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Transmission & Distribution

TH7m

Protection

Contents

Presentation ........................................................................................................................ 2 Selection table .....................................................................................................................3 Protection functions ...........................................................................................................4 Protection ..............................................................................................................................4 Line bay.................................................................................................................................4 Transformer bay ....................................................................................................................5 Bus section bay - Bus coupler bay ........................................................................................6 Metering ...............................................................................................................................7 Control - Monitoring associated with the protection .......................................................7 Communication ...................................................................................................................8 Interfaces .............................................................................................................................8 Auxiliary power supply...........................................................................................................8 Interface with the local and monitoring equipment ................................................................8 Interface with substation remote control and monitoring equipment .....................................9 Interface with the GIS............................................................................................................9 Sensor selection....................................................................................................................9

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Presentation

The TH7m GIS substation protection units are located in the local control cubicle connected directly to the GIS switchgear They are designed for the different HV bays in HV/MV substations

Sepam 2000 Advantages :


n A single range of products for consistent

substation protection.

n The network protection provided by the main

line protection unit can be adapted to the distributor's protection plan.

n Digital technology offers: o high-performance, sensitive and accurate o additional functions, continuous self-testing,

functions with a wide range of settings,

disturbance recording, possibility of communication with the substation control and monitoring system. is consistent with that of the Bay Controller.

n The simple, dependable operation of the units n Commissioning is fast since the overall solution

is tested and validated in the factory. On-site testing is limited to the commissioning of the main line bay protection unit, which largely depends on the network parameters.

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Selection table

Type of bay Functions Main protection (to be chosen) distance line differential transformer differential restricted earth fault busbar differential Complementary protection recloser and synchro-check thermal overload breaker failure phase overcurrent earth fault directional earth fault line undervoltage Metering current measurement voltage measurement Control and monitoring associated with protection units Lockout relay inhibit closing adjacent breaker tripping open/close control with downgraded operation annunciation fault trip counter monitoring Communication option
(1) disabled when the recloser is in service

ANSI code

line

transformer

bus section or bus coupler

SEL Solkor-M none Sepam D21/D31 none Sepam 100LD none 311C Sepam W01/W02 21 87L 87T 64REF 87B
n n n n n

Sepam L65 79/25 49 51BF 50/51 50N/51N 67N 27


n

Sepam T63
n

Sepam B61

n n n n n n n

n n n

n n n

86 69

n (1) n (1) n n

n n n n n n n n

n n n n n n n n

30

n n n n

The bay type Line/transformer (transformer connected to one line via only one circuit breaker) has the same protection functions than the transformer bay: - The line is supposed to be protected in the upstream substation and thus doesn't need to be downstream protected, - The breaker failure function is available for being used in the upstream substation.

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Protection functions
Protection

Each bay is generally protected by a main protection unit and a complementary protection unit.
n main protection unit: sensitive, fast and

A distinction is made between substation protection and network protection:


n substation protection is oriented towards the

selective. It is adapted to suit the equipment associated with the bay: line, transformer, busbars. several functions:

substation equipment and switchgear. It is based on the Sepam range.

n network protection is oriented towards the

n complementary protection unit combining o functions associated with the main protection o functions associated with the switchgear: o main protection back-up functions: phase

unit: recloser, overload, breaker failure,

overcurrent, earth fault.

network outside the substation, i.e. line protection. The protection units proposed are suited to regional distribution networks: o Schweitzer REL311C distance protection, for overhead lines, o Reyrolle Solkor-M line differential protection, for cable connections. (For other types of protection, please consult us)

Line bay

n The main protection unit is chosen according to

the type of connection: protection, protection.

n The Sepam L65 complementary protection unit

o for overhead lines: SEL 311 distance o for HV cable : Solkor-M line differential

includes the following functions: with synchronism checking,

o recloser initiated by the main protection unit, o directional earth fault, which provides partial

selective backup of the main protection unit and is, in some cases, the only selective protection function when there is no distance or differential protection, safety (e.g. detection of no voltage to enable closing of the line earthing switch),

o undervoltage, which may be used for operating

o breaker failure: this function is initiated by all

the tripping orders given by the protection units (main and complementary),

o phase overcurrent and earth fault:

instantaneous and time-delayed protection functions which back up the main protection unit.

Line bay protection scheme with distance protection

with differential protection

busbar diff. diff. barres Check zone zone de validation busbar diff. diff. barres Zones 11and22 zones et

diff. barres busbar diff. zone de validation Check zone diff. barres busbar diff. Zones 1 and 2 zones 1 et

SEL 311 C Sepam Sepam L65 L65


dclt disj adjacent adjacents breakers tripping

Solkor-M Sepam L65 Sepam L65


adjacent dclt disj breakers adjacents tripping

tripping

dclt dclt/ tripping/reclosing renclt

tripping

dclt

dcl t/ tripping/reclosing rencl t

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Transformer bay

n The main transformer protection against

internal faults is transformer differential protection, which may be completed by restricted earth fault protection: with 2 windings, with 3 windings.

Transformer bay protection scheme

o Sepam D21 is the model suited to transformers o Sepam D31 is the model suited to transformers
tripping
dclt

adjacent dclt disj breaker adjacents tripping

n The Sepam T63 complementary protection unit

includes the following functions:

Sepam T63 Sepam D21


diff. barres diff. busbar zonesZones 1 and 2 1 et 2 diff. busbar diff. barres zone deCheck zone validation

o overload: this function, based on a thermal

image, determines load-related overheating,

o processing of faults detected by the devices

integrated in the transformer (buchholz, thermostat, tap changer failure) to trip in the event of an internal fault, the tripping orders given by the protection units (main and complementary),

o breaker failure: this function is initiated by all

o phase overcurrent and earth fault:

instantaneous and time-delayed protection functions which back up the main protection unit.

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Bus section bay Bus coupler bay

n The main protection is busbar protection. It is

based on high impedance differential protection combined with current sensor monitoring. For each busbar zone , the main protection includes the following:

n The Sepam B61 complementary protection unit

includes the following functions:

o breaker failure: this function is initiated by all

the tripping orders given by the protection units (main and complementary),

o Sepam 100LD for high impedance differential

protection of zone,

o phase overcurrent and earth fault:

o Sepam W01/W02 for current sensor circuit

instantaneous and time-delayed protection functions which back up the main protection unit.

monitoring, zone management and annunciation.

Check zone : In a double busbar station, current circuits from current sensors are switched to either of the zone protections by auxiliary contacts according to the position of the selector switch disconnectors. The circuit complexity due to these switches and the consequences of an unwanted tripping necessitate to validate the fault detection by a global protection that monitors all station zones (check zone). This protection is realized without auxiliary contacts: it is thus simple and reliable. In the case of a single busbar schema the currents circuit is simplified due to: - The protection relays are installed on the LCC. - Selector auxiliary contacts are not necessary. Consequently the check zone protection is not compulsary.

Scheme of current switch by double busbar bay (line bay or transformer bay)

vers protection zone To check zone protection validation

2 1

vers protection zone To zone 2 2 protection vers protection zone To zone 1 1 protection

Bus section bay protection scheme


adjacent breaker dclt disj tripping adjacents

TC zone B zone B CT

Sepam Sepam B61 B61


zone A tripping dclt zone A
dcl tripping zone tBzone B

TC zone zone A CT A

Sepam Sepam 100LD 100LD

Sepam Sepam 100LD 100LD

Sepam Sepam W02 W02 zone A

busbar de barres diffrentielledifferential

zone B

Bus coupler bay protection scheme


adjacent dcl t disj breaker tripping adjacents
TC zone zone 2 CT 2

TC zone zone CT Check de validation

Sepam Sepam B61 B61


zone 1 ttripping dcl zone 1

TC zone zone 1 CT 1

Sepam Sepam 100LD 100LD

zonet 2zone 2 dcl tripping

Sepam Sepam 100LD 100LD

Sepam Sepam W02 W02

Sepam Sepam 100LD 100LD Sepam Sepam W01 W01


zoneCheck zone de validation

busbar differential diffrentielle de barres

zone 1

zone 2

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Metering

The protection units also have several measuring functions which can be adapted to the following requirements:
n commissioning, especially for the tests used to

n analysis following an incident, in particular to

determine the reasons for tripping, number of circuit breaker trips.

n maintenance, in particular by providing the

check the connections and settings,

Protection device Metering functions phase current (I1, I2, I3) differential current voltage power, energy, power factor frequency tripping currents residual current residual voltage disturbance recording (1) cumulative breaking current and number of breaks
(1)

SEL311C Solkor-M
n n n

Sepam Sepam Sepam D21/D31 W01/W02 L65


n n n n n n n n n n n

Sepam T63
n

Sepam B61
n

n n n n

n n n n

n n

the disturbance recording function is used to record electrical signals and logical data prior to and after a protection tripping order or manual recording order.

Control - Monitoring associated with the protection

The control and monitoring functions allow the protection units to directly control tripping and closing operations independently with respect to the operating functions, indicate protection unit action and monitor protection unit operation.

n latching/acknowledgment, inhibit closing: to

avoid feeding faults by taking into account the operation of the protection unit. These functions are disabled for line bay protection units connected to a recloser in service.
n adjacent breakers tripping to open the circuit in

n open/close control during downgraded

operation: for voluntary operation of the circuit breaker in local or remote mode when the normal bay operating system is not working. has triggered the protection unit and indicate an abnormal situation. These data may be accessed on the display, via contacts and via the optional communication link. operation and management of the network and equipment. supply monitoring.

n annunciation: to identify the type of fault that

the following cases: o if the breaker failure function has detected that a tripping order given by a protection unit has not opened the circuit breaker, o if a protection tripping order appears when circuit breaker opening is inhibited.

n fault trip counter: for assistance with the

n supervision: self-testing and auxiliary power

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Communication

The communication option can be used for data exchanges with the substation remote control and monitoring system, via a communication channel: Jbus/Modbus, master-slave protocol with an RS485 type physical link in 2-wire mode (300 to 38400 bauds). The following types of data may be exchanged:
n remote indications, n remote control orders, n remote settings, n time-stamped events.

The connectors and links between the devices in the local control cubicle are included with the communication option.

Interfaces
T1

Auxiliary power supply

The main and complementary protection units are supplied by auxiliary voltages that are independent, i.e. protected and distributed separately:
n the complementary protection unit and the first

T2 bay controller protection main protection principale


complementary protection protection complmentaire

tripping coil are supplied by auxiliary voltage T1, coil are supplied by auxiliary voltage T2.

n the main protection unit and the second tripping

enclt closing

dclt 1 tripping 1

dclt 2 tripping 2

-Q01

Interface with the local control and monitoring equipment

The protection data required for the operation and supervision of the bay are transmitted to the Bay Controller by individual wiring.
n control and monitoring data required by the o CB in open position, o CB in close position, o inhibit tripping, o downgraded operation authorisation, o VT circuit available, o tripping information, (1) o closing information, (1) o right closing conditions, (1)
(1) for recloser in line bay.

Nota : Necessary data for operation coming from the line protection are transmitted to the Bay Controller in order to get the benefit of the communication option.
n distance protection: o tripping by protection units and inhibition of

protections:

closing, o line fault tripping, o definitive tripping, o closing on fault, o directional earth fault , o VT supervision, o relay inoperative (watchdog).

n protection data required by control and

monitoring: o tripping order, o closing order, o closing inhibited.

n line differential protection: o line fault tripping, o differential connection fault, o intertripping from the other end, o relay inoperative (watchdog).

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Interfaces
Interface with substation remote control and monitoring equipment

n remote indications: o protection unit operation (directly or via the o recloser status. n remote control orders: o opening/closing with downgraded operation, o choice of reclosing mode, o reset.

Bay Controller),

Interface with the GIS

the characteristics of the protection device outputs allow direct control of the coils (no intermediary relays are required).
n current sensor comprising different cores for the following applications: o main protection, o complementary protection and operating measurements, o busbar differential protection, o check zone differential protection for double busbar bays. n voltage sensor comprising 2 secondary circuits for the following applications: o distance protection, o directional earth fault protection, undervoltage, synchronism checking, and operating measurements .

n circuit breaker: o circuit breaker closed indication, o operating mechanism charged indication, o open/close control.

The signals transmitted by the current transformers and voltage transformers are connected to the protection units via test terminal boxes.

Sensor selection

The sensors included in the GIS are sized for protection unit operation. The characteristics are appropriate for the intended operating conditions: maximum shortcircuit current, protection units installed in the local control cubicles (except for transformer differential protection which may be installed in the equipment situated downstream from the transformer, at a maximum distance of 100 meters).

CT specification complies with chosen protection suppliers recommendations, with IEC 60044-1 standard in a general way and with its amendment 1 for line protection, in particular to take into account the influence of residual flux in reclosing.

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VA TECH Transmission & Distribution GmbH & Co KEG Penzinger StraBe 76, A-1141 Vienna Tel.: ++43/1/89 100, Fax: ++43/1/89 100-196 E-mail: contact@vatech-td.at, www.vatech-td.com

Product management VA TECH Schneider High Voltage c/o Schneider Electric High Voltage BP 178 - 1 rue de la Nva - 38004 Grenoble Cedex 1 Tel.: ++33(0)4 76 57 90 64, Fax: ++33(0)4 76 57 39 20

Due to the evolution in standards and in material, the information contained in the text and illustrations are not guarantedand require confirmation from the relevant department. Publishing: VA TECH Schneider Electric High Voltage ; Design and production: Salque

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10/2001