion of ‘win–win–win’ agricultural practices that enhance food security and livelihoods for the poor, improve resilience to climate change, and reduce net greenhouse gas emissions and impacts on the environment. These include conservation agriculture, low-tillage, drip irrigation, silvo-pastoral systems and leguminous cover crops that increase infiltration and soil fertility.
 

Agriculture is important for safeguarding the environment (MDG7). It helps preserve biodiversity, and can aid in mitigating the effects of climate change. Many agricultural producers often use several varieties and crops in the same field, and in that way they mitigate risks and ensure greater food security while making efficient use of land. There is scope to go much further. For example, the UN Commission for Sustainable Development has stressed that farming will be a major contributor to global environmental objectives, notably by meeting the need for clean fresh water through watershed management, biodiversity conservation, and mitigating and adapting to climate change.

Agriculture in the negotiating text
Where, why and what agricultural text should be in the Copenhagen text?
Sustainable agriculture is critical to reducing poverty, for improving the lives of the poorest and most vulnerable in our global society, and for helping reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. But where does agriculture need to be referenced in the Copenhagen text to help achieve these objectives? Participants in the Informal Dialogue on Agriculture cautioned against too many mentions of agriculture and advised a focused approach. This could include specific mention of agriculture in priority sections, while recognising that implicit reference in other places would suffice. This section now identifies these priorities in the Kyoto Protocol and Long-Term Cooperative Action text.
 

A pro-poor focus in agriculture
A pro-poor lens is important because of the potential negative impacts of climate change on the poorest. In current texts the concerns and needs of the poorest and most vulnerable developingcountry Parties are mentioned many times. In Bangkok the first mention of concerns about poor and marginalised farmers emerged in the new Non-Paper 17 text proposed by the Informal Contact Group on Agriculture (App. II: 3.1.2)5]. In order to address the needs of the poor, several questions remain. These include: What are the potential implications of initiatives proposed, including carbon markets, technology transfer, intellectual property rights, insurance and financing for adaptation, for the poor? Most CDM projects to date have been located in middle-income developing countries, and have tended to exclude the poorest. How can this be addressed, and what monitoring and regulatory procedures are appropriate?
 

AWG Kyoto Protocol discussions: LULUCF and project-based mechanisms
Despite wider progress on LULUCF, discussions did not progress significantly on including aspects of agriculture beyond croplands and grasslands (App. II: 1.2). A decision has not been reached on whether voluntary or mandatory approaches to land-based emission reductions should be taken (App. II: 1.3.1). No decision has been made on whether a new or reformed CDM would include agricultural soil carbon (App. II: 1).
 

2] IFPRI (2009) Global Hunger Index 2009 http://www.ifpri.org/publication/200 9-global-hunger-index 3] WDR (2010) Climate Change and Development www.worldbank.org/wdr2010 4] IAASTD (2008) http://www.agassessment.org 5] References to App. II refer to Appendix II of this Issue Paper, which can be downloaded from donorplatform.org/ip7

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AWG Long-Term Cooperative Action discussions: Shared Vision for Long-Term Cooperative Action
The Shared Vision was discussed in the Informal Agriculture Dialogue group. It was noted that in Article 2 of the Convention there is explicit reference to food security: stabilization of the

concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere should be at a level that avoids threatening food production, allows natural adaptation of ecosystems and enables sustainable economic development (App.II: 7.4.1).
In developing the Shared Vision it will be important to maintain this consideration in the text. This would include text in Non-Paper 17 that was drafted in the context of 1 b (iv) of the Bali Action Plan. Adaptation and mitigation linkages and potential synergies with agriculture could be further highlighted in this section. It should be noted that this text is perceived as more political than technical in nature (App. II: 7). Coherent implementation is required across country-level and related international processes.
 

Mitigation
Agriculture is one of the few sectors where potential synergies of actions on adaptation and mitigation are clear (App. II: 3.1.2; 3.1.6). Issue Paper No. 4 argued that the co-benefits of adaptation and mitigation need to be recognised and rewarded. However, the two sets of activities have been separated historically in developing the KP and LCA texts, and often in practice in funding mechanisms. For example, NAPAs are already being executed whilst NAMAs are still only being discussed. Developing countries want a focus on adaptation but also recognise the need for mitigation to lessen the extent of long-term adaptation required. Developing low-carbon agricultural practices and controlling emissions from agriculture will be central to this. This will be important in developing new rules and any new funding mechanisms so that co-benefits can be achieved. Agriculture has been discussed specifically in the sectoral approach under the mitigation section of the LCA, where the word ‘agriculture’ was re-instated in the text in the related non-paper (NonPaper 17 App. II: 3). Non-Paper 18, discussing REDD, also mentioned sustainable agriculture and forestry in relation to funding proposals (App. II: 4.1.2; 4.7.1).
 

Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) (Section 1b): I (b) (ii): Cooperative Sectoral Approaches (App. II: 3), and I (b) (iv): Potential Social and Economic Consequences (App. II: 5).  Proposals for NAMA programmes are broadly supported but there are questions on how these would be developed. A NAMA process could involve assessing the potential for, and prioritising, mitigation activities and options that would feed into a national mitigation budget system. In agriculture, soil carbon sequestration can be effected through agriculture-related techniques (such as no tillage, drip irrigation and modified livestock management). NAMAs in developing countries are mainly discussed in 1 (b) (ii) under mitigation (App. II: 3). In this section, agriculture is specifically named as a sector that NAMAs may cover (App. II: 3.1). Agriculture is also currently mentioned in the context of 1 (b) (iii) on REDD-plus activities (App. II: 4.7.1). In the new text put forward by the Contact Group on Mitigation and its Means of Implementation (1 b (ii) NAMAs: Non-Paper 26), agriculture is specifically named as a sector that NAMAs may cover under the auspices of REDD-plus activities (App. II: 5.1.1; 5.7.1). If agriculture were to be included in the NAMAs several questions arise:  What are the overlaps between NAMAs and NAPAs in the agriculture sector, and how can these be overcome to ensure coherence and achieve environmentally sustainable and resilient agriculture? What mechanisms are needed to ensure NAMAs are coherent with countries’ poverty reduction plans and approaches? How might the funding mechanism(s) work? With issues of governance, planning, logistics and execution still to be resolved, how would these benefit the millions of poor farmers? What key elements of MRV are required, and when will they be adequately developed for use? 

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Platform Issue Paper | No. 7
Adaptation
Issue Paper No. 4 discussed whether agriculture needs to be explicitly included as a priority sector for adaptation, and adequate funding channelled to this sector. While the current text in Non-Paper 316] specifically on adaptation retains only indirect references to agriculture (with mentions of rural development, for example), the Informal Contact Group on Agriculture noted the current text provides room for adaptation finance to be directed to agriculture, and that it is important not to crowd the text with sectoral references. There is, however, no agreement on this issue.
 

         
   

Finance
Currently sections on finance in Non Paper 347] do not refer specifically to activities relating to agriculture, but could also implicitly include agriculture. The Bangkok discussions introduced text that highlighted different positions on whether sources of finance should be public funds or private funds. Two further questions that are important to address in the LCA text and KP texts related to agriculture are: Where financing is significant and focussed on the poor, how should it be used for agricultural activities? How can finance initiatives on adaptation and mitigation be designed to work in concert rather than as separately managed streams?
 

Technology transfer
There are differing views on Intellectual Property Rights and access to adaptation-related technologies. Discussions focus on adequate compensation for technology development, and financing arrangements to facilitate developing-country access to technologies8]. Without resolution of these issues there will be less incentive to develop technologies that benefit the poorest. This would continue the pattern of previous developments in agricultural technology which have tended to benefit richer farmers. It will therefore be desirable to find a solution which does allow technologies for poor farmers to be developed.

Further issues
A Global Alliance for Agriculture Mitigation Research was proposed by New Zealand in Bonn, and discussions have progressed on this area. An agriculture work programme under SBSTA has been proposed (App. II: 3.1.6). This could look at unresolved issues around monitoring, recording and verification (MRV) of carbon in agriculture as well as taking a wider focus. Potential areas include: How can MRV be made efficient and effective to assist the introduction of land-based carbon sequestration? How important are the expanding and deepening carbon markets as potential funding sources for, and shapers of, agriculture? Could (and should) the poor be engaging in these markets? If so, how? How would poor farmers benefit from adaptation and mitigation? What are climate-resilient practices and how can these be made pro-poor? What is the mitigation potential of different systems and approaches proposed for sustainable agriculture and carbon sequestration? How can they be designed and executed in a pro-poor manner and help achieve food security? Does the whole paradigm of agricultural development need to be redesigned with sustainability and low-carbon development and emissions at its core? If so, what are the trade offs and challenges in transforming the paradigm into sustainable agricultural approaches and pratices that are economically attractive for small farmers, agribusiness and national governments, and achieve long term food security? How can the additional agricultural investments relating to climate change (and the potential additional, separate funding streams) be coordinated most effectively at international and national levels to ensure maximum farm-level impact? What are the implications of wider global agreements on how agriculture might respond to the need for mitigation and adaptation? These include efforts to promote liberalisation of trade of agricultural products through the WTO, genetic resource

6] Non Paper 31: Adaptation http://unfccc.int/files/kyoto_protoco l/application/pdf/31adap201009v6.p df 7] Non Paper 34: Finance http://unfccc.int/files/kyoto_protoco l/application/pdf/34fin201009v02.pd f 8] Non-Paper 29 Technology transfer http://unfccc.int/files/kyoto_protoco l/application/pdf/technology290910 09v03.pdf

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Platform Issue Paper | No. 7
conservation through the Convention on Biodiversity and the impact of intellectual property rights through the TRIPS agreement. A coherent and integrated understanding of global opportunities and constraints for agriculture within these frameworks will provide a clearer picture of the possibilities for agreements related to climate change, and the true potential of adaptation and mitigation.

Conclusions
Progress on addressing agriculture in the negotiation texts is now being made. The questions set out in Issue Paper No. 6 are still valid and need to be considered in the remaining negotiations: Does agriculture have a unique role in adaptation because of its potential for mitigation? If so, does agriculture need to be included in sectoral references and given specific mention? Where agriculture is mentioned, what does this mean for developing countries and smallholder farmers? Does the pro-poor aspect need to be emphasised when mentioning the sector? Will activities under LULUCF in the second commitment period include agriculture-based activities, and will these be mandatory or voluntary? Should agriculture activities be in NAMAs, or the CDM, or both? What are the best mitigation financing mechanisms for agriculture to help reduce GHG emissions and generate co-benefits for resilience, poverty reduction and food security? Should agriculture be part of REDD-plus now, or brought in at a later stage after further research and analysis, or should a new mechanism be developed for agriculture? What are the technical issues (mitigation and adaptation) that an agriculture work programme should include? A further issues paper will look at these issues and on progress at the Barcelona meeting. The paper will be published ahead of the Copenhagen meeting in December.

Upcoming events
Barcelona: Monday 2nd Nov 13:00–15:00 Climate Change and its Impact on Food Insecurity and Hunger. International

Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and partners side event.
Thursday 5th Nov 18:00-19:30 Options for Agriculture on the Road from Copenhagen. The event will examine options for action in moving ahead with mitigation in agriculture. FAO side event. 19:45-21:15 Turning climate change challenges into opportunities for sustainable rural development. IFAD side event. Friday 6th Nov 09:00-10:30 Meeting Research Needs for Implementation of Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses (AFOLU). Terrestrial Carbon Group and the World Bank side event. Copenhagen: Thursday 10th Dec 13:00-14:30 FAO side event Saturday 12th Dec Agriculture and Rural Development Day Sunday 13th Dec Forest Day 3

List of Appendices
I. Current Non-Papers and how they correspond to different sections of the KP and LCA texts. II. Detailed text analysis of selected texts            

Issue Paper No. 7 and appendices at donorplatform.org/ip7

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Platform Issue Paper | No. Platform Issue Paper | No. 7 7
 

Table I - Glossary of Terms
AFOLU AWG AWG-KP Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses Ad hoc Working Group Ad hoc Working Group – Kyoto Protocol (comprises emissions reductions, mitigation) Ad hoc Working Group - Long-term Cooperative Action (comprises shared vision, mitigation, adaptation, technology and finance) Agricultural and rural development The third UNFCCC meeting of the parties in Bonn in 2009 (August 10-14). This meeting was an ‘informal’ meeting held between the formal sessions. Clean Development Mechanism Global Donor Platform for Rural Development Greenhouse gases Integrated Land and Water Resource Management Kyoto Protocol Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry Monitoring, reporting and verification Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions National Adaptation Programmes of Action Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

AWG-LCA

ARD Bonn III

CDM GDPRD GHGs ILWRM KP LULUCF MRV NAMA NAPA REDD REDD-Plus

SBSTA UNFCCC

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Appendix I
 
[A complete version including the options is available at www.donorplatform.org/ip7]

Current Non-Papers and how they correspond to different Platform Issue Paper No. 7 | October 2009 sections of the KP and LCA texts
Note: The non-papers are available at http://unfccc.int/meetings/ad_hoc_working_groups/lca/items/5012.php

Appendix II
[Comment on this paper and downloads at www.donroplatform.org/ip7]

Platform Issue Paper No. 7 | October 2009
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publish this paper it may contain some errors and omissions. The Platform welcomes comments, either the Platform's website or to secretariat@donorplat form.org

Text analysis of selected Bangkok UNFCCC documents for agriculture-related terms
Note
This Appendix is part of the Platform Issues Paper no. 7: Agriculture and Climate Change: Issues for Barcelona – November 2009. The Paper provides a report of the key issues around agriculture furthered during, the AWG-KP 9th session and the AWG-LCA 7th Session held in Bangkok 28th September – 9th October 2009, and prior to Barcelona’s resumed session on 2-6th November 2009. The GDPRD Issues Papers are intended to inform those involved, or with an interest, in UNFCCC negotiations and a new climate change agreement in Copenhagen in December 2009, on issues related to agriculture. The Papers do not reflect the position of Platform members, nor can they claim infallibility, due to short turnaround times involved. This Appendix investigates changes between previous texts proposed and new texts selected for analysis. The analysis included a word search of key agriculture-related terms and an assessment of critical issues for agriculture which may currently be absent from, or poorly reflected in, the current texts. Text extracts were created of those mentions deemed useful and these were collated by key word. There is some repetition of extracts where more than one key word is mentioned in the same paragraph. Some readers may be interested in just one or two key words, so relevant extracts are repeated under each key word. The proposed options for each paragraph are also included, which again leads to some repetition. Where changes have been made to previous versions, the previous text is included. Where there have been no changes readers are referred to previous text analysis versions undertaken by the GDPRD. Links from the main Issue Paper text are designed for ease of accessing the relevant Appendix II text to be interpreted. For example AII: 2.4.2 means Appendix II/Document 2/ Section 4 (which is Food/Food Security)/Text Reference#2. AII 1.1.1 means Appendix II/Document 1/Section 1 (Agriculture)/Text Reference#1.

Table of Contents 
Document: Ad Hoc working group on further commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol FCCC/KP/AWG/2009/10/Add.2......................................AII.2 Document: Draft decisions on other issues identified in paragraph 49 (c) of document FCCC/KP/AWG/2008/8 FCCC/KP/AWG/2009/10/Add.3/Rev.2....................................AII.4 Non-Paper 17: Cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific action................................AII.9 Non-Paper 18: Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to REDD in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable managment of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries.........AII.11 Non-Paper 26: Nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing country Parties (20/10/09)”..............................................................................................................AII.20 Non-Paper 32: Economic and social consequences of response measures..................................AII.24 Non-Paper 33: CONTACT GROUP ON A SHARED VISION FOR LONG-TERM COOPERATIVE ACTION. Revised annex I to document FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2 (23/10/09)”....AII.26

Reading the text extracts – a key to symbols and terms used
Brackets around text mean that this is an optional element in the text. Both types of brackets show an optional element in the text (i.e. can be removed or left in): { } are options added by the Chair in the original negotiation text. [ ] are options added by Parties in the SBSTA round of talks. x is used to number sections where new text has been added (i.e. x.1, x.2 etc.). Options are different possibilities for consideration within a paragraph statement. Alternatives are more substantial sections to be considered as substitutes.

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Appendix II

Platform Issue Paper | No. 7

Document: Ad Hoc working group on further commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol FCCC/KP/AWG/2009/10/Add.2
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/awg9/eng/10a02.pdf Published 01.07.09
 

Description
This addendum is a compilation of proposals by Parties for other amendments to the Kyoto Protocol. It has been prepared by the Chair of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP), under his own responsibility, building on the work of the AWG-KP at its eighth session

Key points:
Proposals to include agriculture as sectoral emissions under Annex A – agriculture, agricultural soils and agricultural residues Proposal to broaden the scope and include agricultural land conversion into the calculations of emissions See previous Issues Paper 6 (Appendix 1) for details of text: http://www.donorplatform.org/component/option,com_docman/task,doc_view/gid,1141

Terms
No. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Topic Agriculture Bioenergy / biofuels Crop Food / food security Land use / land-use change and forestry / LULUCF Livestock REDD (only when related to agriculture) Rural development Soil (i.e. soil carbon sequestration) Energy (only when related to agriculture) Marine / fisheries AFOLU ILWRM Total No. of mentions 2 0 2 0 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 14

See Previous Issues Paper 6 Appendix 1 for details of text donorplatform.org/ip6

Agriculture
1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 (P. 3, Para. 11, Section “Proposals for Article 3, Paragraph 3”). There are no changes at all in the way agriculture is mentioned when compared to the previous version. (P. 18, Section “Proposals for Annex A”, Option 1) There are no changes at all in the way agriculture is mentioned when compared to the previous version. (P. 20, Section “Proposals for Annex A”, Option 3) There are no changes at all in the way agriculture is mentioned when compared to the previous version. (P. 20, Section “Proposals for Annex A”, Option 3, Note) There are no changes at all in the way agriculture is mentioned when compared to the previous version. Not mentioned as in the previous version. (P. 4, Para. 17, Section “Proposals for Article 3, paragraph 4”, Option 1) There are no changes at all in the way crops are mentioned when compared to the previous version. (P. 18, Section “Proposals for Annex A”, Option 1) There are no changes at all in the way crop is mentioned when compared to the previous version.

1.2 Bioenergy / biofuels
1.2.1 1.3.1 1.3.2

1.3 Crop

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AII.2

Appendix II
1.3.3

Platform Issue Paper | No. 7
(P. 20, Section “Proposals for Annex A”, Option 3) There are no changes at all in the way crop is mentioned when compared to the previous version. Not mentioned as in the previous version. (P. 3, Para. 10, Section “Proposals for Article 3, paragraph 2”) There are no changes at all. (P. 3, Para. 11, Section “Proposals for Article 3, Paragraph 3”). There are no changes at all. (P. 3-4, Para. 12, Section “Proposals for Article 3, Paragraph 3”, Options 1-2). There are no changes at all. (P. 4, Para. 15, Section “Proposals for Article 3, Paragraph 3”). There are no changes at all. (P. 4, Para. 16, Section “Proposals for Article 3, Paragraph 4”). There are no changes at all. (P. 5, Para. 22, Section “Proposals for Article 3, Paragraph 7”). There are no changes at all. (P. 20, Section “Proposals for Annex A”, Option 3) There are no changes at all. (P. 20, Section “Proposals for Annex A”, Option 3) There are no changes at all. Not mentioned as in the previous version. Not mentioned as in the previous version. Not mentioned as in the previous version.

1.4 Food / food security
1.4.1 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4 1.5.5 1.5.6 1.5.7 1.6.1 1.7.1 1.8.1 1.9.1

1.5 Land use / land use change and forestry, LULUCF

1.6 Livestock 1.7 REDD 1.8 Rural development 1.9 Soil (i.e. soil carbon sequestration) 1.10
1.10.1

Energy (only related to agriculture)
Not mentioned as in the previous version.

1.11
1.11.1

Marine / fisheries
Not mentioned as in the previous version.

1.12
1.12.1 1.12.2 1.12.3 1.12.4

AFOLU
(P. 3, Para. 11, Section “Proposals for Article 3, Paragraph 3”). There are no changes at all. (P. 18, Section “Proposals for Annex A”, Option 1) There are no changes at all. (P. 20, Section “Proposals for Annex A”, Option 3) There are no changes at all. (P. 20, Section “Proposals for Annex A”, Option 3, Note) There are no changes at all.

1.13
1.13.1

ILWRM
Not mentioned as in the previous version.

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Appendix II

Platform Issue Paper | No. 7

Document: Draft decisions on other issues identified in paragraph 49 (c) of document FCCC/KP/AWG/2008/8 FCCC/KP/AWG/2009/10/Add.3/Rev.2
http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2009/awg9/eng/10a03r02.pdf Published 19/10/09
 

Note
This addendum is a compilation of proposals by Parties for elements of decisions to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) at its fifth session. It has been prepared by the Chair of the AWG-KP and includes: Annex I: Proposals for elements of draft CMP decisions on emissions trading and the projectbased mechanisms Annex II: proposals on how to address definitions, modalities, rules and guidelines for the treatment of LULUCF Annex III: Proposals for elements of draft CMP decisions on greenhouse gases, sectors and source categories; common metrics to calculate the carbon dioxide equivalence of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks; and other methodological issues are contained in annex III. Annex IV Proposals for elements of draft CMP decisions on other issues are contained in annex IV. Annexes I, II and III reflect modifications to the corresponding annexes to document FCCC/KP/AWG/2009/10/Add.3/Rev.1. Annex IV is the same as the corresponding annex to document FCCC/KP/AWG/2009/10/Add.3.
 

Key points: Changes in this revision relating to agriculture are very minor relating to agriculture Where the text has changed where these terms are involved, the relevance for agriculture is limited See GDPRD analysis of previous version (Add. 3/Rev. 1) in September 2009 for more detail of the text analysis http://www.donorplatform.org/component/option,com_docman/task,doc_view/gid,1140

Terms
No. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Topic Agriculture Bioenergy / biofuels Crop Food / food security Land use / land-use change and forestry / LULUCF Livestock REDD (only when related to agriculture) Rural development Soil (i.e. soil carbon sequestration) Energy (only when related to agriculture) Marine / fisheries AFOLU ILWRM Total No. of mentions 3 11 14 0 31 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 60

2.1 Agriculture
2.1.1 (P. 2, Para. 2, Option 2, Annex I, Subsection “In relation to land use, land-use change and forestry activities under the clean development mechanism). There is a change in the numeral; from 1bis to 2. Additionally, after mentioning “Option 2” the new version has “Paragraphs 2-4” in brackets. (P. 13, Para. 1, letter (g), Annex II, Option A, Section A. Definitions) There are no changes at all.

2.1.2

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Appendix II
2.1.3 2.2.1

Platform Issue Paper | No. 7
(P. 28, Para. 13, Annex II, Option B, Section D. General). There are no changes at all. (P. 6, Para. 22, Option 2, Annex I, Sub-section “In relation to improving regional distribution and access to project activities under the clean development mechanism”). There is a new article indicating that project activities under 5 megawatts shall be assumed to meet the requirement of additionality.

2.2 Bioenergy / biofuels

“Option 2 (paragraphs 22–24): 22. Decides that project activities [under [5] megawatts] that employ renewable energy (such as solar power, wind power, renewable biomass energy, geothermal energy or small hydropower) or clean fossil fuel technologies [(such as cogeneration, combined cycle or fuel switching)] as their primary technology, and energy efficiency project activities of a scale less than [20] gigawatt hours per year, [shall be assumed to meet the requirement of additionality];”
2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7 2.2.8 2.2.9 2.2.10 2.2.11 (P. 13, Para. 1, letter (d bis), Annex II, Option A, Section A. Definitions). There are no changes at all. (P. 13-14, Para 1, letter (e bis), Option 1, Annex II, Option A, Section A. Definitions). There are no changes at all. (P. 14, Para 1, letter (r), Option 1, Annex II, Option A, Section A. Definitions). There are no changes at all. (P. 16, Para. 6 bis, Option 2, Annex II, Section C. Article 3, paragraph 4). There are no changes at all. (P. 17, Para. 9 bis, Annex II, Section C. Article 3, paragraph 4). There are no changes at all. (P. 22, Para. 20, Annex II, Section E. General). There is a change in the number of the paragraph from 21 to 20. (P. 23, Para. 21 bis, Option 2, Annex II, Section E. General). There is a change in the number of the option where biomass is mentioned from Option 3 to Option 2. (P. 24, Para. 21 sexies, Option 2, Annex II, Section E. General). There is a change in the number of the option where biomass is mentioned from Option 3 to Option 2. (P. 26, Para. 2,Option 2 addendum, Annex II, Option B, Section B. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions and removals). There are no changes at all. (P. 27, Para. 11, Option 2, Annex II, Option B, Section D. General). There are no changes at all. (P. 2, Para. 2, Option 2, Annex I, Subsection “In relation to land use, land-use change and forestry activities under the clean development mechanism). There is a change in the numeral; from 1bis to 2. Additionally, after mentioning “Option 2” the new version has “Paragraphs 2-4” in brackets. (P. 13, Para. 1, letter (g), Annex II, Option A, Section A. Definitions) There are no changes at all. (P. 15, Para. 5, Option 1, Annex II, Section C. Article 3, paragraph 4). There is a change only in the number of the paragraph from 6 to 5. (P. 16, Para. 6, Option 2, Annex II, Section C. Article 3, paragraph 4). There are no changes at all. (P. 16, Para. 8, Option 2, Annex II, Section C. Article 3, paragraph 4). There is a change only in the number of the paragraph from 9 to 8. (P. 25, Para. 1,letter (c), Annex II, Option B, Section A. Definitions). There are no changes at all.

2.3 Crop
2.3.1

2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6

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2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10 2.3.11 2.3.12 2.3.13 2.3.14

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(P. 25, Para. 1,letter (d), Annex II, Option B, Section A. Definitions). There are no changes at all. (P. 25, Para. 1,letter (e), Annex II, Option B, Section A. Definitions). There are no changes at all. (P. 25, Para. 1,letter (f), Annex II, Option B, Section A. Definitions). There are no changes at all. (P. 25, Para. 1,letter (g), Annex II, Option B, Section A. Definitions). There are no changes at all. (P. 25, Para. 2, Option 1, Annex II, Option B, Section B. Accounting rules for greenhouse gas emissions and removals). There are no changes at all. (P. 26, Para. 2,Option 2, Annex II, Option B, Section B. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions and removals). There are no changes at all. (P. 26, Para. 4, Annex II, Option B, Section B. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions and removals). There are no changes at all. (P. 26, Para. 5, Option 1, Annex II, Option B, Section B. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions and removals). There are no changes at all. Not mentioned as in the previous version. (P. 1, Para. 2). There are no changes at all. (P. 2, Para. 1, Option 2, Annex I, Subsection “In relation to land use, land-use change and forestry activities under the clean development mechanism). There are no changes at all. (P. 2, Para. 2, Option 2, Annex I, Subsection “In relation to land use, land-use change and forestry activities under the clean development mechanism). There is a change in the numeral; from 1bis to 2. Additionally, after mentioning “Option 2” the new version has “Paragraphs 2-4” in brackets. (P. 2, Para. 3, Annex I, Subsection “In relation to land use, land-use change and forestry activities under the clean development mechanism). There is a change in the numeral; from 2 to 3. (P. 3, Para. 4, Annex I, Subsection “In relation to land use, land-use change and forestry activities under the clean development mechanism). There is a change in the numeral; from 3 to 4. (P. 10, Para. 56, Annex I, Subsection “In relation to ensuring consistency between approaches for land use, land-use change and forestry projects under joint implementation and the treatment of clean development mechanism afforestation and reforestation project activities”). There is a change in the numeral from 44 to 56. (P. 12, Para. 1, Annex II, Option A, Section A. Definitions) There are no changes at all. (P. 13, Para. 1, letter (h), Annex II, Option A, Section A. Definitions) There are no changes at all. (P. 14, Para. 1 ter., Option 1, Annex II, Option A bis). There are no changes at all. (P. 14, Para. 1 quinquies, Option 1, Annex II, Option A bis). There are no changes at all. (P. 18, Para. 11, Annex II, Section C. Article 3, paragraph 4). There is a change in the numeral from 12 to 11. (P. 19, Para. 12, Annex II, Section D. Article 12). There is a change in the numeral from 13 to 12.

2.4 Food / food security
2.4.1 2.5.1 2.5.2

2.5 Land use / land use change and forestry, LULUCF

2.5.3

2.5.4

2.5.5

2.5.6

2.5.7 2.5.8 2.5.9 2.5.10 2.5.11 2.5.12

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2.5.13 2.5.14 2.5.15 2.5.16

Platform Issue Paper | No. 7
(P. 19, Para. 13, Annex II, Section D. Article 12). There is a change in the numeral from 14 to 13. (P. 19, Para. 14, Annex II, Section D. Article 12). There is a change in the numeral from 15 to 14. (P. 20, Para. 17, Annex II, Section D. Article 12). There is a change in the numeral from 18 to 17. (P. 21, Para. 19 bis, Annex II, Section E. General). The new version puts “force majeure”, “natural disturbance”, “forest management” “activities” in brackets. Additionally, it transforms previous options 3.1 and 3.2 into part of its text. This new inclusions are mostly in brackets. The mention of land-use change is not put in brackets.

“19 bis. A Party included in Annex I where [force majeure][natural disturbance]11 has occurred during the second or subsequent commitment periods affecting carbon stocks on lands subject to Article 3, paragraph 3, and[, if elected,] land subject to [forest management] [activities]12 under Article 3, paragraph 4, may,13 at the end of the commitment period,14 [or annually during the commitment period] [exclude from accounting the associated greenhouse gas emissions until they have been balanced by subsequent removals]15, [or] [carry over the associated greenhouse gas emissions to the subsequent commitment period]16 provided that no land-use change has occurred on those lands.”
2.5.17 (P. 21, Para. 19 quater, Annex II, Section E. General). This option did not exist in the previous version. “19 quater. A Party included in Annex I that wishes20 to apply the provisions in paragraph 19 bis must compile information: (a) Showing that all lands subject to the provisions in paragraph 19 bis are identified, including the location, year[(s)] and type of [force majeure][natural disturbance]; (b) Showing that no land-use change has occurred on lands subject to the provisions in paragraph (19 bis); (c) That demonstrates efforts to manage or control [where practicable] the events or circumstances that led to the application of the provisions in paragraph 19 bis; (d) That demonstrates the efforts to rehabilitate [where practicable] the carbon stocks on the lands subject to the provisions in paragraph 19 bis; (e) Describing the system in place to ensure the monitoring and reporting of emissions and subsequent removals occurring on lands subject to the provisions in paragraph 19 bis; (f) That demonstrates removals by sinks on the lands after [force majeure][natural disturbance] do not enter the accounting until they balance the greenhouse gas emissions due to [force majeure] [natural disturbance]; (g) That demonstrates that consistency is maintained with the treatment of [force majeure][natural disturbance] in reference levels established for forest management; (h) On the estimated emissions and removals subject to the provisions in paragraph 19 bis, showing that the emissions and removals [excluded] [or] [carried over] under paragraph 19 bis comply with the definition of [force majeure] [natural disturbance];” (P. 22, Para. 19, Annex II, Section E. General). There is a change in the numeral from 20 to 19. (P. 24, Para. 21 ter deces, Annex II, Section E. General). The only change is the inclusion of one bracket that was missing in the previous version (at the end of the sentence). (P. 25, Para. 2, Option 1, Annex II, Option B, Section B. Accounting rules for greenhouse gas emissions and removals). There are no changes at all. (P. 26, Para. 2,Option 2, Annex II, Option B, Section B. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions and removals). There are no changes at all. (P. 26, Para. 2,Option 2 addendum, Annex II, Option B, Section B. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions and removals). There are no changes at all.

2.5.18 2.5.19 2.5.20 2.5.21 2.5.22

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2.5.23 2.5.24 2.5.25 2.5.26 2.5.27 2.5.28 2.5.29 2.5.30 2.5.31

Platform Issue Paper | No. 7

(P. 26, Para. 3, Annex II, Option B, Section B. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions and removals). There are no changes at all. (P. 26, Para. 4, Annex II, Option B, Section B. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions and removals). There are no changes at all. (P. 26, Para. 5, Option 1, Annex II, Option B, Section B. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions and removals). There are no changes at all. (P. 27, Para. 5, Option 2, Annex II, Option B, Section B. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions and removals). There are no changes at all. (P. 27, Para. 12, Option I, Annex II, Option B, Section D. General). There are no changes at all. (P. 28, Para. 12, Option II, Annex II, Option B, Section D. General). There are no changes at all. (P. 28, Para. 13, Annex II, Option B, Section D. General). There are no changes at all. (P. 28, Para. 14, Annex II, Option B, Section D. General). There are no changes at all. (P. 28, Para. 16, Annex II, Option B, Section D. General). The new version eliminates the italic format of the previous version and includes an extra bracket at the end. (P. 13, Para. 1, letter (h), Annex II, Option A, Section A. Definitions) There are no changes at all. Not mentioned as in the previous version. Not mentioned as in the previous version. Not mentioned as in the previous version.

2.6 Livestock
2.6.1

2.7 REDD
2.7.1 2.8.1 2.9.1

2.8 Rural development 2.9 Soil (i.e. soil carbon sequestration) 2.10
2.10.1

Energy (only related to agriculture)
Not mentioned as in the previous version.

2.11
2.11.1

Marine / fisheries
Not mentioned as in the previous version.

2.12
2.12.1

AFOLU
(P. 28, Para. 13, Annex II, Option B, Section D. General). There are no changes at all.

2.13
2.13.1

ILWRM
Not mentioned as in the previous version.

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Appendix III

Platform Issue Paper | No. 7
Non-paper 17: Cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific action.
Revised annex III D to document FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2 http://unfccc.int/files/meetings/ad_hoc_working_groups/lca/application/pdf/mitigation1bivnp 17081009.pdf

Note
This non-paper was prepared by the facilitator of the contact group on enhanced action on mitigation and its associated means of implementation (Subgroup on paragraph 1 b (iv) of the Bali Action Plan (Cooperative Sectoral Approaches and sector-specific actions). This document addresses the cooperative sectoral approaches and sector specific actions to enhance the implementation of Article 4.1 of the Convention. This includes new sections on agriculture and on marine bunker fuels. This appendix is the text analysis of the document Non-paper No. 17. This document contains reordered and/or consolidated sections of the revised negotiating text (FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2) prepared by facilitator. Key points from new text: First mention of small and marginal farmers (see 3.1) – mitigation should not harm their interests CSA in agriculture should not have negative effects on forest land (e.g. cause deforestation/degradation) (3.1.4) CSA in agriculture should not distort the international trade system on agriculture (3.1.5) A work programme on agriculture is proposed (3.1.6) to examine agriculture-related mitigation and possibly links with adaptation (this is added in brackets)
 

Terms
No. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Topic Agriculture Bioenergy / biofuels Crop Food / food security Land use / land-use change and forestry / LULUCF Livestock REDD (only when related to agriculture) Rural development Soil (i.e. soil carbon sequestration) Energy (only when related to agriculture) Marine / fisheries AFOLU ILWRM Total No. of mentions 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 6

3.1 Agriculture
3.1.1 (P. 1, Para. 1, letter (a)) There are no changes in the text where agriculture is mentioned. However, the new version shows some propositions for modifying the text of the first line of paragraph 1, and these are included in brackets. They imply questioning over the level of links to the Article 4.1(c) activities to the CSA approaches required by Parties.
“1. Cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions [shall][should][enhance the][be focused on the enhanced] implementation of Article 4.1 (c) of the Convention, on: (a) The development, application and diffusion, including transfer, of technologies, practices and processes that control, reduce or prevent anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, applicable to all relevant sectors, including, but not limited to, the energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry, health, tourism and waste management sectors;

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(b) The provision of information on available technologies, and strengthening conditions of access to and financing transfer of these technologies, including the development of effective modalities for the implementation of all stages of the technology cycle, from development, application, transfer, and diffusion for the implementation of NAMAs; (c) Actions that cover the whole scope of technologies for both adaptation and mitigation, including those that control, reduce and prevent emissions, and for abatement of increases in emissions and enhancement of and removal by sinks, and include those technologies”

Previous version
1. Cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions shall be focused on the enhanced implementation of Article 4.1 (c) of the Convention, on: (a) The development, application and diffusion, including transfer, of technologies, practices and processes that control, reduce or prevent anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol in all relevant sectors, including, but not limited to, the energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry, health, tourism and waste management sectors; (b) The provision of information on available technologies, conditions of access to and financing transfer of these technologies, including the development of effective modalities for the implementation of all stages of the technology cycle, from development, application, transfer, and diffusion; (c) Actions that cover the whole scope of technologies for both adaptation and mitigation including those that control, reduce and prevent emissions, and for abatement of increases in emissions and enhancement of and removal by sinks, and include those technologies that are publicly owned or in the public domain, as well as those held by the private sector.
3.1.2

(P. 4, Para. 11, Section “Agriculture”) In a proposed new section on Agriculture, it is stated that all Parties shall make efforts to enhance mitigation in this sector without harming the interests of small and marginal farmers. Parties should also acknowledge traditional practices and promote research, development, and transference of technologies and practices. The inclusion in brackets indicates that part of this text is an optional element in the text.
“11. [All Parties, specifically taking into account Article 2, Article 4, paragraph 1 (c), and Article 3, paragraph 5 of the Convention, and their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances, shall make efforts to enhance mitigation in the agriculture sector keeping in mind the need to improve the efficiency and productivity of agricultural production systems [in a sustainable manner] [taking into account the linkages between mitigation and adaptation] [without harming the interests of small and marginal farmers] [taking into account traditional knowledge and practices], [including by promoting and cooperating in the research, development, application and diffusion, including transfer, of technologies, practices and processes, [and methodologies]].]”

3.1.3

(P. 4, Para. 11, Alternative to Paragraph 11, Section “Agriculture”) In a proposed new section on Agriculture, an alternative to Paragraph 11 states that all Parties should promote research, development, and transference of technologies and practices to enhance mitigation in this sector. Its inclusion in brackets indicates that this is an optional element in the text. “Alternative to paragraph 11
[All Parties, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, shall promote and cooperate in the research, development, application and diffusion, including transfer, of technologies, practices and processes and methodologies in order to enhance mitigation in the agriculture sector through reducing emissions and enhancing removals.]”

3.1.4

(P. 4, Para. 12, Section “Agriculture”) In the proposed new section on Agriculture it is stated that cooperative sectoral approaches in the agricultural sector should not have adverse effects in forest land. Its inclusion in brackets indicates that this is an optional element in the text.

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“12. [Cooperative sectoral approaches in the agriculture sector shall not lead to carbon
offsets or approaches that adversely impact forest land]. 3.1.5

(P. 4, Para. 13, Section “Agriculture”) In the proposed new section on agriculture, it is also stated that cooperative sectoral approaches in this sector should not generate international performance standards that may obstruct the trade of goods and products of the sector. This statement is related to that in Paragraph 8, letter (b) related to the avoidance in the application of global uniform and equal standards. Its is included in brackets currently. “13. [Cooperative sectoral approaches in the agriculture sector should not result in the
creation of international performance standards for the sector or any other measure that may [adversely affect sustainable development and] result in barriers to or distortion of, the international trade system of goods and products of the agriculture sector.]”

3.1.6

(P. 4, Para. 13, Section “Agriculture”) In the proposed new section on agriculture, the SBSTA requests the development of a programme to enhance mitigation in this sector focusing on the technological and scientific aspects of agriculture, adaptation and mitigation. Its inclusion in brackets indicates that this is an optional element in the text. “14. [Requests the SBSTA[, at its thirty-second session,] to [initiate to] develop a programme of work [to facilitate] [on] [enhanced action on] mitigation [and means of implementation] in the agriculture sector [in considering the link to adaptation], [focusing on technological and scientific aspects of agriculture mitigation and adaptation] and invites Parties to submit their views on the work programme.]

3.2 Bioenergy / Biofuels
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of bioenergy or biofuel on Annex III D.

3.3 Crop
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of crop on Annex III D.

3.4 Food/Food security
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of food or food security on Annex III D.

3.5 Land use, land use change and forestry, LULUCF
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of land use, land use change and forestry of LULUCF on Annex III D.

3.6 Livestock
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of livestock on Annex III D.

3.7 REDD (only references related to agriculture)
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of REDD on Annex III D.

3.8 Rural development
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of rural development on Annex III D.

3.9 Soil
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of soil on Annex III D.

3.10

Energy

As in the previous document, there are no mentions of energy related to agriculture on Annex III D.

3.11

Marine, Fisheries

As in the previous document, there are no mentions of marine ecosystems or fisheries on Annex III D.

3.12 3.13

AFOLU ILWRM www.donorplatform.org

As in the previous document, there are no mentions of AFOLU on Annex III D. As in the previous document, there are no mentions of ILWRM on Annex III D.

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Appendix II

Platform Issue Paper | No. 7
Non-Paper 18: Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to REDD in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries.
Revised annex III C to document FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2 (08/10/09) http://unfccc.int/files/meetings/ad_hoc_working_groups/lca/application/pdf/mitigation1biiinp 18081009.pdf This non-paper supersedes non-paper No. 11

Note
This non-paper contains newly consolidated text from sub-section 5 (paras. 125.127), as consolidated by the facilitator and Parties of the sub-group on mitigation under paragraph 1 (b) (iii). The approach to the consolidation of this sub-section emerged from exchanges among Parties at meetings of the sub-group and bilaterals with the facilitator from 5 to 7 October 2009. Text in sub-sections 1.4 remains unchanged and is as presented in non-paper no. 11, with the exception of sub-paragraphs 4 (c), 4 (e) and 4 (f), which have been drafted by Parties in drafting groups on the three separate elements. This non-paper now contains the complete consolidation of subsections 1.5 of chapter III, section C, on pages 110.129 of the revised negotiating text (FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.1). This appendix is the text analysis of the document Non-Paper 18: “Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries Revised annex III C to document FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2 (08/10/09)” This document contains reordered and/or consolidated sections of the revised negotiating text(FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2) prepared by facilitator. There is some minor reorganization of text involved. Key points: Agriculture is still presented as one ‘option’ to be included within the text (ie AFOLU) whilst other options pertaining solely to forest remain alongside. Therefore no decision has yet been made to whether AFOLU is included or not in mitigation (4.1.1 and others) New option in discussing the financing where sustainable agriculture that is focused on emissions reduction is suggested to be financed by funds additional to Overseas Development Assistance (4.1.2)

Terms
No. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Topic Agriculture Bioenergy / biofuels Crop Food / food security Land use / land-use change and forestry / LULUCF Livestock REDD (only when related to agriculture) Rural development Soil (i.e. soil carbon sequestration) Energy (only when related to agriculture) Marine / fisheries AFOLU ILWRM Total No. of mentions 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6

4.1 Agriculture
4.1.1 (P. 1, Para. 2, Section 1. Objectives, Scope and Guiding Principles). This new version of
previous paragraph 106 mentions agriculture in basically the same way (i.e. in brackets and related to AFOLU). However, in this new version of the paragraph, the previous information is divided into 2 different options, one of which includes agriculture and the other includes only forestry.

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Appendix II

Platform Issue Paper | No. 7

“2. Developing country Parties should contribute to enhanced mitigation actions in the [forestry sector] [land use, land-use change and forestry sector] [agriculture, forestry and land use sector], and the following activities [shall][should] Option 1 include [reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation [, maintaining existing carbon stocks and enhancing removals] [or increasing forest cover through afforestation and reforestation], [while promoting][enhancement of carbon stocks through [sustainable forest [and land] management] [sustainable management of forests].] Option 2 be included: [(a) Reduction in deforestation rates; (b) Reduction in forest degradation; (c) Stabilization of forest cover (and thereby forest carbon stocks); (d) Conservation and maintenance of forest carbon stocks through sustainable management of forests; (e) Enhancement of forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable management of forests, and/or increase in forest cover through afforestation and reforestation.]”

Previous version
Objectives and scope 106. Developing country Parties contribute to enhanced mitigation actions in the [forestry sector] [land use, land-use change and forestry sector] [agriculture, forestry and land use sector] by reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, [maintaining existing carbon stocks and] [enhancing removals] [or increase in forest cover due to afforestation and reforestation], [while promoting][enhancement of carbon stocks due to [sustainable forest [and land] management] [sustainable management of forest]] [stabilization of forest cover (and thereby forest carbon stocks), conservation and maintenance of forest carbon stocks due to sustainable management of forests, reduction in deforestation rates, reduction in forest degradation, enhancement of forest carbon stocks due to conservation and sustainable management of forests, and/or increase in forest cover due to afforestation and reforestation] [increasing forest cover due to afforestation and reforestation, maintaining and enhancing forest carbon stock by forest conservation, incremental change of forest cover, sustainable management of forest, reducing deforestation, and reducing forest degradation]. 4.1.1
(P. 5 Para. 9, Option 3, letter (a), Section 2. Means for implementation). There is a new paragraph that mentions sustainable agriculture in relation to sustainable land management practices for reducing emissions. These actions will be funded by a fund additional to ODA for the full implementation phase in developing countries.

“9. [The full implementation phase of [strategies and actions] [activities] in developing country Parties referred to in paragraphs 2 and 5 above, including early actions, [should][shall][be supported by] [should be financed by]] [Option 1 the use of public funds, through one or more of the following approaches: (a) Specialized REDD-plus funds or funding windows established under the COP, including one or more of: (i) Trust funds for community forestry accounts; (ii) Forest reserve fund for conservation and sustainable forest management; (b) A Convention adaptation fund to support conservation and [sustainable management of forests][sustainable forest management].] [Option 2 access to and use of markets: (a) through issuance of carbon credits [tradable emission reduction or removal units] for emission reductions resulting from reduced deforestation and forest degradation, [and for conservation and for removals resulting from enhancement of carbon stocks in existing forest;] (b) or [through allocation of assigned amount units from the respective allocations to relevant Parties].]

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[Option 3 A [flexible] combination of market approaches and funds, depending on host countries’ preferences for actions referred to in paragraph 2 above, such as: (a) A fund [additional to ODA] for [conservation, enhancement of carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation] [, stabilization of forest cover, conservation and maintenance of carbon stocks through sustainable forest management] [, reducing emissions through sustainable land management practices, including forest conservation, sustainable forest management, the avoidance of deforestation, afforestation and sustainable agriculture;] [,capacity-building, technology transfer, policy implementation, etc;] (b) A market-based mechanism for [supporting enhancement of carbon stocks through sustainable forest management, reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation] [, certified emission reductions to contribute to compliance with part of the countries. quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under the Convention].]”

4.2 Bioenergy / Biofuels
There are no mentions of bioenergy or biofuels.

4.3 Crop
There are no mentions of crops.

4.4 Food/Food security
There are no mentions of food or food security.

4.5 Land use, land use change and forestry, LULUCF
4.5.1 (P. 1, Para. 2, Section 1. Objectives, Scope and Guiding Principles). This new version of previous paragraph 106 mentions land use and LULUCF in basically the same way (i.e. in brackets). However, in this new version of the paragraph, the previous information is divided into 2 different options.

“2. Developing country Parties should contribute to enhanced mitigation actions in the [forestry sector] [land use, land-use change and forestry sector] [agriculture, forestry and land use sector], and the following activities [shall][should] Option 1 include [reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation [, maintaining existing carbon stocks and enhancing removals] [or increasing forest cover through afforestation and reforestation], [while promoting][enhancement of carbon stocks through [sustainable forest [and land] management] [sustainable management of forests].] Option 2 be included: [(a) Reduction in deforestation rates; (b) Reduction in forest degradation; (c) Stabilization of forest cover (and thereby forest carbon stocks); (d) Conservation and maintenance of forest carbon stocks through sustainable management of forests; (e) Enhancement of forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable management of forests, and/or increase in forest cover through afforestation and reforestation.]”

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Appendix II
Previous version

Platform Issue Paper | No. 7

Objectives and scope 106. Developing country Parties contribute to enhanced mitigation actions in the [forestry sector] [land use, land-use change and forestry sector] [agriculture, forestry and land use sector] by reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, [maintaining existing carbon stocks and] [enhancing removals] [or increase in forest cover due to afforestation and reforestation], [while promoting][enhancement of carbon stocks due to [sustainable forest [and land] management] [sustainable management of forest]] [stabilization of forest cover (and thereby forest carbon stocks), conservation and maintenance of forest carbon stocks due to sustainable management of forests, reduction in deforestation rates, reduction in forest degradation, enhancement of forest carbon stocks due to conservation and sustainable management of forests, and/or increase in forest cover due to afforestation and reforestation] [increasing forest cover due to afforestation and reforestation, maintaining and enhancing forest carbon stock by forest conservation, incremental change of forest cover, sustainable management of forest, reducing deforestation, and reducing forest degradation].
4.1.1 (P. 5, Para. 11, Section 3. [Measurement, reporting and verification of actions] [Measurement and monitoring system]). This new version of previous paragraphs 117.1 and 117.2 simply integrates these paragraphs into a new one. The new version mentions land use in the very same way.

“11. [A global reference level for future emissions and removals from the forestry sector and other selected land use and land-use change categories and activities from developing countries shall be established in order to avoid carbon leakage and to ensure the environmental integrity of the mechanism. The methodology for the establishment of a global reference level shall: (a) Be robust and based on objective, measurable and verifiable criteria; (b) Ensure additionality both at the national and global level compared to business as usual scenarios.]”

Previous version
117.1. [A global reference level for future emissions and removals from the forestry sector and other selected land-use and land-use change categories and activities from developing countries shall be established in order to avoid carbon leakage and to ensure the environmental integrity of the mechanism. 117.2. The methodology for the establishment of a global reference level shall: (a) Be robust and based on objective, measurable, and verifiable criteria; (b) Ensure additionality both at the national and the global level compared to business as usual scenarios.]
4.1.1 (P. 6, Para. 12, Option 2, letter (c), Section 3. [Measurement, reporting and verification of actions] [Measurement and monitoring system]). This new paragraph includes texts from paragraphs 118 and 119 of the previous version. Land use is still mentioned in brackets and is still related to the development of robust national monitoring systems by developing country parties.

“12. Option 1 [As part of the measuring, reporting and verification process described in paragraph xx (in measuring, reporting and verifying of NAMAs), Parties shall measure and report the quantitative reduction greenhouse gas emissions achieved and/or changes in forest carbon stocks in relation to the national reference emission levels [and report on the involvement of indigenous peoples and local communities and on the consistency with sustainable forest management, noting, inter alia, the relevant provisions of the United Nations Forum on Forests, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and the Convention on Biological Diversity].] Option 2 [Parties aiming to implement actions referred to in paragraph 2 above [duly supported with assured funding], [[under the [NAMA registry] [on the basis of their national [implementation plans][action plans][strategies] referred to in paragraph 5

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above,][following relevant guidance [covering, inter alia, eligibility criteria for access to support,] [while recognizing that higher levels of measurement, reporting and verification will be required for market-based eligibility]] [to be] provided by the [COP] [Meeting of the Parties to this Agreement][on the basis of the advice received from the SBSTA][shall][should]:] (a) [Submit [information on their actions][national [implementation plans][action plans] [strategies] referred to in paragraph 5 above [including information on the extent and type of support requested [, including market-based eligibility] and the nature of the actions to be supported] [, including national capacity needs assessments,] to [the Conference of the parties] [the future REDD coordination mechanism under the Convention];] (b) [Report information on the implementation of national [implementation plans][action plans][strategies][actions] referred to in paragraphs 2 and 5 above[, readiness activities, including policy implementation and demonstration activities];] (c) [Develop [national forest inventories] robust national monitoring systems for estimating quantitative reduction of greenhouse gas emissions [or quantitative increments in removals] [and/or changes in carbon stocks][in the land use, land-use change and forestry sector], in accordance with the [relevant][most recently adopted] IPCC guidelines [and methodologies] [for greenhouse gas inventories][,taking into consideration indigenous traditional knowledge and local communities;] (d) [Measure and report [and register in their National Schedules] [existing forest carbon stocks,] the quantitative reduction of greenhouse gas emissions [or quantitative increments in removals] achieved and/or changes in carbon stocks in relation to the [reference emission level][/reference level] [or the aggregate reductions achieved by its registered subnational activities] [national reference levels for emissions and/or removals, where relevant];] (e) [Report information on actions referred to in paragraph 2 above [taken up to 2012] [during the period from 2005 up to the date a Party gives notice under this paragraph] [for consideration of credit for early action];] (f) [Report on [identified co-benefits [such as biodiversity]][the involvement of indigenous peoples and local communities and on the consistency with sustainable forest management, noting, inter alia, the relevant provisions of the United Nations Forum on Forests, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and the Convention on Biological Diversity];] (g) [Quality assurance and quality control regulations;] (h) [Record the information mentioned in para 12 Option 2 (a).(g) under the NAMA registry.]”

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[[under the NAMA registry as mentioned in paragraph 115 above][on the basis of their national REDDplus [implementation plans][action plans][strategies]]: (a) Report information on the implementation of national REDD-plus implementation plans][action plans][strategies][actions ], readiness activities, including policy implementation and demonstration activities, and identified o-benefits [such as biodiversity ];] (b) [Measure and report the quantitative reduction of GHG emissions [or quantitative increments in removals] achieved and/or the change in carbon stocks in relation to the [reference emission level] [/reference level] [or the aggregate reductions achieved by its registered subnational activities] [national reference levels for emissions, removals, conservation areas, and existing forest carbon stocks, where relevant,] [national reference levels for emissions and/or removals, where relevant].] (c) [Report information on REDD-plus actions taken [up to 2012] [during the period from 2005 up to the date a Party gives notice under this paragraph] for consideration of credit for early action;] (d) [Report information, to be determined by the Parties, related to the application of a correction factor to the relevant national reference levels, either higher or lower, taking into account national circumstances, historically low rates of deforestation and forest degradation, developmental divergence, and respective capabilities and capacities.] Alternative to paragraph 118: [As part of the measuring and reporting process described in paragraph 88, Parties shall measure and report the quantitative reduction of GHG emissions achieved and/or the change in carbon stocks in relation to the national reference emission levels.] 119. Developing country Parties [shall][should] develop robust national monitoring systems for emission reductions [and][/or]] emissions removals, carbon stock changes, [in the land use, land-use change and forestry sector] [taking into account] relevant methodological guidance [to be] provided by the [COP] [Meeting of the Parties to this Agreement], on the basis of the advice received from the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) including the use of [relevant IPCC guidelines and methodologies] [, when appropriate][the most recent IPCC guidelines [and methodologies ] for GHG inventories] [, taking into consideration the indigenous ancient knowledge and local communities].

4.2 Livestock
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of livestock.

4.3 REDD (only references related to agriculture)
4.3.1
(P. 5 Para. 9, Option 3, letter (a), Section 2. Means for implementation). There is a new paragraph that mentions sustainable agriculture related to sustainable land management practices for reducing emissions. These actions will be funded by a fund additional to ODA for the full implementation phase in developing countries.

“9. [The full implementation phase of [strategies and actions] [activities] in developing country Parties referred to in paragraphs 2 and 5 above, including early actions, [should][shall][be supported by] [should be financed by]] [Option 1 the use of public funds, through one or more of the following approaches: (a) Specialized REDD-plus funds or funding windows established under the COP, including one or more of: (i) Trust funds for community forestry accounts; (ii) Forest reserve fund for conservation and sustainable forest management; (b) A Convention adaptation fund to support conservation and [sustainable management of forests][sustainable forest management].] [Option 2 access to and use of markets: (a) through issuance of carbon credits [tradable emission reduction or removal units] for emission reductions resulting from reduced deforestation and forest degradation, [and for conservation and for removals resulting from enhancement of carbon stocks in

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existing forest;] (b) or [through allocation of assigned amount units from the respective allocations to relevant Parties].] [Option 3 A [flexible] combination of market approaches and funds, depending on host countries’ preferences for actions referred to in paragraph 2 above, such as: (a) A fund [additional to ODA] for [conservation, enhancement of carbon stocks, sustainable management of forests, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation] [, stabilization of forest cover, conservation and maintenance of carbon stocks through sustainable forest management] [, reducing emissions through sustainable land management practices, including forest conservation, sustainable forest management, the avoidance of deforestation, afforestation and sustainable agriculture;] [,capacity-building, technology transfer, policy implementation, etc;] (b) A market-based mechanism for [supporting enhancement of carbon stocks through sustainable forest management, reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation] [, certified emission reductions to contribute to compliance with part of the countries. quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments under the Convention].]”

4.4 Rural development
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of rural development.

4.5 Soil
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of soil.

4.6 Energy
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of energy related to agriculture.

4.7 Marine, Fisheries
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of marine ecosystems of fisheries.

4.8 AFOLU
4.8.1 (P. 1, Para. 2, Section 1. Objectives, Scope and Guiding Principles). This new version of previous paragraph 106 mentions agriculture in basically the same way (i.e. in brackets and related to AFOLU). However, in this new version of the paragraph, the previous information is divided into 2 different options.

“2. Developing country Parties should contribute to enhanced mitigation actions in the [forestry sector] [land use, land-use change and forestry sector] [agriculture, forestry and land use sector], and the following activities [shall][should] Option 1 include [reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation [, maintaining existing carbon stocks and enhancing removals] [or increasing forest cover through afforestation and reforestation], [while promoting][enhancement of carbon stocks through [sustainable forest [and land] management] [sustainable management of forests].] Option 2 be included: [(a) Reduction in deforestation rates; (b) Reduction in forest degradation; (c) Stabilization of forest cover (and thereby forest carbon stocks); (d) Conservation and maintenance of forest carbon stocks through sustainable management of forests; (e) Enhancement of forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable management of forests, and/or increase in forest cover through afforestation and reforestation.]”

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Objectives and scope 106. Developing country Parties contribute to enhanced mitigation actions in the [forestry sector] [land use, land-use change and forestry sector] [agriculture, forestry and land use sector] by reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, [maintaining existing carbon stocks and] [enhancing removals] [or increase in forest cover due to afforestation and reforestation], [while promoting][enhancement of carbon stocks due to [sustainable forest [and land] management] [sustainable management of forest]] [stabilization of forest cover (and thereby forest carbon stocks), conservation and maintenance of forest carbon stocks due to sustainable management of forests, reduction in deforestation rates, reduction in forest degradation, enhancement of forest carbon stocks due to conservation and sustainable management of forests, and/or increase in forest cover due to afforestation and reforestation] [increasing forest cover due to afforestation and reforestation, maintaining and enhancing forest carbon stock by forest conservation, incremental change of forest cover, sustainable management of forest, reducing deforestation, and reducing forest degradation].

4.9 ILWRM
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of ILWRM.

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Non-Paper 26: Nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing country Parties (20/10/09)
http://unfccc.int/files/kyoto_protocol/application/pdf/26mit1bii201009v01.pdf This non-paper supersedes non-paper No. 20
 

Note
This non-paper was prepared by the facilitator of the contact group on enhanced action on mitigation and its associated means of implementation (Subgroup on paragraph 1 b (ii) of the Bali Action Plan). This document states the principles, objectives and nature of the nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing countries, as well as their definition, scope, support, mechanisms to report, plans and strategies. This appendix is the text analysis of the document Non-Paper 26: “Nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing country Parties (20/10/09)” This document contains reordered and/or consolidated sections of the revised negotiating text (FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2) prepared by facilitator. Key points There is very little mention of agriculture as a specific sector in the discussions about NAMAs, but this broadly reflects few specific sector mentions in the document as a whole Agriculture is mentioned specifically as being included in REDD2 processes here (5.1.1) In detailing the process of MRV, agriculture and LULUCF are mentioned as separate, specific sectors in a provisional reporting template alongside other sectors such as energy and wastes (5.1.2)

Terms
No. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Topic Agriculture Bioenergy / biofuels Crop Food / food security Land use / land-use change and forestry / LULUCF Livestock REDD (only when related to agriculture) Rural development Soil (i.e. soil carbon sequestration) Energy (only when related to agriculture) Marine / fisheries AFOLU ILWRM Total No. of mentions 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4

5.1 Agriculture 5.1.1 (P. 3, Para. 17, Cluster B. Definition and Scope). This paragraph corresponds to paragraph 47 in the previous version. The brackets that included the mention of agriculture were eliminated and its mention was moved from letter (g) to letter (h). It is still related to the REDD-plus activities and other mitigation actions as one of the elements present in the NAMAs.

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“17. NAMAs may include but are not limited to: (a) Sustainable development policies and measures; (b) The CDM, programmatic CDM, technology deployment programmes or standards, energy efficiency programmes, energy pricing measures and renewable energy; (c) Cap-and-trade schemes and carbon taxes and the use of new and existing flexible carbon market mechanisms; (d) [Economy-wide and][Sectoral intensity targets], national sector-based mitigation actions and standards, [and no-lose sectoral crediting baselines]; (e) Development of national action plans; (f) Renewable energy strategies and plans; (g) REDD-plus2 activities and other mitigation actions implemented in [different][related] areas and sectors, including agriculture;

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(h) Mitigation actions at the subnational or local level, in particular in cities and rural communities; (i) Adaptation actions that have mitigation benefits; (j) Mitigation actions that provide a win-win situation and that are clearly supported by measurable, reportable and verifiable means of implementation; (k) Renewable energy policies and measures, including financial schemes; (l) Bilateral actions or strategies implemented by developing country Parties; (m) Diffusion of low greenhouse gas emitting technologies.”

Previous version
[NAMAs may include [but not limited to][inter alia]: (a) Development of national action plan] (b) [Sustainable development policies and measures;] (c) [[Low-emission][Low carbon] development strategies and plans;] (d) Renewable energy strategies and plans; (e) [Programmatic CDM], technology deployment programmes [or standards], energy efficiency programmes [and energy pricing measures] standards of financial schemes, including renewable energy and energy efficiency; (f) [Cap-and-trade schemes and carbon taxes] and the use of new and existing [flexible][carbon-market] mechanisms, including project- and program-based CDM; (g) [[Economy-wide and] [Sectoral intensity targets], national sector-based mitigation actions and standards, [and no-lose sectoral crediting baselines];] (h) [REDD-plus3 activities and other mitigation actions implemented in [different][related] areas and sectors[, including agriculture];] (i) Mitigation actions at the subnational or local level, in particular in cities and rural communities; (j) Adaptation actions that have mitigation benefits; (k) Mitigation actions that provide a win -win situation and that are clearly supported by measurable, reportable and verifiable means of implementation; (l) Renewable energy policies and measures, including financial schemes; (m) Bilateral actions or strategies implemented by developing country Parties; (n) Renewable energy policies and measures, including financial schemes; (o) Bilateral actions or strategies implemented by developing country Parties.
5.1.1 (P. 17, Annex II, Reporting Template). There are no changes.

Actual Version

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Previous version 5.2 Bioenergy / Biofuels

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There are no mentions of bioenergy or biofuels.

5.3 Crop
There are no mentions of crops.

5.4 Food/Food security
There are no mentions of food or food security.

5.5 Land use, land use change and forestry, LULUCF
5.5.1 (P. 17, Annex II, Reporting Template). There are no changes. See 5.1.2 for current version

5.6 Livestock
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of livestock.

5.7 REDD (only references related to agriculture)
5.7.1 (P. 3, Para. 17, Cluster B. Definition and Scope). This paragraph corresponds to paragraph 47 in the previous version. The brackets that included the mention of REDD-plus were eliminated and its mention was moved from letter (g) to letter (h). It is still related to agriculture as one of the elements present in the NAMAs.

“17. NAMAs may include but are not limited to: (a) Sustainable development policies and measures; (b) The CDM, programmatic CDM, technology deployment programmes or standards, energy efficiency programmes, energy pricing measures and renewable energy; (c) Cap-and-trade schemes and carbon taxes and the use of new and existing flexible carbon market mechanisms; (d) [Economy-wide and][Sectoral intensity targets], national sector-based mitigation actions and standards, [and no-lose sectoral crediting baselines]; (e) Development of national action plans; (f) Renewable energy strategies and plans; (g) REDD-plus2 activities and other mitigation actions implemented in [different][related] areas and sectors, including agriculture; (h) Mitigation actions at the subnational or local level, in particular in cities and rural communities; (i) Adaptation actions that have mitigation benefits; (j) Mitigation actions that provide a win-win situation and that are clearly supported by measurable, reportable and verifiable means of implementation; (k) Renewable energy policies and measures, including financial schemes; (l) Bilateral actions or strategies implemented by developing country Parties; (m) Diffusion of low greenhouse gas emitting technologies.”

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[NAMAs may include [but not limited to][inter alia]: (a) Development of national action plan] (b) [Sustainable development policies and measures;] (c) [[Low-emission][Low carbon] development strategies and plans;] (d) Renewable energy strategies and plans; (e) [Programmatic CDM], technology deployment programmes [or standards], energy efficiency programmes [and energy pricing measures] standards of financial schemes, including renewable energy and energy efficiency; (f) [Cap-and-trade schemes and carbon taxes] and the use of new and existing [flexible][carbon-market] mechanisms, including project- and program-based CDM; (g) [[Economy-wide and] [Sectoral intensity targets], national sector-based mitigation actions and standards, [and no-lose sectoral crediting baselines];] (h) [REDD-plus3 activities and other mitigation actions implemented in [different][related] areas and sectors[, including agriculture];] (i) Mitigation actions at the subnational or local level, in particular in cities and rural communities; (j) Adaptation actions that have mitigation benefits; (k) Mitigation actions that provide a win -win situation and that are clearly supported by measurable, reportable and verifiable means of implementation; (l) Renewable energy policies and measures, including financial schemes; (m) Bilateral actions or strategies implemented by developing country Parties; (n) Renewable energy policies and measures, including financial schemes; (o) Bilateral actions or strategies implemented by developing country Parties.

5.1 Rural development
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of rural development.
 

5.2 Soil
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of soil.
 

5.3 Energy
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of energy related to agriculture.
 

5.4 Marine, Fisheries
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of marine ecosystems of fisheries.
 

5.5 AFOLU
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of AFOLU.
 

5.6 ILWRM
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of ILWRM.

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Non-Paper 32: Economic and social consequences of response measures.
Revised annex III E to document FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2 (09/10/09) http://unfccc.int/files/meetings/ad_hoc_working_groups/lca/application/pdf/mitigation1bvinp 32091009.pdf This non-paper supersedes non-papers No. 7 and No. 23

Note
This non-paper was prepared by the facilitator of the contact group on mitigation (Subgroup on paragraph 1 b (vi) of the Bali Action Plan). This document addresses the economic and social consequences of the response measures taken by the Parties. This non-paper supersedes nonpapers No. 7 and No. 23 This appendix is the text analysis of the document Non-Paper 32: “Economic and social consequences of response measures Revised annex III E to document FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2 (09/10/09)” This document contains reordered and/or consolidated sections of the revised negotiating text (FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2) prepared by facilitator. Key points: Despite discussion about the economic and social consequences of the response measures on mitigation, agriculture is only mentioned specifically in very oblique terms: agricultural products that are the base of the economy of some countries (6.1.1). Similarly, crops and food security are also not mentioned (6.3 and 6.4). Mitigation action and especially biofuels must not cause deforestation and forest degradation (as in previous texts) (6.2.1)

Terms
No. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Topic Agriculture Bioenergy / biofuels Crop Food / food security Land use / land-use change and forestry / LULUCF Livestock REDD (only when related to agriculture) Rural development Soil (i.e. soil carbon sequestration) Energy (only when related to agriculture) Marine / fisheries AFOLU ILWRM Total No. of mentions 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2

6.1 Agriculture
6.1.1 (P. 2, Para. Pp. 9, Section. Context). In this new preambular section agriculture is only mentioned in terms of agricultural products that are the base of the economy of some countries. Surprisingly, agriculture is not mentioned again in this annex despite the fact it talks about the economic and social consequences of the response measures on mitigation.

“pp.9 Recognizing the broad nature of the negative impacts of response measures on developing country Parties, particularly those whose economies are dependent on tourism and export of agricultural products, Parties reaffirm Article 3, paragraph 5, of the Convention.”

6.2 Bioenergy / Biofuels
6.2.1 (P. 4, Para. 5). This new version of previous paragraph 12 still mentions that the use of biofuels should not contribute to deforestation and forest degradation. The mention is still within brackets. Wording of the paragraph has been modified with the inclusion of a precautionary clause to ensure against emissions displacement between nations.
 

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“5. [All Parties shall ensure that mitigation action, including, inter alia, the use of biofuels, does not contribute to deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries. All actions to reduce associated emissions in some countries do not result in such emissions in other countries as a result of emissions displacement. Possible action may include: (a) Developing and implementing policies and measures; (b) Initiating forest law enforcement, governance and trade measures; (c) Applying measures such as regulation of demand-side use of forest products or other commodities that have resulted in deforestation or forest degradation.] [Financial resources and transfer of technology]”

Previous version
12. [All Parties shall develop and implement policies and measures to ensure that mitigation action, including, inter alia, the use of biofuels, does not contribute to deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries.]

6.3 Crop
There are no mentions of crops.

6.4 Food/Food security
There are no mentions of food.

6.5 Land use, land use change and forestry, LULUCF
There are no mentions of land use, land-use change and forestry or LULUCF.

6.6 Livestock
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of livestock.

6.7 REDD (only references related to agriculture)
There are no mentions of REDD.

6.8 Rural development
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of rural development.

6.9 Soil
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of soil.

6.10 Energy
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of energy related to agriculture.

6.11 Marine, Fisheries
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of marine ecosystems of fisheries.

6.12 AFOLU
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of AFOLU.

6.13 ILWRM
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of ILWRM.

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Non-Paper 33 CONTACT GROUP ON A SHARED VISION FOR LONGTERM COOPERATIVE ACTION. Revised annex I to document FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2 (23/10/09)
http://unfccc.int/files/kyoto_protocol/application/pdf/33sv23102009.pdf This non-paper supersedes non-paper No. 19 and No. 27

Note
This paper has been prepared by the facilitator of the contact group on a shared vision for long term cooperative action. This non-paper recognizes the need for long term cooperative action acknowledging that climate change impacts require global efforts. It stresses that long-term cooperative action will lead shorter-term actions for adaptation and mitigation. It also acknowledges the importance of the KP for the convention and the relevance of the reduction of GHG emissions. It includes some issues to consider in other contact groups and guidance to negotiations. This appendix is the text analysis of the document Non-Paper 33 “Revised annex I to document FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2 (23/10/09)” This document contains reordered and/or consolidated sections of the revised negotiating text (FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/INF.2) prepared by facilitator. Key points: In one of several alternative proposed for a restructured preambular section, food production is related to adaptation to climate change, and economic development (7.4.1) In this new version of the paragraph, the word “food” is included in brackets in relationship with crop production. The adverse effects of climate change on food and food security (amongst other issues) is mentioned as inhibiting potential to attain MDGs (7.4.2; 7.3.1) In this new version, marine and coastal ecosystems and fisheries are related to the adverse effects of climate change

Terms
No. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Topic Agriculture Bioenergy / biofuels Crop Food / food security Land use / land-use change and forestry / LULUCF Livestock REDD (only when related to agriculture) Rural development Soil (i.e. soil carbon sequestration) Energy (only when related to agriculture) Marine / fisheries AFOLU ILWRM Total No. of mentions 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 4

7.1 Agriculture
Agriculture was mentioned in the predecessor to this non paper (Non-Paper 19) but has been omitted from this paper. The reference previously cross-referenced to issues on other contact groups that stressed the links between adaptation and mitigation – to serve as an aide-memoire – but in the formal text put forward after discussions with the contact group, these paragraphs were omitted. Previous text (see http://unfccc.int/files/meetings/ad_hoc_working_groups/lca/application/pdf/sharedvisionnp1 9081009.pdf P. 11 Annex 1 Para. 1)

Annex I Issues under consideration in other contact groups or subgroups

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Issues under consideration in the subgroup on paragraph 1 (b) (iv) of the Bali Action Plan (nonpaper 2, paras. 11-13) 1. With land use being linked to sustainable development, adaptation and mitigation, agriculture plays an important role, especially in the context of food security and poverty reduction. Therefore, adaptation as well as mitigation efforts in the AFOLU sector are required to enable the substantial increase in production and productivity needed for ensuring food security. Reducing GHG emissions in agriculture is a challenging task and may thus require attention in the context of any shared vision for long-term cooperative action.

7.2 Bioenergy / Biofuels
There are no mentions of bioenergy or biofuel on Annex III D.

1.3 Crop
7.3.1 (P. 11, Para. 3., Annex I) Crops are no longer included in brackets when mentioning the adverse effects of climate change. Besides crops, the word “food” is included in brackets. There are changes in the structure of the paragraph. Surprisingly the relationship of the adverse effects over crops (amongst other effects) is no longer related to economic and social development and poverty alleviation, remaining only the posed obstacles to the attainment of the MDGs.

“3. The serious adverse effects of climate change, notably those on crop [food] production systems, fisheries and food security, on poverty reduction, water resources, human health and welfare, including housing and infrastructure, on the composition, resilience and productivity of natural and managed ecosystems, including marine and coastal ecosystems, on the operation of socio-economic systems and on transboundary migration levels, as well as insufficient access to a global atmospheric resource and the related historical ecological debt generated by the cumulative GHG emissions, are [becoming] a major obstacle to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals.”

Previous version
3. Current per-capita emission in developed countries remain relatively high compared to those in developing countries, as noted in the Convention and by the IPCC. [The serious adverse effects of climate change, notably those on crop production and food security, marine and coastal ecosystems, coastal livelihood, water resources and human health, ecosystems as well as on housing and infrastructure,] [Climate change is having significant deleterious effects on the composition, resilience and productivity of natural and managed ecosystems, on the operation of socio-economic systems and on human health and welfare, including crop production, fisheries and food security, water resources, as well as on housing and infrastructure. These effects,] [Notably the effects on ecosystems, on the operation of socio-economic systems and on human health and welfare, including crop production, fisheries and food security, water resources, as well as on housing and infrastructure,] [The AR4 demonstrates clearly that negative impacts of climate change are already evident and widespread, in particular in vulnerable regions of the world, and are increasingly posing a risk to ecosystems, food production, the attainment of sustainable development and of the Millennium Development Goals as well as to human health and security] as well as insufficient access to a global atmospheric resource, are [becoming] a major obstacle to efforts to promote [sustainable] economic and social development [and to [reduce] poverty] [eradication] [promote poverty aliviation,] [which are the first and overriding priorities of all developing countries]. In order to build up their coping or adaptive capacity, developing countries must pursue these overriding priorities to the best of their abilities. The maintenance of healthy ecosystems and their services is necessary to maintain the life support system on earth in the face of climate change, providing food and livelihoods, contributing to human welfare and enabling sustainable economic development.

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7.4 Food/Food security
7.4.1

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(P. 4, Para. 15, Alternative 3). In a restructured preambular section, food production is related to adaptation to climate change, and economic development

“15. Alternative 1 A shared vision for long-term cooperative action should be comprehensive and include mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology and capacity-building as well as sustainable development. It should guide short- and medium-term action on adaptation and mitigation and recognize the strong link between them as well as the cross-cutting role played by financing, technology transfer and capacity building, thus galvanizing greater attention and efforts towards adaptation at all levels to minimize the adverse impacts of climate change and to assist in building sustainable [and climate-resilient] [and climate-compatible] development. Failure to implement ambitious and immediate mitigation actions by developed country Parties will increase the need for adaptation in [all developing countries, [particularly]] [the most vulnerable countries], and therefore for financial support. At the same time, increased financial support and technology transfer to developing countries will help these countries in their implementation of NAMAs. Alternative 2 The shared vision is to establish a global approach to addressing climate change through enhancing action by all countries to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases and to provide adequate support for countries vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Actions taken shall play a significant role in ensuring that global greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere are stabilized as far below 350 parts per million of carbon dioxide equivalent as possible, with temperature increases limited to as far below 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels as possible. Action taken shall make a major contribution towards moving to a low greenhouse gas emission society that is compatible with sustainable development objectives and consistent with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. The right to survival of all nations is a paramount objective. Alternative 3 The shared vision for long-term cooperative action, including a long-term global goal for emissions reductions., integrates the four building blocks of the Bali Action Plan in a comprehensive and balanced manner, that would enhance the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention, and achieve its objective as set out in Article 2 of the Convention, including its ultimate objective and the parameters for the achievement of this ultimate objective, that is .to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner. and to this end, shall: (a) Fully recognize that the shared vision is to be pursued .in accordance with the provisions and principles of the Convention. (para. 1 (a) of the BAP), as contained in its Article 3, in particular Article 3.1 (protection of the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of humankind, on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities) and 3.3, and shall take into account .social and economic conditions and other relevant factors. through the full consideration of the economic and social impacts on developing countries, including impacts on the eradication of poverty, of any long-term global goal for emissions reductions; (b) Recognize the right to, and the promotion of, sustainable development, as stated in Article 3.4 of the Convention, .taking into account that economic development is essential for adopting measures to address climate change.; (c) Address all the implementation gaps to enable full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention, now, up to and beyond 2012, on mitigation and adaptation commitments, and in particular those related to the provision of financial resources (Article 4.3) and to the promotion and transfer of technology (Article 4.5), in the context of Article 4.7 of the Convention; (d) Give urgent and equal weight to action on adaptation and mitigation and

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fully implement all relevant Articles of the Convention, recognizing that as developed country Parties fail to meet their mitigation commitments, the costs of adaptation for developing country Parties would significantly increase, and fully implement Article 4.4 of the Convention; (e) Envision a long-term goal which successfully integrates the means of implementation (technology, financing and capacity-building) to enable and support mitigation and adaptation actions of developing country Parties (Article 4.7), and one that would demonstrate .that developed countries are taking the lead in modifying longer-term trends in anthropogenic emissions consistent with the objective of the Convention. (Article 4.2 (a)) through effective mechanisms and institutional arrangements. Alternative 4 The agreement on the shared vision for long-term cooperative action should address all aspects of the Bali Action Plan and form the basis of a framework decision by the Conference of the Parties (COP), the scope of which should include: (a) The guiding principles and objective of the agreed outcome, including the scientific basis for decision-making; (b) The quantified global goal of greenhouse gas emissions reductions agreed upon, for the short term (2020) and the long term (2050), with the associated stabilization levels of greenhouse gases and global mean temperature rises. It should also include the year of maximum global emissions and the differentiated contribution to the goal by all the groups of countries, Parties to the Convention and be led by developed countries; (c) The institutional framework and the contribution of the different groups of countries to the integration, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the cooperative action on mitigation, adaptation, technology and financing. The guiding principles of the Convention should support subparagraphs (b) and (c) above, in terms of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, historical responsibilities in greenhouse gas emissions and the related historical ecological debt generated by the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions since 1750 and the most recent scientific information. The objective of the shared vision should be expressed as guidance to integrate the global cooperative action to enable the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention, from now, up to and beyond 2012. The previous should be linked to a series of more specific and mutually coherent agreements on mitigation, adaptation, technology and financing issues, which should be included in a series of COP decisions so as to complement the framework decision on the shared vision. Alternative 5 Deep cuts in global emissions by developed country parties in accordance with their historical responsibilities, as well as the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities, will be required to prevent dangerous interference with the climate system and achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention. Early and urgent action to this end is necessary. Further delay by developed country parties in implementing their commitments to reduce emissions will increase their climate debt to the developing countries and significantly constrain opportunities to achieve lower stabilization levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and increase the risk of more severe climate change impacts. Annex I Parties shall ensure that aggregate anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent emissions do not exceed their assigned amounts, calculated to reflect the full extent of their historical climate debt taking into account: (a) Responsibility of Annex I Parties, individually and jointly, for current atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases; (b) The historical and current per-capita emissions originating in developed countries; (c) Technological, financial and institutional capacities; (d) The share of global emissions required by developing countries in order to meet their social and economic development needs, to eradicate poverty and

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to achieve the right to development. The difference between the assigned total amounts of Annex I Parties and their actual domestic amounts of GHG emissions shall be quantified as an increase in their emissions debt and shall provide the basis of fulfillment by Annex I Parties of their commitments to provide financing, technology and compensation to developing countries for mitigating and adapting to climate change. In light of a shared vision based on historic responsibility/debt Annex I Parties shall provide new and additional financial resources to meet the full costs incurred by developing country Parties of meeting their commitments, towards the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention. Alternative 6 Annex I Parties shall ensure that their aggregate anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent emissions do not exceed their assigned amounts, calculated to reflect the full extent of their historical responsibility and an equitable allocation of the global atmospheric resource, and taking into account: (a) Responsibility of Annex I Parties, individually and jointly, for current atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases; (b) The historical and current per-capita emissions originating in developed countries; (c) Technological, financial and institutional capacities; (d) The share of global emissions required by developing countries in order to meet their social and economic development needs, to eradicate poverty and to achieve the right to development.”

Previous version
PP.15 Further acknowledging that developed countries have a historical responsibility for their disproportionate contribution to the causes and consequences of climate change, reflecting their disproportionate historical use of a shared global carbon space since 1850 as well as their proposed continuing disproportionate use of the remaining global carbon space. 1. [[[As assessed by the IPCC in its Fourth Assessment Report] Warming of the climate system, as a consequence of human activity, is unequivocal. [Global atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases have increased significantly because of human activities since 1750.] 2. Current atmospheric concentrations are principally the result of historical emissions of greenhouse gases, [the largest share of which has originated in] [originating from] developed countries [Parties].
7.4.2 (P. 11, Para. 3., Annex I) In this new version of the paragraph, the word “food” is included in brackets in relationship with crop production. The adverse effects of climate change on food and food security (amongst other issues) is mentioned as inhibiting potential to attain MDGs

“3. The serious adverse effects of climate change, notably those on crop [food] production systems, fisheries and food security, on poverty reduction, water resources, human health and welfare, including housing and infrastructure, on the composition, resilience and productivity of natural and managed ecosystems, including marine and coastal ecosystems, on the operation of socio-economic systems and on transboundary migration levels, as well as insufficient access to a global atmospheric resource and the related historical ecological debt generated by the cumulative GHG emissions, are [becoming] a major obstacle to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals.”

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3. Current per-capita emission in developed countries remain relatively high compared to those in developing countries, as noted in the Convention and by the IPCC. [The serious adverse effects of climate change, notably those on crop production and food security, marine and coastal ecosystems, coastal livelihood, water resources and human health, ecosystems as well as on housing and infrastructure,] [Climate change is having significant deleterious effects on the composition, resilience and productivity of natural and managed ecosystems, on the operation of socio-economic systems and on human health and welfare, including crop production, fisheries and food security, water resources, as well as on housing and infrastructure. These effects,] [Notably the effects on ecosystems, on the operation of socio-economic systems and on human health and welfare, including crop production, fisheries and food security, water resources, as well as on housing and infrastructure,] [The AR4 demonstrates clearly that negative impacts of climate change are already evident and widespread, in particular in vulnerable regions of the world, and are increasingly posing a risk to ecosystems, food production, the attainment of sustainable development and of the Millennium Development Goals as well as to human health and security] as well as insufficient access to a global atmospheric resource, are [becoming] a major obstacle to efforts to promote [sustainable] economic and social development [and to [reduce] poverty] [eradication] [promote poverty aliviation,] [which are the first and overriding priorities of all developing countries]. In order to build up their coping or adaptive capacity, developing countries must pursue these overriding priorities to the best of their abilities. The maintenance of healthy ecosystems and their services is necessary to maintain the life support system on earth in the face of climate change, providing food and livelihoods, contributing to human welfare and enabling sustainable economic development.

7.5 Land use, land use change and forestry, LULUCF
As in the case of agriculture, land use was deleted from Annex I.

7.6 Livestock
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of livestock in Annex I.

7.7 REDD (only references related to agriculture)
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of REDD in relation to agriculture.

7.8 Rural development
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of rural development in Annex I.

7.9 Soil
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of soil in Annex I.

7.10 Energy
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of energy related to agriculture in Annex I.

7.11
7.11.1

Marine, Fisheries
(P. 11, Para. 3., Annex I) In this new version, marine and coastal ecosystems and fisheries are related to the adverse effects of climate change. As in the case of crops and food security, the relationship with poverty alleviation and economic and social growth was eliminated. There were two further mentions of marine ecosystems in the previous version (paragraph 18) that were also deleted in the text consolidation. Both of them were related to poverty eradication and sustainable economic growth.

“3. The serious adverse effects of climate change, notably those on crop [food] production systems, fisheries and food security, on poverty reduction, water resources, human health and welfare, including housing and infrastructure, on the composition, resilience and productivity of natural and managed ecosystems, including marine and coastal ecosystems, on the operation of socio-economic systems and on transboundary migration levels, as well as insufficient access to a global atmospheric resource and the related historical ecological debt generated by the cumulative GHG emissions, are [becoming] a major obstacle to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals.”

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Appendix II
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Platform Issue Paper | No. 7

3. Current per-capita emission in developed countries remain relatively high compared to those in developing countries, as noted in the Convention and by the IPCC. [The serious adverse effects of climate change, notably those on crop production and food security, marine and coastal ecosystems, coastal livelihood, water resources and human health, ecosystems as well as on housing and infrastructure,] [Climate change is having significant deleterious effects on the composition, resilience and productivity of natural and managed ecosystems, on the operation of socio-economic systems and on human health and welfare, including crop production, fisheries and food security, water resources, as well as on housing and infrastructure. These effects,] [Notably the effects on ecosystems, on the operation of socio-economic systems and on human health and welfare, including crop production, fisheries and food security, water resources, as well as on housing and infrastructure,] [The AR4 demonstrates clearly that negative impacts of climate change are already evident and widespread, in particular in vulnerable regions of the world, and are increasingly posing a risk to ecosystems, food production, the attainment of sustainable development and of the Millennium Development Goals as well as to human health and security] as well as insufficient access to a global atmospheric resource, are [becoming] a major obstacle to efforts to promote [sustainable] economic and social development [and to [reduce] poverty] [eradication] [promote poverty aliviation,] [which are the first and overriding priorities of all developing countries]. In order to build up their coping or adaptive capacity, developing countries must pursue these overriding priorities to the best of their abilities. The maintenance of healthy ecosystems and their services is necessary to maintain the life support system on earth in the face of climate change, providing food and livelihoods, contributing to human welfare and enabling sustainable economic development.

7.12 AFOLU
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of AFOLU on Annex I.

7.13 ILWRM
As in the previous document, there are no mentions of ILWRM on Annex I.

Issue Paper No. 7 and appendices at donorplatform.org/ip7

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