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by Microsoft®



A Companion Volume
to the Present


684 pages, 375 Readings, 90




Introductory Textbook dealing with the Larger Problems
in the

Present-Day Education

Light of their Historical Development

517 pages, 85

illustrations in text,


insert plates

"I have always thought that the chief object of education was awaken the spirit, and that inasmuch as a literature whenever it has touched its great and highest notes was an expression of the spirit of mankind, the best induction into education was to feel the pulses of humanity which had beaten from age to age through the universities of men who had penetrated to the
secrets of the human spirit." (Woodrow Wilson, in acknowledging receipt of the Doctor's Degree from the University of. Paris, Dec.
21, 1918.)

"The study of the past begins to inspire us with new hopes for the future of humanity. The life which, viewed from without, seems in us, and thousands such as we, so petty and trivial, catches a new significance and even grandeur from the thought that it is not the isolated, transient thing we deemed it. begin to perceive that no earnest effort for the good of humanity is ever


however obscure, that has been devoted to the highest ends, to the service of mankind, to the progress of truth and goodness in the world, is ever spent in vain. For we think of them as contributions to a life which is not of to-day or yesterday, but of all time a life which, never hasting, never resting, is through the ages ever advancing to its consummation." (John Caird, in an Address on "The Study of History" delivered at the University of Glasgow, November 8, 1884. "University Addresses," p. 253.)




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The present volume,
as well as the

arose out of a practical situation.
tering Stanford University as

companion volume of Readings, Twenty- two years ago, on ena Professor of Education and beit

ing given the history of the subject to teach, I found


almost from the first, to begin the construction of a Syllabus of Lectures which would permit of my teaching the subject more

phase of the history of the rise and progress of our Western than would any existing text. Through such a study it is possible to give, better than by any other means, that vision of world progress which throws such a flood of light over all our
as a

educational efforts.

The Syllabus

grew, was


to include de-

and in 1902 was published in book form. In 1905 a second and. an enlarged edition was issued, 1 and these volumes for a time formed the basis for classwork and reading in a number of institutions, and, though now out of print, may still be found in many libraries. At the same time I began the collection of a series of short, illustrative sources
tailed citations to historical literature,


students to read.


had been


intention, after the publication of the second

expand the outline into a Text Book which would embody my ideas as to what university students should be given as to the history of the work in which they were
edition of the Syllabus, to


I felt then,


still feel,

that the history of education,

properly conceived and presented, should occupy an important Two things now place in the training of an educational leader.

some time turned me aside from my original was the publication, late in 1905, of Paul Monroe's very comprehensive and scholarly Text Book in the History of Education, and the second was that, with the expansion of the work in education in the university with which I was connected, and the addition of new men to the department, the general history of education was for a time turned over to
happened which




I then began, instead, the development of another to teach. that introductory course in education, dealing entirely with

Syllabus of Lectures on the History of Ed.ucatiqih.with Bibliographies.

1st ed.,


pp., illustrated, illustrated,





bibliographies, 358 pp.,

York, 100s.



American educational history and problems, out

which grew


Public Education in the United States.
half of the

academic year iqio-ii I acted as on the History of Education at both Harvard University and Radcliffe College, and while serving in this capacity I began work on what has finally evolved into the present volume, together with the accompanying book of illustrative Readings. Other duties, and a deep interest in problems of school administration, largely engaged my energies and writing time until some three years ago, when, in rearranging courses at the university, it seemed desirable that I should again take over

The second

visiting Lecturer

Since then the instruction in the general history of education. I have pushed through, as rapidly as conditions would permit,
the organization of the parallel book of sources and documents,

and the present volume of text. In doing so I have not tried to prepare another history of educational theories. Of such we already have a sufficient number. Instead, I have tried to prepare a history of the progress and practice and organization of education itself, and to give to
such a history its proper setting as a phase of the history of the development and spread of our Western civilization. I have
especially tried to present such a picture of the rise, struggle for

and recent great expansion of the idea of the improvability of the race and the elevation and emancipation of the individual through education as would be most illuminatexistence, growth,

ing and useful to students of the subject.






traced the great forward steps in the emancipation of the intellect

man, and the

efforts to

perpetuate the progress

made through

the organization of educational institutions to pass on to others

what had been


ting to the great historic forces

have also tried to give a proper setwhich have shaped and moulded



and have made the evolution



school systems and the world-wide spread of Western civilization both possible and inevitable.

To this end I have tried to hold to the main lines of the story, and have in consequence omitted reference to many theorists and reformers and events and schools which doubtless were important in their land and time, but the influence of which on the main current of educational progress was, after all, but small. For such omission I have no apology to make. In their place I have introduced a record ofMifA^M^^Ed forces, not included in

the usual history of education, which to


me seem important as having contributed materially to the shaping and directing of While in the treatment intellectual and educational progress. major emphasis has been given to modern times, I have nevertheless tried to show how all modern education has been after all a development, a culmination, a flowering-out of forces and impulses which go far back in history for their origin. In a civilization such as we of to-day enjoy, with roots so deeply embedded in the past as is ours, any adequate understanding of world practices and of present-day world problems in education calls for some tracing of development to give proper background and perspective.


rise of


state school systems, the variations in

types found to-day in different lands, the


conceptions of the

educational purpose, the rise of science study, the



which the school has recently assumed, the world-wide sweep

modern educational ideas, the rise of many entirely new types of these and many schools and training within the past century features of modern educational practice in progressive other

nations are better understood

if viewed in the light of their Standing as we are to-day on the threshold of a new era, and with a strong tendency manifest to look only to the future and to ignore the past, the need for sound educational perspective on the part of the leaders in both school and state is given new emphasis. To give greater concreteness to the presentation, maps, diagrams, and pictures, as commonly found in standard historical works, have been used to an extent not before employed in writ-

proper historical setting.


on the history of education. To give


greater concrete-

ness to the presentation I have built up a parallel volume of Readings, containing a large collection of illustrative source material

designed to back up the historical record of educational development and progress as presented in this volume. The selections have been fully cross-referenced (R. 129; R. 176; etc.) in the

Depending, as I have, so largely on the companion volume for the necessary supplemental readings, I have reduced the chapter bibliographies to a very few of the most valuable and most commonly found references. To add to the teaching value of the book there has been appended to each chapter a series of questions for discussion, bearing on the Text, and another series of questions bearing on the Readings to be found in the companion volug^zi&b^feGffeit is ho P ed tliat tne Text
pages of the Text.




be found good in teaching organization that the treatment prove to be of such practical value that it will contribute materially to relieve the history of education from much of the
tional theory has

which the devotion in the past to the history of educabrought upon it; and that the two volumes which have been prepared may be of real service in restoring the subject to the position of importance it deserves to hold, for mature students of educational practice, as the interpreter of world progress
as expressed in one of its highest creative forms.

Stanford University, Cal.



September 4, 1920


by Microsoft®


The Sources of our Civilization





The Old Greek Education
15 21


Greece and its People Early Education in Greece

Chapter II. Later Greek Education III. The New Greek Education




Period of Home Education III. Transition to School Education IV. School System as finally established V. Rome's Contribution to Civilization

The The The The

The Education and Work of Rome Romans and their Mission

.... ... ....

53 58 60 63 74



The Rise and Contribution

of Chris-

The Rise and Victory of Christianity
Early Church


Educational and Governmental Organization of the


What the Middle Ages

started with

.... ....





Chapter V.


Peoples in the Empire





Chapter VI'. Education during the Early Middle Ages I. Condition and Preservation of Learning .126
. .

Chapter VII. Education during the Early Middle Ages II. Schools ESTABLisiffi® «8 D 'KWf^W5TBN provided .150





•Chapter VIII. Influences tending toward a Revival of Learning 180 I. Moslem Learning from Spain 186 II. The Rise of Scholastic Theology

Law and Medicine



as New Studies Influences and Movements

. .

192 199

Chapter IX. The Rise of the Universities






Chapter X. The Revival of Learning Chapter



Educational Results of the Revival of Learning 263
. .

Chapter XII. The Revolt against Authority


Chapter XIII. Educational Results of the Protestant
Among Lutherans and Anglicans

Chapter XIV. Educational Results of the Protestant Revolts II. Among Calvinists and Catholics 330 Chapter XV. Educational Results of the Protestant Revolts III. The Reformation and American Education 356.



Chapter XVI. The Rise of Scientific Inquiry Chapter XVII. The







Method and the
397 401




Humanistic Realism Social Realism Sense Realism Realism and the Schools

405 4jg

Chapter XVIII. Theory and Practice by the Middle of the Eighteenth Century


Pre-Eighteenth-Century Educational Theories MlD-ElOHTEENTl£<^{HtfeM&3TOiSfiONAL CONDITIONS



II... . .CONTENTS PART IV xiii MODERN TIMES THE ABOLITION OF PRIVILEGE. The Struggle for National Organization in England I. . . . . 547 Chapter XXII... . / 473 Unsatisfied Demand for Reform in France -478 III..Voluntary Beginnings . A NEW THEORY FOR EDUCATION EVOLVEDTHE STATE TAKES OVER THE SCHOOL Chapter XIX.. I. .613 II. Early National Attitudes and Interests Awakening AiD^ffig3^<M««»sQss>isciousNESS .. . New Conceptions of the Educational Purpose in in .. . . . . Awakening an Educational Consciousness in the United States I.. 552 566 Chapter XXIII. A State School System at last created in . 653 . II. The Struggle for National Education 633 IV. England the First Democratic Nation 486 IV. The New State Theory The New State Theory France America 506" 508 519* Chapter XXI. and Subject-Matter for the Elementary School The New Theory stated 530 German Attempts to work out a New Theory 533 The Work and Influence of Pestalozzi 539 . • • . The Charitable. . III.. THE RISE OF DEMOCRACY. . The Beginnings of National Education I. . France and 588 603 II. The ligious V. National Organization in Prussia I. . III. . Work of the Benevolent Despots of Continental Europe II. National Organization in France National Organization in Italy ' Chapter XXIV. . Institution of Constitutional Government and Re. . 494~ The French Revolution sweeps away Ancient Abuses 498 Chapter XX.658 . Redirection of the Elementary School . . National Organization Italy I. The Development of a National System 644 . A New Theory IV. . The Eighteenth a Transition Century I. The Beginnings of National Organization II.. Freedom in America . .. Chapter XXV. . The Period of Philanthropic Effort (1800-33) 622 III. II.

New Conceptions of the Educational In. III. Sociological V. VI. Political Scientific III. 745 759 764 772 779 Chapter XXIX.. . II. . The American Battle for Free State I. Spread of the State-Control Idea New Modifying Forces Effect of These Changes on Education 711 . . . New Tendencies and Expansions 787 795 805 812 824 833. 723 736. Education becomes a Great National Tool I. . . The Scientific Organization of Education . Political.The State University crowns the System 702 . and Propaganda . . The Future Index Digitized by Microsoft® . Schools 676 The Battle for Tax Support The Battle to Eliminate the Pauper-School Idea 679 684 The Battle to make the Schools'entirely Free The Battle to establish School Supervision 687 The Battle to Eliminate Sectarianism . Vocational IV. 667 672 Chapter XXVI.xiv III. . Social.. . I. . and Manual Activities IV. . CONTENTS IV.691 The Battle to Establish the American High School 695. Play. Social Meaning of these Changes . .. III.. Conclusion. V. The Addition of Science Study V. Chapter XXVIII. Process The Psychological Organization of Elementary . . . . II. . VII. . The Kindergarten. . IV. . struction II.. . . Chapter XXVII. . and Economic Influences Alignment of Interests. New Ideas from Herbartian Sources III. . . I. 841 II. .

5. .. near Florence.. 18. 15. 690 762 Digitized by Microsoft® . . . Magnus ... . . . . 4. at Zutphen. . 9. 10. . Saint Thomas Aquinas in the School of Albertus A Lecture on Theology by Albertus Magnus . 340 364 410 542 546 568 11. 6.. Italy The Library of the Church of Saint Wallberg. . 12. . .LIST OF PLATES Facing i. 140 140 190 228 Holland 3. . Stratford-on-Avon Grammar School Educational Leaders in Protestant Germany The Free School at Harrow Map showing the Spread of Jesuit Schools in Northern Territory by the Year 1725 Two Tablets on the West Gateway at Harvard University John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) . 2.. 278 308 322 . The Cloisters of a Monastery. 598 618 618 . .. . 8. 13... 17. 16. 7. . Pestalozzi Monument at Yverdon Fellenberg's Institute at Hofwyl Two Leaders in the Regeneration of Prussia Francois Pierre Guillaume Guizot (1787-1874) John Pounds' Ragged School at Portsmouth An English Village Voluntary School Two Leaders in the Educational Awakening in the United States Two Leaders in the Reorganization of Educational Theory . . 14...

Cato the Elder (234-148 b. 54 56 59 63 64 65 66 20. 21.LIST OF FIGURES i .. . about 430 B. in Asia Minor . . 30.) Evolution of the Greek University The Greek University World. .. 14.. 23. The Known World about 150 a. . . Socrates (469-399 b. 17.. 16. Bishop 96 A Benedictine Monk. 13. . 34. 3.. 29. . . 37. 26 Greek Writing-Materials .. 24. . Abbot. 31. A Greek Boy An Athenian Inscription 25 6.c. The Greek Conception of the World Ancient Greece and the ^Egean World The City-State of Attica Distribution of the Population of Athens and Attica. 10... 32... and the Extension of the 44 45 47 48 53 .. 27 29 31 33 15. 7.d The Early Peoples of Italy. 25. 19. 5 15 17 21 5. ...) Roman Writing-Materials A Roman Counting-Board A Roman Primary School A Roman School of Rhetoric The Roman Voluntary Educational System. 22. 33. ... 2. 11. .. 89 28. jo . . 26.. A A Page of the Gothic Gospels Typical MoNASTEE%i/eBfeS©jJlH<BBS*/lluROPE .C. 12. Roman Power The Principal Roman Roads The Great Extent of the Roman Empire A Roman Father instructing his Son . A . Counting-Board An Athenian School Greek School Lessons Ground-Plan of the Gymnasium at Ephesos.. 36.. . 4. as finally evolved Origin of our Alphabet The Growth of Christianity to the End of the Fourth Century 70 72 77 . .... and Abbess 99 Showing the Final Division of the Empire and the Church 103 A Bodyguard of Germans II0 The German Migrations u2 .. . 18. The Known World in 800 A German War Chief Romans destroying a German Village U4 u^ U6 x . 8.128 .c.27 A Greek 9. 27. 35.

. . Initial xvii . 75. A Monk 134 42. 61. 51. 44.. View of a Medleval Monastery .. Fragment from the Recovered "Digest" of Justinian The Father of Medicine. 73. 197 200 203 205 206 be. 74. . at Paris The City-States of Northern Italy . . 77.. 232 .. at Oxford A Lecture on Civil Law by Guillaume Benedicti Library of the University of Leyden. 79. .. 219 223 224 227 228 231 . . The Educational Pyramid . 72. . . 63. 64.. 80. 70. 49. 41. . 59. 81. 65. .. . fore 1600 Seal of a Doctor.. . 62. 244 245 249 231 . 54. University of Paris New College. . The Cathedral of Notre Dame. . . . . Aristotle . . 43. ... 189 194 195 . . 48. . Hippocrates of Cos A Pilgrim of the Middle Ages A Typical Medieval Town "(Prussian) . 55. .. . 78. 50. 68. . .. 69.Eye 39. 162 168 169 175 183 i«5 . 258 264 266 268 269 270 272 . 58.. 76.. JOHANN STURM (l507Er%»ked by Microsoft® . 53. . . 47. .. 60.. 56. . Charlemagne's Empire. 57. in Holland A University Disputation A University Lecture and Lecture Room Petrarch (1304-74) Boccaccio (1313-75) Demetrius Chalcondyles (1424-1511) Bookcase and Desk in the Medicean Library at Florence Two Early Northern Humanists An Early Sixteenth-Century Press An Early Specimen of Caxton's Printing The World as known to Christian Europe before Columbus Saint Antoninus and his Scholars Two Early Italian Humanist Educators Guillaume Bud^eus (1467-1540) College de France johann reuchlin (1455-i522) . 46.. .. 67.. . . 52.LIST OF FIGURES 38. . 71.130 133 Letter from an Old Manuscript in a Scriptorium 40. Bird's. 253 255 256 . . . Trade Routes and Commercial Cities Showing Location of the Chief Universities founded . . 66. and the Important Monasteries of the Time Where the Danes ravaged England An Outer Monastic School The Medieval System of Education summarized A School: A Lesson in Grammar An Anglo-Saxon Map of the World An Early Church Musician A Squire being knighted A Knight of the Time of the First Crusade Evolution of Education during the Early Middle Ages Showing Centers of Moslem Learning .. 45. 136 145 150 154 156 161 . .

. .. New England Settlements. . 87. 124. . The Boston Latin Grammar School 362 in. 93. John Knox (i505?-72) 335 101. 91. 123. . The Brothers of the Christian Schools by 1792 350 106. 92. A French School of the Seventeenth Century 332 99. . 122. John Milton (1608-74) Michel de Montaigne (1533-92) John Locke (1632-1704) An Academie des Armes A Sample Page FROM^^'O^y^^us" • 399 400 401 403 404 414 . Nicholas Kopernik (Copernicus) (1473-1543) 386 114. Plan of a Jesuit Schoolroom 342 103. 84. 89. and their Route to America 359 109. 83. . of the Sciences Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Francois Rabelais (1483-1553) 389 390 393 394 . 1500 to 1700 353 107.xviii Bohemia Showing the Results of the Protestant Revolts Huldreich Zwingli (1487-1531) John Calvin (1509-64) A French Protestant (c.. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) 387 115. Ignatius de Loyola (1491-1556) 337 102.. . . An Ursuline 346 104. Pennsylvania 370 113. 1660 361 1 10. .319 96. . 120. 1688 349 105.. 86. Map showing the Religious Settlements in America 358 108. . 1600) Two Early Vernacular Schools The First Page of Wycliffe's Bible . 274 276 277 281 290 291 296 297 299 301 309 311 Luther giving Instruction 313 Johannes Bugenhagen (1485-1558) 314 . 121. Tendencies in Educational Development in Europe. A School of La Salle at Paris. 125. London 88. . 94. A Dutch Village School 334 100. LIST OF FIGURES Desiderius Erasmus (1467-1536) Saint Paul's School. Newton (1642-1727) 388 118. An Old Quaker Meeting-House and School at Lampeter. Sir Isaac 117. . . Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) 388 95. . . . Evolution of German State School Control 321 97. . 85. 116.. Where Yale College was founded 367 112. 126. Giggleswick Grammar School The Evolution of Modern Studies John Wycliffe (i320?-84) Religious Warfare. . A Chained Bible 98.. Homes of the Pilgrims. 90. William Harvey (1578-1657) Francis Bacon (1561-1626) The Loss and Recovery. . 119.

. ... 138. 156. 146. Part of a Page from a Latin-English Edition of the tibulum" Augustus Hermann Francke (1663-1727) A French School before the Revolution Ves415 419 431 440 442 443 A Horn Book The Westminster Catechism Thomas Dilworth Frontispiece to (?-i78o) 131. 162. . 150.. . Lakanal (1762-1845) Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) The Rousseau Monument at Geneva Basedow (1723-90) Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) The Scene of Pestalozzi's Labors Fellenberg (1771-1844) The School of a Handworker The Kingdom of Prussia. . 474 475 480 481 481 482 489 John Wesley (1707-82) 153... . 170.. 163. 169. 136.. . 147. 159.. ... 161. . 449 450 451 452 455 455 458 463 148.. 164. 132. 133. . .. 144. .. 508 510 510 513 513 514 515 516 158. 140.. Nationality of the White Population. 160. 525 531 535 537 541 165..... 141. 168. 154. xix " 128.. 166. . 137. 157. 149. 152.. 139. 151.. Maria Theresa Montesquieu (1689-1755) Turgot (1727-81) Voltaire (1694-1778) Diderot (1713-84) .. 142... 1740-86 A German Late Eidafsin»c/rt»i(Si3WHPfi# School . 143. 167... Title-Page of Hodder's Arithmetic A " Christian Brothers " School An English Dame School Gravel Lane Charity-School. . 130. Southwark A Charity-School Girl in Uniform A Charity-School Boy in Uniform Advertisement for a Teacher to let A School Whipping-Post An Eighteenth-Century German School Children as Miniature Adults A Pennsylvania Academy Frederick the Great . as shown by the Family Names in the Census of 1790 494 The States-General in Session at Versailles 499 Rousseau (1712-78) 155. La Chalotais (1701-83) ROLLAND (1734-93) Count de Mirabeau (1749-91) Talleyrand (1758-1838) Condorcet (1743-94) The Institute of France . Noah Webster's "American Spelling 444 445 447 448 Book" 134.LIST OF FIGURES 127. . 135. 145. 547 556 559 564 .. 129..

. 177. .. 203. 178. . States First High School in the United States 207. 610 618 621 621 185. . R.. 183.. . 192.. 173.. 700 704 708 .. . . . 176.. The Unification of Italy. .. 210.. . . 624 London 187. since 1848 Count of Cavour (1810-61) Outline of the Main Features of the Italian State School . . .701 . . . 172. . . Evolution of the Essential Features of the American Public School System Dates of the Granting of Full Manhood Suffrage The First Free Public School in Detroit v The Pennsylvania School Elections of 1835 The New York Referendum of 1850 Status of School Supervision in the United States by 1861 A Typical New England Academy The Development of Secondary Schools in the United . . 666 670 678 682 685 688 696 6 99 206... 184. ... 179. 200.. 608 609 182. 197. 189. 305. 190.. Monitors teaching Reading at "Stations" Proper Monitorial-School Positions Robert Owen (1771-1858) Lord Brougham (1778-1868) An English Village School in 1840 Expenditure from the Education Grants. . 204.. 201. 1839-70 Lord T. 193.. . Malthus (1766-1834) The Creators of the Monitorial System The Lancastrian Model School in Borough Road. . . .. . 209.... System Ragged-School Pupil Adam Smith (1723-90) . Colleges and Universities established by i860 The . . Macaulay (1800-59) Work of the School Boards in providing School Accommo.. dations 195. The English Educational System as finally evolved The First Schoolhouse built by the Free School Society in New York City "Model" School Building of the Public School Society . . .xx 171. ... 196.. .. 199. 186. B. LIST OF FIGURES DlNTER (1760-1831) 570 DlESTERWEG (179O-1866) 57 1 The Prussian State School System created 577 An Old Foundation transformed 589 Count de Fourcroy (1755-1809) 590 Victor Cousin (1792-1867) 597 Outline of the Main Features of the French State School System 598 Europe in 1810 604 . High Schools in the United States by i860 208. . . . . . . The American Educational Ladder The School System &£ii&mW)Mmrosoft® 713 . 626 627 628 630 636 637 639 640 643 . 180. .. . 194. 175. ..... .. 649 661 665 198.. 188. The Reverend T. 174. 191. A .. 181.. Southware:. . 202.

749 752 ..LIST OF FIGURES 211. 228. 224. 213. 220. about 1830 The Great Trade Routes of the Modern World An Example of the Shifting of Occupations The Philippine School System The First Modern Normal School Teacher-Training in the United States by i860 Evolution of the Elementary-School Curriculum and of Methods of Teaching An "Usher" and his Class Redirected Manual Training Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) Thomas H. 724 726 727 729 730 73i 733 734 740 . Fourteen to Twenty Years of Age Abbe de l'Epee (1712-89) The Reverend Thomas H. ... 237. 225.. . 230. . . 218. 227.. Digitized by Microsoft® . 238.. 219. 239. in Europe by the Close of the Nineteenth Century The School System of the Argentine Republic The Japanese Two-Class School System The Chinese Educational Ladder Baron Justus von Liebig (1803-73) Charles Darwin (1809-82) Louis Pasteur (1822-95) Man Power before the Days of Steam Threshing Wheat a Century Ago A City Water-Supply. 215. 223.. 236. 235. 226. 240. Gallaudet teaching the Deaf and Dumb Educational Institutions maintained by the State Karl Georg von Raumer (1783-1865) The Established and Experimental Nations of Europe The Educational Problems of the Future . 229. 217.. 231. 756 758 771 777 778 781 804 808 810 819 819 820 825 835 838 . 216. .. 222. • ... . Huxley (1825-95) A Reorganized Kindergarten The Peking Union Medical College The Destruction of the Trades in Modern Industry School Attendance of American Children. 221. . 232.. 214. 234. . 233.. The Progress of Literacy 714 718 720 721 .. xxi 212.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

. In Modern Times. F. 1895. An excellent treatise on the development of the theory for our modern elementary school. the following works. Text Book in the History of Education. A ter bibliographies. II. 506 pp. Before the Middle Ages. Our most complete and scholarly history of education. Parker. Vol. GENERAL HISTORIES OF EDUCATION History of Education. 1902. 3. Boston. P. in. 292 pp. E. Munroe. 314 pp. P. 2d ed. See analytical table of contents. Democracy in Education. 5. Vol. An 6. New York. 2d ed. Boston. C.. i. Ideal. Quick. New York. interpretation of educational progress. 410 pp. 191 2. Jas. Thomas.. 1. These volumes contain valuable supplementary material. Paul. Essays on Educational Reformers. 1909-13. New York. GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES OF EDUCATION Cubberley. the interpretation of the larger movements of history. Hart. Monroe. on all points to which they are likely to apply. 1918.GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY In addition to the List of Readings and the Supplemental References given in the chapter bibliographies. 358 pp. 1890. H. out of print.. Now Gives detailed and classified bibliographies for all phases of the subject. and many puB : . Davidson. Graves. 418 pp. R. 1. 304 pp. not cited in the chapter bibliographies. work of the theorists in education since the time of the Renaissance. New York. libraries. A series of well-written *7. This volume should be consulted freely. The Educational *4. 1905. will be found in most libraries and may be consulted. K. 772 pp. with some good descriptions of modern practice. for additional material: I. The History of Modem Elementary Education. essays on the 568 pp. First ed. 11.3 vols. 1900. New York. but nmay be found injaost normal school and college nbranes. J. and good chapHistory of Education. 1905. Contains very good short chapters on the educational reformers. Vol. During the Middle Ages. Good on *2. 262 pp. Syllabus of Lectures on the History of Education. New York. S. P.

and excellent biographical sketches. *i. Index Hartford. on all points relating to European or American In the chapter bibliographies. but. Syracuse. IV. 1855-81. 1910-11. Cambridge. 1902. Cyclopedia of Education. Edited by Henry Barnard. all freely kinds of historical and educational information. they *2. and freely consulted liographies. 1892. Reprinted. as above. Digitized by Microsoft® . due to the alphabetical arrangement and good on all historical cross-referencing. may be found easily. with good selected bibA work that should be in all libraries. Should be consulted freely in using this Text.xxiv GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY III. 1011-13. Encylopadia Britannica. chapter bibliographies. 31 vols. Contains numerous important articles on all types of historical topics. 29 vols. nth ed. to the 31 vols. Contains ex- The most important Cyclopaedia cellent articles Education in print. CYCLOPEDIAS 5 vols. points and events. Its historical articles are too numerous to cite in the in using this Text. the most important references are indicated with an asterisk (*). Monroe. MAGAZINES Barnard's American Journal of Education. * i. of New York. Paul. Washington. Editor.. A wonderful mine of and should be consulted educational history. published by the United States Bureau of Education.

THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION Digitized by Microsoft® .

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that our modern European and American civilization has been developed. The Greeks. added another new for^/feM&rgfe1?sf>Q<iure significance. parts be a task impossible of accomplishment. for our purposes they would not be imEspecially would to trace the it not be profitable for us to attempt development of minor features. It is upon these three foundation stones. or the American Indians all alike present features which to some form a very interesting study. and the study of the early history of our western civilization is a study of the work and the blending of these three main forces. the real sources of our presentwill day civilization lie elsewhere. and one The to us . and consequently they need not concern us in the study we are about to begin. while specific would be interesting. but pur western civilization does not go back to these as sources. from people in many different lands and different ages. rudimentary civilizations of primitive peoples.THE HISTORY OF EDUCATION INTRODUCTION THE SOURCES OF OUR CIVILIZATION The Civilization which we of to-day enjoy is a very complex some large and some small. The early development of civilization among the Chinese. The Germanic tribes. of made up many different contributions. portant. and these minor sources be of referred to but briefly and only as they influenced the course western progress. overrunning the boundaries of the Roman Empire in the fourth and fifth centuries. To trace all these contributions back to their sources would thing. and the Christians laid the foundations. civilization which we now know and enjoy has come down from four main sources. While we have obtained the alphabet from the Phoenicians and some of our mathematical and scientific developments through the medium of the Mohammedans. the Hindoos. the Persians. superimposed upon one another. the Egyptians. the Romans. or to go back to the . and in the order named. and.

building an entirely new superstructure on the old foundations. the little Greek States had developed educational systems in part designed to prepare their citizens for what might come. To these four main sources we have made many additions in modern times. we shall be far less concerned. and to the North and West a little-known region inhabited by barbarian tribes. These people. were the The work pioneers of western civilization.4 HISTORY OF EDUCATION which profoundly modified all subsequent progress and development. was the most important of all the earlier contributions to our education and civilization. in a series of memorable battles. then. led by Athens. It was in such a world that our western civilization had its birth. and especially the Athenian Greeks. and shall trace the blending and assimilating processes of the centuries.our civilization is composed of these four foundation elements. and with the lasting contributions which they made to our educational practices educational and philosophical and to our present-day civilization. broke the dread power of the ^^WipmSsS^ ma de th e future of this < . In place of the repression of all individuality. Long foreseeing the danger. and in fear of what might happen. as we progress down the centuries. and for the first time in world history a premium was placed on personal and political initiative. we shall state briefly the contributions to the stream of civilization which have come down to us from each of the important historic peoples or groups or forces. Starting. world is well shown on the map reproduced opposite. with the of the Greeks. represented an entirely new spirit in the world. of Greece lies at the bottom and. known as HeUenes. These Greeks. with the theories advanced by thinkers among them than with what was actually done. Finally. they developed a civilization characterized by individual freedom and opportunity. Their position in the ancient To the East lay the older political despotisms. with their caste-type and intellectually stagnant organization of society. the Greeks. In time this new western spirit was challenged by the older eastern type of civilization. but the groundwork of . For these reasons a history of even modern education almost of necessity goes back. and the stagnant conditions of society that had characterized the civilizations before them. in a sense. to the work and contributions work of these ancient peoples. While describing briefly the educational institutions and ideas of the different peoples. briefly at least.

i. Platsea the fate of our western civilization trembled in the bal- Now followed the great creative period in Greek dur- ing which the Athenian Greeks matured and developed a literature. The next of great source of our western civilization was the work Rome. but and art which were to be enjoyed not only by by all western peoples since their time. imaginative. themselves. but in most respects they were far different in type. Energy. unimaginativg /gandjgx^^Y^eople. Asia Minor. philosophy. and life. ality. person- and executive power were in greatest demand among them. artistic. The Early Greek Conception or the World The World according to Hecateus. a geographer of Miletus. The map dates from about 500 B. Unlike the active. concrete. and creative Greeks. Hecatseus was the first Greek traveler and geographer.INTRODUCTION hew type ance. 5 At Marathon. lines of culture the Amalchium Mare Fig.' Like the Greeks. the Romans were a practical.C. Salamis. of civilization secure. In these world will forever remain debtor to this small but active and creative people. . the Romans also occupied a peninsula jutting southward into the Mediterranean.

who later swept over the Empire. Christianity forms the connecting link D e so between the ancient Ma ^cfe rl cTvilizations. . which was saved and passed on to Western Europe through the medium of the monks. Rome absorbed and amalgamated the whole ancient world into one Empire. and and ourselves. then.6 HISTORY OF EDUCATION of governmental. and weak where Greece was strong. those of man conquest of the world thus decisively influenced the whole course of western history. The Rolectual. Into this Roman Empire.may be traced directly to the Roman idea of world empire and the sway of one imperial government. We are also indebted to Rome for many practical skills and for important engineering knowledge. The work Rome was — artistic or intellectual. To Rome. Taking the < . she spread them throughout the then-known world. in spite of Roman injury to the orderly progress of civilization. In all the intervening centuries between ancient Rome many wars and repeated onslaughts governmental law still influences and guides our conduct. and for the introduction of law and order into an unruly world. religion. By her political organization she so fixed Roman ideas as to law and government throughout the Empire that Christianity built firmly on the Roman foundations. tc which she gave a common language. imposing of its rule and its culture on the rest mankind. united and made one by Roman modern forces in arms and government. could neither destroy nor obliterate them. with all its awful destruction of life and property. Rome was Rome legal and governmental. and of barbarism. and legal nol strong where Greece was weak. and political and legal institutions. literature. and the German barbarians. and this influence is even yet extending to other lands and other peoples. Adopting Greek learning and educational practices as her own. manners. dress. As a result the twc peoples supplemented one another well in laying the foundations for our western civilization. came the first ancient world -^that of Christianity the — the third great foundation of the element in our western civilization. building securely on the Roman governmental organization. Embracing in its early development many Greek philosophical ideas. and ultimately saved the world from a great disaster. and with its new message for a decaying world. The conquests of Greece were intelpolitical. spread and perpetuated Greek ideas. we are indebted most of all for ideas as to government. On the other side of the picture. the recent great World War.

an elective king. too. but also to meet. was almost submerged in the scene. and a basis for the education of all was laid. particularly. and Belgse. Christianity came at just the right time not only to impart new energy and hopefulness to a decadent ancient civilization. hands of the Angles and Saxons. Greek was forgotten. and an independent and developing system of law were contributions of first importance which these peoples brought. conquer. Christianity changed and expanded this in such a way as to make it a dominant idea in the world. for the first time. the future and the need for preparation for a hereafter. Latin was corrupted.INTRODUCTION conception of one 7 God which the Jewish tribes of the East' had developed. Schools disappeared. The popular assembly. Knowledge of the arts and sciences was lost. In so doing a new ethical force of first importance was added to the effective enerintroduced a gies of mankind. Progress ceased in the ancient world. and anarchy and and long centuries ensued during which ancient civilization fell prey to savage violence. and it. man. Yet these barbarian Germans. They brought new conceptions of individual worth and freedom into a world thoroughly impregnated with the ancient idea of the dominance of the State over the individual. the brotherhood of life. the important unit in society. The digestive and assimilative powers of the old world seemed gone. in time contributed much to the stream of our modern civilization. with them. The individual man and not the In the State was. with resulting ravage It took ten centuries partially to civilize. barbaric flood. Christianity new type of religion and offered a new hope to the poor and oppressed of the ancient world. youthful race of ignorance. Franks. German barbarians A new and now appeared upon the and destruction. great as was the havoc they wrought at first. The creative power of antiquity seemed exhausted. and superstition. and mould into homogeneous units this heterogeneous horde of new peoples. in the history of the World. Only the Christian Church remained to save civilization from the wreck. and in time civilize the barbarian hordes from the North which overwhelmed the Roman Empire. but also among the Celts. Helvetii. Exalting the teachings of the fatherhood of God. this idea of individual freedom and of the subordfMtM^mif'gtlte to the individual has . During this long period it required the strongest energies of the few who understood to preserve the civilization of the past for the enjoyment and use of a modern world. educate.

Slowly the monasteries and the churches. but it was not until the fourteenth century that the Revival of Learning in Italy gave clear evidence of the rise of the modern spirit. there came a period of awakening and rediscovery which led to the development of the early university foundations.8 borne large HISTORY OF EDUCATION fruit in modern times in the self-governing States of France. to accept Christianity in name at 5 least. medan life two centuries of the a little later from Mohamlast conquest. and was at . the founding of new nations in new lands. After much experimenting it now seems certain that the Anglo- Saxon type of self-government. It took Europe almost ten centuries to recover from the of the invasion of effects barbarism which the to save itself Roman Empire witnessed. Switzerland. a new sea route to India had been found and was in use Columbus had discovered a 8. first in Italy. and in the United States of America. and to pick up the lost threads of the ancient this 5> and begin again the work of civilization. worked at the restoration of books and learning. trade and commerce had begun. and to yield a more or less grudging obedience' to monk and ^ priest that they might thereby escape the torments of a world to come. the rise of the democratic spirit.&ffz ^(M&icl^e ft^. Belgium. the reawakening of the spirit of scientific inquiry. . work multiplying books. By the year 1 500 much had been accomplished. seems destined to be the type of government in future to rule the world. largely as a result of the labor of monks missionaries. the cities and the universities which had arisen had become centers of a new life. it By the end of the eleventh century battle for the preservation of civilization was clear that the long had been won. and later in the nations evolved from the tribes that had raided the Empire. aided here and y there by far-sighted kings. as developed first in England and further expanded in the United States. was more tolerant directions. was accomplished. and and down V the evolution of our modern civilization. of the old learning Most the printing-press had been invented. to 1 j The barbarians were in time induced to settle an agricultural life. however.hurch. the study of Greek and Hebrew had been revived in the western world. a wonderful revival of ancient learning. a great expansion of men's thoughts. a wonderful period of world exploration and discovery. and finally. England and the English selfgoverning dominions. and the new modern questioning spirit of the Italian Revival was making progress in many had been recovered. a great religious awakening. Finally.

rise of § * The the questioning and inferring spirit in the Italian Digitized by Microsoft® . so the Reformation movement gave a new motive for the education of children not intended for the service of the State or the Church. out of this conflict. is superior to the authority of the Church.INTRODUCTION of 9 and thought was behad not taken place since the days of ancient Rome. the most bitter and vindictive religious conflict the world has ever known. Scotch-Irish. commerce. and the English Puritans. education. there soon opened tion seemed almost within its grasp. though it for a time checked the orderly development of civilization. Still. art. Danes. Norwegians. This meant the creation of an entirely new type of school the elementary. Scotch. did this Protestant conception as to the necessity of education for salvation fail to take deep root. western Christian civilization was torn asunder. French Huguenots. Dutch. much important educational progress was ultimately to come. and this was followed by other centuries of hatred and intolerance and suspicion awakened by the great conflict. In promulgating the doctrine ideas than it new had been for centuries. the Protestant Reformation. of all the revolting countries. a century of religious warfare ensued. Only in England. Swedes. Swiss. and great progress in learning. This is true in a special sense among those peoples which embraced some form of the Lutheran or Calvinistic faiths. and the still earlier cathedral and monastery schools of the Church. the basis for the elementary school masses of the people. and invenInstead. The world seemed about ready for rapid advances in many directions. government.real development. Walloons. The modern elementary vernacular school may then be said to be essentially a product of. for the masses. Finns. and in consequence the education of laid. ing awakened in the western world to a degree that that the authority of the Bible in religious matters for the all. with the result that elementary education in England awaited the new political and social and industrial impulses of the latter half of the nineteenth century for i its . As the Renaissance gave a new emphasis to the development of secondary schools by supplying them with was — — a large amount of new subject-matter and a new motive. and taught in the native tongue to supplement the Latin secondary schools which had been an outgrowth of the revival of ancient learning. These were the Germans. and the development of elementary vernacular schools was the result. Moravians.

and the applications of scientific principles have. Out of this new spirit was to come the American and the French Revolutions. and one of the most important outgrowths of this was the rise of scientific inquiry which in time followed. and the bringing to the front of questions of political interest to a degree unknown since the days of ancient in HISTORY OF EDUCATION Renaissance marked the beginnings of the transition from mediaeval to modern attitudes. The scientific spirit has to-day come to dominate all lines of human thinking. the establishment of constitutional liberty and religious freedom. Applied to education. This led to a critical questioning of the old established order. This meant the application of human reason to the investigation of the phenomena of nature. it was but a short and a natural step to inquiry into the nature and functions of government. and the end of mediaevalism and the ushering in of modern forms of intellectual liberty. it rose and swept away ancient privileges. led to the substitution of inquiry and patient experimentation for assumption and disputation. in the past century. and barriers religious. and introduced entirely new aims and methods and purposes into the edu- cational process. the rise of new types of intellectual inquiry. of This. The eighteenth century marks. and opened the way for the intellectual. this new spirit has transformed the instruction and the methods of the schools. turned the energies mankind in a new direction. From phenomena inquiry into religious matters and inquiry into the of nature. and. slowly to be sure. and political marked progress in all lines which characterized the nineteenth century. completely changed almost all the conditions surrounding human life. these directions. led to the creation of entirely new types of educational institutions. and the flood time of a slowly but steadily rising tide of protest against the enslavement of the intellect and the limitaflood of individualism liberties by either Church or State. tion of natural human — — Digitized by Microsoft® . with all that this eventually implied. witnessed a culmination of a long series of progressive changes which had been under way for centuries. abuses. too. denied. a sharp turning-point in human thinking. social. The eighteenth century. The which characterized the second half of the eighteenth century demanded outlet. and in time produced a scientific and industrial revolution which has changed the whole nature of the older problems. the beginnings of the abolition of privilege. the growth of a consciousness of national problems.

and industrial progress. and the transfer of the control of the school from the Church to the State that the national welfare might be better promoted of the school as the great thereby. a prime essential to the maintenance of good government and the promotion of national welfare. and private affair. with the rise and spread of modern ideas as to human freedom. of no particular concern to governa Church ment and of importance to but a relatively small number of the people. '. Since the middle of the nineteenth century a great world move- ment for the realization of these new aims. Now arose the modern conception constructive instrument of the State. the citizen supplanted the ecclesiastic in the organization of education and the supervision of classroom teaching. ministers of education began to be appointed by the State to take over and exercise control. social obligations. intellectual and moral improvement. zations as well. national theory as to both the nature and a new individual and and the purpose of education was advanced. human rights. in the past three quarters For ages of a century. and the education of all now came to be conceived of as a birthright of the child of every citizen. has taken place. trade. and humanitarian influences which are rapidly transforming and modernizing not only less progressive western nations. and it is now With the so recognized by progressive nations everywhere. Schools were declared to be essentially civil affairs. . and along the lines so slowly and so painfully worked out by the inl^j^^y^ofigriceptions of human free- . industry. through the taking- over of education from religious bodies and the establishment of This moveBeginning in the nations which were earliest in the front of the struggle to preserve and extend what was so well begun by little Greece and Imperial Rome. education has to-day become. but ancient civilistate-controlled school systems. a great extension of educational advantages. is still ment going on. transportation. spread of the state-control idea as to education have also gone western ideas as to government.INTRODUCTION ll the rise of democracy. their purpose was asserted to be to promote the common welfare and advance the interests of the political State. the statecontrol conception of education has. spread to every continent on the globe. political equality. and in time vastly broadened in scope. the instruction in the school was changed in direction. pure and applied science. political equality.

to a time when the child is regarded as of first importance. as expressed in the history of the progress of education. Such is a brief outline sketch of the history of the rise and spread and progress of our western civilization. Its ups and downs and forward movements have been those of the progress of the race. and as we shall trace it in much more detail in the chapters which are to follow. and when children had no claims which the State or parents were bound to respect. The road that man has traveled from the days when might made right. and begin with the Ancient World and little foundation element as found in the City-States of ancient Greece. with general education as its agent and greatest constructive force. and the education man stands as one of the highest expressions of a belief in the improvability of the race of It is such a which mankind is capable. and in consequence a history of educational progress must be in part a history of the progress of Rome. development that we propose to trace. is a long road and at times a very crooked one. and those of political equality and government under law so well worked out by an- Western civilization thus promises to become the dominant force in world civilization and human progress. having the broader outlines of the treatment. though.12 HISTORY OF EDUCATION first dom cient thought out in little Greece. Digitized by Microsoft® . and. now sketched the first we next turn to a filling-in of the details. represents a of more or less orderly evolution. Human civilization. civilization itself. and adults represented in the State declare by law that the child shall be protected and shall have abundant educational advantages.


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2. All of Greece will be seen to be a little less than half the size of the State of Illinois. was but a small country. the ^Egean Sea about the size of the State of Indiana. etc. Greece proper was about the size of the State of West Virginia. I THE OLD GREEK EDUCATION GREECE AND ITS PEOPLE The land. Indiana. but it was Territory. Kentucky.CHAPTER I. and Attica not quite so large as ^^/iggr^^SfeJJjfeiis counties. — . The map given below shows the ^Egean world superimposed on the States of the old Northwest from which it may be seen that the Greek mainland than half as large as the State of Illinois. was a little less Scale of Miles Fig. Ancient Greece and the JEgeah World Superimposed on the East-North-Central Group of American States. Dotted lines indicate the boundaries of the American States Illinois. or Hellas as the Greeks called their homeland. to show relative size. Ancient Greece.

sparsely populated. The State of West Virginia contains 24. foreigners. the high mountains. and the Athenian in particular. the citizens of which cityresidents. which would make Ki&itfc9i$ptoMkl&SBlfp&QX3(> miles square in area. Like Southern CaliFishing. took pride in and loved his country. ber of independent City-States of small territory. and the raising of cattle and sheep were the important industries. and the coastal regions' all taken together. 1 . the sea. contain much more citizens. the surrounding farming and grazing lands. dry summer gave an opportunity for the development of this wonderful civilization. it is little wonder that the Greek citizen. and than a million and a half of people a forty miles from the sea. and everywhere magnificent views through an atmosphere of remarkable clearness. oranges. the plain. and fishermen controlled the — — | The average size of an Illinois county is 550 square miles. / The land was rough and mountainous. and about two thirds the 1 The country was size of the little State of Rhode Island. and whose contributions to civilization were the chief glory of Greece. bracing climate. except in a few of the City-States. were characteristic of the land. . fornia or Florida in winter. and Rhode '1 Island 1067 square miles. A land of incomparable beauty and charm. and probably did not. which originally held the land in common. short. or an area 22X25 miles square. on ^ the mountain-slopes. The high mountains brilliant sea in front to the rear. was this true of which had the seashore. The government. it was essentially an out-of-doors country. and figs. mild winters. They had been settled by early tribes. agriculture. formed the State. with its approximately seven hundred square miles of Politically. and the and the Attica.022 square miles. and grapes on the hillsides and plains below. olives. was an average-size City-State.6 1 HISTORY OF EDUCATION much more mountainous land. the sun-steeped skies. were alike the beauty of the land Especially inspiration of the people. a't its most prosperous period. farmers. herdsmen. and deeply indented by The climate and vegetation were not greatly unlike the Pine and fir climate and vegetation of Southern California. Rhode Island would be approximately 30X36 miles square. Attica. lemons. A temperate. Attica. — slaves included. No spot in Greece was over where a most wonderful intellectual life arose and flourished for centuries. and was willing to spend much time in preparing himself to govern and defend it. and a long. was smaller than two average-size Illinois counties. The central city. Greece was composed of a numsize.

States were held apart tribal origins. as has just been said. a number of the States would combine to form a defensive league. Of these few Attica stands clearly above them all as the leader in thought and art and the most progressive in government. The City-State of Attica by narrow political sympathies. Sometimes. Laconia. just like all modern as nations. and the to of Scale of Miles bonds of a guage. unite common race.). while some were governed as oligarchies. There were in all some twenty of these City-States in mainland Greece. the diff erent City- by their Fig. was a most wonderful people. all The best of of Greece was there. descended from a com- mon ancestor. Here. of which Thfib^es was the central Some of the States developed democracies. A citizen of one city. 3. but thejjpftfeuaJ'jieiaAfiasfes and the extreme indiStates in our state . never came into play. Such attitudes and laws were but natural. the most important of which were Aiiica. were independent States. in case of great danger. of which Athen s was the central city. truly. at other times they made war on one another.C. and could not hold property or marry in a city not his own. as at the time of the Persian invasions (492-479 B. Hellen. the time and age considered. little The City-States Greece. Sparta. Athens became the most notable example. of which Sparta was the central city. and Bceotia. lan- and religion tended them into a sort ^W v brotherhood. was an alien in another. While a single the Greeks regarded themtribes selves of family. for example.THE OLD GREEK EDUCATION 17 government. such as we know it in the United and national governments. and by petty laws. of which class city. The federal principle. and Thebes aspired to the leadership of Greece and tried to unite the little States into a Hellenic Nation. Of all the different States but few played any conspicuous part in the history of Greece. and it is with Attica that the student of the history of education is most concerned. At different times Athens.

stood in the way of parts of the Mediterranean. probably checked the further spread of Greek colonies to the westward. On the island of Sicily the city of Syracuse was founded (734 B. which did not exist.C. we should have a condition analogous to that of mainIf counties.C. through the Dardanelles and on into the Black Sea. Athens was their 1 The nearest analogy we have to the Greek City-States exists in the local town governments of the New England States. and declare war. the southern peninsula of Greece had been colonized. and by 2500 B. particularly Massachusetts. along the northern coast of Africa and southern and eastern Spain. in southern France dates from an Ionic settlement about 600 B. 1 What Rome later accomplished with relative ease and on a large scale. Many of the colonies reflected great honor and credit on the motherland. As early as 3500 B. The presence of another seafaring people. By 1000 B. power and a home of rioted Greeks. the Greeks became to the ancient Mediterranean world what the English have been to the modern world... . a many-sided and a highly imaginative people. Greek colonists also went north and east. 2 A sea-faring people. and which sometimes united into leagues for defense or offense.C. they were in an advanced stone age. A lack of capacity to unite for cooperative undertakings seemed to be a fatal weakness of the Greek character. in Greece.).) Salonica and Constantinople date back to Greek colonization. but which were never able to unite to form a single State. The people. though in each of these cases we have a state and a federal government above to unify and direct and control these small local governments. and the local county-unit governmental organizations of a number of the Southern States. Attica and other portions of upper Greece had been settled. dates from about 630 B.C. The city of Cyrene. (See map. Southern Italy became so thickly set with small Greek cities that it was known as Magna Grtzcia..C. coupled with the isolation of the States difficulties of intercommunication through the mountain "^ any permanent union. Figure 2. The Greeks were among the first of the European peoples to attain to any high degree of civilization. forceful. This history concerns the mainland of Asia Minor.C.8 1 ' HISTORY OF EDUCATION and the vidualism of the people.c.C. make alliances. except tempo- rarily. between 900 J and 800 B. The city of Marseilles. in northern Africa. of the known as Laconia. land Greece. and became a center of. To the north were the Ionic Greeks. an area the size of West Virginia were divided into some twenty independent which could arrange treaties. and served to spread Greek manners.C. Sparta was their most important city. langugggjfggdgeljgjgfoSoftga wide area. Their story runs back almost to the dawn of recorded history. Greek colonization had extended to many passes. the Phoenicians. while an earlier Troy (Schliemann's second city) goes back to 2400 B. Greece was unable to do on even a small scale. a practical. but a wholly unimaginative people. had reached the age of bronze. The destruction of Homer's Troy dates back to 1200 B. and the Homeric poems to 1100 B. .C. and by 650 b.C. 2 settled ' The lower part of the Greek by the Dorian branch peninsula. was Greek family.

. philosophy. Only on such an assumption can we account for their marvelous achievements in art. In some way. The strength is in part due to its wonderful mixture of peoples Britons. and possessed of a wonderful sense of proportion and a capacity for moderation in all things. and to advance while others stood still. adaptable. religion. ULU LrKJtEK EDUCATION 1 In the settlement of Laconia the Spartans imposed themselves as an army of occupation on the original inhabitants. family H affair of the ruling families of the State.. Only foreigners were seldom admitted to privileges in the State. pro- endowed with rare mental ability. but the real basis underneath was the very superior quality of the people of Attica. general. and established a military monarchy in southern Greece. as was the ancient world in on the dominant power of a ruling class. Citizenship came with birth and proper education. keenly sensitive to beauty in nature and art. on own body the few earlier set- tlers of the Attic plain. being a people more capable of progress.9 ItiiL chief city. or attend the public assemblies. though. only in part. They also established a monarchy. 1 It accounts. versatile. and educa-S Classes in the population. these people came to be endowed with a superior genius and the rather unusual ability to make those progressive changes in living and government which enabled them to make the most of their surroundings and opportunities. beautiful surround- and contact with the outside world probably also contrib : uted something. The people of Attica were in consequence a somewhat mixed race. for religion was an In consequence. this later evolved into a democracy. whom they compelled to pay tribute to them. could land. own Only a citizen. and citizenship were all bound up together. a male citizen might hold office. Climate. just how we do not know. was built politically 1 of England It is the great mixed races that have counted for most in history. Danes. to mention only the more important earlier peowhich ha^ been welded together to form the English people. too. which possibly in part accounts for their greater intellectual ability and versatility. Far more than other Greeks. participate in the religious festivals and rites. Jutes. and.C. literature. original. In consequence. were imaginative. — J / ples Saxons. Greece. ings.. all of course could not become citizens of the State. absorbed into their The people of Attica. but. Northmen. protect himself in the courts. Digitized by Microsoft® . before 509 B. even after a democracy had been evolved. the other hand. and science at this very early period in the development of the civilization of the world. Angles. the people of Attica gressive.

This not only made some form of education necessary. but confined educational advantages ^Jto male youths of proper birth. and then only for ? (See page 40.) some conspicuous act of patriotism. tion in Greece was essentially the education of the children of the ruling class to perpetuate the rule of that class. Attica almost alone among the Greek States adopted anything approaching a liberal attitude toward the foreign-born. 1 From Figure 4 it will be seen what a Educasmall percentage of the total population this included. Beneath both citizens and foreign residents was a great foundation mass of working slaves. they held themselves apart rather exclusively as above other peoples. Sailors.) ' Digitized by Microsoft® . they remained up to 509 B.people. ^—-"'Even more. was a foreigner admitted to citizenship. but. and opened ^Tip to them large opportunities of every kind. who rendered all types of menial and intellectual services. and generally elsewhere in Greece. from the standpoint of world usefulness. citizenship everywhere in the earlier period was a degree to be attained to only after proper education and preliminary military and political training. in Sparta. many foreigners took up their residence in the city because of the importance of its -intellectual life. or its neighboring port city (the Piraeus). or even' of the Athenians. and by special vote of the citizens. Unlike Rome. they were looked upon with deep suspieion. though. jealous of their nobility and communicating to none or to very few the privileges of their cities were so far from receiving any advantage from this haughtiness that they became the greatest sufferers by it. who value themselves the most for their wisdom. There was of course no purpose in educating any others. xvn. After Athens had become the center of world thought. Only rarely before this date.C. This kept the blood pure. or the Thebans. descended from the gods. 2 it was a serious defect in Greek life. the Greeks persistently refused to assimilate the foreign-born.20 tion HISTORY OF EDUCATION and training were chiefly for citizenship and religious (moral) ends." (Dionysius of Halicarnassus. attracted there by the hospitality of the people and the intellectual or commercial advantages of these cities. Foreigners. all who. chap. Regarding themselves as a superior . household servants. in his Roman Antiquities u ' book 11. 2 "When I compare the customs of the Greeks with these (the Romans) I can find no reason to extol either those of the Spartans. As a result most of the foreign residents of Greece were to be found in Athens. field workers. 1 Athens. however. permitted the children of foreigners to attend its schools particularly in the later period of Athenian education. which received those of alien birth freely into its -citizenship.

accountants. In Sparta the number of citizens was still less. nature. for participation in the religious observances Sparta is interesting as representing the old Greek tribal training. but had been carried off as captives in some war. was everywhere in Greece recognized as a public necessity. and having no rights which a citizen was bound to respect. 1 but there the slaves (Helots) Occupied a lower status than in Athens. ' even though the citizenship had by this /time been greatly extended.) is shown in Figure 4.C. At the time of the formulation of the Spartan constitution by Lycurgus (about 850 B. though its provision. 4. Education. its most EARLY EDUCATION would IN GREECE Some form of education that train the son of the citizen and duties of a citizen of the State. This was a common practice in the ancient world. being only for the Fig. just before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War (431 B.THE OLD GREEK EDUCATION clerks in shops 21 and offices. and citizenship a degreeTb be attained to on the basis of education and training. and would prepare the State for defense against outward enemies. The great number of slaves > and foreigners is clearly seen. and extent varied in the We have clear information only as to different City-States. Sparta and Athens. The composition of Attica. let us prominent characteristics and II. tied to and being sold with the land. then. In Sparta / and in other City-States somewhat \ similar conditions prevailed as to Slaves num- bers. and what were results. being in reality serfs. (After Gulick) next see in what that education consisted. Many of these had been and learned men of other City-States or countries. This disproportion in1 creased rather than dimirushe#^fi^*eWfiBS8 /i! ® . and will consider only these two as types. slavery being Aliens vl-0 the lot of alien conquered people almost OOP ""'- without exception.C. and pedagogues were in- among the more common citizens occupations of slaves Greece. about 430 b. Distribution of the Population of Athens and Attica.c male children of citizens.000 subjectpeople.) there were but 9000 Spartan families in the midst of 250.

where preparedness was a prerequisite to safety. literary. which held together and dominated the manv tribes of the former Austrp7Hungarian . His food and clothing were scant and his bed hard. child it At it birth the child was examined by did not appear to be a promising was exposed to die in the mountains. Many of the other Greek City-States probably maintained a system of training much like Such educational systems stand as undesirable that of Sparta. Aristotle well expressed it when*he said that i). while the humane. It was Athens. and ^"were held in check by many kinds of questionable practices. Each older man was a tling. patriotism. 1 The slaves (Helots) were ofterPtroublesome. Running. the Spartans were for long regarded as the ablest fighters Laconia. stealing. which they held in subjection to them by their mili\ tary power." though on a much larger fiHffi?**/ / . the mother i). boxing. and until the boy reached the age of eighteen. and obedience were the virtues most highly prized. and in peace -Fasted like a sword in its scabbard. military ball-playing. a council of elders (R. fighting. Education in Sparta The people.EmpireA is an analogous modern situan S1 "4a *»«*»&»& tion. endurance. and still longer if a girl. <L . and a few other City-States which followed her example. mountains. military teacher. The system of training which was maintained in Sparta was in part a reflection of the character of the people. and if had charge of the child until seven if a boy. which presented the best of Greece and passed on to the modern world what was most valuable for civilization. They represented but a small percentage of the total rTpopulation. and need not detain us long. contributed little to our western civilization. where he was given little except physical drill and instruction in the Spartan virtues. At the beginning of the eighth year. courage. and artistic sentiments were neglected (R. cunning.22 HISTORY OF EDUCATION from which Sparta never progressed. " Sparta prepared and trained for war. i . examples of extreme state socialism. leaping.. A warlike people by nature. music. Education for citizenship with the Spartans meant education for usefulness in an intensely military State. he lived in a public barrack. If kept. and laconic speech and demeanor con- 1 The Austrian-Magyar combination. the use of the spear." The educational system. was a plain surrounded by in Greece. wresdrill. and in part a result of its geographical location. Strength. their home.

1). or upon them. his companion slain.) . philosophy. The first is "Eight sons Dsementa at Sparta's call Sent forth to fight one tomb received them all. until he was thirty years old he was J in the army at some frontier post. As might naturally be supposed. who was said to admonish her come back with their shields. we lie. learning a few selections from Homer. obedient to her laws. thou that passest by. anything to art. I bore them but to die for thee." ( E P i t^/Ofefe/teoh. Victory Sparta. and later Athenian education. That here. publicly whipped to develop his courage and endurance. It is a pleasure to turn from this dark picture to the wonderful (for the time) educational system that was gradually developed at Athens. — 1 Two sons to Greek poems illustrate the Spartan mother. literature. kindling with disdain That she had borne him.ft# ed who fell at Thermopylae. For the'' next ten years that is. and a warning example of the brutalizing effect on a people of excessive devotion to military training. as for example the sacrifice of Leonidas and his Spartans to hold the pass 2 at Thermopylae. Alone from battle fled: His mother. At thirty the young man was ) admitted to full citizenship and compelled to marrjy though continuing to live at the public barrack and spending his energies in training boys (R. tell at Sparta. She left to the world some splendid examples of heroism. 1 The intellectual training consisted chiefly in committing to memory the Laws of Lycurgus.'" ' "A Spartan. ' From — — . Sparta contributed little of in professional training for war.! : THE OLD GREEK EDUCATION stituted the course of study. science. 23 eighteen to twenty was spent and frequently the youth was-." "Go. For courage and not birth alone In Sparta testifies a son. : No The second: tears she shed. but shouted. Women and girls were given gymnastic training to make them strong and capable of bearing strong children. and listening to the conversation of the older men.u. . struck him dead. The old Athenian education Athenian education divides itself nattwo divisions the old Athenian* training which prevfiled-irp to about the time of the close of the Persian Wars ^7 9 B-sfi and was an outgrowth of earlier tribal observances and practices. The family was virtually suppressed in the interests of--defense and war. which characterized the urally into Schools and teachers. 2. or government.

We shall describe these briefly. /in any modern sense of the term. sweeping the room. according to Epicurus. The teaching process was essentially a telling and a leaming-by-heart procedure. the State nevertheless left every citizen free to make his own arrangements for the education of his sons. Greek 'literature contains many passages which show the low social J Schools were open from dawn to status of the schoolmaster. and were wholly lacking in teaching equipment. As was common in antiquity. in order.24 period of HISTORY OF EDUCATION maximum greatness of Athens and afterward. For the earlier years there were two schools which boys at1 An Athenian saying. to re. and the degree could not be obtained without it. Demosthenes. The State supervised edu- '"''-„ r teachers were private teachers." he says. 5). but little was needed. The instruction was largely individual instruction. such as we know. and derived their livelihood from fees. There were no Saturday and Sunday holiday's or long vacations. The schoolrooms were provided by the teachers. were required. t dark. but did not establish it. and did their own thinking too well to permit the establishment While education was a necessity for citizenof any such plan. These naturally varied much with the kind of teacher \ and the wealth of the parent. and the sense of obligation of a parent and a citizen were not sufficient to force the father to educate his son. much as private lessons in music or dancing do to-day. "you were reared in abject poverty. but about ninety festival and other state holidays served to break the continuity of instruction (R. waiting with your father on the school. ridicules him for the fact that his father was a schoolmaster in the lowest type of reading and writing school. However. the teachers occupied but a low social position. the' rod being freely used both in the school and in the home. of a become a schoolmaster. "As a boy. (R. and only in the higher N schools of Athens was their standing of any importance. music. ship. The citizens were too individualistic. The school discipline was severe. If family pride. usually in charge of an old slave known as a pedagogue. cation. 3). the son was then by law freed from the necessity of supporting his father in his old age. grinding the ink. ." Lucian represents kings as being forced to maintain themsspsiSahj^/te/^sfeg reading and writing. or to omit such education if he saw Only instruction in reading. sponging the benches. was: "Either he is dead or has call a man a schoolmaster was to abuse him. the boy coming. in his attack on iEschines. / The state military socialism of Sparta made no headway in more democratic Attica. and gymnastics fit.' " The J t ceive or recite his lessons. writing." To man who was missing. and doing the duty of a menial rather thanl of a freeman's son.

under the care of the nurse and mother. Early childhood. They may have of the attended the two schools on alternate days. though this and a school for physical day at one school ani not certain. was examined at The first took when the child Fic. though they partook of the nature of both. 5. was designed to place the child forever under the care of the family gods. and not a council of citizens. followed by the household in procession. From the first they were carefully disciplined for good behavior and for ' the establishment of self-control (R.THE OLD GREEK EDUCATION tended 25 — the music and literary school. who decidedf by vot£r whether or not the boy or girl was the legitimate and lawful child of Athenian parents. if his parents were able. On the tenth day the child was named by the father. and he might then aspire to citizenship and inherit property from his parent (R. This ceremony. L dren born during the preceding year were presented to the father's clansmen. A Greek Boy was carried around the family hearth by the nurse. the gymnasia were supported by the State more as preparedness measures than as educational institutions. engaging in much the same games and sports as do children anywhere. "t W'. 4). As this was preparatory for the next two years of army service. of ancient tribal origin. s the girl remaining closety^e&{&<M''ffl &$ home (women and chil- . who then formally recognized the child as his own and committed himself to its rearing and education. when all chilacceptance of the child. decided whether or not it was to be "exposed" or preserved. The third ceremony took place at the autumn family festival. followed by a feast. eighteen. Three ceremonies.j 7 Up to the age of seven both boys and girls grew up together in the home. training. place five days after birth. the child's name was entered on the registry of the clan. 3). After the age of seven the boy and girl parted company in the matter of their education. Boys probably spent part is part at the other. the boy attended a state-supported gymnasium. If approved. marked the recognition and birth. fant As at Sparta the in- but the father. From sixteen to where an advanced type of physical training was given.

belonging rather to the alien class. and. then their shape and functions. er. spacing between words. who probably at first taught reading and writing also. if their husbands brought company to the house. etc. De Compos. To the music teacher." (Dionysiusof Halicarnassus. position in the sentence. then syllables.TH Kfr I I with which modern children leam to read was unknown in Greece. who least two teachers. which are called grammata. then the syllables and their affections. A Greek boy. 3) Reading was taught by first learning the letters. weave. ' ' A decree of the Council and Assembly. 3 The ease fi r Mf Fig. In their attitude toward women the Greeks were an oriental rather than a modern or western people. were not supposed to take any part in public affairs. An Athenian ' 1 Inscription leam.AAJKsP ' frequently used. and sometimes three. Reading wasVery difficult to k& :JT H y v 6. and the particular mutations connected with each. then we begin to read and write.c. The school of the Probably many girls learned to read and write from their mothers or nurses. ber. J As a result the study required . A bottle-shaped vase has also been found which. FTA< IT' 3MHN04. cap 25. but when we have attained the necessary certainty. . palcestra he went for instruction in physical training (R. while the boy went to different teachers for his education. on which the like alphabet the (see wasf written. did not go to one teacher. sented the earliest or primary teacher. 2 Plaques of baked earth. and finally words. and small letters had not as yet been Produced. he went The grammatist repreto learn to read and write and count. accents. They lived secluded lives. sew. unlike a modern school child. was doubtless an evolution from an earlier tribal scribe. Instead he had at ' To the grammatist. 26 HISTORY OF EDUCATION dren were usually confined to the upper floor of the house) and being instructed in the household arts by her mother. dating from about 450 b. in addition to the alphabet. 1 Women were not supposed to possess any of the privileges of bar. Verb. 2 "We learn first the names of the elements of speech. and 1 embroider. ger. more modern hornFigure 130).) 3 Fragments of a tile found in Attica have stamped upon them the syllables. contraction. he went Finally. P™ctuatlon. and the daughters of well-to-do citizens learned to spin. Musicwas also a common accomplishment of women. as accentuation. as inflection number. Note the dimculty of trying tc. the parts of speech. at first in syllables and slowly. they were expected to retire from view. and with only capital letters. lastly. were book ST pewf™<ONTAAiP'A^ j|.. contains pronouncing exercises as follows: bi-ba-bu-be zi-za-zu-ze pt-pa-pu-pe Digitized bynBAmomfflSne gi-ga-gu-ge etc. gar. without any punctuation. easily and quickly. to the for his instruction in music and literature.

as we know them. Still later the pupil learned to write with ink on papyrus or parchment. J.THE OLD GREEK EDUCATION much in 1 27 time. with the stylus. The Greeks were a nation of actors. Arithmetic such as we teach would have been 'impossible with their Thou' sands cum- • •• Hundreds brous system of notation. 2 Only the elements of counting were taught. letters cut in wax tablets. and the recitations in the schools now and the acting in the theaters gave plenty of opportunity / There were no schoolbooks. There were no spaces between the words. ed 1 <£>( fov? "Learning to read must have been a difficult business in Hellas. hundreds.) } The Greeks had no numbers. and later by copying exercises set for him by his teacher.379. not uncoinfor expression. due to the cost of parchment in ancient times 5 this was not greatly used.. do his simple reckoning. though. 8 shown in Figure 8. Their position on the board gave them their values. such as to N A Greek Counting-Board Pebbles of different size or color were used for thousands. much attention was given to accentuation and articulation. Great importance of reading and literature. There was Five Times little need for arithmetic. the Greek using his fingers or a countingis • •• Te •• Units • ••• Fig. and used the letters of the Greek alphabet with accents over them to indicate the words they knew as numbers. K. and much personal ingenuity had to be exercised determining the meaning of a sentence. the parts were acted out. The pupil learned to write by first tracing. but only words for numbers. The Athenian accent. der to secure beautiful reading. p. The inscription shown in Figure 6 will illustrate the difficulties quite well. Unity and but little was taught. Still more. or. too. Digitized by Microsoft® . for books were written only in capitals at this time. Schools of Hellas. and no stops were inserted. and units. The master dictated and the pupils wrote down. using the wax tablet and writing on his Greek Writing-Materials knee. After the pupil had learned to read. Thus the reader had to exercise his ingenuity before he could arrive at the meaning of a sentence. Slates and paper were of course unknown in Greece. in orboard. The board shows the total 15. 87. in reading or reciting. tens." (Freeman. was hard to acquire. Counting and bookkeeping would of course be very difficult with such a s^tem.

" Digitized by Microsoft® . feebleness. and with what a fund of epigrammatic expression would his memory be furnished! How familiar he would. unsentimental. Theognis. S. politics. the Greek poets. furnished. and full of homely common sense. Ink and parchment were now used. and Theognis. p. the andifficult of attainment by any other one means. not to speak of the geography. his sense of poetic beauty and his ear for rhythm and music be developed With what a treasure of examples of every virtue and with the character and ideals of his nation. especially Homer. What instruction in ethics. in the hands of a careful and genial teacher. its heroic tales and characters.. and manly bearing could not find a fitting vehicle in the Homeric poems. and great portions of his poems were learned by heart.28 HISTORY OF EDUCATION monly. The Iliad and the Odyssey were in truth the Bible of (Laurie. the literary criticism. and the fables Reading. From the iambic poets he would learn to express with energy his indignation at meanness. Hesiod. Then followed Hesiod. its respect for law and order. with its finished form. learned by heart what the master dictated. but as an inspired moral teacher. the grammar. its directness and simplicity. and an impetus to patriotism. its manliness and pathos. Homer was regarded not merely as a poet. S. how would his power of terse.) the Greeks. while from the lyric poets he would learn the language suitable to every genial feeling and impulse of the human heart. which would go far to make him a good man and a good citizen. and music were closely interrelated. Homer was the first and the great reading book of the Greeks. served at the same time for drill in language and for recitation. whereby on the one hand the memory was developed and the imagination strengthened. ^58. how deeply in sympathy with them! And all ! 1 "These poems. social life. 5). and tyranny. wrong. combined with its admiration for personal initiative and worth. cient poetty of Greece. its piety and wisdom. idiomatic expression. the Athenians attained a variety of objects The fact is. and on the other the heroic forms of antiquity and healthy primitive utterances regarding morality. the Iliad and the Odyssey being the Bible of the Greek people. its accounts of peoples far removed in time and space. To appeal to the emotions and to stir the will along moral and civic lines was a fundamental purpose of the instruction (R. a material for a complete education such as could not well be matched even in our own day. the boy making his own schoolbooks. declamation. From the elegiac poets he would derive a fund of political and social wisdom. free world did these poems introduce the imaginative Greek boy! What splendid ideals of manhood and womanhood did they hold up for his admiration and imitation! From Hesiod he would learn all that he needed to know about his gods and their relation to him and his people. And in reciting or singing all these. A modern writer well characterizes the ancient of yEsop. Pre-Christian Education. were deeply engraved on the young mind. and the history which the comprehension of them involved? Into what a wholesome. 1 instruction in literature in the following words: By making the works of the great poets of the Greek people the material cf their education.

a lyre.A Lesson in Music and Language At the right is the paidagogos. Above are hanging a basket. 9. On the wall is an inscription in Greek. in a chair. and a leather case of flutes. bent over his lyre.(From a cup discovered at Caere. upon which we see Greek letters. holds in his hand a roll which he is unfolding. a lyre. Farther on a pupil is receiving a lesson in music. who is standing before his master. The master. and an unknown cross-shaped object. An Athenian School . and now in the Museum Digitized of Berlin) by Microsoft® . the paidagogos. a folded writing-tablet. seems absorbed in his playing. The boy stands before the teacher of poetry and recites his lesson. signed by the painter Duris. Above these three figures we see on the wall a cup. Explanation: A Lesson in Music and Poetry Explanation: At the right sits. looks at the pupil who. Fig. cross-legged. he is perhaps correcting a task. On the wall are hung a roll of manuscript. The master and pupil are both seated on seats without backs. he is seated. and a cup. a lyre. with head erect. At the left a pupil is taking a music lesson. who has just brought in his pupil. The latter holds a writing-tablet and a stylus. To the bag is attached the small box containing mouthpieces of different kinds for the flutes. and turns his head to look at his pupil. The master.

training ends. 1 p . Plutarch later expressed well the Greek conception of musical education in these words: "Whoever be he that shall give his mind to the study of music in his youth. And by that means he will become clear from all reproachful actions. The boy now not only learns arid declaims his Homer. The teacher was and the instrument usually used was the This resembled somewhat our modern guitar. known The as a citkarist. indeed. 2 1 . as with us. somewhat. to perform their part in the social entertainment. and sings his Simonides or Sappho he learns also to write down their verses from dictation. pp. teachers were common in all the City-States of Greece. and after the thirteenth year for a special music course. he will be sure to applaud and embrace that which is noble and generous. and the feeling for measure and time were important in instruction. but never grew into much favor. flute was also used expression of the spirit of their literature. The Greeks. since young men were continually called upon. for now having ^Pgd^e^gbl^huiyf music. reciting well. he may be of great use. With this event a new era in education begins. and so at once to read and to write. laid the greatest stress on reading well. both at home and at more or less public gatherings. and. 73-75. arid partly because of the contortions of the face to which its playing gave rise. music with the Greeks was always subsidiary to the seven-stringed lyre.. as well in other things as in what belongs to music. was the way in which these two (to us) fundamental arts were acquired. 2 Both Aristotle -and Plato advocate state Davidson. and stumbled "in reading. and often the two were found in adjoining rooms in the same school. This. Nor could he hide his want of culture. he had only himself to blame.30 HISTORY OF EDUCATION this was possible even before the introduction of letters. Rhythm. As soon as the boy could trace with his finger in sand. purge. The teacher in this school gradually separ- ated himself from the grammatist. recitation. made his own reading book. and harmonize man within and make him fit for moral instruction through the poetry with which their music was ever: associated. Aristotle. partly because it tended to excite rather than soothe. and singing well. The writing-lesson of to-day was Every boy the reading. if he found it illegible. Instead of being a distinct art. or singing-lesson of to-morrow. the forms of the letters. whose office was to soothe. melody. and in aim it was for moral. he began to write poetry from his master's dictation. and especially the Athenians. if he meet with a musical education proper for the forming and regulating his inclinations. Thos. and the youth who could not do all three was looked upon as uncultured. and to rebuke and blame the contrary. The music school. or scratch with a stylus on wax. and taught' by itself. teacher the boy went at first to recite his Music To this poetry. In his functions he suc- ceeded the wandering poet or minstrel of earlier times. and combine them into syllables and words.

The palaestra. temperance. but to the commonwealth. Greek School Lessons gether thus formed a single art. On the wall hangs a bag of flutes.Q tion.THE OLD GREEK EDUCATION control of school music to insure sound moraDresults. io. the master taught him to render the works of the great lyric poets of Greece. The first lessons taught the use of the instrument. while music teaches him to abstain from everything that is indecent. Poetry and music tople chants of the religious services The Singing Lesson The boy is singing. but which only the sons more well-to-do citizens attended. and was deemed unworthy a free man and a citizen. learned some music. Very unlike our modern educa. gymnastics. to the accompaniment of a flute. p. As soon as the pupil knew how to play. of the At thirteen a special music course began which lasted until sixteen. The purpose of both activities was harmqnjgus personal development. and to observe decorum. Fig. Professional playing was left to slaves and foreigners. 92. which the .) I I \q . while the teacher roll of him on a manuscript. though. their J Inferior as music was to present-day music. from eight to sixteen. but that he might be musical and able to perform his part at social gatherings and participate in the religious services of the State. and the sim- were learned. not that he might be a musician. both in word and deed. it exerted an influence over their lives which it is difficult for an American teacher to appreciate. and regularity. Professionalism in either music or athletics was regarded as disgraceful. Greeks believed contributed to moral worth. The Literature Lesson The boy follows is reciting. Every boy. fully one half of a boy's school life. was given to sports and games in another school under different teachI not only to himself." Di$&2S8<ify $m)xMft&> r y ofEducation.

1 for arm exercise. and the control of the temper and passions. agility. but by had taken precedence over other studies. — examining them physically. for agility and endurance. perfect con- temper. — not mere to self- strength or athletic prowess (R. HISTORY OF EDUCATION known as the palcestra. body and soul. for bodily poise and coordination of movement. usually the flute. and to exercise the whole human being. 2) train for participation in the Only a few were allowed Olympian games. significance. The work began gradually. was taught by the massit. or in small groups. and how to achieve easy manners ters. and giving various forms of instruction. trol of the To attain to a graceful and good physical health. endurance. played by They were accompanied by music a paid performer. as well as for future use in hunting. well. and games of various kinds. (5) boxing and wrestling. Deportment how to get up. for general bodily and lung development. . and to develop quickness of perception. (4) casting the javelin. The work began with ball children's games. to revere the gods. and skill in the games were the aims . After the pupils came to be a little older there was a definite course of study. for quickness. walk. The gymnasial training. though still not like it. In the home and in the school the boy had now been trained to be a gentleman. Up to this point the education provided was a private and a family affair. (3) throwing the discus. to develop grace of motion and beauty of form. supervising the exercises. ease. (2) running contests. The minuet and some of our folk-dancing are our nearest approach to the Greek type of dancing. — — _ The exercises were performed in classes. the important thing was to do the part gracefully fifteen and.32 ers. Swimming and dancing were also included for all. dignified carriage of the body. and in addition he had been given that training 1 ( A flat circle of polished brWgttjTSKltfifa&liBisek&Ypgight or nine inches in diameter. directing the work. possession. sixteen to eighteen. for the person concerned. contests in running. to be moral and upright according to Greek standards. in succession: (1) leaping and jumping. A number of teachers looked after the boys. which included. and on a dirt or sandy floor. dancing being a slow and graceful movement of the body to music. The standards of success were To win the game was of little far from our modem standards. harmonious physical development and moral ends were held to be of fundamental importance. They took place in the open air. The modern partner dance was unknown in ancient Greece. As in music.

V. covered stadia. a large hall with seats. whose and It athletic exercises that the State is required parents to furnish.anointed the bodies of the contestants. S. K. M. the dry-sweating apartment. Of this additional training. F. Q'. O. or for other uses. recessed seats for the use of . V. the cooling-off room. rooms for games. 33 boys. ii. if his parents chose v and could afford it. where the young men sprinkled themselves with dust. L. groves. the uncovered stadium. N. with seats and walks^among the trees. the cold bath. the furnace-room. music. Those who exhowever. certain that many parents could ill afford further expense for schooling. to quit the schools at pected to become full citizens. G. R'. possibly a palaestra. R. were required to continue until twenty years of age. and two years additional in military service.THE OLD GREEK EDUCATION in reading. narrow hall used for games of ball. C. pillared corridors. /. S. in which was suspended a sack filled with chaff for the use of boxers H. for use in bad weather. Q. S. Ground-Plan of the Gymnasium at Ephesos. where the wrestling-master. B. largely athletic. S. rows jrfseats. the vapor bath. writing. Fig. an open space. a long. and to be a part of the government and hold office. pWlosophers^hetori^and^ers^^ . S. U. P. Two years more were spent in schooling. for the keepers. the hot bath. in Asia Minor Explanation: A. looking upon T. were allowed from thirteen to fifteen. evidently intended to supply the peristyjium. E. or portico. D. the State now took control.

He. his name was entered on the register of thorities of his district or the age of eighteen his father took ward in the city. but formed deep friendships with other young men ofjiis age. The old exercises of teachers palaestra were continued.C. and to witness the great games. while wrestling and boxing became more severe. however. For the first time in his life he was now free to go where he desired about the city. Others were erected later in other parts of Greece. The men-folk lived out of doors The young Athenian from his sixth year onward spent his whole day away from home. If he abused his liberty he was taken in hand by public officials charged with the supervision of public morals. of which two were erected outside of Athens by the State. in 590 B. now the State took complete control. And theater. Figure 1 1 shows the ground plan of one of these gymnasia. The supervision of the State during the preceding joint with that of his two years had in a way been father. and a study of the explanation of the plan will reveal the nature of these establishments. much by and his paidagogos. His mother was a nonentity livine in the woman's apartments. His real home was the palaestra. also learned to ride a horse. more. but running. 1 Aside from a re- quirement that he learn the laws of the State. to drive a chariot. his disassociate himself companions from lost J. he probably saw little of her. The citizen-cadet years. and to participate in the public state and religious a number of processions. He learned to and associate himself with his fellow citizens Schools of H^f^d $fMicrosoft® but the solidarity of the State gained " . and his father (or guardian) was held responsible for his public behavior.. or in the streets When he came home there was no home life. in groves of trees. his contemporaries this system. 34 HISTORY OF EDUCATION For the years from sixteen to eighteen the boy attended a state gymnasium.. K. to sing and dance in the public choruses. and if the records showed that he was the legitimate son of a citizen. were much emphasized. and if sound. and to mix with men in the streets and to mingle somewhat in public affairs. to listen to debates and jury trials. At him before the proper auand presented him as a candidate for citizenship. still regarded as a jnmor. He saw little of girls. wrestling. his education during this period was entirely physical and civic. except his sisters. Still ily to frequent the streets. and boxing the The youth learned to run in armor. The boy now had for gymnasts of ability. at school or palaestra. in the company of his contemporaries. He was. eighteen to twenty. the youth now passed from the supervision of a fampedagogue to the supervision of the State. 1 "There were no home influences in Hellas. He was examined morally and physically. his family No doubt he (Freeman. market-place.

with still two years of him before he could take up the full duties of citizenship. Thallo. and will defend them both alone and with many. I will do my best to prevent him. The first year he spent in and near Athens. learn the army methods and diswhere cipline. I will obey the magistrates who may at any time be in power. and then. and I will Hegemone. This first year was much like that of new troops in camp being worked into real soldiers. He was now an Ephebos. 4) . if any person seek to annul the laws or to set them at naught. were able to advance d 9 ration for citizenship ($! sj? beyond / this earlier ^'fronfy type of prepadid Athens surpass all . Auxo. Zeus.THE OLD GREEK EDUCATION his 35 ward as a prospective member of it (R. His long hair was now cut. as a sort of throughout the country or rural police. camp in the open. and. he solemnly took the Ephebic oath: in the ranks. but greater and better. seashores. It was now his business to come to know his severe training ahead of — country thoroughly — its topography. springs. the cadet was now admitted to full citizenship. proceeding to one of the shrines of the city. 4). At the end of the year there was a public drill and inspection of the cadets. as does a boy in Switzerland to-day Such was the educaResults under the old Greek system. after which they were sent to the frontier. system which was in time evolved from the earlier tribal practices of the citizens of old Athens. and passed to the ranks of a trained citizen in the reserve (R. I will transmit my fatherland. nor desert my companion I will fight for temples and public property. I will honor the religion of my fathers. on a height overlooking it. not only not less. He also assisted in enforcing law and order districts. the end of this second year of practical training the second examination was held. We see how far the Athenians. both alone and with many. drill. was presented to the people along with others at a public ceremony. than it was transmitted to me. If we consider Sparta as tional representing the earlier tribal education of the Greek peoples. or citizen-cadet. never disgrace these sacred arms. Ares. a state constabulary and mountain passes. And I call to witness Aglauros. and march in public processions and take part in religious festivals. was publicly armed with a spear and a shield. roads. due to their wonderful ability to make progress. At army of defense. he donned the black garb of the citizen. I will observe both the existing laws and those which the people may unanimously hereafter make. He did what recruits do almost everylearning to be a soldier. Enyalios.

1 "No doubt the Athenian public was by no means so learned as we moderns are. to respect their neighbors and themselves. To pre- and honest training to fear the gods. J. and the natural activities of young men to impart an education of wonderful effectiveness. But in civilization itself in mental power. imaginative. and to reverence the wisdom of their race. debated. to do honest work. 3. in correctness of taste. no drawing. and using their liberty ^to advance the culture and the knowledge of the people (R. and disputatious people . The simple and effective curriculum. individualistic and democratic modern. them * unknown. however well instructed. 4. 5. i. city life itself. and Platsea. The schooling for citizenship was rigid." (Mahaffy. but. i. and intellectual growth. but it produced wonderful results. and to which Greeks from all over Hellas came. Here also we find. to obey the laws. The Theater. which were great religious ceremonies of a literary as well as an athletic and artistic character. In a manner seldom pare a severe but simple 1 men by witnessed in the world's educational history. the literature and religion of their own people. spirit.) . was the aim of this old education. the western. expressing itself in the education of the young. where the great masterpieces of Greek literature were performed. in short of a thousand results of civilization which have since accrued. the Greeks used their religion. 36 HISTORY OF EDUCATION first Greece. for the first time. both in peace and in war. and made. almost puritanical. the thinkers of the State deeply concerned with the education of the youth of the State. on which citizens sat and where the laws were applied. literature. to despise comfort and vice. Music. of much history. careful physical training. and viewing education as a necessity to make life worth living and secure the State from dangers.- I "s . The Juries. culture. we find here. as opposed to the deadening caste and governmental systems of the East. P. Here first we find a free people living under political conditions which favored liberty. The simplicity of the curriculum was one of its marked features. no modern nation. both within and without. Old Greek Education 2 The great institutions of the Greek City-Statewere in themselves highly educa- — tive. and no foreign tongue. 2 The subjects we have valued so highly for training were to. trained guided the destinies of Athens during some two centuries^ and the despotism of the East as represented by Persia could not defeat them at Marathon.. 6). in accuracy of judgment. The Olympian and other Games. in quickness of comprehension. and instruction in the duties and practices of citizenship constituted the entire curriculum. The among an Digitized by Microsoft® inquisitive. Salamis. no science. where the laws were proposed. Men thus. has been able to equal by labored acquirements the inborn genius of the Greeks. for the time in the history of the world. government. The chief of these were: The Assembly. no higher mathematics. They taught no arithmetic or grammar.. they were ignorant of many sciences.

Yet. Considering its time and place in the history of the world and that it was a development for which there were nowhere any precedents. How do you account for the Athenian State leaving literary and musical education to private initiative. despite these limitations. possessed so markedly by the Athenian Greeks. How do you explain the Greek same defects give an equivalent training? Which is the better attitude for a nation to assume toward the foreigner the Greek. class education. Are the Athenian teristics characteristics. are imaginative ability and many-sided natures such valuable characteristics for any people? Why is the ability to make progressive changes. Why did the Greek boy need three teachers. and the purposes of the instruction. nor are we nearly moral education. Does the Greek idea that a harmonious personal development contributes to moral worth appegyfc¥01& ? MWld$t® / for citizenship with us to-day possess the Would education in ancient Greece? Why? Do we — ' . to be sure. 5. with our own. and limited to but a small fraction of the total population. but supporting state gymnasia? 9. not one of learning from books. Would the Athenian method of instruction have been possible had all chUdren in the State been given an education? Why? 10. it was an attractive type of education there is abundant testimony by the Greeks themselves. or the American? Why? -^rfwhy does a state military socialism. or failure to achieve political unity? both? 4.THE OLD GREEK EDUCATION It 37 That was an education by doing. It was. the old education of Athens still stands as one of the most successful in its results of any system of education which has been evolved in the history of the world. so successful in our QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION 1. How did the education of an Athenian girl differ from that of a girl in the early American colonies? n. characdevelopment by training. There were many features of Greek life. stated in the of' capable middle of page 19. whereas the American boy 5 is taught all and more by one primary teacher? gE^Contrast the Greek method of instruction in music. too. an important personal or racial characteristic? 3. that are repugnant to modern conceptions. We have not as yet come to value physical education as did the Greeks. Why 2. or are they native. How could we incorporate into our school instruction some of the imr /*tportant aspects of Greek instruction in music? 14* What do you think of the contentions of Aristotle and Plato that the State should control school music as a means of securing sound moral instruction? 15. tend to produce a people of mediocre intellectual capacity? 8. it represented a very wonderful evolution. such as prevailed at Sparta. In it girls had no share. despite the aid of the Christian religion which they did not know.

Compare with the training given among the best of the American Indian tribes (1). >«TThe Greek schoolboy had no long summer vacation. Plutarch: Ancient Education in Sparta. 5. would we approach still more nearly the Greek requirements? 21. 6. HISTORY OF EDUCATION Contrast the Greek ideal as to athletic training with the conception of athletics held by an average American schoolboy. Laws which Lycurgus framed for Spartan 2. as to nature and purpose and character (r and 2).18. 1 7. see following chapter. QUESTIONS ON THE READINGS 1. Thucydides: Athenian Education summarized. What were some of the chief defects of Athenian schools (5)? What was the position of the State in the matter of the education a a 7. i.) Digitized by Microsoft® . 3.38 16. What degree of State supervision of education is" indicated by Plato (2)? By Freeman 5. Lucian: An Athenian Schoolboy's Day. 2. Explain how the Athenian Greeks reconciled the idea of social service to the State with the idea of individual liberty. Contrast the education of a Greek boy at sixteen with that of an American boy at the same age. Plato: An Athenian Schoolboy's Life. . 4. of 9. and as a preparedness measure. 4. through a form of education jvhich developed personality. youth (5)? What were the great merits of the Athenian educational and system of training (6)? I political! (For Supplemental References. Compare this with our American ideal. Compare an Athenian school day as described by Lucian (3) with school day in a modern Gary-type school. as do American children. If we were to add some form of compulsory military'Do the needs of modern society and industrial life warrant the greater emphasis we place on learning from books. Describe and characterize the training (1).Is there any special reason why we need it more than did they? 2^T)o we did? Do we believe that virtue can be taught in the carry such a belief into practice? way the Hellenic peoples SELECTED READINGS In the accompanying Book of Readings the following selections are reproduced: 1. (5)? 6. Contrast the type of education given an Athenian and a Spartan boy. Describe and characterize the instruction of the Irens at Sparta. for all youths between eighteen and twenty. 3. 8. as opposed to the learning by doing of the Greeks? 26? Compare the compulsory-school period of the Greeks with our own. Aristotle: Athenian Citizenship and the Ephebic Years. Contrast the emphasis placed on expression as a method in teaching in the schools of Athens and of the United States. Compare the Ephebic years of an Athenian youth (4) with those of Spartan youth (1). Freeman: Sparta and Athens compared.

C. development. prepared and schooled for great/imtiMialirjiergencies by a severe but eff ec.) cultural lines. and in the subsequent campaign that ended in the defeat of the Persian fleet at Salamis (480 B. and artistic development the world had ever known ensued." Had the despotism of the East triumphed here. and for the next fifty years she held the position of political as well as cultural preeminence among the Greek City-States. This wasthe first. % triumph of this new western democratic civilization. 7). statesmen. in part to her mastery of the sea and her growwas now extended throughout the Mediterranean \ ^3 world. who was the l z$ib lcr '&8fflg the tilth century B. due ing commerce. THE NEW GREEK EDUCATION The Golden Age of Greece. and philosophers produced 1 in any period of equal length.>()¥) tive training. was the Golden Age of Greece.C. such master mind at Athens from 4£ W %E . — — 1 The culmination came in what is known as the^ftge of Pericle s.). and " during. artists. Above all it revealed the strength and power of the Athenians to themselves. of thef many battles which western democracy and civilization has had to fight to avoid being crushed by autocracy and despotism. the whole history of our western world would 9 have been different. The Battle of has long been considered one of the "decisive battles of the world. Athens now became the world center of wealth and refinement-^" and the home of art and literature (R. beside had From 479 to 431 B. Attica had braved everything for the common cause of Greece." Then. literary. and her influence along \ Political events: Marathon (490 B.C.this short period Athens gave birth to more great men than all the world poets. and in the half -century following the most wonderful political. and the highest products of Greek civilization were attained.C. »Marathon broke the dread spell of the Persian name and freed the more progressive Greeks to pursue their intellectual and political.' ' CHAPTER II LATER GREEK EDUCATION III. over th<^^^ucated-«ordes led to battle by the autocracy of the East.C. but not the last. The result of the war with Persia was the . even to leaving Athens to be burned by the invader.) and of the Persian army at • Platsea (479 B.

/Eschylus.C. and impaired beyond recovery the intellectual and artistic life For many centuries Athens continued to be a center of intellectual achievement. with a consequent change in the earlier conceptions as to the duty of the citizen to the State. portant in giving leisure to the citizen." from which all else hall 1 2 been derived. number. anew • constitution had admitted all the free inhabitants of Attica to citizenship". graced Athens. 588-524 b c ) thai! fire.C. Herodotus and Thucydides in historical narrative. . names . Sophocles. With the Greeks. and properly educated class. Euripides in tragic drama. and Aristophanes in comedy.C. (c 58°-] " ' 500 B. which desolated Greece. As early as 509 B. propthe commercial classes.). known as theJPeloponnesian War. -A leisure class now arose. and the religious basis of morality' 1 began to be replaced by that of reason. and no Wealth-now became im. Thal. morality and the future life never had any connection. the father of Greek science. • as Themistocles and Pericles in government. and to spread her culture throughout a new and a different world. longer restricted to a small. of Hellas.). The early Greek philosophers tried to explain the physical world about them byjj trying to discover what they called the "first principle. and was no longer looked down upon as it had been in the earlier period. and Py th agoras air was the first principle. and culture of Athens. After the Peloponnesian War the predominance of Attica among the Greek States. and personal interest came to have a larger place than before. with a resulting evolution of the sciences of. but her power as a State had been impaired forever by a revengeful war between those who should have been friends and allies in the cause of civilization. and the presence. the growth of commerce. left Athens a wreck of her formeFseTf. ^^j^-^oiSM^' . had concluded^ that water was the original source of all matter. Phidias and Myron in art. and. the constant interchange of embassies. Anaximenes (c. and the result was a rapid increase in the prestige. Citizenship was now open to property. » came that cruel and vindictive civil strife. Literature lost much of its earlier religious character. A new philosophy in which " man was the •measure of all things" arose. permanently lowered the moral tone of the Greek (c.40 HISTORY OF EDUCATIWN largely as a result of the growing jealousy of military Sparta.'. Philosophy was now called_upon to furnish a practical guide for life to replace * the old religious basis. "matter 2 was now replaced by an attempt to explain the world of 'ideas and emotions. Transition from the old to the new. and its teachers came to have large The old search for an explanation of the world of followings. 624-548 B. of many foreigners in the State all alike led to a tolerance of new "ideas and a criticism of old ones which before had been unknown. the travel overseas of Athenian citizens. erly born.

with a distinct Joss of the earlier _religious _and moral force. and that the careers now open to promising youths in science. began to be replaced by more modern writers. New teachers. formerly devoted to rather rigorous physical. New musical instruments. to amuse or even instruct the populace upon topics of interest or questions of the day. and complicated music replaced the simple Doric airs of the earlier — ^ . and in consequence the old education. 1 The result was a material change in the old education to adapt it to the needs of the new Athens. public platform. 109-10. New teachers the Sophists. in fact. ethics. It was a period of great intellectual change and expansion. ecclesiastical. bar. eco-N nomic. the intellectual center of the civilized world. and scholar was then concentrated in the public speaker. The citizen-cadet years. Paul. discussion was introduced. and scientific or metaphysical questions. to shine in a democratic society much like our own and to control the votes and command the approval of an intelligeift populace where the function of printing-press. and" a certain "glibness of ""speech began to be prized. now become in the old education. press. known as Sophists. Grammar_and rhetoric began to be studied. commerce. It must also be remembered t^^hj^reek^ted^ways been a nation of speakers. to argue in public in the marketplace or in the law courts. and where the legal. and theoretical! Geometry and~drawing were Produced as new studies. and was much less rigid in type. The old authors. who professed lo^be able to Train men for a political career. to take part in the many diplomatic embassies and political missions of the times the ability. railroad.v vidualjjiterary. from sixteen easier The rigid drill of the earlier period to twenty. as well as political 41 and logic. pp. to declaim in a formal manner on almost any topic. Changes A number now of changes in the character of the old education were gradually introduced. Education became much more indi. and government were then concentrated in the political career. an intellectual type. industry. which had answered well the needs of a primitive and isolated community. political. and all modern means of communication were performed through public speech and private discourse. botinthe content and the form of the addressTiemg important." (Monroe. giving a softer and more pleasurable effect.' LATER GREEK EDUCATION philosophy.) 2 The importance of a political career in the new Athens will be better understood if we remember that the influence on public opinion to-day exerted by the pulpit. took the place of the sevenstringed lyre. History of Education. who had rendered important service in the education of youth. now found itself but poorly adapted to meet the larger needs of the new^osmopolitan S tate. began to be replaced by an and a more pleasurable type of training. Gymnastics for personal enjoyment began to replace drill for the service of the State. arid other professional classes of teachers did not exist. 2 began to offer a more practical course designed to prepare boys for the . y were now changed to school work of. politics. telegraph. 1 "There was now demanded ability to discuss all sorts of social.

and learning how to secure rhetorical effect. and had permanently changed the character of the earlier Greek education.his Cyropadia. covering the years after sixteen. Aristo&kfij&ff^/iM^iftfeV 5 Ethics. Xenophon (c. and chantThe teacher of this school came to be known as a graming. 3. and in his Politics. covering the years from seven or eight to thirteen. j j . proposed an aristocratic socialism as a means of securing individual virtue and state justice. Primary education. 2. but in vain.). we find that Greek school education had been ture. Service to the State Each of these philosophers proposed an ideal educational system designed to remedy the evils of the State. outlined an ideal state and a system 01 education for it. but within a century they had thoroughly established themselves. choosing words. Higher or university education. These in time drew many Ephebes where the chief studies were on the content. and a special music course. an ideal destined for great usefulness among the Christians later on. were symptomatic of tendencies in all forms of social and political life. Secondary education. Later on some grammar and rhetoric were introduced into this school. 8) and drew much ridicule from the champions of the older type of education. arithmetic. The teacher of this school came to be known as a grammaticus. and 1 . in his Republic. form.C. In the schools of the Sophists boys now spent their time in forming phrases. flood of individualism* The This period of artistic and intel- lectual brilliancy of Greece following the Peloponnesian War marked the beginning of the end of Greece politically. writing.). Aristotle — proposed ideal remedies for the evils of the State. Many of these new teachers made most extravagant claims for their instruction (R. The philosophers — Xenophon. matist. and embracing geometry.C. The tendencies toward individualism in education civil strife. and practical use of the Greek language. drawing. as they were felt to prepare boys better for the new political and intellectual life of Hellas than did the older type of train^_jng. The war was a blow to the strength of Greece from which the different Greece was bled white by this needless States never recovered. By 350 B. 410-362 B. in. covering the years from thirteen to sixteen. as follows 1. purporting to describe the education of Cyrus of Persia. examining grammatical struc- newer type into their private schools. He first presents the super-civic man. differentiated into three divisions. be- The ' old ideal of citizenship died out. Plato (429-348 B. --.C.: 42 " HISTORY OF EDUCATION of state service. proposed a Spartan modifies? tion of the old Athenian system. and embracing reading. Plato. Rhetoric and grammar before long became the master studies of this new period.

His pupils were unusually successful^ and his school did much to add to the fame of Athens as an intellectual center. 43 came purely subordinate to personal pleasure and advancement." At first the instruction was Isocrates. politically. "If he comes to me he will learn that which he comes to learn.. a series of schools of philosophy These in a way were the outgrowth of the also arose in Athens.C. but later classes were organized. was the Greek exerted such It remains higher learning that now became predominant and and spread gicat influence on the future of our world civilization. to training to think clearly angLtcuexpres s ideas prop erly. free lance. in 146 B.C. lived from 393 to 338 B. with definite~aims and work (R. and taught what he would and in the manner he thought best. ^ largely individual. Accepting the Sophists' dictum that "man is the mea^ure^fjJl^things. literature. Irreverence and a scoffing attitude became ruling tendencies. Many of them made extraordinary efforts to attract students and win popular approval and fee's..^LATER GREEK -j^ATE EDy. now to trace briefly the development of this higher learning. science. Plato represents the Sophist Protagoras as saying. Philip of Macedon became master which he and his and annexed it to the world empire Still later.. conquered Greece and made of it a son Alexander created. Rome. Family morality decayed. much like our better private schools and academies. organized the instruction jfor the time into a well-graded sequence^fjitudies. and to point out how thoroughly it modified the thinking In the beginning each Sophist teacher of the future. life .C. the new world power to the west. there Though dead tacle of "captive now occurred the unusual specGreece taking captive her rude conqueror. Finally.: mdTvicTuallsni of the .CAjTJQN. philosophy. and Greek ideas throughout the Mediterranean world.. New schools. with reference to a youth ambitious for success in political life. of Greece. in 338 B. was a Socrates. The State in time became corrupt and nerveless. In contrast with the Sophists. From his work sprang a large number of socalled Rhetorical Schools. offering to those Ephebes who could afford to first who I attend a very good preparation for participation in the public of the period.." and It spreading Greek art. work of Socrates. . ~%)7^ He shifted "the emphasis in instruction from training for success in argumentation. Roman province.

1 "It is beyond all conception what that observed.C. He taught by conversation. Frankly emphasis accepting the change from the old education as a change that could not be avoided." (Goethe. founded by Zeno in 308 B. and in 399 B. remarked "One a man of the richest and most comprehensive geniuses that has ever appeared beside whom no age lflffiite«^talW«:pia®gS' (Hegel. and as a substitute for the old training for service to the State. His school.c) years in lecturing and writing. he was condemned to death by the Athenian populace on the charge of impiety and corrupting the youth of Athens. at the age of seventy-one. Even in Athens." (Eusebius. Each of these schools offered a' philosophical solution . Philosophy. saw. and science were taught. such a shrewd questioner would naturally make enemies. dipping his pen in intellect. engaging men in argument as he met them in the street. women as well as men were admitted.) . and showing to them their ignorance (R. In 386 B. lecture-rooms. Other schools of importance in Athens were the Lyceum. (After a marble bust in the which formed a model for others. everyday morality. founded in 335 B. His was on the problems of. beheld. Nature's private secretary. founded by Epicurus] in 306 B. and the right. at Rome) of a union of teachers and students who possessed in common a chapel.C.C.44 tried to life HISTORY OF EDUCATION truths which measure the — In particular he of living a good called for correct individual thinking and a knowledge of life of a true show that the greatest of all arts — the art man. 12 Socrates (469-399 b.) "Aristotle. consisted Vatican Gallery. by a foreign-born pupil of Plato's by the name* of Aristotle. and to him we owe our chief information as to the work and aims of Socrates. where free speech was enjoyed more than anywhere else in the world at that time. 9).) man espied. mathematics. " Know thyself " was his great guiding principle. he founded the Academy. he sought to formulate a new basis for education in personal morality and virtue.C. who did a remarkable work in organizing the known knowledge of his time. and livingrooms.C. where he passed almost forty Fig. who had abandoned a political career for the charms of philosophy. and the school of the Epicureans. library. Socrates' greatest disciple was a citizen of wealth by the name of Plato. 1 the school of thejjjxii^s.

As a result in part of of the schools of the Sophists. these schools The University of Athens. Each school evolved into a form of religious brotherhood which perpetuated the organization after the death of the master. The sixteen we have described. character of the changes in the education before the age of certain further changes in Athenian education were taking place. and Plato and Aristotle wrote treatises on education as well. the development which were in themselves only . Coincident with the founding of and the political events we have previously recorded. In time these became largely schools for expound- ing the philosophy of the founder.LATER GREEK EDUCATION of the 45 problem of life.

by the edict of the Roman-Christian Emperor. as a center pagan thought. a common interest. 1 Greek cities stretched from the Nile to the Indus. the so-called University of Athens was widely known and much frequented for the next three hundred and continued in existence until finally closed. merchants and colonists. the Macedonian and the Roman bowed before (Butcher s Some A ^/Jpsy^feysn® ' - H > W . of . once the tongue of a petty people. Greek baths.C. and learning merges into that of the history of the ancient world. . in 529 a. It was his hope to create a new empire. and the art. Each conqueror in turn. and was soon to pass under the control of Rome. Though Greece had long since become a Macedonian province. developed in isolation years. the science. These served to spread Hellenic culture. the literature. followed behind the Macedonian armies. and in establishing therein a common language. This may be said to have been accomplished by 200 B. them. as garnered grain. tion to As Athens lost in political power her citizens turned their attenmaking their city a center of world learning. and what has since been termed "The University of Athens" was evolved.I 46 professors HISTORY OF EDUCATION was developed. grew to be a universal language of culture. Though reduced to the rank of a Roman Justinian. literature. Greek schools. spoken even by barbarian lips. With Alexander the Great the history of Greek life. Athens long continued to be a city of letters and a center of philosophic and scientific instruction. Everywhere throughout* the new empire Greek philosophers and scientists. Figure 13 shows how this evolution took place. and dotted the shores of the Black and the Caspian seas. and Greek institutions of every type were to be found in practically all of . in which the distinction between European and Asiatic should pass away. the principles of politics and philosophy. spreading Greek civilization and becom'' ing the teachers of an enlarged world. and the Greek tongue was heard in them all. philosophy. he restored to the East. Greek theaters. Alexander <the Great rendered a very important service in uniting the west* ernUrient^and the eastern Mediterranean into a common world empire. Spread and influence of Greek higher education. that Greek civilization whose seeds had long ago been received from the East. The Greek language. architects and artists.d. SS 1 "As Alexander passed conquering through Asia. and a common body of scientific knowledge and law. culture. No less than seventy cities were established with a view to holding his empire together. provincial town.

henceforth became the heritage nations. was the University of Alexandria.. These included Greek. having forbidden its export. Egyptian) and Oriental works. from which the term "parchment" (originally " pergament") comes. where men of letters and investigators were supported at royal expense. and his work remained the standard treatise for more Fig. It was also at Pergamum that Galen (born c. ""^Mingling of Orient and Occident at Alexandria. never before the Italian Renaissance was there such interest Almost every book written in antiquity was gathered here. but Egypt.000 volumes. however. in Syria. p. Every book entering Egypt was required to be ^/g/tfzetfV M/croso?^ brought to this library. and Cicero. Rhodes became a famous center for instruction in oratory. 302. necessity again became the mother of invention. H. Alexandria became not only a Webster. A large library was developed at Pergamum.) organized' what was then known of medical science. In connection with the library was the museum. studied oratory here. Jewish. at Rhodes on the island of that name in the ^Egean. paper had been made from the papyrus plant.d. 3 It is said to have numbered over 700. Caesar. in collecting books. The greatest library of manuscripts the world had ever "known was collected together here. became another important center of Greek influence and learning.LATER GREEK EDUCATION by the Greek mind. The most famous of all these Greek institutions. Ancient History. 3 With this exception. During Roman days many eminent men. and the library at Alexandria became the British Museum or the Bibliotheque Nationale of the ancient world. D. 130 a. and at the newly founded city of Alexandriam Egypt." 1 47 of many Greek universities were established at Pergamum and Tarsus in Asia Minor. These two constituted an institution so like a university that it has been given that name. Previous to this. amongwhom were Cassius. and it was here that writing on prepared skins of animals 2 was begun. 2 1 • . 14 The Greek University World than a thousand years. Antioch. which gradually sapped Athens as a center of learning and became the intellectual capital of the world.

their conquering armies into the eastern Character of Alexandrian Learning. J^udid (c. UNKNOWN LAND (JVi««° Fig. the chief mingling place for Greek. who studied under Euclid. Instead of speculating as to phenomena and causes. 1 famou s asVgeogfaprrer * and astronomer. Egyptian. and Oriental. 15. Compare this with the map on page 4. as had been the earlier Greek practice. but. Hebrew and Christian religion. all tinged through and through with the Greek. as stated in the Homeric poems.d. ^Eratosthenes (226-196 B.C. Before his time Greek students had concluded that the world was round. ^ m^ . and made He founded the science of geography. The great advances in knowledge made at Alexandria were in mathematics. 323-283 B.C. By careful measurements he determined its size.. geography. observation and experiment now became the rule. Jew. geographer and astronomer at Alexandria. and here Greek philosophy.48 HISTORY OF EDUCATION still more important. with which the Romans came in contact as they pushed great center of learning. Archimedes (287-212 B. The Known World about 150 a. instead of flat. A map by Ptolemy. It was this mingled civilization and culture.) opened ajchoolat Alexandria as early as 300 B^c. Mediterranean (R. librarian at is Alexandria. and there worked. and note the progress in geographical discovery which had been m. and science.). The method of scientific investigation worked out by Aristotle at Athens was introduced and used. Roman.ade during the intervening centuries. within a few thousand miles of its actual circumference and predic4e4 or^/ ail from. made many important discoveries and advances in mechanics and physics. and Oriental faith and philosophy' met and mixed. ou tJJhe_geom£iiy which is still used in our schools. 10).C. Spain to the Indies f/ 6 J^g along the same parallel of latitude.).

168 a. gradually sapped by Rome. Greek influence continued.LATER GREEK EDUCATION some studies in geology as well. Many advances also were made in the study of medicine. d.seventy scholars labored on . and soon thereafter Greek scholars transferred their interest to learning. The study of archaeology was begun. Here grammar. and the university ceased to exist. - the Alexandrian schools having charts. Still much important work was done here. In 640 a.) here Mechanism of the Heavens (Syntaxis) in 138 a. Research. but the interest became largely philosophical.d.that . prosody. ' From the tradition. Books were collected. Constantinople was founded on the it the earlier Byzantium. in turn.. and heart were worked out there. Except in science and mathematics. models. The ftmctiens-ef. organization. literature. copied. and mythology were first developed into sciences. 1 it is said. ?. and preserved. Alexandria. stroyed. and made it a new center of Greek and philosophy were preserved for ten centuries.. The great library was deThere Greek science.d. The map of the known world. that we now possess the theory of Greek accents. the creative ability of the earlier Greeks was now largely absent. Hjpparcus.the-*" brain. nerves. his^ 49 Ptolemy (b.C. came under Roman rule and was. and this became the standard astronomy in Europe for nearly fifteen hundred years. shown in Figure 15. though. Ultimately Alexandria became the seat of a metaphys- rooms for the l ical school of Christian theology. this being the origin of the famous Septuagint version of the Old Testament. It is owing to these Alexandrian scholars. furnishing. and comment upon what had previously been done rather was the rule. Alexandria was taken by the Mohammedans. In 30 B.d. also. and dissecting study of the human body. too. and counted the stars and arranged them in constelcompleted lations. and texts were edited and purified from errors. and later handed back to a Europe just awakening from the long intellectual night of the Middle Ages. and the first dictionaries were made.d. while his geography was used in the schools until well into the fifteenth century. criticism. the Newton of the Greeks. studied the heavens both at Alexandria and Rhodes. site of In 330 a. Alexandria sapped in turn. and have good texts of Homer and other Greek writers. and the scene of bitter religious controversies. The translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek was begun for the benefit of the Alexandrian Jews who had forgotten their mother tongue. was made by him. "fuel sufficient for four thousand it.

As a to political power the Greek States the world nothing of importance. was finally handed back to the western world at the time of the Italian Revival of Learning. In the emphasis they placed on moral worth. n. & 1 Digitized by Microsoft® Henry Sumner Maine. and scientific. As a result. . The world conquest that Greece made was intellectual. of uniting civilization into one political whole. preserved first at / lessons of importance that / Athens and Alexandria. being found from the Black Sea south to the Persian Gulf and westward to Spain.. nothing moves in this world /which is not Greek in its origin. As a people they were too in- have a strange inability to unite for political purposes. and moderation in aUlhings. To the new power slowly forming to the westward Rome was left the important task. literary. "Except the blind forces of Nature.SO HISTORY OF EDUCATION was left public baths for a period of six months. As a result the world will be forever indebted to them for an art and a literature of incomparable beauty and richness which still charms mankind. philosophical. but not political. They spent their energy on other matters than government and conquest. In this way Greek influence was spread throughout the Mediterranean world. When Rome became a world empire the Greek school system was adopted._they were much ahead of us. and later at Constantinople. her contribution to civilization was ***artistic. education of the body as 4 well as the mind. a philosophy which deeply influenced the early Christian religion. and has ever since tinged the thinking of the western world." 1 (R." and Greek learning extinguished in the western world. and in modified form became dominant in Rome and throughout the provinces. after Europe had in part recovered from the effects of the barbarian deluge which followed the downfall of Rome. Our debt to Hellas. while the universities of the Greek cities for long furnished the highest form of education for ambitious Roman youths. dividualistic. The higher learning of the Greeks. and for many important beginnings in scientific knowledge which were lost for ages to a world that had no interest in or use for science. The Athenian Greeks were a highly artistic and imaginative rather than a practical people.) / In education proper the old Athenian education offers us many and seemed — — — we of to-day may well heed. So deeply has our whole western civilization been tinctured by Greek thought that one enthusiastic writer has exclaimed. Their schools became a type for the cities of the entire Mediterranean world. which the Greek people were never able to accomplish.

Draper: The Schools of Alexandria. Picture for yourself the great intellectual advances of the Greeks by contrasting the tribal preparedness-type of education of the early Greek States and the learning possessed by the scholars of the University at -^ Alexandria. QUESTIONS ON THE READINGS many educational influences of Athens. 11. or 3. and allow individual educational initiative yDo we as a nation face danger from the flood of individualism we have encouraged in the past? How is our problem like and unlike that of Athens after the Peloponnesian War? JJT'What is the place in Greek life and thought of the ideal treatises on education written by Xenophon. Wilkins: Athens in the Time of Pericles. Isocrates: The Instruction of the Sophists. which Isocrates points out natural ones? Compare with teachers of vocal training to-day. ^nd progress? SELECTED READINGS In the accompanying Book of. 10. /f /Wilkins ^. Characterize the (7). 8. Why was the change in the type of Athenian education during the Ephebic years a natural and even a necessary one for the new Athens? 4. JrrDo periods of great political. 9. Butcher: What we Owe to Greece. Plato. with the spread of the English language and ideas as to government throughout the modern world. 51 Try had what might have been the result for western civilization the small and newly-developed democratic civilization of Greece been crushed by the Persians at the time they overran the Greek to picture peninsula. Xenophon: An Example of Socratic Teaching. Readings^ the following" selections are reproduced: 7. 4$jt. Were the evils of the Sophist teachers. and intellectual expansion usually subject old systems of morality and education to severe strain? Illustrate. commercial.LATER GREEK EDUCATION QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION 1. following the conquests of Alexander. after the flood of individualism had set in? In what ways was the conquest of Alexander good for world civilization? Of what importance is it. as pictured by (8). . or was the change largely a re-shaping and extension of the education of youths after sixteen? "S/Were the Sophists a good addition to the Athenian instructing force. ynot? \0T Why? How may a State as establish a corrective for such a flood of individualism still overwhelmed Greece. that Greek thought had so thoroughly permeated the eastern Mediterranean world before Roman armies conquered the region? 11. Compare the spread of Greek language and knowledge throughout the eastern Mediterranean world. in the history of our western civilization. and Aristotle. Do you understand that the system of training before the Ephebic years was also seriously changed.

Walden. P. Digitized by Microsoft® . Laurie. Historical Survey of Pre-Christian Education. 1. S. B. Chas. * Mahaffy. references are indicated by an * O. S. K. * Butcher. . The Life of the Ancient Greeks. HISTORY OF EDUCATION necessary for the proper training of one for eloquence? Could any Sophist teacher have trained any one? Would it be possible to-day for any one city to become such a center of world's intellectual life What would be 4. The Universities of Ancient Greece. Wilkins. Thos. Gulick. S. Schools of Hellas. A. University Life in Olden Time. H.Ahe as did Alexandria (10)? Why? S 6. John W. C. Alexandria and her Schools. Sandys. J. E. vol. J.C.52 3. history. * Kingsley. National Education in Greece in the Fourth Century. H. Aristotle. S. Some Aspects of the Greek Genius. B. J. Could the Socratic method (9) be applied to instruction in psychology. SUPPLEMENTAL REFERENCES The most important Bevan. and Ancient Educational Ideals. and science equally well? Why? To what class of subjects is the Socratic quiz applicable? How V * * * do you account for the fact that the wonderful promise of Alexandrian science was not fulfilled? State our debt to the Greeks (11). Davidson. ethics. J. Freeman. History of Classical Scholarship. Old Greek Education.

C. The Early Peoples of Italy. the center of Greek life and thought had been transferred to Alexandria. III THE EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME THE ROMANS AND THEIR MISSION Development of the Roman State.C. i 6. had brought their civilization to its Golden Age. By 338 B. and half a century later the Golden Age of Greece was in full swing. At the beginning of Fig. Philip of Macedon had become master. another branch of the great Aryan race. Greece's glory had departed. Attica opened her citizenship to all free inhabitants. had begun the creation of a new civilization there which was destined to become extended and powerful. which had previously settled in the Italian peninsula. About the time that the Hellenes.C. in the City-States of the Greek peninsula.CHAPTER I. and the Extension of the Roman Power In sog B. and its political freedom was over. and Rome's grea£>/g . By 264 B.

she insured her rule. possess a natural like the Greek City-States. The whole of the early struggle of the Latins to extend their rule and absorb the other tribes of the peninsula called for practical rulers" warriors who were at the same time constructive statesmen — and executives who possessed power and Digitized insight. By a most wonderful Fig. and institutions. 17 The Principal Roman Roads seen again until the tury. By founding colonies among them and by building excellent military roads to them. Later this same process was extended to Spain. and finally over the Greek settlements to the south and the Gauls to the north. governors and executives. practical. the smallest of these divisions. energy. the entire Italian peninsula had become subject to the City-State government at Rome. and by Microsoft® . a wise policy of tolerance. as is shown in Figure Slowly. The Roman people were a con(_A' concrete.54 Aryan 1 6. them into a single Roman In speech. crete. the its Latins. manners. HISTORY OF EDUCATION we find a recorded history number of tribes of this branch of the race settled in different parts of Italy. quered she bestowed the great gift of Upon the people she conRoman citizenship. patience. and finally in blood she Romanized the different tribes and brought them under her leadership. constructive nation of farmers and herdsmen (R. and even to far-off Britain. new in the world before the work of Rome. but gradually. Rome seemed\o By genius for the art of government.C. Gaul. and she interfering attached them to her by granting local government to their towns and by as little as possible with their local manners. practical people. so that by 201 B. extended rule over the other tribes. and not work of the English in the nineteenth cen- Rome gradually assimilated the peoples of the Italian peninsula and in time amalgamated race. speech. habits. customs. conciliation. 14). and by kindly and generous Italian treatment she bound the different peoples ever closer and closer to the central government at un- Rome. derstanding of the psychology of other peoples. merchants and soldiers. and assimUnilation the Latins gradually became the masters of all Italy.

and what would have saved civilization rule 1 This struggle of the common people {plebeians) for an equal place with the ruling class {patricians) before the law. the Roman Empire could never have been created. leadership. patience. tended early to shape their government along rough but practical lines. Civilization evidence. tolerance. tolerance.. Code commission appointed.C. Right to hold office granted. in religious matters. these mark the beginning of the great Roman — legal system. executive power." during the Middle Ages. The most important steps in the process were: 509 B. States had failed because of her larger insight. 445 B. patience. This "right of appeal" was regarded as the Magna Charta of Roman liberty. of its highly practical character. Only a great.EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME personality. 250 B. Had Rome tried to impose her and her ways and her mode of thought on her subject people. p. 367 B. to accomplish anything permanent. the old restrictions being broken down but gradually.C.C. 451-449 B. B. 2d ed. 1 on by the common people {plebeians) with the ruling class {patricians). carried 55 The long struggle for political and social rights. and to reduce them to complete subjection to her. Magistrates forbidden to scourge or execute a Roman citizen without giving him a chance to appeal to the people in their popular assembly. scholar .C.C. and insight into the psychology of subject people to hold such a vast empire together. patricians and plebeians intermarried and formed one compact body of citizens in the 2 Roman "The who compares carefully the Greek constitutions with the Roman undoubtedly consider the former to be. and in politics. 12). The many distant lands — how vast later extension of the Empire to include finally be- the Roman Empire came may be seen from the map on the following page called still more for a combination of force. tution presents. G.) ? The same opportunity came to Athens after the Persian Wars and to Sparta after the Peloponnesian War. the number of institutions it exhibits which appear to be temporary expedients merely.£ner and more finished specimens of The imperfect and incomplete character which the Roman constipolitical work. will State. working along very practical lines. and one of the Consuls elected each year to be a plebeian. 2 and to elevate law and orderly procedure among the people. could have used and used so well the opportunity which came to Rome 3 to create a great world empire/1 — The great mission of Rome. 20. they are (Adams. are necessary results of its method of growth to meet demands as they rose from time to time. at almost any point of its history. indeed. creative people.. or the tolerance for the ideas and feelings of subject Rome succeeded where previous peoples. Plebeian soldiers granted officers of their own {Tribunes) to protect them against patrician cruelty and injustice. but neither possessed the creative power along political and governmental lines. as the modern German and Austrian Empires. Result. covered two and a half centuries. Laws must be written the Laws of the Twelve Tables (R. Intermarriage between the two orders legalized.C. By this date the distinctions between the two orders had disappeared. 494 B. and constructive Digitized by Microsoft® power. tried to do with the peoples who came under their control. for example.

. i 8. the strength of her armies. from the eastern end of the Black Sea to the western coasts of Spain. shown beyond the fourth century a. and 1100 To maintain order in this vast area Rome miles from Rome to northern Britain.d.Fig. The map shows and the tribes the The Great Extent of the Roman Empire Roman Empire as it was by the end of the first century a. her military roads. It was 2500 frontier are as they were at the beginning of the miles. and a messenger service by horse.d. 1400 miles from Rome to Palestine. air line. yet throughout this vast area she imposed her law and a unified govemrQ^fiJgg S0mk^oft® . depended on the loyalty of her subjects.

common commercial arrangements. * Both literature and inscriptions testify abundantly to the affectionate regard The rule may have been far from perfect. 2 and won them to the peace and good order which she everywhere imposed by the advantages she offered through a common language. common and the common treatment of all citizens of every In consequence. race pride Only in the eastern Mediterranean. and here Rome had the good sense not to try to impose her speech or her culture. judged in which Roman rule was held. and began the further extension of the process' of assimilation by taking the conquered provincial into citizenship in the Empire. under her strong control of general affairs. led them to see that their interests were identical with hers. than anything that gone^^jg^jt^w^^epted . from a modern point of view. and Latin in time became the language of the courts and of govern(-Jlaving stated thus briefly the most prominent characteristics Roman people. Many commanders in the army and governors in the provinces were provincials by birth. was Consul in Rome forty years before the Christian era.EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME invasions 57 from complete destruction during the period of the barbarian is hard to see. most impor- and the native tongues very largely disappeared. the provincial was willingly absorbed into the common Roman race 4 absorbed in dress. A Roman citizen could not be maltreated or punished without a legal trial before a Roman court. opened up her citizenship * and the line of promotion in the State to her provincials. wherever in the Roman Empire he might live or travel. in 212 a. that is. while the East accepted in return the Roman government and Roman law. and indicated their great work for civiliza- of the tion. state service. and Latin became the spoken language of all except the lower classes throughout the whole of all. the Hellenic tongue the Western Empire. Rome treated her subjects as her friends. tant of in language.d. Instead she absorbed the culture of the East. 2 For example. Roman citizenship was extended to all free-born inhabitants in all the provinces. 3 Roman citizenship was much more than a mere name. manners. and another Spaniard. a Spaniard. common law. gave them large local independence and freedom in government. where and the Hellenic civilization still dominated. It accused in a capital case he could always protect himself from what he considered an unjust decision by an "appeal to Cssar". As a result. family names. race. Nerva. had become Emperor before the close of the first century a. 3 — political and legal institutions. and not as conquered peoples.d. Balbus. common coinage. Instead. religion. let 1 us turn back and trace the development of such educa- Csesar extended Roman citizenship to certain communities in Gaul and in Sicily. to the Emperor at Rome. but it was so much better and so much more orderly had in all quarters. and.. The protection of law was always extended to his property and himself. did the Latin language make but little headway. This was carried on and extended by succeeding Emperors until finally.

The daily worship of these household deities took place at the family meal the father offering a little food and a little wine at the sacred hearth. lacked the. and of civic virtue and authority. She also occupied a respected position in society. modesty. whose festival was celebrated on the master's-birthday. but it exercised a great influence on these early peoples and on their conceptions of their duty to the State. the training of the children. and various divinities ruled the elements and sent or withheld . firmness prudence. He priest. however. success. and it was not until about 300 B.58 HISTORY OF EDUCATION among them. and was of a very simple type. too. Every house father. with power of life and death over wife and children. 17). Roman peoand what educational organization or traditions Rome passed it modified the life and habits of thinking of the on to western II.ncB$mAd /b/Mfc/&8>/f®ht side. beauty — and stately ceremonial of the Greeks. and were very anxious that the ba\a. both family and state. cour age. In the early history of the Romans there were no schools. whom it was necessary to propitiate before engaging in it." . with reference to the practical nature of their religion. that "While the Athenians rejoiced before their gods. Almost every activity in life was presided over by some deity. and had its sacred fire presided over by Vesta. had his guardian Genius. The 1 father trained the son for the practical duties of a man Every house was protected from the evil spirits of the outside world by Janus. piety. and was complete mistress of the house (R. Each home was a center of the religious In it the father was a high life. Every house had its protecting Lares. these became the great civic virVirtue. its sacred fire and votive offerings. courage^ seridemanded ousness. Hebrew and the awe and mystery. and^regard tqr_duty_j— and thesTwere instilled both h>y precepTand example.C. duty^ justice Tuesl Their religion. held a high place in the home and in cation — . the marriage tie being regarded as very sacred. The wife and mother. What edu- was needed was imparted in the home or in the field and in Certain virtues were the camp. tjhe Romans kept a debtor and creditor account with theirs. civilization? THE PERIOD OF HOME EDUCATION The early Romans and their training. In a similar fashion the State had its temples. Davidson says. how ple. The religion of the city was an outgrowth of that of the home. lacked that lofty faith and aspiration after virtue that characterized the later Christian faith. that even primary schools began to develop. was singularly wanting in and was formal and mechanical and practical * in character. The cupboard where the food was stored was blest by and under the charge of the Penates. see in tional system as existed what it consisted. alone conversed with the gods and prepared the sacrifices.

write. 1 If the son of a patrician he naturally learned much more from his father. in observing the elders. describes the results of the education of this early period as follows: "Then none were for the party. • . For the Romans were like brothers . wife. citizens. in his Horatius." 2 Such careful physical training as was given in a Greek palaestra and gymnasium would have been regarded by the Romans as most effeminate. was the training needed imparted. .A r °man Father INSTRUCTING HIS SON - . It was largely an education by doing. Stories of The boy's father taught him to read.C. to parents the mother trained the daughter to become a good Morality. 3 1 "Among our ancestors. and be able to explain their meaning As the boy grew older he fol(R. farmer. or statesman. 12). though entirely different in Either by apprenticeship to the soldier. . than if he L were the son of a plebeian. with reference to Greek gymnasial training: "What an absurd system of training youth is exhibited in their gymnasia! What a frivolous preparation for the labors and hazards of war!" 3 Macaulay. lowed his father in the fields and in the public place and listened to the conversation of men. 2 Education by doing. and mother. as was that character. who strove for a harmonious bodily development. and count. to one's self was a neecssary virtue.EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME and a citizen .. And the rich man loved the poor. the boy gained what physical training he received.the Romans exercised for usefulness in war. Unlike the Greeks. Its purpose was to produce good Its ideals were found in the real and practical needs of a small State. where the ability to care for To be healthy and strong. by reason of his larger knowledge and larger contact with men . fathers. After 450 B. character. those who had done great deeds for the State were told. The young. and soldiers. "one learned not only through the ears. 13).° . and what they would one day teach to their successor. Cicero exclaims. learned what they would soon have to do themselves. obedience to the State. _ -r 01 affairs and public business._ „ „ . 1 FlG x 9. But all were for the State._. and later in the exercises of the fields and the camps." says Pliny. every boy had to learn the Laws of the Twelve Tables (R. and and whole-hearted service were em- phasized. 59 housekeeper. or by participation in the activities of a citizen. (From a Roman sarcophagus. And the poor man loved the great. of the old Greek period. Through . but through the eyes. games as a boy. and martial songs were learned and sung. Then lands were fairly portioned And spoils were fairly sold. -i .

and had begun the introduction of the pedagogue These as a fashionable adjunct to attract attention to their schools. writing. to obey his parents and the laws. Twelve Tables still constituted the and the old virtues continued to be emphasized. (Rs. practical people believed themselves destined to who rulers of the world. By that time Greek had become the language of commerce and diplomacy throughout the 323 Mediterranean. a calculating. to be proud of his family connections and his ancestors.C. however. 1 Rome had expanded its says the historian. By the end of the third century B. manage a It business. to know how to farm or to ing." "The Romans. Grcecia). but not possessed of lofty ideals or large enthusiasms in III. Up to about 250 B.).C. and of training little need of any other type had been felt. the and influence of contact with the Greek cities of southern Italy Sicily (Magna and the influence of the extensive con- quests of Alexander the Great in the eastern Mediterranean (334B. it seems certain that a few private teachers had set up primary schools at Rome to supplement the home training. 1 a nation of warriors who all Italy under their rule. and in the activities of the fields and the State. and were patron- ized in at least. only by a few of the wealthy citizens. THE TRANSITION TO SCHOOL EDUCATION tion Beginnings of school education. not only by the extreme earnestness and precision with which they conceived their law and worked out the consequences of its fundamental principles but by the good sense which made them submit to the law. had begun to be felt in Italy. become the conquerors and and a reserved and proud race. chanting. Roman education remained substantially as it had been centuries. By 303 B. 1 6). once established.C. and Greek scholars and tradesmen had begun to /frequent Rome. declamation. were the aims and ends of this early trainproduced a nation of citizens who willingly subordinated brought themselves to the interests of the State. "were distinguished from all other nations. made Rome great and powerful. It was a period of personal valor and stern civic virtue. as an absolute necessity of politicaldipfefetfiBjl »fo»8gfe!«® It was this severity in thinking and acting which. in a rather primitive type of society. as yet but little in contact with the outside world. By the middle of the third century B. more than any other cause.C.60 HISTORY OF EDUCATION reverence the gods and the institutions of the State. 15.. to be brave and efficient in war. schools. and the Laws of the subject-matter of instruction. Wilhelm Ihne. Up to about 300 B.C." . educahad been entirely in the home.C. trained to life govern and to do business. were only a fad at first. the preceding Reading..

religion came to be an empty ceremonial. and Greece. began to be felt by the wealthier and better-educated classes. annexing Spain. and who later had obtained his freedom. Greek higher schools were opened.. Carthage. and Gaul to the Elbe and the Danube (see Figure 18). which followed their capture. and was transforming itself politically from a little rural CityState into an Empire. rapidly developed. and slaves from the new provinces. many Greek teachers and slaves offered instruction. Greek scholars. luxuries. who had been brought to Rome as a slave when Tarentum. and became a teacher of Latin and Greek at Rome. with large world relationships. her armies and governors ruled the land. The Odyssey at once became the great school textbook. soon had a very demoralizing influence upon the people. During this century Rome became a world empire. were let out by their masters as teachers of the new learning. and during the century that followed she subjugated northern Africa. brought in as captured slaves from the Greek colonies of southern Italy. A knowledge of Greek now came to be demanded both for diplomatic and for business reasons. Digitized by Microsoft® . Private and public religion and morality rapidly declined. Egypt. The second century B.C. Even the thrifty Cato. Changes in national ideals. 1 The lot of a captive in war. in time supplanting the Twelve Tables. was even more a period of rapid change in all phases and aspects of Roman life. was captured. Li\ius Andronicus. as it had previously developed in Attica. Asia Minor. Illyria. to correspond with the increased importance of the State. The beginnings of a native Latin literature were now made. soon began to be extensively employed as teachers and as secretaries. was to be taken and sold as a slave by his captors'. About 233 B. and the Hellenic scheme of culture. This had a wonderful effect in developing schools and a literary atmosphere at Rome. who vigorously opposed the new learning on principle. everywhere throughout the ancient world. and the need of a larger culture. introduction of wealth. 1 made a translation of the Odyssey into Latin. Rome soon became mistress of the whole Mediterranean world. was not averse to permitting his educated Greek slaves to conduct schools and thus add to his private now fortune. Many educated Greeks were thus taken These in the capture of Greek cities in southern Italy and sold as slaves in Rome.EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME 61 rule to include nearly all the Italian peninsula (see Figure 16). Her ships The plied the seas. and literary and school education The Latin language became crystallized and other Greek works were soon translated. in form. one of the Greek cities of southern Italy.C. soon became the fashion at Rome.

Gymnasia were erected. From a land of farmers of small farms. and wealthy Romans. as Englishmen have done to Canada and Australia. He would not emigrate to the provinces. became very cheap and abundant. either as army commanders and governors. a complete transformation in the system of training for the young took place. in 146 ' a great influx of educated Greeks took place. or as public men who could sway the multitude and command votes and influence. Manifestly the old type of education was not intended to meet such needs. poet Horace expressed it: As the Latin And Captive Greece took captive her rude conqueror.. as well youths. Digitized by Microsoft® . sturdy and self-supporting. became the great desideratum. the unimaginative and practical Romans merely adopted that which the Athenians had created. So completely did the Greek educational system seem to meet the needs of the changed Roman State that at first the Greek schools Greek language. The result was the Hellenization Rome. feared the. but instead went to the cities. gods. and were used for almost every type of service. reared large families. wealth and influence ruled the State. evolved a new type of education adapted to the new needs of the time. was made up. and now in Rome.62 divorce became slaves HISTORY OF EDUCATION common. demanding free grain and entertainment in return for its votes. Grain from Spain and Africa became so cheap that a farmer could not raise enough on his small farm to pay his taxes and support his family. as previously in Athens. brought the arts to Latium. and the self-respecting peasantry were transformed into soldiers for 1 Wealth ^foreign wars. Greece. and all and the schools were reality" Greek schools but slightly modified to meet the needs Rome. higher schools were adopted bodily — and philosophy. The imaginative and creative Athenians. where he led a hand-to-mouth existence in a type of tenement house. B. who lived simply. began to spend their leisure in studying Greek and of rhetoric — in of as in trying to learn gymnastic exercises. making complete the HellenizaAfter the fall of tion of the Mediterranean world. so he was obliged to sell his land to men who turned it into large cattle and sheep ranches. when confronted by a great change in national ideals. In time the national pride and practical sense of the 1 Romans These men had little choice otherwise. pedagogue. and the great avenue to this was living. It was from such sources that the Roman mob. 'and made an honest became a land of great estates and wealthy men. or joined the rabble in the streets of Rome. The Hellenization of of the intellectual life of Rome. respected the State.C. it through the public service.

C. literature and philosophy were opened as possible careers. in part to show what education a good citizen needed as an orator. husbandman. the Roman Senate directed the Praetor to see "that no philosophers or . Plutarch and other writers appealed to the family as the center for all true education... „ rt 161 B. 20. He wrote the first Roman book on education. was an event of large importance^ IV. In 167 B. 20 a). Rome ceased to be a Republic and became an Empire. and learning were spread.C. labored '^hard to stem the Hellenic tide. THE SCHOOL SYSTEM AS FINALLY ESTABLISHED The elementary school. This vicin the tory of Hellenic thought and learning at Rome..C. "*\ jurist. under Roman imperial protection. 20 b). 11 Fig. and under the Emperors the professors of the new learning were encouraged and protected. Cato to eled after the Greek. and the Graeco-Roman school system had taken form. higher schools were established in the provinces.— EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME led 63 open so-called "culture schools" of their own. {^Struggle against. and Rome began the development of a system of private-school instruction possessing some elements that were native to Roman life and Roman needs. That this great change in national ideals and in educational practice was accepted without protest should not be imagined. and in part as a protest against Hellenic innovations. and final victory. or primary school.. The ludus. to every corner of the then civilized world. and the Greek language. B. viewed light of the future history of the civilization of the world. them the elder. though Greek was still studied extensively. the teacher of which Digitized by Microsoft® was known . By 100 rhetoricians be suffered in not be enforced.C. who died in 149 B. In 27 B. the first library was founded in Rome. but the edict could In 92 B.. the Censors issued an edict expressing their disapproval of such schools (R.. In _ J . literature. modThe Latin language then replaced the Greek as the vehicle of instruction. the Hellenic victory was complete.C. „ _ Cato the Elder (i-^pi^S-BVCT) Rome" (R. with books brought from Greece By the conqueror Paulus Emilius. and warrior.C. or ludus literarum. known as the ludus.

and counting. writing. torian who lived in Rome Dionysius of HaGreek hisfor twenty-two years. box of manuscripts. Inkstand. tablets. at the age of seven.because^ the Roman system of notation n . 21. has left us a clear description of the Roman method know of teaching reading: When we name accent. Fig. a century B. These schools were open to both They were entered sexes. and covered the period up to twelve. Some time afterwards. finally with incredible quickness and without making any mistake. and approximately the same writing materials were used. sometimes six. partly because they used a decimal system for counting and a duodecimal for their money and jwth:. stylus. their value in syllables. to the difficulties of their system of calculation. slowly at first and by syllable. and. Due in part to the practical character of the Roman people. as in the Greek schools. then the words and their case. pen. partly because they had no figure or other sign for zero. and like it the instruction consisted of reading. Something of the same difficulty was as a ludi magister. the pupils copied down from dictation and made their own books (dictata) Literature received no such emphasis in the elementary schools of Rome as in those of the Greeks. the forms being sufficiently engraved on our memory. Roman Writing-Materials letter. and the palestra of the Greeks was not reproduced at Rome. syllable Writing seems rather to have followed reading. This corresponded to the school of the Athenian grammatist. .C. licarnassus. to the established habit of keeping careful household accounts. 1 to the practice 1 Arithmetic was not easy for the Romans. but were chiefly frequented by boys. in the elementary book. during the first 21). wax experienced also in mastering the reading art (R. then in all sorts of books. learned to read was it not necessary at first to the of the letters. we read more cursorily.. Reading and writing were taught by much the same methods as in the Greek schools. their shape. their and the rest? Arrived at this point we began to read and write.64 HISTORY OF EDUCATION was the beginning or primary school of the scheme as finally evolved. their differ- ences. their quantity long or short.

It was not regarded as of importance that the teachers of these schools be of high grade. X. L. interests that the 65 commercial and financial the world which they conquered. bringing in fees for their owners. (I. These schools became quite common in the and in time were found in the provincial cities of the entirely private-advenTry} for example. a position even less enviable than that held Athens. The establishment of and attendance at these primary schools was wholly voluntary. An abacus or countingboard was used. M) to quick calculation. these simple sums: D. The ludi magister. Many slaves were engaged in this type of instruction. by the grammatist starveling Greek. . C. knowledge for the was sneered at by many Roman writers.. 1 Hence it occu- pied a place of large importance in the primary school. did not adapt itself Empire as well. The ludi magister at at Rome held.EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME of finger reckoning. arithmetic became a subject of fundamental importance in their schools. similar to the one shown in Figure 22." "The who was glad to barter his certainty of a good dinner. however. and the children in them probably represented but a small percentage of those of school age in the total population. They remained. Add: CCLVII Subtract: ' LXVIII CIX XXXIV . and Horace mentions a bag of stones (calculi) as a part of a school- • boy's equipment. and much time was given to securing to the vast and Romans formed throughout perfection in calculation and finger reckoning. V. Italian cities.

80 for arithmetic. in an effort to relieve the distress of schoolmasters. The schools were held anywhere — in a portico (see Figure 23).20 per month per pupil for teaching reading and $1. though some masters left the size made of the fee to the liberality of their pupils. was nearly always an old or infirm slave of the family. in a shed or booth in front of a house. supervising the instruction in them. measured in money values of a decade room ago. nor were the prices for instruction of to-day. or requiring attendance at them. A chair for the master. or in a recessed . Finally. A Roman Primary fresco School {Ludus) (From a found at Herculaneum) This shows a school held in a portico of a house. the State doing nothing toward encouraging their establishment. and a bundle of rods (ferula) constituted the necessary The pupils brought with them boxes containing equipment. 1 The pedagogue. benches for and for the pedagogues to wait in.d. They were in no sense free schools. fixed. corner shut in by curtains. and at times forgot them entirely if the boy did not turn out well.). in a store. the pupil ally at some a present to the master. copied from Greece. an outer for cloaks 1 There was much complaint that parents were slow with their fees. the pupils. prices' were legally fixed at approximately the equivalent of $1. as in our private schools Instead. Fig. 23. These were regarded BSg'itksghjimfSrmffm" .66 HISTORY OF EDUCATION ture undertakings. in the reign of Diocletian (284-305 a. usuunderstood rate.

by memorization and The method pracrepetition. and Quintilian. and then by the. At first this higher instruction began in the form of private tutors. as practiced. By the beginning of the first century B. the foremost Roman writer on educational practice. Attendance at them was wholly voluntary. pupils in winter going with lanterns to their tasks. book-rolls.C. Literature followed. With its careful study of words. quantity. however. the purpose being to secure such a mastery of the Latin language and Greek and Latin literatures as might be most helpful in giving that broader culture of now recognized as the mark an educated man. drill on inflections. accent. and Greek was the language taught. recommends attendance at the Greek school first. 148 B. with careful attention to pronunciation. expand one's knowledge.EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME writing-materials. or Latins The who had. and was intended to develop an appreciation for literary style. been trained by the Greeks. formed an important part of the training in literature of a Latin youth. Each teacher taught as he wished. this rhade a strong appeal to the practical Roman and became a favorite study. and covering instruction from the age of twelve to sixteen.pupils. began early in the morning. 24). but the schools throughout the Empire came to. Both Greek and Latin secondary schools were in existence. and expression. be much the same in character. was a much more difficult art.. than .C. teachers were Greeks. and in time these too spread to all the important cities of the Empire. The secondary schools. and. 23 a). phonetic changes. Secondary or Latin grammar schools. was carefully read first ticed was much as follows The selection by the teacher. and was confined entirely to the children of the well-to-do classes. Latin secondary schools began to arise. had become clearly differentiated from the primary schools under a ludi magister by the time of the death of Cato. and was intended to develop correctness in the use of speech. 67 Schools in and reckoning-stones. and in preparing the young Roman to take up the life of an orator and public official (R. The course of study consisted chiefly of instruction in grammar and literature. and Martial we find an angry epigram which he addressed to a schoolmaster who disturbed his sleep (R. There was much flogging of children. probably in the homes of the wealthy. 1 After the reading the : 1 "Reading aloud. and practice in composing • and paragraphing. Grammar was studied first. Correct reading of Latin. elevate thought. under a grammaticus. to train the powers of expression.

ethics. The athletic exercises of the Greeks were rejected. Homer and Neander were the favorite authors in Greek. much as are our high schools of to-day for the great bulk of American children. composition. were here laid for Grammar and Rhetoric as the great tions studies of the Middle Ages. The schools were better housed than those of the ludi. falo profugus. in his Seventh Satire. 1 The text was next critically examined. A little geometry and astronomy were also included. was expected to read all histories and know all authors as well as his finger ends. In a sense these schools were finishing schools for youths who went to any school at all. the State exercised no supervision or con- Roman trol is over these schools or the teachers or pupils in them. he should be able to tell the name of Anchises' nurse. as well as poor punctuation. to point out where and how it might be improved and its expressions strengthFinally the ened. Horace. and much paraphrasing of it was engaged in. a characterization of the author's The foundaof his chief merits and defects. as "Arma The lack of use of small letters and spacing between the words (R. that " a teacher sized. that is. also added to the difficulty. geographical. 1 A nonsensical minuteness was followed here. and the tell how many years name and native land of the stepmother of Anchemotus how many flagons of wine the Sicilian king gave to the Phrygians. mythology. . written about 130 a. Like the elementary schools. elocution. own books from Rome. and mythological allusions were carefully explained by the teacher.." the reading of English. to help the pupil intone his reading and declamation. That. and the masters were of a better quality and received larger fees. Lavinaque venii. and a resume ^Esop's Fables for work in composition. and many trivialities were emphaJuvenal tells us. Troj& qui primus ab oris Ilaliam.*^ Ancestes lived This reminds us of some of the dissected study of English and Latin until recently given in our colleges and high schools. The pupils made their though in later years educated slave labor became so cheap that the copying and sale of books was dictation. Sallust. A little music was added at times. and Vergil. 21). if questioned. Grammar. study of the selection was rounded out by a judgment — a critical estimate of the work. and geography were all comprehended in the instruction in grammar and literature in the secondary schools. history. all of us well know who learned properly to intone our virumque cano.68 HISTORY OF EDUCATION selection was gone over again and the historical. and Livy in Latin.'!™. for their practical applications. ' ' — — Digitized by Microsoft® .. with much use of style.d. and it was possible for the own their own books. as contributing to immorality and being a waste of time and organized into a- business at children of wealthy parents to strength.

had been for practical and useful information primary schools) or cultural (the of these a higher grammar or secondary schools) On top and professional type of school was next developed. the teachers of which were known as rhetors. 1 These schools were direct descendants of the Greek rhetorical schools. and it flourished to such a degree that some of them raised themselves by it to the rank of senators and to the highest offices. expressing their disapproval of the Latin Digitized by Microsoft® schools of rhetoric. a decree which could not be enforced.C. in 92 B. 24). Aem. In consequence. 69 Up to this point the schools estab(the . I. . to train youths in rhetoric and oratory.EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME The schools lished of rhetoric. and the edict of the Censors. tainly be nothing else but an orator. 3 There was a general dread of Greek higher learning on the part of the older Romans. Among these was an edict of the Senate. at times. and who can govern communities by his counsels. and all young men ambitious to enter law or politics found the training orator (R. . 3 However. can cerv. and with still more difficulty." 2 In his Lives of Eminent Grammarians and Rhetoricians. and improve them by judicial enactments. chap. directing the Praetor to see that "no philosophers or rhetoricians be suffered at Rome" (R. rhetoric manifested itself to be a useful and honorable study. because the had become the Roman ideal of a well-educated man During the life of the Republic the orator found many opportunities for the constructive use of his ability. in 161 B. settle them by means of laws. the practice of it was even prohibited. preparatory to the great professions of law and public life at Rome. who is qualified for the management of public and private affairs. for They were attended two or three years by boys over sixteen. They were oratorical in purpose. inasmuch as we find that.. was not introduced amongst us a late period. and many persons devoted themselves to it both as a means of defense and of acquiring a reputation. also. fur- nished a type of education representing a sort of collegiate education for the period. I Jn addition to oratorical and some legal training. Suetonius 2 tells us that: Rhetoric. (R. and this found expression in many ways. some matheQuintilian well states the aim of this higher education when he says that "the sustain his character as a citizen. public favor was so much attracted to the study of rhetoric that a vast number of professional and learned men devoted themselves to it. Suetonius lived from 75 to 160 a. till . by slow degrees. but only the wealthier and more aristocratic families could afford to send their boys to of these schools a necessary prerequisite. 20). these schools included a further linguistic and literary training. 20). and was an advocate at Rome and private secretary to the „ 1 man who can duly Emperor Hadrian. These schools. which evolved from the schools of the Sophists.. as well as grammar.C.d.

the fine distinctions in Roman Law and Ethics were brought out. Music. . in order to smuggle him past the boundary. See Quintilian. does th^r^g^qwg^/jgwels? 2 ter is . Geometry to aid in settling lawsuits relating to land. Institutes of Oratory. 22. — — Fig. famous "Seven Liberal Arts" of the Middle Ages Rhetoric. and Dialectic. 23). A Roman School of Rhetoric much better This picture.70 HISTORY OF EDUCATION matical and scientific knowledge. and 46. Geometry. book 1. 24. and even some philosophy. with Grammar as the greatest and most important study (see chap. This chapdevoted largely to a description of the use of these studies. and there was much drill in preparing and delivering speeches and 3 much and delivery attention given to the factors involved in the preparation of a successful oration (R. Rome. 37. Arithmetic. The curriculum of the Middle Ages was a direct inheritance from vii R. shows a type of school than that of the htdi. were the first three these schools. 74). x. Music being studied largely to help with gestures and to train the voice. 1 These seven studies became the famous studies of the church schools of the Middle Ages. 2 There was much work in debate and in the declamation of ethical and political material. 3 Sample questions which were debated to bring out the fine distinctions in Roman Law and Ethics were: (a) Was a slave about whose neck a master had hung the leather or golden token (worn by free youths only). The Grammar. and Astronomy to understand the movements of the heavenly bodies and the references of literary writers. though. and some Law. freed when he reached Roman soil wearing this insignia of freedom? (6) If a stranger buys a prospective draught of fishes and the fisherman draws up a casket of jewels. and all seem to have been included in the instruction of Astronomy 1 The great studies. Dialectic (logic) to aid in detecting fallacies. chap. which has been drawn from a description.

who ruled as Emperor from 138 to 161 a. The work of the schools then became highly stilted and artificial in character. support of soldiers." says Professor Dill. and Cicero.. and obligations to military service.d. much as American (see Figure 14). the later Emperors to encourage these to exist in almost every provincial Often they were supported by the cities in which they were located. Horace. from the Imperial Treasury. 26) which became the basis for the special rights afterwards granted to the Christian clergy (R. in his Roman Society in the Last Century of the Western Empire. and a certain number in each city were exempted from payment of taxes. extended payment to the provinces. tus. a revivalist preacher. schools. gave to these teachers the privileges of the senatorial class. studied at Athens. 1 Men educated in these schools effectiveness came to boast that they could speak with equal side of any question. the salaries of grammarians and rhetoricians z at Rome. Quintilian probably being one of the first to receive a state salary. as people now do to hear a great political orator. Digitized by Microsoft® f . and they too came to teachers in the University learning. universities (Rs. it. 1 In the later centuries of the Empire. was for many ages. and the art came to depend on the use of many and big words and on the manners of Such ideals naturally destroyed the value of these the stage. 101-04) l~7 still later. 71 These schools became very popular as institutions of higher and continued so even after the later Emperors. among others. and stopped intellectual progress so far as thev con- on either tributed to schools. by seizing the power of the State. The Emperor Vespasian. A form of amusement for distinguished travelers pass"This power of using ing through a city was to have some one orate before them. Antoninus Pius. Much was done by city in the Empire. words for mere pleasurable effect. Other Emperors extended these special privileges (R." 2 Each Greek rhetorician in Rome was given one hundred sestertia (about $4000) yearly from the Imperial Treasury. "* students in the middle of the nineteenth century went to Germany Athens and Rhodes were most favored. about 75 a. or a popular actor or singer.d. 38) and. training could universities Koman youths desiring still further now journey to the eastward and attend the Greek A few did so. "on the most trivial or the most extravagantly absurd themes. in both West and East. Caesar. esteemed the highest proof of talent and cultivation.EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME learning. Brufor higher study. began the practice of paying. had taken away the inspiration that comes from a love of freedom and had thus deprived the rhetorical art of practical value. and oratory then came to be cultivated largely as a fine art. people went to hear a man who could orate or declaim.

tion represented nothing.d. literature. medicine. the and learning. the instruction matic. naturally borrowed also the school system that evolved to impart this Never before or since has any people adapted so completely to their own needs the system of educational training evolved by another. and CassJus at Rhodes. youths from provincial cities came to study. in the The lines of instrucway of scientific investiwas formal and dogwhat had previously gation or creative thought. In all its foundation elements it was Greek.) the University at Rome had its origin. the constructive Roman mind organized it into a system superior to the original.HISTORY OF EDUCATION Cicero. Nature of the educational system developed. To the Greek basis some distinctively Roelements were added to adapt it better to the peculiar needs of their own people. Havconquered one ing borrowed might almost say Greek re- — — ligion. mathematics and mechanics. 19). and grammar and In this many rhetoric in both the Latin and Greek languages. however. That the system afforded an opportunity to wealthy Romans to obtain for their children some understanding and appreciation of the culture of the q^^^j^^g^vfhich their Empire was .fe= is tics were omitted entirely. philosophy. and in time this developed into an institution with professors in law. man Having once adopted the Greek plan. Romans had been culture. In a library founded in the Temple of Peace by Vespasian (ruled 69 to 79 a. but in so doing formalized it more than the Greeks had ever done (R. Later Alexandria was in favor. Such was the educational system which was finally evolved to meet the new cultural needs of the Roman Empire. architecture. while on the other hand many of the finer Greek character:j. being largely a further elaboration of been well done by the Greeks.

can hardly be doubted (R. Results on Roman life and government.the many skilled trades. and cannot be considered as ever having been general or as having educated any more than a small traditions local princes percentage of the future citizens of the State. out of this private and tuition system of schools many capable political leaders men who exercised great influence on the and executives came A — 1 "He [Claudius] . and the large commercial undertakings. were now ambitious of becoming eloquent. unlike Athens. especially Cicero along political and governmental lines of those and answered fairly well the Romans who (R. 73 preparatory needs could afford to educate their boys for such careers. no education at all. The State. Those who found the education offered of any value could take it and pay for it. Still. of Agrkola. and which to-day are regarded as monuments to their constructive skill and practical genius. chap. In the provinces. few did the former. who lately disdained to make use of the Roman language. For the great slave class that developed at Rome there was. . On the other hand. and the toga was frequently worn. did not make what was offered a preparation for citizenship. 21.habit began to be held in honor. 1 During the days of the Republic the schools were naturally more useful than after the establishment of the Empire. Education at Rome was from the first purely a private-adventure affair. selected class of youths. give us abundant testimony as to the value and usefulness of the system evolved in the training of orators and men for the public service.regulate either teachers or instruction until late in the history of the Empire. Hence the Roman . too. the building of roads and aqueducts. the great mass of the Romans the latter. these schools did nothing to prepare youths for. of their chieftains. . those who did not could let it alone. and made no attempt to. trained for only the political career. 22).EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME now in contact. the schools reached but a small. most nearly analogous with us to instruction in music and dancing. 25). such as architectural achievements. never required education of any one. and especially after the later Emperors had stamped out many of the political and civic liberties for the enjoyment of which the schools prepared. . 24) and Quintilian (R.. Many of the important lines of activity in which the Romans engaged." °MWi'9yMlSfS&?WBnta. we know that the schools were very useful in inculcating Roman and in helping the Romans to assimilate the sons of and leaders. was also attentive to provide a liberal education for the sons and his attempts were attended with such success that they. Roman writers on education.

The great political fact which dominated all the Middle Ages." sometimes said. it is perhaps even more true that the Anglo-Saxon is the only race which can be placed beside the Romans in creative power and in politics. Harrow. fought out her political battles. It was in this direction. in impor1 structive tance for the future of civilization in the world. and others together with the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. practical. and. organized and directed her government at home and in the provinces. The Romans. grammar schools of England Eton. that in the course of history there is no literature which rivals the Greek except the English. and their basis for estimating the worth of a thing was intellectual and artistic. on the other hand. were. The and 1 Greeks lived a life of aesthetic enjoyment of the beautiful in nature art. ROME'S CONTRIBUTION TO CIVILIZATION Greece and Rome contrasted. that Rome excelled. the influence on all future civilization of the work of Rome has been profound. The Roman genius for government and law and order and constructive undertakings must be classed.74 HISTORY OF EDUCATION history of the State. Winchester. — — — . and shaped the religion and government and civilization of the time. "as is work so well. to the Romans the aesthetic and the England offers us the nearest modern analogy. The Greeks were an imaginative. tuition. was the fact that the Roman Empire had been and had done its ability of Greece in literature says Professor Adams. with little administrative ability and few practical tendencies. and in practical and conwork along engineering and architectural lines. its and constructive nation." The conquest of the known world by this practical and constructive people could not have otherwise than decisively influenced the whole course of human history. an unimaginative. The contrast between the Greeks and the Romans is marked in almost every particular. Rugby. '"If. This was one of the last of the great European nations to establish popular education. artistic. prepared a succession of leaders for the State men who have steered England's destinies at home 6)8gff«l«D&jil Msrasa/B® her a great world power. and helped build up that great scheme of government and law and order which was Rome's most significant contribution to future civilization. concrete. and idealistic people. coming at the time in world affairs that it did. subjective. Greece made great contribution to world civilization in literature and philosophy and art. along with the and philosophy and art. Rome in law and order and government. V. but for centuries previous thereto the great private.

as the Greeks had done at Athens. their aqueducts and bridges were wonders of engineering skill. in part. while the Romans worshiped force and effectiveness. From the Greeks and Hebrews our modern life has drawn its great inspirations and its ideals for life. they built roads connecting all parts of their Empire that were the best the world had ever known. They were a people who knew how to accomplis results rather than to speculate about means and ends^TJsefulness and effectiveness were with them the criteria of the worth of any idea or project. and constructive practical undertakings. The Greeks thought in personal terms of government and virtue and happiness. and lived by rule and authority. intellectual and aesthetic ideals and the culture for our life. while Rome developed the political institutions under which ideals may be realized and culture may be enjoyed. while the Romans thought in general terms of law and duty. The Greeks worshiped "the and beautiful and the good. their public buildings and monuments still excite admiration and envy. and weak where the Greeks were strong. while from the Romans we have derived our ideals One may say that the as to government and obedience to law. By reason of this difference the two peoples supplemented one another well in the work of laying the foundations upon which Greece created the our modern civilization has been built. and their agriculture was the best the world had known up to that time. commercial processes. They built up no great speculative philosophies. while the Greeks left to us a philosophy f^m^da^^icax^fmid a world culture which . though possessing many elements of native strength and beauty. order. legal codes. and engineering undertakings. Even their literature was. They were strong where the Greeks were weak. they civilized and Romanized barbarian tribes. they gave law and order to a primitive world. They subdued and annexed an empire. Romans as a people specialized in government. and framed no great theories of government.EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME beautiful 75 made little appeal. in many of the skilled trades they developed tools and processes of large future usefulness. an imitation of the Greek. and their happiness in present denial for future gain than in any immediate enjoyment. and their basis for estimating the worth of a thing was utilitarian. was rather As a result the Romans developed no great scholarly or literary atmosphere. and bequeathed to posterity a wonderful inheritance in governmental forms." and tried to enjoy life rationally nobly. law.

and later became the standard textbooks throughout the Middle Ages. and re-introduced into western Europe when the study of law was revived in the newly founded universities in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. and law. Romans were always grown and.76 HISTORY OF EDUCATION The Greeks were an Romans sedate.d. were the final results. as all law grows. and this remained after the Empire had The municipal corporation. and time came to he an enormous body of law. Justinian in the sixth century. which formed the basis of the legal system of the mediaeval Church. and it remained as the law of the courts wherever Roman subjects were tried. then. Preserved and codified at Constantinople under. speech. The Theodosian Code.. imaginative. law. and reduced it to system and order. Lacking the printed law books' and indices of to-day. the Greeks in persistence and moral force. impulsive. This grew up. and a joyous people. and which has modified all western languages. Rome's great contribution. It was accepted rights. Rome's great contribution. had been established throughout all the provincial cities. to obtain a knowledge of Roman law became a formidable task. of 528 and 534 a. by enacted laws and decisions of the courts. and studied in the law schools of the Middle Ages. of 438 a. which made the triumph of Christianity body of law 1 which barbarian tribes accepted. possible.d. severe. with its charter of passed away. These codes were compact. the formulation of a — Roman has ever since been a fixed idea in the western world. has modified our modern ideas and practices to a degree we scarcely realize. too. and the Justinian Code. the school system which became established in the Roman State contributed only The unification of the ancient world indirectly and but little. rulers as a permanent thing after they had overrun the Empire. to the The Greeks were serious ever young. and the perfection of an alphabet which has become the common property of all nations whose civilization has been derived from the Greek and Roman these constitute the chief contributions of Rome to modern civilization. coinage. the and superior men. with a common body of traditions. which was studied throughout the Middle Ages. the civilized world will never cease to enjoy. organized into a compact code. capable of duplication with relative ease. practices. the development of a language from which many modern tongues have been derived. Finally the practical Roman mind codified it. Roman city government. into one Empire. The great importance of these codifications may be appreciated when we know that almost all the original laws and decisions from which they were compiled have been 1 by the German in l° st - Digitized by Microsoft® .. and which has largely influenced modern practice. To this. was along the lines just indicated.

the French. This alphabet has become the common property of almost all the civilized world. Japan. Origin or Our Alphabet The German type. Austria-Hungary. modmost our modern life q. Italy X 58 law most completely from the Justinian Code. so-called Old English (see Fig. and Italian tongues go back directly to the Latin. China. Roman legal ideas also entered here. 26. and all of Europe except Russia. Australia. Roman letters are alsoQi&itiiigihbttMillttfyaffikd. . and a few minor Slavic and Teutonic peoples. Spanish and Portuguese settlement of the South American continent has carried Roman law there. 2 The Roman alphabet is the alphabet of all North and South America. and before the Great War. 1) Suj A & A > C B <C D E 58 6 3) (S 6' £ Y F C & 3 ® o BH I H The English language. Roman letters were rapidly superseding the more difficult German letters in the printing of papers and books for the better-educated classes In India. Figure 26 shows how our modern alphabet goes back to the old Roman. though English in language. Siam. Spanish. like the Germany and Austria. the Louisiana Code of 1824 being Roman in law and technical expressions and spirit. has also received so many additions from Romanic sources that we to-day ilized world. should be men-' 1 R \Z *s T T SB The Romanic their countries — France. 45). 2 In speech. and which were passed on to mediaeval and modern Europe. and which the Greeks obtained from the still earlier Phoenicians. K L V H- Vv\ M M N O M N scarcely utter a sentence without o 9 q using some word once used by the ancient Rome. Spain. Portuguese.— EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME Roman states. 77 and law has greatly modified all modern legal practices has become the basis of the legal systems of a number of modern 1 Of all the Roman contributions to ern civilization perhaps the one that completely permeates all is their alphabet and speech. which they obtained from the Greek colonies in southern Italy. which is fc spoken throughout a large part of the civand by two thirds of its inhabitants. illustrates the corruption of letter forms through the copying of manuscripts during the Middle Ages. Africa. and these are the tongues of Mexico and South America as well. Greece. Due to Spanish and French occupation of parts of America. Germany. citizens of V rp 9 9Q PR n S II Among the smaller but nevertheless important contributions which we owe to Rome. Even in have drawn X ?) 3 Fig.

Where we should have been to-day in the upward march of civilization. skills in many inventions and acquired and improved lands. How as we shall appreciate better Of the negative contributions. which has inspired the autocratic governments of modern Europe to try to imitate the world-wide rule of Imperial we proceed with our Rome. had the Latin language never become the speech courts never established common rights and security. and had Rome not done dozens of other important things to unify and civilize Europe and reduce it to law and order. Had Italy never been consolidated. had Spain and — Africa and the. had Roman armies never imposed law and order throughout an unruly world. the beginnings of the transformation of the slave into the serf. an organized sea and land trade and commerce. had Rome never develthe cities of the provinces. great architectural and engineering remains. later tices from which the great body of freemen of modern Europe were evolved. procedure. roads and bridges. good houses.78 HISTORY OF EDUCATION me- tioned certain practical knowledge in agriculture and the the arts and trades. it is hard to imagine the chaos that would have resulted when the Empire gave way to the barbarian hordes which finally overwhelmed it. had Rome never established free trade and intercourse throughout her Empire."eastern Mediterranean never known the rule of of the then civilized peoples. had the barbarian tribes to the north never be»n conquered and Romanized. scattered all through the provinces. the most dangerous has been the idea of the rule of one imperial government. cities oped processes and skills in agriculture and the creative arts. had Roman governors and Rome. had there been no Roman roads and common coinage. cleared chanic arts. without the work of Rome. Digitized by Microsoft® . It was the great civilizing and unifying work of the Roman State that paved the way for the next great contribution to the foundations of the structure of our modern civilization the contribution of Christianity. The way paved for Christianity. it is impossible to say. and certain educational conceptions and pracwhich later profoundly influenced educational methods and large these contributions were history. had Roman municipal government never come to be the common type in had Roman schools in the provincial never trained the foreign citizen in Roman ways and to think Roman thoughts.

At what period in our national development did home education with us occupy substantially the same place as it did in Rome before 300 B. i^. preventable. the modern Germans. How do you account for the much smaller emphasis on literature and t $• music in the elementary instruction at Rome than at Athens? How for ^ the much larger emphasis on formal grammar in the secondary schools 10. What does the rapid adoption of the Greek educational system. Why do older people usually oppose changes in school work manifestly-^ (^ Zr "£. and the later evolution of a native educational system out of it. and Roman boy.^h^gher y y schools of oratory .C.. instead of leaving the matter to private initiative? Do you understand that any large percent<r Age of youths in the Roman State ever attended any school? ifr. State the economic changes which hastened the introduction of a new /type of higher training at Rome. To what extent does early Roman education indicate the importance of .? In what respects was the education given boys and girls similar? Dif- V sl/ ferent? fg/ What was the most marked advance over the Greeks in the early Roman training? ^~/. indicate as to the nature of Roman expansion? 'i</. Compare the difficulties met with in learning to read Greek and Latin. Was the change in character of the education of Roman youths. needed to meet changing national demands? CJ „ 17.^ee^djd. at Rome? What subjects of study as we now know them were Roman study of grammar and rhetoric? included in the How do you explain the greater emphasis placed by the secondary education than on elementary education? Romans on and 2i. Was the introduction of the Greek pedagogue as a fashionable adjunct natural? Why? Why is a period of very rapid expansion in a State likely to be demoralizing? How may the demoralization incident to such expansion be antici- —pated and minimized? Why problems? does the coming of large landed estates introduce important social Have we the beginnings of a social problem of this type? What correctives have we that Rome did not have? 13. What particular rhetoric supply? RomM. the parent and of study of biography in the education of the young? *&. s/. 2. after the expansion of the Roman State and the establishment of world contacts. or was it a necessary evolution? Why? Have we £ver experienced similar changes? y: As a State increases in importance and enlarges its world contacts. 20. — £ Either and English. Spartan. 18.EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME . tz Contrast the The English.yWas the Hellenization of Rome which ensued a good thing? Why? ^g/How do you account for Rome not developing a state school system in the period of great national need and change. Contrast the education of the Athenian. during the early period in each State. is a /correspondingly longer training and enlarged culture necessary at home? What idea do you get as to the extent to which the Latinized Odyssey was read from the fact that the Latin language was crystallized in form shortly after the translation was made? 9. r 79 QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION Romans as a colonizing power with The French.

18. 24. Polybius: The Roman Character. SELECTED READINGS In the accompanying Book duced: 12. Cicero: 15. 22. QUESTIONS ON THE READINGS 1. Higher Decree of the Roman Senate. Quintilian: On Oratory. 161 B. 92 B.C. 8. 26. Schreiber: A Roman Farmer's Calendar. 13.C. Horace: The Education given by a Father. Cicero Oratory the Aim of Education. Importance of the Twelve Tables in Education. 19. Marcus Aurelius: The Old Roman Romans. 25. Contrast the Roman character (15. Give reasons why the Laws of the Twelve Tables (12) were considered of such fundamental importance (13) in the education of the early Roman boy? How do you explain their being supplanted later by the Latinized Odyssey? What does the Farmer's Calendar (14) reveal as to the character of Roman 3. life? 5. Compare Rome and the United States in their attitudes toward foreignborn peoples. HISTORY OF EDUCATION What does the exclusive devotion of these schools to such studies indicate as to professional opportunities at Rome? 23. and for the aid and encouragement they received from the later Emperors. with that of a girl in later American colonial times. Education described. After reading Marcus Aurelius (18) and Tacitus (19). Martial: The Ludi Magister. What type of higher /94»fi%&«^/&4¥&ft|ages does the selection from . 16) with that of the Athenian. (a) To the Master of a Noisy School. of Readings the following selections are repro- The Laws of the Twelve Tables. 14. Suetonius: Attempts to Prohibit the Introduction of Greek Learning. How do you account for the continuance of these schools in favor. (a) (b) (b) To a Schoolmaster. 6. 16. Tacitus: The Old and the New Education contrasted. as revealed by the epitaph (17). 21. Compare the education of a Roman matron. 6) and Latin (21). 20. 2. 7. 4.80 22. 23. Vergil: Difficulty experienced in Learning to Read. Mommsen: The Grave and Severe Character of the Earlier 17. Either and English. when the very nature of the Empire in large part destroyed the careers for which they trained? 24. Epitaph: The Education of Girls. Decree of the Censor. what is your judgment as to the relative merits of the old and the new education: (a) as a means of training youths? (b) as adapted to the changed conditions of Imperial Rome? How do you account for the attempts of the conservative officials of the State to prohibit the introduction of Greek higher schools (20 a-b) proving so unsuccessful? Compare the difficulties involved in learning to read Greek (Fig. Constantine: Privileges granted to Physicians : and Teachers.

CJo . Horace (22) indicate as prevailing in Roman cities? Compare with present-day advanced education. * Clarke. J. 1. in School Review. vol. History of Mediaeval Europe. vol. Geo. Roman Society in the Last Century of the Western Empire. J. What does the decree of Constantine (26) indicate as to the social status of the higher teachers under the Empire? SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES Abbott. F. pp. 22. pp. The Silver Age of the Greek World. vol. Vocational Training in Antiquity. C. Society and Politics in Ancient Rome. 601-10. G. and social status of the Roman primary teacher? Do the selections from Cicero (24) and Quintilian (25) satisfy you that oratory was a sufficiently broad idea for the higher education of youths under the Empire? Why? 1. F. E. 20. Historical Survey of Pre-Christian Education. What do Martial's Epigrams to the Roman schoolmasters (23 a-b) indicate as to the nature of the schools. Sandys. 191-201. "Some Facts regarding Vocational Education among the Greeks and Romans". F.1 EDUCATION AND WORK OF ROME 3. Ross. L.M-<T >}<* Digitized by Microsoft® . History of Classical Scholarship. Anderson. vol. * Dill. Thorndike. Westermann. L. Civilization during the Middle Ages. "The Strength and Weakness of Roman Education". S. pp. S. W. Sam'l. * Laurie. * Adams. in School Review. 8 d. in School and Society. P.-B. Education of Children at Rome. F. Mahaffy. school discipline. Lynn. 457-63. 6.

to explain the universe. concord. were established. sowing. given illustrates M ' . Like many other features of Roman life. to guard over such functions as health. the Romans exhibited toward the religions of all other peoples that same tolerance and willingness to borrow which they exhibited in so many other matters. E. or to religious education. As was stated in Roman state religion was an the preceding outgrowth of the religion of the home." 2 "The chief objects of pagan religion were to foretell the future. 58). dealing with the affairs of everyday life. and Emperor worship was added to their ceremonies. and having little or no relation to personal morality. in his Satires. peace." 1 The Farmer's Calendar. Certain Greek deities were taken over and temples erected to them in Rome. 1 Extreme tolerance also was shown toward the special religions of other peoples who had — been brought within the Empire. reaping. 14). (Lecky. or to the reading of the Bible. In addition.d. 2 It promised no rewards or punishments or hopes for a future life. and certain oriental divinities had even been admitted and given their place in Rome. W. helped to unify the Empire and hold it together. who Just as there had been a number of were supposed to preside over the different home. very well the gods and sacrifices for one phase of Roman life. or to united prayer for spiritual To make men virtuous was no more the function of the priest than of the benefits. says.IV -) physician. After the death of Augustus (14 a. They contained no instruments of moral teaching analogous to our institution of preaching.» CHAPTER I. etc. or to the moral preparation for the reception of the sacrament. so there were many state deities who were supposed to preside over the different activities of the State. "Our country is so full of divinities that it is much easier to find a god than a man. or to confession. to avert calamity. their religion was J essentially of a practical nature. and to obtain the assistance of the gods. This naturally spread rapidly throughout the Empire. Petronius. fortune. H. tended to unite all classes in in the accompanying Book of Readings (R. fireside deities.). and new deities.. IV THE RISE AND CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIANITY THE RISE AND VICTORY OF CHRISTIANITY the Religions in the chapter (p. Roman world. but rather. by uniting all citizens in a common reverence and fear of certain deities.^g^gjj^ /§m£69tb orah cha P. the Roman Senate deified activities of the the Emperor and enrolled his name among the gods.

of of the Empire.d.). founded by Zeno. consists in so living that one's life is in accordance with that Universal Reason which rules the world. 308 B. rather than the feelings. it was ing as a sort too intellectual to reach more than a few.) 1 Seneca (4-65 Epictetus (d.) reprefinest expositions of the application of this philosophy to the both expounded Stoicism at life. lost with them its force and the religious ceremonies of the home and the State lost for them their meaning.C. and to a degree expressed a humble reliance on a providence which conThis philosophy in a way met the need for a trolled affairs. Many educated Romans now turned to the Greek philosophers for some more philosophical explanation of the great mystery of life and . and made consider1 While servable headway during the early days of the Empire. and the sents one of the Rome during the first Christian Thoughts of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161-180 a. and seemed form the basis for a universal religion for a universal empire. is the proper rule /The Stoics also preached the brotherhood of man. religion among the better-educated Romans. all the philosophies developed in the philosophical schools Athens. As an educated class arose in Rome. the one that made the deepest appeal to the practical Roman mind was that of the Stoics. and was not adapted to become a universal religion for all sorts and conditions of men. the tutor of the Emperor Nero. and had indulged in much speculation as to the moral nature of man. Feeling of need for something more. life. the Roman religion.d. joy. fear. Of of Virtue. fame. He Riches. Such a religion was at this time taking shape and gathering force and strength in a remote corner is virtuous. claimed the Stoics. 7 What was needed was a new moral philosophy or religion that would touch all mankind. made up as it was of state and parental duties and precautions. a. and the ills of life — — be he slave or peasant or king — may be happy because he Reason. of religion for those capable of embracing it. success who trains himself to b'e above grief. To do this it must appeal to the emotions more than to the intellect. The mechanical repetition of prayers and sacrifices made no appeal to the emotions or to the moral nature of individuals. The educated Greeks before had had this same feeling. these count for but. and offered no spiritual joy or consolation as to a life beyond. and the Greek freedman nroblems of pro human Digitized by Microsoft® . position. a.d. death. little. 100 century.CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIANITY allegiance to the central 83 to government at Rome. hope. this mixture of diverse divinities failed to satisfy.

State. emphasized duty to God.84 HISTORY OF EDUCATION Where this new religion arose. leaving Egypt about 1500 B. in 588 B. history. in the Exodus. Far to the eastern end of the Mediterranean there had long lived a branch of the Semitic race. These were the Hebrew people who. often in sublime language. unlike the other religions of the Mediterlives. agricultural people. pastoral people they had gradually changed to a settled. the written by a series of patriarchs. and religion became the central thought of their religious literature that it is certain to last for all time. and religious hopes. however. deliverances. erected personal morality and service to God as the rule of life. and experiences of this Chosen People. and had begun the development of a regular Unwilling. and so magnificent and uplifting is - their Alone among all eastern people they early evolved the idea of one omnipotent God.C. Just before their country was overrun and they were carried captive to Babylon. Old Testament — prophets.. and asserted a life beyond the grave. and forced labor for the State. Digitized by Microsoft® Hebrew ideal of woman- . The land. the 1 See Proverbs. The religion that they developed declared man to be the child of God. personal morality.d. Law of honesty. It was about these ideas that the whole energy of the people concentrated. Their literary contribution. south of Phoenicia and east and north of Egypt. the various migrations. and truth as Moses became the law of the its essential elements.. calamities. chastity. Their contribution was along religious lines. ranean world. 1 Children became sacred in the eyes of the people. had come to inhabit the land of Canaan. Woman was elevated to a new place in the life of the ancient world. From a wandering. lawgivers. xxxi. the nationality which promised at one time fell to pieces. This religion. to bear the burdens of a political State. and the land was overrun by hostile neighbors and After a sad and tempestuous the people put under the yoke. and made no contributions to government or science or art. which culminated in the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 a. aspirations. which had developed a national character and made a contribution of first importance to the religious thought of the world. for a good statement of the ancient hood. — The unity of this people. service. These people developed no great State. and priests pictures.. and objecting to taxation.C. a standing army. the inhabitants were sold into slavery and dispersed throughout the Roman Empire.

CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIANITY ' 85 Pentateuch had been reduced to writing and made an authoritative code of laws for the people. rabbi is the voice of God. the study and observance of this law became the most important duty of their lives. as well as means for educating additional scribes.C. They were monial. A race of Scribes. made attendance compulsory for all male children. and Deuteronomy. in 538 B. counting. and sanitary law.. the poetry of the Psalms. ers to interpret the law." says the Talmud. written by the rabbis after 70 B. the history of the Chosen People. the high priest. Numbers. Leviticus. and these were gradually extended to all the villages of the counElementary schools were developed later and attached to try. cere- civil. after the return from captivity. Exodus. 1 This collective term is applied to the first five books of the Old Testament. ajid that this must be based upon the careful training of each child in the traditions of his fathers. The synagogue was established in every village for its exposition. These five books form a wonderful collection of the historical and legal material relating to the wanderings and experiences ana . the Law of the Pentateuch. and after their return to Palestine. in 64 a. these scribes became both teachand judges for the people. not upon their military strength. or scripture scholars. the leaders of the people began the evolution of a Realizing. with comments and interpretaBy most Jews this is tions. and finally. Realizing. The instruction was largely oral. As the law was a combination of religious. that parents could not be depended upon in all cases to provide this instruction. and became the " The voice of the leaders (rabbins. superseded the priesthood. and to apply it to the daily lives of the people.d. and provided for a combined type of religious and household instruction at home for all girls. the leaders provided it and made it com- pulsory. and includes Genesis. writing. This served as a bond of union among them during the exile. Joshua ben Gamala. too. In time they became the depositaries of all learning. 27).C. held to be next in sacredness to the Old Testament (R. Reading. religious school system to meet the national need. that the future existence of the Hebrew people would depend. where twice on every Sabbath day the people were to gather to hear the law expounded. the synagogues. ordered the establishment of an elementary school in every village. a collection of Hebrew customs and traditions. and a part of the Talmud constituted the subject-matter of instruction. but upon their moral unity. also arose to teach the law. whence rabbi) of the people.. Great open-air Bible classes were organized at first.

with their emphasis on charity. Jesus made his appeal to the individual. in their great desire to perpetuate their race and faith. and from the carrying away/3n^jzBdl4yliMfain4ofi6hrist are fourteen generations. made his Building on the old Hebrew moral law and the importance of the personal life. for which life here was but a preparation. tended to obliterate nationality. in detail (1-16).d.) and the scatterof the people. 1 and there he lived. For some years after his death his disciples 1 Chapter 1 of the Gospel according to Saint Matthew gives. and as a consequence of this instruction we have to-day the interesting result of a homogeneous people who. and the brotherhood of all men. for over eighteen centuries. had suppressed and absorbed the individual in their religious vState. It was into this Hebrew race that Jesus was born. and sought the moral regeneration of society and was through the moral regeneration of individual men and women. self-sacrifice." . and who have been scattered and persecuted as have no other people. sympathy. have had no national existence. and commanded to revere his teachers (R. Jesus set forth the basis of this new faith which he. History offers us no better example of the salvation of a people by means less disrupted. the school instruction was naturally more or but in one way or another the Hebrew people have managed to keep up the training of rabbis and the instruction of the young in the Law and the traditions of their people. tended to subordinate the interests of the State and withdraw the concern of men from worldly affairs. At the time of his crucifixion his disciples numbered scarcely one hundred persons. ment After the destruction of Jerusalem (70 a. This idea of individuality and of personal souls worth saving was a new idea in a world where the submergence of the individual in the State had everywhere up to that time been the rule. the genealogy of Jesus. crucified. So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations. The child was taught the Law of his fathers. concluding with the following verse "17. In a series of simple sermons. learned. taught. Even the Hebrews.: 86 HISTORY OF EDUCATION and learning by heart was the common teaching plan. trained to make holiness a rule of his life and to subordinate his will to that of the one God. of all. 27) and uphold the traditions of his people. The teachings of Jesus. ever since of the compulsory education Christian faith. offered to the world. on the other hand. and after him his disciples. while the emphasis they gave to the future life. and from David until the carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations. The new disciples.

Instead of pleasure and happiness and the satisfaction of the senses as personal ends. and divorce common. 1-17) for the introductory part of Paul's Epistle to the Romans. the Christians demanded the complete separation of the two and the subordination of the State to the Church. and making converts to the idea. I. See accompanying Booh of Readings (or Romans.Roman world that had already passed the zenith of its greatness came this new Christian faith. infidelity tice. His work was so important that he has often been called the second founder of the Christian Church. Macedonia.of a union of State and religion. and it was even doubted at first whether any but Jews could properly be admitted to the new faith. and infanticide a prevailing practhe Christians proclaimed the sacredness of the marriage tie and the family life. 87 preaching that he was the Messiah or long expected. he gave thirty years of most effective service to the establishment of Christian churches l -k Asia Minor. 29). In classes. In place.CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIANITY remained Christ. arid Italy (R. in Jerusalem. Up to this point the Christians had been careful to keep up all the old Jewish customs. the Christians set up the. the Christians refused to be accepted on any other than exclusive terms. importance * of the life to come. and especially Stoicism. In place of Roman citizenship and service to the State as the purpose of life. did much to open the new faith to the Gentiles. . Unlike all other religions that Rome had absorbed. and Antioch they made additional converts among the Jews. the Christians a society built on a huge basis of slavery and filled with social proclaimed the equality of all men before God. challenging almost everything fbr which the Roman world had stood. as the men of other nations were known. 1 To many of these churches he wrote a series of epistles. Damascus. a Jew who had studied in the Greek university whom the Hebrew people had there and who afterwards became the Apostle Paul. A new convert. Speaking Greek. In place of the subjection of the individual to the State. the Christians preached denial of all these things for the greater joy of a future life.. the Christians demanded the subjection of the individual only to God. and the exposure of infants as simple murder. Saul of Tarsus. a deadly sin in the eyes of God. The worship of all other gods the Christians held to be sinful idol-worship. and being versed in Greek philosophy. 28). To a nation in which family life had become corrupt. Into a .' Later in Samaria. Digitized by Microsoft® little . These constitute a more than one fourth of the New Testament. Greece (R. The challenge of Christianity.

The victory of Christianity. and its challenge of almost all that characterized the higher social and governmental life of Rome was certain to make 2 its progress difficult. demanding self-control and renunciation before unheard of. the simplicity oHlts organization and teachings. To the deified Emperor the Christians naturally could not bend the knee (Rs. and these largely Workmen and slaves. against it. Civilization during the an outcast sect of an outcast race. At body first the new faith attracted but little attention from any- were few during the from among the lowest social first century.^^HeWsee^f®i Asia Minor. The unity in government that Rome had everywhere established. therefore. Its converts * relatively rapid. B. and in parts of Greece and Macedonia. certain to arouse in time powerful enemies in the highly cultivated and critical society which it attacked. and before four centuries had elapsed from the crucifixion Christian churches had been established throughout almost This is well shown by the map on the oppoall the Roman world. it much despised and hated by pagan Rome as by the mediasval — p. 3 the^ Roman there were Christian churches throughout of . Yet. it seems to have been regarded as some rebel faction of the Jews. Wherever attracted any notice. By the close of the first century Judea and Asia Minor.88 and they were HISTORY OF EDUCATION willing to give up their lives rather than perform the simplest rite of what they termed pagan worship (R.) 2 "Starting from an insignificant province." Middle Ages. than men. and the completeness with which it satisfied the religious need and longings of the time. the odds against it were tremendous. 41-) 3 "It is not easy to imaginPB^f?.28). and along the Black Sea. 34). first among the poor and among women and later among educated men all helped the new faith to win its way." (Ibid. notwithstanding all these obstacles. proclaimed by a mere handful of ignorant workmen. 30 b. and women rather classes in the Empire. from a despised race. most — 1 "Its missionaries were Jews. in Greece. an Italy . a Greece. p. its progress was of education or influence. The message of hope that Christianity had to offer to all. 39. G. a turbulent race. gone mad upon some obscure point of the national superstition (Adams.. and at a few places in Italy and France. not to be assimilated. and in time to awaken powerful opposition to it. During the second century other churches were established in Asia Minor. site page. 31 a-b.' and as Christians. constituted the large majority of the early converts The character of its missionaries also was to the new faith. the great appeal which it made to the emotional side of human life. the hope of a future life of reward for the burdens of this which it extended to all who were weary and heavy laden the positiveness of conviction of its apostles and followers.

27. The Growth of Christianity to the End of the Fourth Century Digitized by Microsoft® .Fig.

" (See footnote 3. its challenge was so and provocative that this attitude could not long continue. pestilence. and bar— were due to the neglect of the old state religion barian inroads tions in the began to be much punished for their faith (R.) "all the Jews who were continually making disturbances at the instigation of one Chrestus" were unsuccessfully ordered banished from Rome. impelled by the calamities of the State and the urging of those of who would restore the national religion to its Emperors were gradually driven to a series heavy persecutions of the sect (R. the scat'terment of Jews throughout the Empire. While at first the tendency of educated Romans and — government was to ignore or tolerate it. many It horrible tortures not. and to the tolerance extended the vast organized defiance of the law by the Christians. 33). In the second. an Egypt. But it had now become too late. In 311 the Emperor Galerius placed Christianity on a plane of earlier position. on in 64 a. that they Empire floods. Under the Emperor Claudius (41-54 a." (Renan. the up into a hundred small republics. famine. inflicted this as yet small sect. accused by the Jews and virtually on trial for his life before the provincial governor Festus.) 1 In Acts xxv. however. the spread of the Greek and Latin languages and i4eas thr oughout the Mediterranean world.d. ended in virtual failure. and the feelings of many were that the adverse condi(R. 35).d.go HISTORY OF EDUCATION - peace {pax Romano) that Rome had everywhere imposed... The blood of the martyrs proved to be the seed The last great persecution under the of the Church (R. the apostles could have succeeded. a Spain. in possession of their old national institutions. In the of the direct reign of the Emperor Nero. they were punished. # The unity of the Empire was a split condition precedent of all religious proselytism on a grand scale if it was to place itself above the nationalities. E. 1-12. Hibbert Lectures. after the destruction of Jerusalem in all these elements also helped. 70 a. in 303 (R. 31 a-b). it is recorded that the Apostle Paul. of a Gaul. and 1 of which Saint Paul and others on their travels took advantage. fell back on his Roman citizenship and successfully "appealed to Cffisar. 18S0. In the first century they had been largely ignored. an Africa. page 57-) Digitized by Microsoft® .d. till were later. in some places. was when the the continued refusal of the Christians to offer sacri- fices to Emperor brought them under the law as disloyal — war. the right of freedom of travel and speech enjoyed by a Roman citizen. 30 a). Emperor Diocletian. That Christianity made its headway unmolested must not be supposed. The times were bad and were going from bad to worse. Influence of Rome on the Christian Church. In the third century. or even how their project could have been started. 30 a) subjects.

the contribution of Christianity. 2 analogous to those formerly enjoyed by the teachers of rhetoric under the Empire (R. 36). thus making the victory of Christianity complete. Periods the worshiper of a crucified provincial of his Empire. entirely world. In less than four centuries from the birth of its founder the Christian faith had won control of the great Empire in which it originated. The victory was now complete. bent himself to become (Freeman. to Greece. which had remained the center of pagan thought after the success of Christianity. and added at a most opportune time." of European History. the Empercfr Justinian ordered the closing of - pagan schools. " The contribution of Christianity. 26). In 391 the Emperor Theodosius forbade all pagan worship. Christianity made possible its general acceptance.CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIANITY 91 equality with other forms of worship (R. all 'In 52'C. and Russia. himself a god to the subjects of Rome. In 313 Constantine made it in part the official religion of the State. parts of the Balkans. greater than the dead rising again to life. and the University of Athens." In 377 all clergy were exempted from personal taxes. $$?$§'Sft<§> e[i K ioVis conceptions. greater than dried-up seas and cloven rocks. and an entirely new ethical code was promulgated. through the Roman Catholic Church to all western Europe and the two Americas. was when the Augustus on his throne.) 3 From the Roman. world the idea has spread. the equality before God of all men and of the two sexes..) 2 In 319 and 326 the clergy were. To the great contributions of Greece and Rome. through the Greek Catholic Church. A. 3 An conception of the individual was proclaimed to the world. He and succeeding Emperors gradually extended to the Christian clergy a long list of important privileges (R. and the Mohammedan faith. exempted from all public burdens. which we have previously studied. there now was added. to include almost all the world. 67. 1 and ordered freedom of worship for all. and later in the Mohammedan world. and the sacredness of each individual in the eyes of the Father. In 343 the clergy were exempted "from public burdens and from every disquietude of civil office. We have now before us the third great contribution upon which our modern civilization has been built. . (See R. 38.closed its doors. p. E. . and only the poor were to be admitted to the clergy. The new duty of all to make their lives conform to these new conceptions was asserted. so liberally followed later. These ideas imparted to ancient society a new 1 "The miracle of miracles. 38) and exemptions. of endowing the Church. Pontiff of the gods of Rome. and likewise began the policy. Only among uncivilized tribes and in Asia do we find any great number of fun^ajnentajlv. first in the Roman With this was introduced the doctrine of the fatherhood of God and his love for man. In taking the Jewish idea of one God and freeing it from the narrow tribal limitations to which it had before been subject. and through the Protestant churches which sprang from the Roman Catholic by secession.

This personal instruction became common everywhere in the early Church. It remains now to sketch briefly how the Church organized itself and became powerful enough to perform its great task during the Middle Ages. and felt little need for such. The teachers were merely the older and abler members of the congregation. in face of the practices of Roman society. rudimentary. In time the church organization which was developed gradually absorbed all other forms of government. 39). that Two sets of catechumenal lectures is. thou shalt be saved. An acknowledgment of God as the Father. pagans. hence there was little necessity for organization. Jews." Digitized by Microsoft® . To accomplish this. catechumenal instruction. early churches were the moral regeneration of society through the moral regeneration of converts. and the children of believers were thereafter alike subjected to this before full acceptance into the Church. it developed. EDUCATIONAL AND GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION OF THE EARLY CHURCH The bound together by no formal bond of union. but which have been of prime importance during all succeeding centuries.92 HISTORY OF EDUCATION new energy which were not only of great importance in dealing with the downfall of civilization and the deluge of barbarism which were impending. have survived. and shalt believe in thine heart £h»t God hath raised him from the dead. They cover the essentials of church practice and the reli1 Paul to the Romans (x. which give an idea as to the nature of the instruction. instruction. and II. a repentance for past sins. a godly life. 9) stated the fundamentals of belief as follows: "If thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus. to what educational agencies what extent these were useful. the period of probation covering two or three years. and became virtually the State during hopefulness and a the long period of darkness known as the Middle Ages. It was the belief of many that Christ would soon return and the world would end. and the training was known as catechumenal. These two subjects constituted almost the entire instruction. At stated times during the week the probationers met for instruction in morality and in the psalmody of the Church (R. a process of instruction for those wishing to join the faith soon and a period of probation became necessary. 1 The chief concern was Schooling of the early Church. There was also almost no system of belief. and a desire to be saved were about all that was expected of any one.

The fables he had learned to detest in his own home were explained. unorganized faith of the early Christians. He to understand it as a system of thought. Such instruction was never known in England. and the cities The speculative Greek would not be satisfied wanted with the simple. and held up to his admiration every day by his masters. but the children were taught reading out of books There the Christian child made saturated with the old mythology. it became desirable that the clergy of the Church. Even if the parents of converts wished to provide additional educational advantages for their children. To meet the critical inquiry of learned Greeks. constituted the formal schooling of the early converts to Christianity in Italy and the East. and but little in life Gaul. in the East at least. his first acquaintance with the deities of Olympus. Not only were all the ceremonies of the and more especially the festivals of Minerva. After Christianity had begun to make converts among the more Serious-minded and better-educated citizens of the Roman Empire. who was celebrated at regular intervals the patroness of masters and pupils in the schools. Athens. xalher^than In fact the early ChfistlanTfelt but little" need for the type of intellectual education provided by the Roman schools. who later evolved into priests). and particularly at Alexandria. as they saw it. This instruction. It was dropped entirely in the conversion of the barbarian tribes.M CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIANITY gious 93 life (Rs. All the schools were pagan. 39. elucidated. did not make them wish for the so-called pagan learning. He ran the danger of imbibing ideas entirely contrary to those which he had received at home. of Asia Minor. and yet not run the risk of losing his faith? l like every one else. and the preaching of the elders (presbyters. should be equipped with a training similar to that of their critics. and the character of the educated society about them. The in the Church made a moral and emotional. when he says: anjnte]lectualapp_eal. Was it right to put him thus into two schools of thought? official faith — — What could be done that he might be educated. 1 - As a result there 16 ' was finally ^^^DiifMh^cfSi&M voL '• p 20°- . workers came in contact with the best scholars of the Hellenic learning. 40). the need for more than rudimentary instruction in the principles of the church life began to be Especially was this the case in the places where Christian felt. Catechetical schools. and asked many questions that were hard to answer. what could they do? A modern author states well the predicament of such Christian parents.

Gregory of Nazianzus (c. Emperor. Similar schools were opened at Antioch. Clement and Origen. who became head of the catechumenal instruction at Alexandria. 1 Justin Martyr (io5?-i67). p. the successor of Pantaeus as bead of the catechetical school at Alexandria. labored to harmonize the Christian faith with Greek learning and philosophy. of the. 185-0. Saint Basil (331-379) tried to allay the rising prejudice against pagan learning. in 179 a. and held that the teachings of Christianity were already contained in Greek philosophy. brought to the training of future Christian leaders the strength He and his of Greek learning and Greek philosophic thought. and that "Plato was Moses Atticized. and that Plato and Socrates were Christians before the coming of the Christian faith. the whole being tinctured through and through with Greek philosophic thought.d. a former Greek teacher and philosopher. 330-c. a pupil and successor of Clement. where the leaders of the Church came from the less philosophic and more practical Roman stock. and where' the contact with a decadent society wakened a greater reaction. Even the Fathers of the Latin Church. the greatest of whom had been . Nisibis. and to show the helpfulness to the Christian life of the Greek literature and phi- losophy. 41). continued to follow his profession. 390) was filled with indignation and protested loudly at the closing of the pagan schools to Christians by the edict. and later at other places in the Empire. third century the hostility to the pagan schools and to the Hellenic learning had here become pronounced (R. and did much to formulate the dogmas of the early Church. Digitized by Microsoft® .. Out of these schools came some of the great Fathers of the early Church men who strove to uphold the pagan learning and recon1 cile Christianity and Greek philosophic thinking." Origen (c. Julian. 254). doctrine were formulated into a sort of system. and Cassarea (See Map. Pantseus. held to the harmony of the Gospels with philosophy. Rejection of pagan learning in the West. and the most learned of all the early Christian Fathers. developed here an important school of Christian theology where Greek learning was used to interpret the Scriptures and train leaders for the service of the Church. and this term was later applied to elementary religious instruction (whence catechism) throughout western Europe. the tendency was to reject the Hellenic learning. and to depend more upon emotional By the close of the faith and the enforcement of a moral life. wear his Greek philosopher's garb. 160-c. training schools for the leaders of the Church. in 362. Clement (c. In the West. successors. 215). Edessa. and these developed into a rudimentary form of theological schools for the education of the In these schools Christian faith and eastern Christian clergy. .94 evolved. These came to be known as catechetical schools. 47). a converted Greek Stoic. first HISTORY OF EDUCATION at Alexandria. from their oral questioning method of instruction.

thou art a Ciceronian. hopes that God may forgive Jerome's dream 2 him for having enjoyed Vergil: tion against Heresies. but later advised against it. . Saint Augustine (354Fathers. 1 gradually came to reject the pagan learning as undesirable for Christians and in a large degree as a robbery from God. Greek was also preserved in parts of SpkrS'fef <t*K Mffit?fffl«®ifter it had died out in Italy. 3 The Church stated (p. and had attained distinction as a lawyer." he heard the awful judgment. schools before their conversion. 340-420) was saturated with pagan learning. but need was felt during the two centu- * Tertullian (c. ." As a result Hellenic learning declined rapidly in importance in the West as the Church attained supremacy. exclaims: was known and quoted throughout the Middle Ages. " Who art thou? On replying. Tertullian. 150-230) had been well educated in Greek literature and philosophy. Pope of the Church from 590 to 604. "A Christian. and was for a time Even the Greek language was forgotten. and finally. turned bitterly against the whole of pagan learning. forbade the clergy to read any pagan author. Consider yourself what a crime it is for bishops to recite what would be improper for religiouslyminded laymen. the Council of Carthage. he was asked. . con"the praise of Christ cannot lie in one mouth cluding with with the praise of Jupiter. "that it is an indignity that the words of the oracle of Heaven should be restrained by the rules of Donatus" (grammar). and dialectic composition. ' . in 401. was for years a teacher of oratory 430).' CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIANITY 95 teachers of oratory or rhetoric in Roman. "I am strongly of the opinion. Western Church had in their earlier life been teachers in the Roman higher schools." he says. largely at the instigation of Saint AugusIn time tine. "It is false: thou art no Christian. in his Confessions. Saint Jerome (c. where the treasure is. Platonic. there the heart is also. Greek learning largely died out in the West. and had written part of an encyclopaedia on the Many others who became prominent in the liberal arts before his conversion. Saint Augustine. and well educated as a youth in the surviving Romantype schools. being known there as late as the seventh century. In a letter to the Bishop of Vienne he berates him for giving instruction in grammar. again in the West for nearly a thousand and was not known who had been — years. in his Prescrip- What indeed has Athens to do with Jerusalem? What concord is there between the Academy and the Church? What between heretics and Christians? Away with all attempts to produce a mottled Christianity of Stoic." 3 The knowledge of Greek remained alive longer in Ireland than anywhere else in the western world. Gregory the Great. ' perfects a strong organization. 2 Dreaming that he had died and gone to Heaven. almost entirely lost. the master mind among the Latin and rhetoric in Roman schools. little As was first previously 92).

the The system next step was the development of these features. In 325 the first General Council of the Church was held at Nicaea. it was a city of approximately 450 000 Digitized by Microsoft® . revised the of the Church. is derived more from In the second century the Old Testament was translated into Greek at Alexandria. more clearly legal. the body of doctrine needed to enable it to put into shape the things for which it stood. while the form of organization and government Roman sources. then beginning to take on its separate existence. There being no other mode1 ' SSSvSSE Rome) ' the Roman governmental system was of a city corresponded to the copied. in Asia Minor. maximum people. 42). A second General Council.96 HISTORY OF EDUCATION ries for a system of belief or church government.. and more systematically organized. The great organizing genius of the western Ibranch of the Chiarchwa^Sainl Augustine. in the first century B. It formulated the Nicene Creed (R.C. The system of theology evolved before the separation of the eastern and western branches of the Church was not so finished and so finely speculative as that of the Greek branch. A Bishop The influence of Rome was strong also in the organization of the system of government finally adopted for the Church. 28. As Rome had been a universal Empire. and twenty canons or laws for the government in 381.(354430). and as the need for a formulation of belief and a system of government began to be felt. but was more prac/ / tical. As the expected return of Christ did not take place. The bishop municipal Roman officials. In the West there was no other great city than Rome. and as the city of Rome had been the chief governing city. At the period of its greatness. was formulated. and the "Apostles' Creed" During the th h d century the wri tings_deem ed sacred were organized into the New Testament7~also in Greek. of belief and the ceremonials of worship finally evolved are more the products of Greek thought and practices of the East. 1 the idea of a universal Church was natural and the 1 territory to the governor of a province. Fig. held at Constantinople Nicene Creed and adopted additional canons. He gave to the Western or Latin Church. the archbishop of a and the patriarch to the ruler of a division of the Empire.

to insure propcame to be erly trained clergy and to provide for promotions in the clerical ranks. placed under the direction of the bishop of the tributary to and To supply clergy for these outlying parishes large central city. the territory became known as a bishopric. governing the people and drawing their power from the Roman Senate and imperial authority. priest. Alexandria. 1 A State within a State. bishop. That Christianity. provincial governors. and who rendered their chief allegiance. Fortunately for civilization. but 1 After many struggles and conflicts between the Bishops of Constantinople. and. The first churches throughout the Empire were in the cities. the Christian Church had succeeded in formulating a unifying belief and a form of government capable of commanding respect and of enforcing authority. the Bishop of Rome was finally recognized by the second great Church Council. there was also gradually developed another State. as the head of the entire Church (Canon 3). and made their early converts Gradually these important cities evolved into the resithere. was a serious element of weakness in the Roman State and helped its downfall. also. with its Emperor. and archbishop. rustic. That is. some of the outlying territory was organized into parThese were made ishes. there can be no question. The separation of the eastern and western churches was rapid after this time. At first they were probably under later. one of the functions of the bishop. before the Roman Empire had fallen and the impending barbarian deluge had descended. viewed from the governmental point of view. as it were a State within a State. In time. corresponding to the Emperor on the political side of the dying Empire. being derived from the Latin*^<^s0rMe!teg>6i®intryman.) The word pagan as applied to . or episcopal schools.CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIANITY supremacy 97 of the Bishop of Rome was gradually asserted and determined. 2 dences of a supervising priest or bishop. schools of a rudimentary type were established in connecThese came to be known as tion with the cathedral churches. within the Roman Empire. (See Map. and was fast taking over the power of the State itself. consisting of those who had accepted the Christian faith. p. as his functions the immediate charge of the bishop. and the church as a cathedral church. cathedral. and churches were established in these. In the eastern part of the Empire the Church was always much more closely identified with the State. held at Constantinople in 381. through The cathedral or episcopal schools. 2 unbeliever illustrates this progress of the Church. to a central head of the Church who owed allegiance to no earthly ruler. 103. and municipal officials. There was thus developed in the West. and Rome. villager.

made a strong appeal. prayer. the Christian convert held himself apart from the wicked world all about him. and in time came to be distinguished from other men by his profession of the Christian religion rather than by any other mark. fully capable of realizing to the full the political opportunities. a scheme of living brought into the Christian world from the East. the school gradually replaced the pagan schools as the important educational In these two types of schools institutions of the. It was the work of men of this type that created the it power of the Church. and trained the future clergy. The monastic organization. renouncing the world. As the pagan secondary schools died out. the religious leaders of the early Middle Ages were trained. and up alone that they might be undisturbed in their religious meditations. and made of temporal an institution capable of commanding respect and enforcing its decisions. together with the monastic schools which were later founded. in the Nile. or dral school. It provided that such men should live together in brotherhoods. In 370 the ^Th^monj.stic idea was soon trans- nasticism into Asia Minor. the Christian took a larger and larger part in the world around him. and obedience. To such devoted souls monasti- cism. To them holiness was associated with a complete withdrawal from contact with this sinful world and all its activities. chastity. taking vows of poverty. and devoting their lives to hard labor and the mortification of the flesh that the soul might be exalted and made beautiful. He regarded the Church as having no relationship to the State. but came together for meals. The members lived alone in individual cells. others to the forests or mountains. In the early days of Christianity. where Basilian order was f ounjjle^| fe . to strengthen the power of the Church. and religious service. afforded by their position. known Magister Scholarum. As the Church grew stronger. had been organized on the island About 350 Saint Basil introduced moit nourished greatly. who directed the catheas a Scholasticus. Some betook others shut themselves themselves to the desert. To some of the early Christians this life did not appeal. As early as 330 a monastery of Tebernae. and became a State within a State. it will be remembered (p. assisted the bishop.western world. these cathedral schools. however. increased. Many of the early bishops were men of great political sagacity. 87).98 HISTORY OF EDUCATION was placed under a special teacher. and had little to do with the society or the government of his time.

A Benedictine Monk. a Roman city. In time Europe came to be dotted with thousands of these establishments. A letter from Saint Jerome to Marcella.CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIANITY 99 ferred to the West. Abbot. 1 See the accompanying Book of Readings for a drawing and detailed explanation of the monastery of . a monastery being established at Rome puobably as early as 340. . institution of the Christian Church. in 382. about 415. During the fifth century a rapid extension of moseilles. Nunneries for women also were established early. 1 By the time the barbarian invasions were in full swing monasticism had become an established Rhone and the Loire in Gaul. in which he says that "no high-born lady at Rome had made profession of the monastic life .Saint Ga%jmjMtef$fiB&) ggFt<£g). founded the and established a form of government. or rule of daily life. south of Rome. and this type of monastery and monastic rule was introduced into Gaul. In 529 Saint of wealth who fled from the corruption of his monastery of Monte Cassino. many of which were large and expensive institutions both to found and to maintain. This was one of the most important monasteries of the Middle Ages. and Abbess (From a thirteenth-century manuscript) the valleys of the Benedict. . The monastery of Lerins (off Cannes. The monastery of Saint Victor." would seem to imply that such institutions had already been established in Rome. at Mar- was founded by Cassian in 404. particularly along Fig. 29.. in southern France) was established in 405.. . which was gradually adopted by nearly all the monasteries of the West. . a Roman matron. nastic foundations took place in western Europe. or had ventured publicly to call herself a nun.

while to the requirement of daily reading we owe in large part the development of the school and the preservation of learning in the West during the long intellectual night of the mediaeval period (R. A few. In time some condensed and carefully edited compendium of the elements of classical learning was also studied. 44). prescribing at least seven hours of daily labor and two hours of reading ''for all able to bear the load. belongs to a later division of this history. so during this period the novice was taught to work and to read and write. This. labor. that is. however. three rules which he laid down. In the West these institutions later experienced an extensive development. Into these monastic institutions the oblati. 53 a) The final vows (R. however. The letter of Saint Jerome to the Roman lady Paula (R. obedience. and still later a more elaborate type of instruction was developed in some of the monasteries. church music. . given instruction in twelve. and further description of church and monastic education will be deferred until we study the intellectual life of the MiddleAges. The Rule of Saint Benedict (R. were received as early as the age of and occasionally earlier (R. covering all phases of monastic life. chastity. regarding the education of her daughter. history of early Christian education for outlines the type of training a Dating from 403. Poverty. those who wished to become monks.ioo HISTORY OF EDUCATION Monastic schools. girls of girls. Aside from the general instruction in the practices of the church and there home instruction in the work of a was but little provision made for the education of not desiring to join a convent or nunnery. The education woman. is a very important document in the girls. 45). . obtained a limited amount of intellectual training. and offered the chief opportunity for any intellectual education for w6rWeif ateMgr«fl§%hole of the Middle Ages. and taught to calculate the church festivals and to do simple reckoning. a number of which had been founded in the East and a few in the girl young West." From that part religious devotion of the rule requiring regular manual labor the monks became the most expert farmers and craftsmen of the early Middle Ages. the most important from the standpoint of posterity was the forty-eighth. it should be given who was to be properly educated in Christian faith and properly consecrated to God. 53 b) could not be taken until eighteen. 43) organized in a practical way In a series of seventythe efforts of those who took the vows. and were the essential features of a monastic life. What he outlined was education for nunneries.

The distinguishing characteristic of the centuries which follow. eastern when the virtual separation of the Roman Empire into an and western division took division finally in a fell and when the western before the barbarian onslaughts. and intellectual education. and without creed or form of government. in 395. great contributions from the ancient world. to take up place. in the sense that was known and understood in Greece and Rome. first. one that in of wonderful effectiveness Digitized by Microsoft® — and developed an educational system its higher development . 101 WHAT THE MIDDLE AGES STARTED WITH What the Church brought to the Middle Ages. civilization and Rome. a struggle against very from disappearing entirely. and gradually came to direct the State itself. adverse odds to prevent and later a struggle to build up new foundations upon which world civilization might begin once more where it had left off in Greece up to the Revival of Learning. a very meager form of an educational system for the training of its future leaders and servants. was not to be known again in the western world for almost a thousand years. the most advanced intellectual and esthetic ideas that civilization has inherited. From a small and purely spiritual organization. an art and a philosophy and a literature of great charm and world beauty. we have traced the organization body of doctrine. of the State. devoting its energies to exhortation and to the moral regeneration of mankind. and the development of a very limited educational system designed merely to train leaders for its service. In addition to its spiritual and political power. force the barbarian hordes to way the work its power.CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIANITY III. A great change had now taken place in the nature of education as a preparation for it life. It was thus ready. We have of a also shown how it added to its early ecclesiastical organization a strong governmental organization. are. the Church acknowledge also had developed. and begin the process of civilizing these new tribes and building up once more a civilization in the western world. the three great contributions of the ancient world which were to form the foundations of our The three Greece gave the future western civilization had been made. the perfection of a strong system of church government. before the Middle Ages began. became a State within a State. as the Christian Church was in the first two centuries of its development. in its catechumenal instruction and in the cathedral and monastic schools. Thus.

which was gradually effected. in 328.. It was only after the Church had won its victory over the barbarian hordes. In consequence what the Greeks had done was preserved at Constantinople until Europe had once more become sufficiently civilized and tolerant to understand and appreciate it. Of the Latin literature and learning much was lost. and to' Christianity and the Church we are indebted for making these ideas universal in the Roman Empire and forcing them on a foundly modified thinking. and for the ability to make practical and carry into effect the ideals of other peoples. the educational story is briefly told. and government. order. The hostility to have not pagan learning that developed on the part of the Latin Fathers. first through the medium of the Saracens. an eastern capital for the virtual division of the . and much was preserved almost by accident in the monasteries of mediaeval Europe. in 395 and the final division of the Christian Church into a Western Latin and an Eastern Greek Church. and was better able to withstand conquest by barbarian tribes. Greek was not to be known again in the West for hundreds of years. and had built up the foundations upon which a new civilization could be developed. finally drove Greek philosophy and learning and the Greek language from the western world. and only in modern times has it tried to come back to the spirit of the teachings of its founder. as Greece was the literary and philosophical. and then in that great Revival of Learning which we know as the Renaissance. and that of but one main type. All these great foundations of our western civilization come down to us directly. 102 HISTORY OF EDUUAT1UJN Mediterranean world and proall later in time took captive the entire Rome was the organizing and legal genius of the ancient world. Fortunately the Eastern Church was more tolerant of pagan learning than was the Western. But little formal education was needed. that education in any broad Digitized by Microsoft® . Hellenic learning was then handed back to western Europe. For the long period of intellectual stagnation which now followed. barbaric world. To the Hebrews we are indebted for the world's loftiest conceptions of God. Even the Church itself was seriously deflected from its earlier purpose and teachings during the long period of barbarism and general ignorance through which it passed. religious faith. the establishment of Empire at Constantinople. the Empire into an East and West. and moral responsibility. To Rome we are especially indebted for our conceptions of law. The future story.

Syria. Africa. The map . The eastern division eventually gave rise to the Greek Catholic Church of Greece. Egypt. At Constantinople Greek to receive it.d. and a portion of Asia Minor were overwhelmed by the Saracens in the seventh century and became Mohammedan. and Russia. but eventually these were absorbed by western or Latin Christianity. The Eastern learning was preserved until the West was again ready Empire for a time retained S^>!l*ak/(|fy9ttoJte^iWfe) southern Italy (the old Magna Gracia). while the western division became the Roman Catholic Church of western Europe. the Balkans. but Constantinople held out until 1453.Fig. Showing the Final Division of the Empire and the Church also shows conditions as they were in Europe at the end of the fourth century a. 30.

and the reawakening.scribes. effort. education had to begin again with the few at the top. i. administering such a mixed body of /laws. it has become possible to extend education to next trace briefly the intellectual life of In Part II we shall the Middle Ages. naturally came to be both teachers and judges for the people. and the advantages of Emperor worship an Empire. point out the deep and lasting influence of the work of these ancient civilizations on our modern educational thoughts and practices. why Stoicism that is much akin to Emperor worship? made such an appeal to the better-educated at Rome. was the natural outcome during the Middle Ages of the teachings of the early Christians as to the relationship of Church and State. /What do modern nations have Explain • classes Y ^T 5. and which finally led to the division of the Church. Why was Jesus' idea as to the importance of the individual destined to make such slow headway in the world? What is the status of the idea (c) in England? to-day (a) in China? (6) in Germany? (d) in the United States? Is the idea necessarily opposed to nationality or even to a strong state government? Show how the political Church.104 and HISTORY OF EDUCATION liberal sense sand years of laborious and painful This required nearly a thouThen. faith better Why is an emotional adapted to the mass of people than an intellectual one? Explain how the Hebrew . 12. Is it to be wondered that the Romans were finally led to persecute "the Y J - m-i. vast organized defiance of law by the Christians"? Show how the Christian idea of the equality and responsibility of all gave the citizen a new place in the State. into usable form as a basis upon which to build. . Explain what is meant by "a State within a State" as applied to the Church of the third and fourth centuries. State the reasons for the gradually increasing lack of sympathy and understanding between the eastern and western Fathers of the Church. What great lessons may we draw from the work of the Hebrews in main^/taining a national unity through compulsory education? s. Did this prove to be a good thing for the future of civilization? Why? -14. 13. and the contributions of Greece and Rome had to be recovered . *o. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION Point out the sal many advantages of a universal religion for such a univerEmpire as Rome developed. . Would Rome probably have been better able to withstand the barbarian invasions if Christiani^gJ^ddrjp^/ggagntfgr not? Why? . and in Part III we shall. itself the State. when schools again became possible and learning again began to be demanded.» .and put was again needed. It is only very recently that all. j s for such i. among other things. >^f Illustrate how the Hebrew tradition that the moral and spiritual unity of a people is stronger than armed force has been shown to be true in /history.

The Talmud: Educational Maxims from. and on education? Was the Christian or the pagan attitude more nearly like that of modern times? \f( Why did the emphasis on form of belief.7). Apostolic Constitutions: How the Catechumens are to be instructed. 35. Show how the Christian attitude toward pagan learning tended to stop schools and destroy the accumulated learning. Does his description of Athens (29) tally with the description of the Athenians given in the text? 3. The Nicene Creed QUESTIONS ON THE READINGS 1. (a) Pliny to Trajan. 31. Compare with Rome. thinking as they did in such different terms (30 a-b)? Considering Pliny and Trajan (31 a-b) as Roman officials. Leach: Catechumenal Schools of the Early Church. (a) Mincius Felix: The Roman Point of View. 43. and taking into account the time in the history of world civilization. 38. as shown in the selections from the Talmud (2. Kingsley: The Empire and Christianity in Conflict. Saint Benedict: Extracts from the Rule of. Characterize the attitude of Saint Paul toward the Romans (28). 36. With Athens. 30. 39. Lactantius: The Edict of Toleration by Galerius. Was 4. 33. The Crimes of the Christians. on scientific and medical knowledge.CONTRIBUTION OF CHRISTIANITY 15/ 105. 29. Saint Paul: Epistle to the Romans. Apostolic Constitutions: Christians should abstain from all Heathen Books. 44. Characterize the type of education to be provided and the status of the teacher. it possible for the Roman and the Christian to understand one another. Workman: Certificate of having Sacrificed to the Pagan Gods. Theodosian Code: The Faith of Catholic Christians. Tertullian: Effect of the Persecutions. would Yousayjjjat thw were quite tolerant of rebels within the State? . '. with the Roman point of view. 28. Lanfranc: Enforcing Lenten Reading in the Monasteries. come to supersede the emphasis on personal virtues and simple faith of the first and second centuries? 18. r6r What was the effect of the Christian attitude toward the care of the body. 32. 2. 45. Eusubius: Edicts of Diocletian against the Christians. Persecution of the Christians as Disloyal Subjects of the Empire.d. 42. of 325 a. SELECTED READINGS In the accompanying Book of Readings the following selections are reproduced: 27. (b) Trajan to Pliny. in the third and fourth centuries. 40. Saint Paul: Epistle to the Athenians. Compare the work of the Sunday School of to-day with the catechumenal instruction of the early Christians. Theodosian Code: Privileges and Immunities granted the Clergy. 41. Saint Jerome: Letter on the Education of Girls. 37. (6) Tertullian: The Christian Point of View. 34.

Geo. Monro. Wishart. Digitized by Microsoft® . History of the Christian Church. HISTORY OF EDUCATION the privileges Compare (26) privileges previously given 6.) Hodgson. Why SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES * Dill. Primitive Church Education. H. . What would have been the effect of the continued rejection of secular books called for in the Apostolic Constitutions (41)? What was the governmental advantage of the adoption of the Nicene Creed (42)? did the rule of Saint Benedict (43) requiring readings and study lead to the copying and preservation of manuscripts? 1 1 What does the selection from Lanfranc (44) indicate as to the state of monastic learning? 12. Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages. C. P. Sam'l. 8. and immunities granted the clergy (38) with the by Constantine to physicians and teachers 7.. Edw. F. 1888. 9. (Hibbert Lectures.d. * * Swift. Kretzmann. Geraldine. Education among the Jews. Fisher. Characterize the irrepressible conflict as pictured by Kingsley (35). E. Joseph. Education in Ancient Israel to 70 a. E. H. and Saint Augustine. D. A. P. Taylor. * Fisher. W. Outline the type of instruction for catechumens as directed in the Apostolic Constitutions (39). P. (45) on the education of girls? 10. MacCabe. * Hatch. O. Roman Society in the Last Century of the Western Empire. Beginnings of Christianity. Name a few other somewhat similar conflicts in world history. Was there anything pedagogically sound about the letter of Saint Jerome Discuss. Medieval Civilization. Short History of Monks and Monasticism. Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian Church. G. Sellery. Geo.106 5.


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The Christian safe and common. the failure of the State to establish and direct an educational system capable 1 period from the reign of Augustus Csesar through that of Marcus Aurelius Roman peace. The tilled acres.). . The failure to put its provincial government on any honest and of serving as a correc- efficient civil-service basis.contributing to this change in national destiny had their origin in the changes in the character of the national life at least two centuries earlier. of the Empire. The weakened Empire. Marcus Aurelius (161-180 a. Though the first and second centuries have often been called one of the happiest ages in all human history." No other large section (31 B. had gradually given way in the face of the vices and corruption which beset and sapped the life of the of Rome upper and ruling classes in the later Empire. . Recent deserts bloom. famine. wrote: "Every day the world becomes more beautiful.d. Everywhere there is life. and heavy German inroads to which it had not before been accustomed. larger intellectual advantages. State within a State had not yet taken form. . Before his reign Rome was ascendant. long a time. . . There was much private charity.D. Travel was pleasure. Hospitals were established.-ig2 a.CHAPTER V NEW PEOPLES IN THE EMPIRE A..d. prosperous.c. and trade and commerce flourished. The rights of the accused became better recognized. Forests give way to No comer remains inaccessible. it was not until now that the Empire began to feel seriously the effects of these changes in a lowered vitality and a weakened power of resistance. and after his reign the Empire was distinctly on the defensive and the decline. powerful. . 1 the reign of the last of the good Emperors. troubles with the Christians. — — The virtues of the citizens of the early days of the Republic. The cities and the great middle class in the population were prosperous.. so Piracy ceased upon the seas. It was the Golden Age Toward the close of the period the Christian Father.. may be regarded as clearly marking a turning-point in the history of Roman society. and men traveled both for business and Literature and learning flourished. . and a better position in the home than they were to know again until the nineteenth century. due to a succession of good Emperors and peace and quiet throughout the Roman world. floods.) was known as "the good of the western world has ever known such unbroken peace and prosperity for. Tertullian. A certain broad humanity pervaded the administration of both law and government. during his reign the Empire was beset by many difficulties pestilence. Women were given greater freedom. more splendid. . Everywhere SlTO! fKTp^TOies. Though the elements. more wealthy. trained according to the old ideas. The law became milder." .

A relief other need of votes. political corrupideals 3 German tribes. and the demoralization of the city rabble ers in by political lead- Fig. Antioch. 1 Rome now stood. and a lavish display of wealth on the part of a few came to be a characteristic feature of city life. HISTORY OF EDUCATION tive of dangerous national tendencies. while on the frontier were stockaded villages serving as centers of trade with the barbarian tribes beyond. contributing elements of importance were the almost complete obliteration of the peasantry by the creation of great landed estates and cattle ranches worked by slaves. 2 The Roman State had come to be essentially a collection of cities. Captured slaves performed almost every service. with its doctrine of other-worldliness and its system of government not responsible to the Empire. the increase of the poor in the and the declining birth-rate. the unfortunate captive in an unsuccessslave was often the superior of his master ful war against an oppressor. and Lyons were great cities. at Rome. 2 The great middle. Ephesus. commercial. 31. derived chiefly from the writings of Plato (see footnote i. Aurelius. the lack of a guiding national faith. Corinth. throbbing with varied industries and a strong intellectual life. the in- troduction of large numbers of barbarians as farmers and soldiers. and professional classes A Bodyguard of Germans were still prosperous and contented. Carthage. much like Slavery in Rome came to be much more demoralizing than ever was the case Instead of an ignorant people of an inferior race. — . Alexandria. tion. the gradual admission of so many Germans into the — Empire. but luxury. and new power had gradnational ually sapped the vitality old and destroyed the resisting of the State in the face of a great national calamity. The holding of such educated and intelligent people in slavery was far more degrading to a ruling people than would have been the case had their slaves been ignorant and of inferior racial stock. in place of the small cities. The two influences combined to undermine the resisting Digitized by Microsoft® strength of the State. In addition there were hundreds of other cities scattered all over the Empire. judged even by present-day standards. the great extent and demoralizing influence of slavery l all contributed to that loss of national strength and resisting Other power which was now becoming increasingly evident. farms of earlier days. 3 Chief among the new ideals that sapped the old Roman strength must be mentioned the new Christian religion. and slavery. page 42). each with its own municipal life. Another influence was the rise of a super-civic philosophy. erected to celebrate his victories over the Marcomanni. which held that certain men could be above the State and yet by their wisdom in part direct it. the Roman in the United States. imported from the Column of Marcus vices.

the Eastern Emperor gave the province of Dacia. From this time on the Empire was mofeor less on the defensive. carried off approximately half the population r»f Ttaly This same year the Marcomanni (see Figure 18). Alaric. In 378 warfare. and behind these rivers the Teutonic barbarians. in an effort to buy them off from further invasion and This eased the pressure for another century. these rivers had finally come to be the established boundaries of the Empire on the north.. now pressed on by the terrible Huns from behind. under of ransom and the price of peace. which had held against the pressure from without for ready to fall so long. after a five years' struggle. as a body. that they could beat the Roman legions.NEW reality PEOPLES IN THE EMPIRE in the shell of a fine old tree. a. friendly German tribes. Sooner or later the boundaries of the. and not the Romans. a former friendly tribe. defeated the Roman army. as the called them. and frequently breaking over the boundaries. put them back again." making use of their great love for fighting to hold other German tribes in check. were destined to be broken and the barbarian deluge from the north and east would pour over the Empire. with the barbarian tribes to the north casting increasingly longing eyes toward " a place in the sun" and the rich plunder that lay to the south. The boundaries of the Empire are broken. Romans had by force been kept. definitely broke the boundaries of the Empire. hack by soldiers returning from. and had taken them into the Roman army as "allies. who named the terms A few years later.Empire. slew the Roman Emperor. though. but in before the blast because it had been allowed to become rotten at the heart. or Germani. In 275 a. the E ast. to the south of the Danube. • hrn n ffht. to the Visigoths.pla. was still strong enough to Tn t6 6 a f.d. apparently in good condition. invaded the Empire as far as the head of the Adriatic Sea. To do even this the Romans had been obliged to admit bands of Germans into the Empire. and from this learned time on it was they. Rome. and they and the Ostrogoths now moved southward and The Germans at Adrianople settled in Mcesia and Thrace. While temporary extensions of territory had at times been made beyond the Rhine and the Danube.gmp.d.. the Visigoths Si0MMy ®t &$€&? then turned westward . the Visigoths. and it required thirteen years of warfare to put them back behind Even this was accomplished only by the aid of the Danube. invaded the Eastern Empire. and in the Battle of Adrianople. near Constantinople. n hg.

The German Migrations down. as the news of the almost incredible disaster penetrated to the remote provinces. and from now on Roman resistance seemed of the in powerless to stop the flood. The Visigoths now turned west once more. started the Vandals A . plundering the cities on their wap/zeffijfiffl/llj&sfcfesy crossed to the northern. The barriers of the Empire along the Rhine and the Danube now are broken Take a pencil and trace the route followed by each of these peoples. which they reached in the year 400. The effect produced on the Roman world by the fall of the Eternal City. 32. and Spain. In 410 the great calamity came when they captured and sacked Rome. and within fifty years they had been able to move across Germany. and finally settled Spain and southern Gaul. been touched by foreign hands. This was the first of the great permanent inroads into the Empire. France.112 HISTORY OF EDUCATION through Illyria to the valley of the Po. The Hunnish pressure also and Suevi. It seemed to many as though the end of the world were approaching. For eight hundred years Rome had not Fig. in northern Italy. 48). and now it had been captured and plundered by barbarian hordes. carrying with them the beautiful sister Emperor as a captive bride of the chief. which provinces were thenceforth lost to Rome. was profound (R. period of tribal movements.

of a Semitic and Mohammedan — and — starting from Arabia and along the different racial stock religion In the seventh century another shores of the Red Sea. tired of camp life and demanding land on which they too might settle. King of the Ostrogoths. and decisively defeated by the Franks. Saxons. and elevated Odovacar. The importance The of the result. They also overran Syria and Persia. displacing the Ostrogoths there. at the intercession of the Roman Pope Leo. In 476 the barbarian soldiers of the Empire. In 493 Theodoric. and Jutes left their homes in what is now Denmark and northwestern Germany. West can hardly be overestimated. a great nation living along the lower Rhine. rose in revolt. to the future of our western civili- zation.D. and then. a tribesman from the north. swept rapidly through Egypt and Africa and across into Spain and France. In 586 the Lombards invaded and settled the valleys of northern Italy. and Rome was sacked for the second time by barbarian hordes. and within two generations had overrun almost all of Gaul. as ruler in his stead. wave of people. under the leadership of Attila. The Huns. in 1453. The Western Roman Empire was now at an end. coast of Africa. as western Europe had become Teutonic-Latin. Figure 32 shows the results of these different migrations up to about 500 A. In 486 the earlier Franks. but were held in check in Asia Minor by the Eastern Empire.NEW PEOPLES IN THE EMPIRE 113 became noted as the great sea 'pirates In 455 they crossed back to Italy. where they Between 443 and 485 the Angles. Europe great to be Teutonic-Latin. where they have since remained. were induced by a ransom price to return to the lower Danube. For a time it looked as though they might overrun all western Europe and bring the German Fortunately they were definitely stopped tribes under subjection. began to move. and overran eastern and southern Britain. displaced the last of the Western Emperors. Southeastern Europe thus became SlavicGreek. and civiliza- . into the Eastern Empire — Serbs and Bulgars — and settled Slavic tribes now moved in Mcesia and Thrace. of this battle in the future of Europeaibl$j¥&9$W2it>si>ffl> education. Italy. which did not completely succumb to barbarian inroads until Constantinople was taken by the Turks." now moved in and ravaged Gaul (451) and northern Italy (452). became king of of the Mediterranean. in_the great Battle of Tour s^ in 732. the so-called "Scourge of God.

Chicago. Had Saracenic civilization come to dominate Europe. New York.H4 tion HISTORY OF EDUCATION was settled on that Saturday afternoon in October. The Known World in 800 conquests. 33. Buenos Aires. later developed there. but that North and South America as well. San Francisco. with or^n^j^eas^n^Mp^ammedan conceptions. Driven back across the Pyrenees by the Franks. on the 1 It was a struggle for mastery and dominbattle plains of Tours. these people settled in Spain. This map shows the great extent of the Mohammedan The part marked as "European Heathen" was added to Christianity within the next few centuries. through and through. between the Christian ion between the and Mohammedan religions. and Valparaiso. \ '\\ Christian L . between the forces representing order on the one side and destruction on the other. while our literature and philosophy and civilization would have been tinctured. 1 . and the Christian religion been the possession only of the Greek and Russian churches. I Mohammedan European Heathen k:-'-v. and became a part of our Latin-Teutonic or western civilization.-/'S:| Fig. the Koran might have been taught to-day in the theological schools of Boston. and between races destined to and a race representing succeed to the civilization of Greece and Rome oriental despotism and static conditions. for a short period. Aryan and Semitic races. a forof Not only was the future of western European civilization settled there.

possessed of a rude polytheistic religion in which Woden. Who these invaders were. and Valhalla was a heaven selves for those killed in battle. given to drunkenness and gluttonous eating. The which brought these new peoples into the 1 It is hard for us to imagine what happened. 34. The tribes nearest the Rhine and had taken on . and now the assimilative and digestive powers of Rome were gone. a little civilization . and then disappeared as a force in our western development and progress. Our interest from now on lies with the Teutonic-Latin peoples of western Europe. 47) In general they represented a degree of civili. for it is through them that our western civilization has been worked out and has come down to us. Tall. contact with the Romans. as the German tribes overran the Roman Empire. 46). A long-continued series of tribal migrations. dark-skinned people of the Italian peninsula. and rather idealized zation not particularly different from that of the better American Indians in our colonial period. but one that only slightly influenced the current of European development.NEW PEOPLES IN THE EMPIRE 1 15 the-time remarkable civilization. 1 d'ArtiUeri/at Paris) "two terrible centuries" though possessing a much larger ability to learn. small. held the first place. Danube r . we should have someM/crosoft thing analogous to the RomflfSg'ffi^tfe!n. but only for a little while. living in rude villages in the forest. they seemed like giants to the short. from long . They finally came so fast that they could not have been assimilated even in the best days of Rome. white-skinned. We shall meet them again a little later. . A German Chief ^ar Restored. and maintaining themit is not to by hunting and fishing — be wondered that Rome dreaded the coming the of these forest barbarians (R. Fig. had brought a large number of new peoples within the boundaries of the old Empire. for the Indians we know to-day If represent a much higher grade of civilization than did the German invaders. and becoming the rulers of a people superior to them in numbers and intellect. the war god. . and clad in skins and rude cloths. and then they concern our western development no more. unsurpassed before in history. huge of limb. Quarrelsome. flaxen-haired. with fierce blue eyes. 46. delighting in fighting and gambling. but those farther away were savage and unorganized (Rs. we could imagine the United States overrun by the Indians of a hundred and fifty years ago. ® .


. and the Roman world was in part Germanized before new Italians when they come. soldiers. which remained' Roman in ation of the invaders. p. These German-Romans helped to who came later. 1 As allies. This was the work of centuries. not in externals merely. colonists. In unifying the government of the Empire and establishing a common law. which had been effected before the Empire was finally overrun and Roman government ceased. had no idea of being a Roman. G. historical importance of the mere fact that it was an organic unity which Rome established. and in early beginning the process of receiving barbarians into the Empire and educating them in her ways and her schools.) Vrftved . one every department be overstated. The old Roman population for long continued to furnish the clergy. because of their ability to read and write. that the civilized world was made. that when the Roman government disappeared he else than a Roman. . 2d ed. citizens. leaders of the tribes to capacity or another they persuaded the adopt. 1 Rome rendered the western world a service of inestimable importance and one which did much to prepare the way for the reception and assimil2 In the cities. by the relatively slow and gradual coming of the different tribes and by the thorough organization of the governing side of the Christian Church. spirit even after their rulers had changed. B. language. but in and the Gaul became so completely of thought and action. Civilization was saved from almost complete destruction chiefly by reason of the long and substantial work which Rome had done in organizing and governing and unifying the Empire. and in the cities of southern Europe the municipal form of city government was retained.. also became the secreIn one taries and advisers of their rude Teutonic overlords. It was a union. and during the period the lamp of learning almost went out. Civilization during the institutions were perpetual. not only Christianity. much as Italian-Americans in the United States help to receive and _ . and where the Roman population greatly preponderated even after the invaders had come. and it was so thorough.. as it were. 30. and not simply a collection of fragments artificially held together nation. cannot by military force. . some of the old culture and handicrafts were kept up. and these. Roman Middk (Adams.. and slaves the Germans had long been filtering into assimilate the Germans the barriers were broken. Barbarian and Roman in contact..crosoft® Ages. and traditions. It was because of this that. despite the fall of assimilate 2 "The anything Rome. but many of the customs and pracThese various influences tices of the old civilization as well.. and many Roman governmental forms passed over to the invader chiefly because he knew no other.NEW a basis that PEOPLES IN THE EMPIRE 117 it was necessary for whatever constructive forces still remained to begin again the task of building up new foundations for a future European civilization. the Roman world. Roman law still applied to trials of Roman citizens." by M. .

and as a State within a State. but fitted to the gion. in the long process of civilizing needs of the time. and with a large capacity for learning.emperor.Ii8 HISTORY OF EDUCATION v helped to assimilate and educate the newcomers. maintained its separate system of government and kept up the old forms of the Roman law. and monks during what In are known as the Dark Ages can hardly be overestimated. It had also its courts and its exemptions for the clergy. the result was the ultimate victory. and to save something of the old civilization for the future. Being strong. was the Christian Church. s The Church. sturdy. as we have civilization. it must be remembered. which served as a basis for understanding the appeal of the Church. and these it forced the barbarians to respect. though. 50). The importance of the services rendered by bishops. of all name the barbarian tribes. could usually be made to stand in awe when a Christian priest or bishop appealed to Heaven and the saints. and was ready to assume governmental authority when Rome could no longer exert it. The most powerful force with which the barbarians came in contact. 2 The Christian priest gradually forced the barbarian chief to do his will. though long and difficult. the face of might they upheld the right of the Church and its representatives to command obedience and respect. priests. and adopted many practices at least. when he feared no Roman general or . and sacked the sacred edifice. the Church gained in strength as the Roman government grew weaker. the civilizing process. and the Christianizing. The impress of Christianity upon them. 1 which they must either accept and make terms with or absolutely destroy. That the Church lost much of its early purity of worship. after the Roman governmental model. seen. In time the Church gained much from the mixture of these new peoples among the old. During half a dozen centuries it was the chief force that made life tolerable for myriads of men and women. The barbarians here encountered an organization stronger than force and greater than kings. in This was the first step and educating them. and threatened him with eternal hell-fire if he did not do his bidding. there can be 1 A Germanic king. as they infused new vigor and energy into the blood of the old races. and almost thjj^rjteiogce/Mgh^ds^ any semblance of humane ideals^ . possessed some form of spirit or nature worship or heathen gods. but not consistent with real relino question. As all the tribes. and full of youthful energy. and the one which did most to reduce them to Organized. and because of their strength and vigor these new races in time infused new life and energy into every land from Spain to eastern Europe (R. though at times he refused to be awed into submission. was easier than it might otherwise have been. murdered the priest. though heathen.

and in 440 Saint Patrick converted the Irish. 36. Priests and missionaries went among the heathen tribes and labored for their conversion. with a few Runic signs were used to represent Gothic sounds. before they moved re©! WKxrMNfcxe 1C«iN(i«M0(pjiinr{Mi(i»Bii*M!iim«i)jkMj» felllklBOllM^ftOWBNtOTjiiNS'^KDtia 8S5ftiiASBiilfzvD»ii|!»^MSftDiiinrftMai westward from their original §Y©OW<iSM#l!ST." To the primitive Germans it seemed a mysterious thing that a series of he omitted the two books of marks could express thought. based on One of the treasures of the library of the the Greek. Christianity had been carried early to Great Britain by Roman In missionaries. is a manwritten language into which uscript of this translation by Bishop Ulphilas. in Sweden. A Page of the Gothic Gospels {reduced) alphabet for them. a long and weary road to restore even a semblance of the order and respect for life and property which had prevailed under Roman rule. After the chieftain had been won the minor leaders in time followed. SSMftM&irsi W[H&SWWIIK. that the people might not find in them a further stimulus to their great warlike activity. founded the monastery 563 . or rather la*ge portions of it. In the translation Greek letters. One of the most interesting of all the conversions was that made by the Bishop Ulphilas (c. and spent the reRussia. and often the conversion of a chieftain was made by first converting his wife. however. home north of the Danube.NEW PEOPLES IN THE EMPIRE The Church itself 119 was the immediate effect was quite otherwise. Saint Columba crep^^fetod. in what is now southwestern Ulphilas was made bishop and sent among them in 343. and gave them a University of Upsala.SV©KftllSJJ. Kings and the two Samuels. The lesson of the cross was proclaimed. The word "rune" comes from a Gothic word meaning "mystery. paganized. Fig. but the barbarians were in time Christianized. Of course the leaders were sought out first. and the softening and restraining influences of the Christian faith were exerted on the barbarian. 1%%! FBoss|!$nj&ftftltofcBfoii«!|»8iiKKiii8Ji mainder of his life in laboring He devised an with them. 313-383) among the Visigoths. he translated for them the Bible. It was.

After the Angles and Saxons and Jutes had overrun eastern and southern Britain there was a period of several generations during which this portion of the island was given over to Teutonic heathenism. was converted. The last people to be converted were the Prussians. along the eastern Baltic. King of converting Ethelbert. and he and three thousand of his chiefs were at once Digitized by Microsoft® baptized. and Sweden to the Western or Roman type. a half-Slavic tribe inhabiting East Prussia and Lithuania. "the Apostle to the English. he would do as she desired. until near the middle of the thirteenth century. Finally. King of the this Bohemians. Norway. King of the Goths in Spain." It was thus a thousand years after foundation before Europe had accepted in name To change a nominal acceptance to some semblance of a reality has been the work of the succeeding centuits the Christian faith. was won over.) In 496 Clovis. . King of the Franks. and the Hungarians in 972. The Alemanni were crushed. As late as 1230 they were still offering human sacrifices to their heathen gods to secure their favor. In 597 Saint Augustine. Clovis vowed that if the God of Clotilda would give him victory. in 967. but soon after this date they were forced to a nominal acceptance of Christianity as a result of conquest by the "Teutonic Knights. 1 Clotilda. The English at once became strong supporters of the Christian faith. Duke of the Normans. HISTORY OF EDUCATION and began the conversion of the Scots." landed in Kent and began the conversion of the people. who were not brought to accept Christianity. when the final submission of German tribe took place. and in 635 the English of Wessex accepted Christianity. The Germans of Bavaria and Thuringia were finally won over by about 740. Rollo. was a Burgundian princess and a devout Christian. In 496. was won (912). In the tenth century the Slavs were converted to the Eastern or Greek type of Christianity. in the tenth century. and Poland. between 772 and 804. (See Map. Charlemagne repeatedly forced the northern Saxons to accept Christianity. during a battle with the Alemanni. following a vow and a victory in battle. near the present city of Strassburg. wife of the heathen Clovis. who had long tried to persuade her husband to accept her faith. though efforts were begun with them as early as 900. and three thousand of his followers were baptized. and in 878 they forced the invading Danes to accept Christianity as one of the conditions of the Peace of Wedmore. Northumbria. Boleslav II. that year succeeding in In 626 Edwin. King of Kent. in name. x in 587 Recarred. and in 681 the South Saxons accepted Christianity. Figure 42. ries.120 at Iona.

many had risen from the humblest ranks and these men. which was essentially republican. teaching him. they opposed intellect to brute force. by her exquisite litanies and prayers. in the name of God she received it into her consecrated ground. These the Church in time taught the barbarian to respect. her allof society. and punished his faults by her penances. and by the example of the organization of the Church. her bells chimed. true to their democratic instincts. It was not by schools of learning. and such practically died out. could equally take in a hemisphere at a glance. and missionaries. her knell tolled at his funeral. and relieved the. but by faith and ceremonial that the Church educated and guided her children into the type she approved. and under her shadow he rested till the great reckoning-day. too insignificant. in many instances successfully. From little better than a slave she raised his wife to be his equal. or too desolate for her. were often found to be the inflexible supporters of right against might. met her recompense for those noble deeds in a firm friend at every fireside. Eventually coming to be the depositaries of the knowledge that then existed. and there parishes were organized.NEW PEOPLES IN THE EMPIRE 121 Work of the Church during the Middle Ages. From her central seat at Rome. like that of Providence itself. seeing eye. or strengthening him for the trials of life by the example of the holy and just. The great educational work of the Church during this period of insecurity and ignorance has seldom been better stated than in the following words by Draper: Of the great ecclesiastics. solemnities. went bishops. In his hour of sickness and trouble her servants sought him out. even to his friends. and.' at his marriage. She extorted from hint the secrets of his life at her confessionals. priests. Her boundless influences enveloped kings in their palaces. Discountenancing all impure/Jqg*fep6(for]pirasaii8fid that fireside the children . forbidding him to have more than one. and far into the forest depths of barbarian lands. Nor was it over communities and nations that the Church displayed her chief power. Schools for other than monks and clergy for a time were not needed. Never in the world before was there such a system. rude churches arose. to place his reliance on God. and the process of educating the fighting tribesmen in the ways of civilized life was carried out. 'The Church and its ofhces took the place of education and exercised a wholesome and restraining influence over both young and old throughout the long period of the Middle Ages. they showed how representative systems may be introduced into the State. or examine the private life of any individual. In all Europe there was not a man too Surrounded by her obscure. his lifeless body had become an offense. Her prayers had an efficacy to give repose to the souls of his dead. beggar at the monastery gate. When. Everywhere throughout the old Empire. every one received his name at her altar.

. Draper.. the cheapest of the country in which they lived their shaven heads. who died in 1334. as follows: It was mainly by the monasteries that to the peasant class of Europe was pointed out the way of civilization. 1 Truly she was the shadow of a great rock work of the monasteries. after an exact inquiry. western Europe showing the monasteries established by 800 A. No less important than the Church and its clergy was the work of the monasteries and their monks in building up a basis for a new civilization. 69). and made her temples a refuge and sanctuary for the in despairing and oppressed. Intellectual Development of Europe. John W. the prohibitions . 2 The importance work is better understood when we remember that the Germans had never lived in cities. and the monks lived on the land of their ' and among a people just passing through the earliest stages of settled and civilized life. 7000 archbishops. found that. the long staff in their hands. she vindicated the inviolability of her precincts against the hand of power. each a watch on his brother. innumerable. In a way the inheritors of the agricultural and handicraft knowledge of the Romans. pp. Their sites were in the river valleys and in the forests . there had been of it 24 popes. and made that mother little less than sacred in their In ages of lawlessness and rapine. the monks became the most skillful artisans and farmers to be found. since the first rise of the order. Not infrequently a swamp was taken and drained. The civilizing To make a map of These.(R. HISTORY OF EDUCATION of one mother. among people but a step above savages. 1 2 . above 4000 saints. too. earls. 15. and from them these arts in time reached the developing peasantry around them. countesses. or the cowl which shut out the sight of sinful objects. and did not settle in them on entering the Empire. many a weary land. The monasteries. 47 kings and above 50 queens. 15. their passing forth on their journeys by twos. 145-46. The Middle^ Age period was essentially a period of settlement of the land and of agricultural development.122 eyes. of this order.D." From this it may be inferred how fully the Church was the State^ugggjthe ^jg&ggggd of the Middle Ages. and the monks became the pioneers in clearing the land and preparing the way for agriculture and civilization. 20 emperors.000 monasteries. vol. would be to cover the map with a series of dots. 20 sons of emperors and 48 sons of kings. etc. The devotions and charities. their meager clothing. were seldom established in towns. There had been likewise. The extent of the Benedictine order alone may be seen from the Benedictine statement that "Pope John XXII.000 bishops. their abstemious meal. besides dukes. were founded all over Europe. n. near 200 cardinals. too. 'the austerities of the brethren. Their work and services have been well summed up by the same author just quoted. and upwards of 37. their naked feet and legs. about 100 princesses and daughters of kings and emperors. 10 empresses.000 abbots of renown. marquises.

was that of changing the barbarism and anarchy of the sixth century. law. above all. forever. The problem which faced the Church. who was refreshed in a separate apartment. when these people had become sufficiently civilized and educated to enable them to understand and appreciate. It was not a period of progress. work of the Middle Ages. trace the more important efforts made to reestablish schools and learning. occupying nearly the whole of a thousand years. That the lamp is of no cause Recovery from such a deluge of barbarism on a for wonder. — The problem faced by the Middle Ages. reinvigorated by mixture w'ith the youthful and vigorous Germans (R.NEW PEOPLES IN THE EMPIRE 123 against eating outside of the wall of the monastery. labor exalted and ennobled by their holy hands. as the sole surviving force capable of exerting any constructive influence. 437. p. "nearly every achievement of the Greeks and the Romans in thought. and celibacy. its own bakehouse. and finally describe the culmination of the process of absorbing and educating 1 learning burned low during this period of assimilation Draper. and the practical arts" was to be recovered and made a part of our western civilization. This was the progressive civilization of the fifteenth century. . weakened society is not easy. and. and finally.. in the eye of the vulgar. John W. In the chapters which immediately follow we shall tell how learning was preserved during the period and what facilities for education actually existed. all were to be brought under the rule of a common Christian Church. "to the institutions of ancient society were to be added certain social and political institutions of the Germanic peoples. I. and led them on to civilization. a proof of separation from the world and a sacrifice to heaven these were the things that arrested the attention of the barbarians of Europe. 50). but one of assimilation^ so that a common western civilization might in time be developed out of the diverse and hostile elements mixed together by the rude The enfeebled Roman race was to be force of circumstances. and largely the work of the Christian Church. vol. I >mt)itUBdlbP<Mbr$3tsm>oJ Europe. the lands around their buildings turned from a wilderness into a garden. which had its own mill. 2 . In this chapter we have dealt largely with the great fundamental movements which have so deeply influenced the course of human history. In fact the recovery was a long and slow process. and whatever was needed in an abstemious domestic economy (Figure 38) their silent hospitality to the wayfarer. science. into the intelligent. with its low standards of living and lack of humane ideals.

^f. national faith. '. compared with Mexico after the years of revolution with peons and brigands in control? With Russia. Is. after the destruction wrought by the Bolshevists? Explain the importance of the long civilizing and educating work of Rome among the German tribes. •s/ Try to picture the results upon our civilization had western Europe t. *""" How do tion of Roman institutions after the downfall of the Roman govern- > ment. have we faced in our national history? Why have we been able to obtain results so much more rapidly? cities of Italy ' Digitized by Microsoft® . and hence how Roman civilization was naturally preserved in larger measure in the What n. had it desired to do so. What. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION the peculiar problems of assimilation of the foreign-born. in preparing the means for the preservasince 1840. Show how if. civilizing problem. the Christian Church. Italy. revealed to us by the World War. Y —— Why the difference in assimilative power? you think the Roman provinces and Italy. Cite some pS**** examples. but was forced of necessity to preserve and pass on important portions of the civilization of Rome. after the tribes from the North had settled down within the Empire. could not have completely dispensed with Roman letters and Roman civilization. and more complete in northern than in central or southern Italy. was there not after all large educational work done by the government through. r-/ than elsewhere. b. « become Mohammedan. put us in a somewhat similar position to Rome under the Empire as relates to the need of a guiding national faith? \t Outline how Rome might have been helped and strengthened by a r national school system under state control I » Outline how our state school systems coulobe made much more effective \ as national instruments by the infusion into their instruction of a strong ( ^~i. What do you think would have been the effect on the future of civilization had the barbarian tribes overrun Spain. somewhat comparable to that of barbarian Europe. Do ^^l ( — y The movement of new peoples into the Roman Empire was much slower than has been the immigration of foreign peoples into the United States. and Greece during the Age of Pericles? What modern analogies do we have to the civilizing work of the monks and clergy during the Middle Ages? Picture the work of the monasteries in handing on to western Europe the arts and handicrafts and skilled occupations of Rome. too. W^ does the fact that Roman institutions and Roman thinking continued and profoundly modified mediaeval life indicate as to the nature of Roman government and the Roman power of assimilation? "i/ Though Rome never instituted a state school system. 14. its ' intelligent administration? Show how the breakdown of Roman government and Roman institutions was naturally more complete in Gaul than in northern Italy.124 the tion HISTORY OF EDUCATION in the civilization they Germans had conquered that came in the great period of recovery of the ancient learning and civiliza- — the age of the Renaissance.

5.£>-<--# 'T ^ / O" ^^ . a***. Is it probable that a quarter-century of Bolsheviki rule in Russia would produce results comparable to those described by Giry and Reville (49) ? Is Kingsley right in stating (50) that the best elements of all the modern European peoples came from the barbarian invaders? State what seem to you to be the important contributions of barbarian invader. Church. Charlemagne: Powers and Immunities granted to the Monastery of Saint Marcellus. 4. Kingsley. 51. Chas. Thorndike. Tacitus: The Germans and their Domestic Habits. Roman. The Beginnings of the Middle Ages. G. History of Mediceval Europe. 3. 47. Dill: Effect on the Roman World of the News of the Sacking of Rome by Alaric. * The Roman and Teuton. Do the grants of privileges and immunities shown in the general form form (52) seem to follow naturally from the grants to physicians and teachers (26) and to the clergy (38) ? (51) and the specific earlier Point out the relationship. that Tacitus describes (47) would prove good additions to Roman life? Do the emotions of Saint Jerome on hearing of the sacking of Rome (48) reveal anything as to the extent to which the Roman had become a Churchman and the Churchman a Roman? Illustrate. R. QUESTIONS ON THE READINGS x --i. and what they brought. Giry and Reville: Fate of the Old Roman Towns. B. 52.NEW PEOPLES IN THE EMPIRE SELECTED READINGS 125 In the accompanying Book of Readings the following selections are reproduced : 46. 50. *Dt?py 2. Caesar: The Hunting Germans and their Fighting Ways. State the differences in character Caesar observes (46) between the (Sauls to the west of the Rhine and the Germans to the east. Kingsley: The Invaders. Digitized by Microsoft® . What German characteristics. W. 49. Civilization during the Middle Ages. and Churchman. 6. Lynn. 48. SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES * Adams. General Form for a Grant of Immunity to a Bishop.

men These were found in the provincial towns as of wealth often having large libraries. 3 During the period of Rome's greatness the publishing business became an important one. on being shown into an anteroom. and in country villas as well as in town houses. well as in the large Italian cities. the The western portion of the been overrun. and naturally what learning remained passed into its hands and under its control. and books were officially published. education became limited to the narrow lines which offered such preparation and to the few who needed it. much that represented the old culture was obliterated. and rude Germanic chieftains were establishing. thus ruining the beautiful mosaic. and as the only use for learning was now in the service of the Church. The result of all these influences and happenings was that by tion Roman From the sixth to the twelfth centuries. new kingdoms on the ruins of the old. Both public and private libraries became common. As was stated in the preceding lamp of learning burned low throughout the most of western Europe during the period of assimilation and partial The low chapter. Amid the ruins of the ancient civilization the Church stood as the only conservative and regenerative force. saw some ducks swimming in the floor and dashed his battle-axe at them to see if they were real. The Roman schools also gradually died out as the need for an educa- which prepared for government and gave a knowledge of law passed away. by the law of might. 3 The destruction was gradual. The Germanic tribes had no intellectual life of their own to contribute.' CHAPTER VI EDUCATION DURING THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES I. is 1 2 typical of the time. l CONDITION AND PRESERVATION OF LEARNING intellectual level. As the security and leisure needed for study disappeared. 65). The story which has come down to us of the German warrior who. but by the becivilization of the barbarian tribes. villas. and books were borrowed from long distances that copies might be made. 2 and books became more and more scarce. and the type of education approved by the Church was left in complete control of the field. Roman Empire had ginning of the seventh century the loss had become great. ' ° Vigitized by Microsoft® . By the beginning of the eighth century books had become so scarce that monasteries guarded their treasures with great care (R. Manuscripts were copied in numbers by trained writers. with their artistic and literary collections. and no intellectual tastes to be ministered With the destruction of cities and towns and country unto.

and during the seventh and eighth centuries conditions grew worse instead of better. as is evidenced by the many crude mediaeval maps. On the Continent there was little general learning.) The only scholarship of the time. So great had become the ignorance and superstition of the time. and the old knowledge of the known world became badly distorted. was there anything of consequence of the old Roman learning preserved. even among the clergy (R. and in a few Italian cities. or from masculine Bl^mWlVlicrosoft® . from singular to plural. 771-814). found it necessary .to order that priests and monks must show themselves capable of changing the wording of the masses for the living and the dead.PRESERVATION OF LEARNING 127 the beginning of the seventh century Christian Europe had reached a very low intellectual level. the accumulated wealth of the past was destroyed. as will be pointed out a little later. trade and commerce died out. was the little needed by the Church to provide for and maintain its government and worship. much less in advancing it. if such it might be called. and the people. Intercommunication largely ceased. (See Figure 46. 64 a). Along scientific lines Scientific ideas as to natuespecially the loss was very great. itself The Church prevailing ignorance of the period. ral phenomena disappeared. popular imagination peopled the world with demons. among priests. and crude and childish ideas as to As if barbarian chiefs and robnatural forces came to prevail. for example. Many of the priests were woefully ignorant. as circumstances required. that religion had in reality become a crude polytheism instead of the simple monotheistic faith of the early Church. and so much had the Church developed the sensuous and symbolic. monks. goblins. and these institutions were at first too busy building up the foundations upon which a future culture might rest to spend much time in preserving learning. and dragons. Only in England and Ireland. ber bands were not enough. Almost everything that we to-day mean by civilization in that age was found within the protecting walls of monastery or church. 1 and the Latin writings of the time contain many inaccuracies and corruptions which reveal the low standard of learning even among the better educated of the was seriously affected by the and incorporated into its system of government and worship many barbarous customs and practices of which it was a long time in ridding itself. and all sorts of superstitions and supernatural happenings were recorded. clerical class. 1 Charlemagne (King of Frankland. so much had religion taken on the worship of saints and relics and shrines.

44) that the monks might lead devout lives and know the Bible and the sacred writings of the Church. and counted work as prayer. of might and force was absent (R. but had said nothing about schools. and especially the monastery of Saint Victor. his Of Benedict he says: "He The pen became a founded here his Convent and Rule Of prayer and work.. but with the founding of Monte Cassino by Saint Benedict. and the promulgation of the Benedictine rule (R. 43). 43). clarion. and the timid. this rule ultimately led to the establishment of schools and the . the devout." . A Typical Monastery or Southern Europe and the studiously inclined here found a refuge from the turbulence and brutality of a rude civilization. had represented a culmination of the western feeling of antagonism to all ancient learning. lessness The monasteries develop and disorder the one opportunity Fig. 1 monasteries throughout what is now Italy. a more liberal This rule was adopted generally by the attitude was shown. 37. and his school Flamed like aZfrgBftzariifaytiiifcmHfaSlght air. and the Benedictine became the type for the monks of the early Middle Ages. The early monasteries. Spain. France. Germany. To this order we are largely indebted for the copying of books and the preservation of learning throughout the mediaeval period.128 HISTORY OF EDUCATION schools. and England. it will be remembered (R. Imposed at first as a matter of education and discipline for the monks.d. 1 Longfellow's poem Monte Cassino is interesting reading here. at Marseilles. The 48th rule of Saint Benedict. founded by Cassian in 404. in 529 a. Subsequent regulations issued by superiors had aimed at the better enforcement of this rule (R. In this age of perpetual lawfor a life of repose and Here the rule scholarly contemplation lay in the monasteries. 52). had imposed reading and study as a part of the daily duty of every monk.

As books were scarce and at the same time necessary. 53 a).« 2 To teach a novice to copy accurately a manuscript book was quite a different It was more nearly comparable to thing from the teaching of writing to-day. This made writing necessary. . the monasteries were soon led to take up the work once carried on by the publishing houses of ancient Rome.-. it was necessary that they be taught to read if they were later to use the sacred books. and the preservation of books. As youths were received at an early age 1 into the monasteries to prepare for a monastic life. and schools became in time a regular feature of the monastic organization. The language of the Church very naturally was Latin. The writings of the Fathers of the Western Church had all been in Latin. the copying of Due to their manuscripts. The monasteries became the preservers of learning. and the novices had to be instructed carefully in this.. which marks the beginning of monastic instruction for those within the walls. and education. as it called for a present-day instruction in lettering in a college engineering tojoMetpHnSSin ordinary writing. after the ninth century. and in the fourth century the Bible The novitiate course was 1 Sometimes as early as eleven to twelve years of age. .. degree of workmanship and <0*g#2fiy . Out of these needs rose the monastery school. This led to the duty of instructing novices. tion often covered six to eight years. and in much the same way. though from an early date bishops and rulers began urging the monasteries to open schools for boys in connection with their houses. was gradually opened. struction of the novices in music. development of a system of monastic instruction. the course of instructwo years. and the only way to get new ones was to copy from old ones. course. greater security and quiet the monasteries became the leading teaching institutions of the early part of the Middle-Age period. as it was a direct descendant of Roman life. 2 and the celebration of Easter and the fast and festival days of the Church called for some rudimentary instruction in numbers and calculation.. Another need developed the copying of pagan books. From schools only for those intending to take the vows (oblati). as well as in The chants and music of the Church called for inreading. citizenship.PRESERVATION OF LEARNING 129 . and those who wished their children trained for the service of the Church gave them to the monasteries (R. and incidentally the the instruction preservation of some of the best of Roman literature. but as the vows could not be taken before eighteen. governmental organization. others (externi) not intending to take the vows. and what came to to be known as "outer" monastic schools were in time developed.. The development of the monastic schools was largely voluntary.

mQr^^ro§e$|he opposite page. dated 1718. in France) founded in the forests of what is now northeastern France. Viollet-le-Duc.d.Fig. reformed Benedictine order. 38. the first of a. . and was For an explanation cians. Bird's-Eye View of a Mediaeval Monastery (From an engraving by This monastery was in ng8 a. known as Cister- o^J^ /.. of the Cistercian Abbey of Citeaux.

the library proper. and addressing himself to the Pope in person. chicken-yards. being on the second floor (P) and reached by a winding wall surrounded the monastery grounds. was the monks. somewhat similar to the cloisters shown for the monastery on Plate 1. the traveler reached the outer gate-house. Passing through the orchards and_ fields. etc. These influences period. All books were. and naturally continued as the language of the Church and the monastery for both speech and writing. and who entered the church (N) at the rear through a special doorway (5). The Explanation of the Monastery opposite : The cross. and R the infirmary for old and sick brothers. I was the kitchen. due to the great destruction of old books which had taken place during the intervening centuries. The German tribes which had invaded the Empire had no written languages of their own. a Latin translation of the Bible made by Saint Jerome. requested a complete copy of Cicero's De Oratore. 3 the sacred books. wrote to Rome in 855. were the barns. it was necessary to copy these authors. C and E axe two cloisters with corridors on the four sides. cow-sheds. indicates the entrance gate. though a scriptorium was usually found under the library. of course. and Vergil. the language Under the rude were best found in the old Latin literary authors particularly Cffisar. To have these. the dining-hall (refectory). though. and the general ignorance of the was easily and rapidly corrupted. 2 as well as the Psalter. became the standard for western Eur<^P for ten centuries to come. Lupus. All of these buildings were considered as outside the monastery proper. written in Latin. ' M K A passed through them. Digitized by Microsoft® . have been preserved in numbers. 1 — and the writings of the the Hebrew and Chaldaic. The Vulgate. at The Old Testament he translated mostly from which he desired. The Abbot lived at H. 3 The Missal is a book containing the service of the mass Psalter the book of Psalms. admits as authentic. and in the stable (F) the traveler's horse could be cared for for the An inner gate through (£) opened into an inner court. Seven scriptoria was the large dormitory for are shown on the side of the library building. around which night. and their spoken dialects differed much from the Latin speech of those whom they had conquered. for example. Abbot of Ferrieres in France. and the New Testament he revised from the older Latin verThis is the only version of the Scriptures which the Roman Catholic Church sions. with the library (P) in the rear.PRESERVATION OF LEARNING 131 had been translated from the Greek into the Latin. At the almonry (C) food and drink were given out. The copying of books often took place in these cloisters. for the entire year. This edition. in the little chapel (D) prayers could be said. and it became necessary for the monasteries and the churches to have good models of Latin prose and verse to refer to. 2 Letters from one monastery to another. begging the loan of some ancient book. and a stream of running water stair. Latin was thus the language of all those of education. G was a dormitory for tie lay brothers who did the heavy work of the monastery. Inside were the great church (N). Cicero. on the second floor rooms for the night could be had. and L the stairs to the upper dormitory rooms. by the roadside. knoTjgkis the Vulgate 1 Bible. close of the fourth century. the Missal. as in Plate 2. and from one country to another.

charitable. and explains in part the small number of volumes the monasteries accumulated. as well as centers for agricultural develop- ment. After they had dried they were again scraped with sharp knives to secure an even thickness. It thus happened that the monasteries unintentionally began to preserve and Jfc the Roman books. When finished. the clean. and then rubbed smooth with pumice and chalk. and were never noted for their educational work. and centers of literary activity and religious thought. 2 or parchment. The copying of manuscripts. and many others were tales of saints and wearisome comments on the sacred writings. and a sheep or goats or calves. While many of the monasteries remained as farming. and also preserved for us by the copying process. institutions of first importance. then scraped clean of hair and flesh. 54. The monasteries thus in time became the storehouses of learning. such as Missals and Psalters (R. A few monastic chronicles and histories of importance were composed by the brothers. 55. in the seventh century. These were first soaked in limewater to loosen the' hair. After the raids of the Mohammedans across Egypt. So expensive of time and. Many developed into large and important institutions (R. 1 From manu 2 scriptum. and ascetic institutions almost exclusively. cream-colored skin was known as vellum. and from using them at first as mocHs for an interest in their contents was later awakened. The production of a single book was a task of large proportions. 56). the supply of Egyptian papyrus stopped because of the interruption of communications. teaching ancient style. effort. shining. was the production of books by this method Digitized by Microsoft® . and Christian hospitality. meaning written by hand. While many of the books copied were for the promotion of the religious service. book of size might require a hundred or more skins.132 HISTORY OF EDUCATION the Fathers of the Church (Rs. and then carefully stretched on board frames to dry. 55). and the only writing material during the Middle Ages was the skin of Sheepskins were chiefly used. 69). work in the arts and crafts. a small but increasing number gradually accumulated libraries and became celebrated for their literary activity and for the character of their instruction. the publishing houses of the Middle Ages (Rs. 1 The work of the more important monasteries and the monastic churches in copying books was a service to learning of large future significance. 56). a few were old classical texts representing the best of Roman literary work. 55.

57). when the rise of the universities and the spread of learning made new demands for skins for writing purposes? igitized by Microsoft® . and the pages ruled. too.PRESERVATION OF LEARNING 133 This was next cut into pages of the desired size and arranged ready for writing. sewed together with a deerskin or pigskin string. Fig. and often chained to bookrack in the library with heavy iron chains as well. while many beautiful illustrations artistic were inserted by monks. with printing-presses. How many valuable ancient manuscripts were lost in this manner no one knows. Finally. between oaken boards and covered with pigskin. Fortunately the practice was not common until after the thirteenth century. and Plate 2. properly lettered in gold. as in Figure 39. fitted with metal corners and clasps (R. gold. 58). the letand illustrated parchment Letter from an Old Manuscript were arranged in order. It required from a few months to a year or more to produce a few copies. sometimes illustrations were introduced in shown the body of the page. bound together This shows the beautiful work done by some of the nuns and monks in "illuminating" the books they copied. Figure 44 represents such an illustrated page in an old manuscript. 39.) Still further to protect the volume from theft. and the remnants to produce small books. an anathema against the thief was usually lettered in the volume (R. who pictured her own work in this initial letter L. five thousand that many of the manuscripts now extant were written crosswise on sheets from their (See Figure 71 which the previous writing had been largely erased by chemical or mechanical means. as shown in Plate 2. The larger pieces were used for large books. Such was the painfully slow method of producing and multiplying books before the advent of printing. of which Figures 39 and 40 are types. The inks. Sometimes an beautifully initial letter was is embellished. even among the monks. Initial tered sheets when completed. whereas to-day. and in days when skill in copying manuscripts was not particularly common. The main writing was done with black. such as are shown in Plate 2. had to be prepared. or some other bright color. but the page was frequently bordered with red. and sometimes a colored illustration was painted on a sheet of vellum and inserted in the book. depending on the size and nature of the work. This was done in colors by a nun.

is illustrative of the need for care in copying: "Her: let the scribes sit who copy out the words of the Divine Law. nor shall the scribe fail of his due reward. and let not him who reads the words to them either read falsely or pause suddenly. for he who plants a vine serves his belly. sometimes in exchange for other books. and sometimes as gifts to brothers who had longed to read the work A Monk in a Scriptorium . given at the beginning of the ninth century. the proper sense by colons and commas. seven small rooms for this purpose are shown built out on one side of the library. An important part of the material equipment of many monasteries. Writing books is better than planting vines. came to be a scriptorium. it was customary of the library. and likewise the hallowed sayings of Holy Fathers. and set the points. on the skins be- while eight or ten others carefully printed fore them what was reader. This represents a better type of the extra copies were sent to scriptorium than is usually shown. of art. Each copy was a work had been prepared and bound. Sometimes individual cells along a corridor were provided. throughout the Middle Ages. The advantage of the single room in which a number of monks worked came when an edition of eight or ten copies of a book was to be prepared. that the flying pen may speed along the right path. though small rooms at the side to have a number of In the monastery shown in Figure 38. or writing-room. neighboring and sometimes distant monasteries.134 HISTORY OF EDUCATION book as this copies of such a can be printed and bound in a few days. 1 That the printing was not always carefully done is shown by the constant need. The scriptorium. Let them beware of interspersing their own frivolities in the words they copy. nor let a trifler's hand make mistakes through haste. each one in its due he is copying from a book script in the Royal Library at Brussels) before him. In some monasteries one general room was provided. of correct copies for comparison. Figure 40 shows a monk at work. though (From an illuminated picture in a manu. where the copying of manuscripts could take place undisturbed. 1 dictated by the Fig. 40. One monk could then dictate. The following injunction of the Abbot Alcuin to the monks at Tours. but he who writes a book seWfgjthgtPbf Microsoft® . Let them earnestly seek out for themselves correctly written books to tranLet them distinguish scribe. After an edition This picture shows the beautiful work done of eight or ten copies of a book in "illuminating" manuscript books by mediaeval writers. in consequence. It is a noble work to write out holy books.

very slow. come hours for the copying of books under the presiding genius of Alcuin. The process of book production in in the fourteenth century.SS). makes himself the writing-master of his monks. and one of them is given the precious parchment volume containing a work of Bede or Isidore or Augustine. and Northmen on the coasts of England and northern France. came to be a very important place in those monasteries noted for their literary activity. where monk. West an interesting description of the scriptorium at Tours. and all for the love Under such guidance. New monasteries were provided with the beginnings of a library in this way. was Abbot from 796 to 804. for the few monasteries where books could be accurately transcribed were as necessary for publication in that time as are the great publishing houses to-day. and which at the time was the principal book-writing monastery gives the learned English Frankland. The young monks file into the scriptorium. impressed by the fact that in the copying of a few books they were saving learning and knowledge from perishing. and thereby offering a service most acceptable to God. or even a heathen author. and other books needed for their services. In the intervals between the hours of prayer and the observance of the round of cloister life. the copying in the scriptorium went on Thus were produced those improved in sobriety from day to day. or rooms. and deeply of studies and the love of Christ. The writing-room. Psalters. he says: in We can almost reconstruct the scene.PRESERVATION OF LEARNING 135 (R. and his correcting hand points out the mistakes in orthography and punctuation. large collections of books were unknown before the Revival of Learning. or else some portion of the Latin Scriptures. and churches were supplied with Missals.yMlmiscm> 72-73- . and many of the volumes produced were itself was During the later lost through fire. and thus perhaps a score of copies are made at once. stooping to the drudgery of faithfully and gently correcting their many puerile mistakes. He reads slowly and clearly at a measured rate while all the others seated at their desks take down his words. Alcuin's observant eye watches each in turn. or pillage by new invaders. in that true humility that is the charm of his whole behavior. Alcuin's anxiety in this regard was not undue. The master of Charles the Great. 1 ViE^itkefb. Describing Alcuin's labors to secure books to send to other monasteries in Charlemagne's kingdom. 1 Monastic collections. copies of books which mark the beginning of a new age in the conserving and transmission of learning. early days of wood construction a number of monastic and church In the pillaging of the Danes libraries were bumed by accident. Despite the important work done by a few of the monasteries in preserving and advancing learning. Alcuin.

and at Peterborough. monastic libraries we From a number of know that. and the Saracens burned some in southern Italy in the ninth. /' . which in the fourteenth century possessed 6g8 volumes.136 HISTORY OF EDUCATION ROME" '^MEDITERRANEAN SEA WmXs Fig. among other monasteries. also in England. 41. a library of from two to three hundred volumes was large. even extant catalogues of old as late as the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Monte Cassino. burned in 1091. and the Saracens. 1 The catalogues show that most of these on the Continent was Fulda. a collections there were lost. Charlemagne's Empire. In England the largest collections were at Canterbury. which had 344 volumes at about the same time. Thestffimjeggrfie^helaijggst collections in Europe. at that time contained approximately 700 volumes. The library of Croyland. . 1 The largest monastic library the copying of manuscripts. which specialized in In 1561 it had 774 volumes. was destroyed by both the Lombards in the ninth and tenth centuries. and the Important Monasteries of the Time Charlemagne's empire at his death is shaded darker than other parts of the map number of important monastic In Italy the Lombards destroyed some collections in their sixth-century invasion.

were much earlier and much more learning. A few were commentaries on the ancient learning. and copying Latin. 60). 55. weaving and spinWeaving and spinning had an obvious ning. along with other treasures. these receiving a special development in Germanic lands. Many well-trained women were produced in the convents of Europe in the period from the sixth to the thirteenth centuries. The manuscript was embellished with hundreds of beautiful pictures. and a conventual life continued. Filled with the same aggressive spirit as the men. many . the knowledge of her time. in encyclopaedic form. it influenced the life of the time. as in the monasteries. or mediaeval textbooks on the great subjects of study of the time (R. This was an attempt to embody. and of the utmost value (R. manuals of devotion. purpose. The instruction consisted of reading. This provided a rather superior class of women somewhat by the and directors. many women of high station among German tribes founded convents and developed institutions of much renown. and. as well as music. in 1870. A still smaller number were copies of old classical literary works. The early part of the Middle Ages also witnessed a remarkable development of convents fpr women. of the convent of Hohenburg. and needlework. and needlework. music. Christianity. 57) The convents and their schools. as organizers and some of the most beautifully copied and illuminated manu- 1 Their scripts of the mediaeval period are products of their skill. too. was especially useful in the production of altar-cloths and sacred vestments. just as it is to-day among Catholic families. contribution to music and art. but softened . lives of miracleworking saints. and books of a similar nature (Rs. 56). throughout the entire Middle Ages.. a conventual life offered to women of intellectual ability and scholarly tastes the one opportunity for an education and a life of The convents. writing. being monastic chronicles. The copying and illuminating of manuscripts. the Abbess Herrard. 56). and embroidering made a special appeal to women (R. to send girls to the convent for education and for training in manners and religion. extensively opened for instruction to those not intending to take the vows than was the case with the monasteries. in addition to necessary utilitarian sewing. in consequence. to attract an excellent class This will be understood when it is remembered that of women. and was long preserved as a 1 The Hortus Delicarum of wonderful exhibition of medig^/^fey Mjgf§§£ffi$ to civilization. in was a famous illustration of artistic workmanship. when the Prussians bombarded Strassburg. it became a common practice throughout the Middle Ages. comments on the Scriptures.PRESERVATION OF LEARNING 137 were books of a religious nature.

and began the conversion Saint Augustine landed in Kent in 597. Irish and English monks also crossed in numbers to northern Frankland. and probably by monastic missionaries from Lerins and Saint Victor (see Figure 41). siasm for religion and In 670. So much was Sandys. an eminent Irish scholar and religious leader. Saint Patrick had been educated in the old Roman schools. not sharing the antipathy to pagan learning of the early Italian church fathers. and had of the Picts. and labored for the 4 conversion of the Franks and Saxons. the one part of western Europe where something of the old learning was retained during this period was in Ireland. crossed over to what is now southwestern Scotland.d.d. and in those parts of England which had not been overrun by the Germanic tribes. largely due to the island being spared from about 440 and during the • invasion.. The convent schools reached their highest development about the middle of the thirteenth century. and soon became an important center of religious and classical learning in the north.d. and these. begun the conversion of the Angles and Saxons and Jutes who had settled in southeastern Britain. Other early missionaries had had similar training. and schools. while shortly afterwards the Irish monks from Iona began the conversion of the people of the north of Britain.138 HISTORY OF EDUCATION was also large.d. that Ireland remained a center for instruction in Greek long after it had virtually disappeared elsewhere in western this the case. in his it History of Classical Scholarship." . the Irish Church in England and the Roman Church were united. monasteries. ^^^ Learning in Ireland and Britain. In 664 a. had carried Greek and Latin languages and learning to Ireland. ^mm .. Saint .. Christian civilization and monastic life had been introduced into Ireland probably as early as 425 a.. Here it flourished so well. As was stated earlier in this chapter. and a great enthuer the island. after which they began to decline in importance. at a council held at Whitby. y WS&^W In 565 a. says Christendom. a. Columba. probably at Tours when it was still an important Roman provincial city.d. The monastery of Lindisfarne was founded about 635 a. Saint Patrick preached Christianity to the Irish. "that if any one knew Greek was assumed that he must have come from Ireland. founded there the monastery of Iona. fifth and sixth centuries churches and monasteries were founded in such numbers over Ireland that the land has been said to have been dotted all over with churches.

afterward succeeded . about 735 a. 1 As a result of all these efforts a number of northern monasteries. he handed on to his pupils the learning he had received." and sorted out "youths of conspicuAlcuin ous intelligence" to whom he gave special attention. and was widely known Well aware of the precarious condition of as a gifted teacher. and the Canterbury learning. the Roman. he gives a good portrayal possess for the time a large library. 59 b). by the middle of the eighth century. In this school.-Elbert. the scholar and historian of the early English Church. and imbued them with of the there "enjoyed advantages which could not perhaps have been found anyperfect access to all the existing sources of learnEurope at the time Nowhere else could he acquire at once the Irish. was trained a youth by the name of Alcuin. learning amid such a rude and uncouth society. and This culture in Ireland and Britain was of a much higher standard than that obtaining on the Continent at the time. whose Ecclesiastical History of England gives us our chief picture of education in Britain in his time. and soon became famous for the instruction they provided. 60).— PRESERVATION OF LEARNING 139 Theodore of Tarsus and the Abbot Hadrian. under the scholasticus . in northern Eng- This had.ZHjitfHBitoby t$i£rbmltan Biography.-Elbert as scholasticus.) sionaries. describes as men "instructed in secular and divine literature both Greek and Latin" (R. or the disciplinary instruction drawn from the monasteries on the Continent. In 674 the monastery at Wearmouth was founded. was educated and remained as a lifelong student. as well as from Irish mis(Bishop Stubbs. Gallician. at York. 59 a). the ing in the West. the accumulated stores of books which Benedict (founder and abbot) had bought at Rome and at Vienne. instruction he received. These were endowed with books from Rome and Vienne. come to and contained most of the important Latin authors and textbooks then known (R. early became famous for their libraries." 1 He where else in — . rupted! The cathedral school land. born in or near York. arrived in England from southern Italy and began their work of instructing pupils in Greek and Latin Both taught at Canterbury. In a poem describing the school (R. One of the schools which early attained fame was the cathedral school at York. school there to high rank. 61). whom Bede. It was at the twin monasteries of Wearmouth and Yarrow that the Venerable Bede (673-735). scholars. telling how the learned yElbert "moistened thirsty hearts with diverse streams of teaching and the varied dews of learning. and in 682 its companion Yarrow.d. article on Bede. as well as a few of the cathedral schools. because the classJgaHnheritance there had been less corlearning. and raised the cathedral (R.

The plight in which* he found learning was most deplorable. had been almost obh^era$©idH)r"^dk"a>e<stwo centuries of wild dis- . Belgium. of what is all of what to-day comand Switzerland. or executive capacity. (See Figure 41.) Realizing better than did his bishops and abbots the need for educational facilities for the nobles and clergy. with three assistants. Learning presenting a marked contrast to conditions in England. 113) and driven them back over the Pyrenees into Spain. force. his minister of education. at Charlemagne's Alcuin. This man Charlemagne easily stands out as one of the greatest figures of all history. in northern Italy. and portions Roman Empire. and to extend the boundaries of the Frankish nation. he finally succeeded instruction. His ancestors had developed a great kingdom. he used every effort to civilize intelligently as possible and rule as the great Frankish kingdom. It was this Alcuin who was soon to give a new impetus to the development of schools and the preservation of learning in Frankland. to reduce the Lombards of northern in 814. to take up the work of educational propaganda in Frankland. Charlemagne met and invited him to leave York for Frankland. though. including of northern Spain. in in all drawing to his court perhaps the greatest scholar and teacher England. he early turned his attention to securing teachers capable of giving the needed These.140 HISTORY OF EDUCATION something of his own love for it and his anxiety for its preservation and advancement. Alcuin accepted. At his death. Charlemagne and Alcuin. He in is particularly of law- the dominating figure of mediaeval times. his Italy to order. After two unsuccessful efforts to obtain a master scholar to become. After obtaining the consent of his archbishop and king. For five hundred years before and after him there is no ruler who matched — him in insight. in 782. and arrived. were scarce and hard to obtain. as it were. kingdom had succeeded to most of the western posses- sions of the old prises France. Holland. Wars he tribes of northern waged to civilize and Christianize the Saxon Germany. in 781. large portions now western Germany and northern Italy. court. and it was his grandfather who had defeated the Saracens at Tours (p. In 768 there came to the throne as king of the great Frankish nation one of the most distinguished and capable rulers of all time a man who would have been a commanding personality in any age or land. At Parma. lessness Born an age and disorder.

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To quote from West's description: J Charles wanted to know everything and to know it at once. for while he knew he must be docile. elementary instruction in that learning of which he was so fond. not least in importance as pupils. metic. PRESERVATION OF LEARNING order from 600 on. The palace school.. then sixteen years old (R. a son of Charle- magne. It was not an easy position for any one to fill. strong. F. His uncurbed nature eagerly seized on learning. the bers the questions and answers were oral. and at need could be either patiently Thus. West. 62). courtiers. both questions and answers being prepared by Alcuin beforehand and learned by the pupils. and Alcuin arrived when Frankland was at its worst. uigmzea by lyiicrctsotf® \. the writings of the Fathers. and. The monastic and cathedral schools which had been established earlier had in large part been broken up. The abbots and bishops possessed but little learning. There had for some time been a form of school connected with the royal court. the reorganization of this school Alcuin introducing into it first addressed himself. and the lower from bondmen. known as the palace school. astronomy. To clergy. To meet the needs of such a heterogeneous circle was no easy task. though the study of letters had played but a small part in it. Charlemagne learned to read E2S7^uTTs~said~never :to have mastered the art of writing. were grossly The copying of books had almost ceased. pp. elementary nature. the king and queen. Fortunately examples of Alcuin's instruction have been preserved to us in a dialogue prepared for the instruction of Pepin.. Po etry. and the monasteries had become places for the pensioning of royal favorites and hence had lost their earlier religious zeal and effectiveness. A. attaches. and learning was slowly dying out. greatly to the injury of the Church. darkest period of the 141 From 600 to 850 has often been called the Dark Ages. With the older memFor all. Alcuin knew how to meet him. arith-. and so. The school included the princes and princesses of the royal household.. relatives. recruited largely ignorant. Alcmn. The instruction which Alcuin provided for the younger members of the circle was largely of the question and answer (catechetical) type. ranging over the instruction was of a most elements of the subjects of instruction of the time. both as a delight himself and a means of giving stability to his government. on one occasion when he had jocular or grave and reproving. though. he was at the same time imperious. anOhiab^_are " "men tionecfashaving been studied. 45-47- .

63). lessons suitable for the whole year and for each separate festival. "in two volumes. and there are not wanting evidences that some of them were disposed to But he was indefatigable. who were capable of giving instruction in arithmetic. and from it we can infer much as to the state of learning among the monks and clergy of the time. . which has been almost forgotten by the negligence of our ancestors. singing. running straightway into the fields of the ancients to pluck their flowers of correct speech and scatter them in sport before his boys. and. but had special anxiety to learn all about the moon that was needed to calculate Easter. studied everything Alcuin set before him. and free from error. watchful zeal to advance the cause of learning. The . general proclamation on education of the issued (R. levity and even carped at his teachings. and wouldst thou have twelve? " But his personal affection for the king was most unselfish. also we invite those whom we can to master the study ing the palace school. "Why can I not have twelve clerks such Twelve Augustines and Jeromes! and to be made arise as these?" "What!" he discreetly Alcuin was shocked. . the preparation and sending out of a carefully collected and edited series of sermons to the churches containing. and he consequently took great delight in stimulating his desire for learning. Charlemagne. imported a number of monks from Italy. he impatiently demanded of Alcuin. and letter umes and arrival at the court. Alcuin of the liberal arts. by our example. "the Lord of heaven and earth had but two such. the other scholars were soon inspired to beset Alcuin with endless puzzling questions. and sent them In 787 the first Middle Ages was to the principal monasteries to teach. exercises he says of himself that "as soon as the ruddy charioteer of the dawn suffuses the liquid deep with the new light of day." These Charlemagne ordered used He also says. the old man rubs the sleep of night from his eyes and leaps at once from his couch. After reorganizand Charlemagne turned their attention to the improvement of education among the monks and The first important service was clergy throughout the realm.142 HISTORY OF EDUCATION been informed of the great learning of Augustine and Jerome. In this document the king gently reproves the abbots of his realm for their illiteracy. . In one of his poetical rising with the sun to prepare for teaching." He Charlemagne's proclamations on education." meaning thereby to incite the bishops and vol- clergy to a study of the learning of the mediaeval time. four years after Alcuin's Further to aid in the revival of learning. grammar. 64 a). and/^feejiSyttaKBste^he study of letters. at the king's bidding! rejoined. in 787. With such an eager and impatient pupil as Charles. "we have striven with in the churches (R. The were sent out in 786.

The difficulties they faced are almost beyond our comprehension. after all. That/$0af'zac/taji»ch»og®ve an important impetus . results of the rather meager. Finally. of course. but the hand is Alcuin's. nor to fail to send copies of his letter "to all your sufTwo fragans and fellow bishops. It may be said that by Charlemagne's work he greatly widened the area of civilization. In 802 he further commanded that "laymen shall learn thor- oughly the Creed and the Lord's Prayer" (R. and closing with: And let schools be established in which boys may learn to read." He therefore commands the abbots neither to neglect the study of letters. classes." Charlemagne. or that the idea of compulsory education ever entered his head.. the calendar. if they wish to have his favor. and that the child should remain at school with all diligence until he should become well instructed in learning. The actual work of Charlemagne and Alcuin were. but they pray badly because of incorrect books. 64 c). the signs in writing. uneducated on account of the neglect of study. Correct carefully the Psalms. and that he began the substitution of ideas for might as a ruling force among the tribes Effect of the under his rule. was addressing freemen of the court and the official That he ever meant to include the children of the labor- ing classes. the grammar. the tongue. the songs. because often some desire to pray to God properly. checked the decline in learning and reawakened a desire for study. Nobles and clergy were alike ignorant and uncouth. and the catholic book. in his enthusiasm for schools. 64 b) to the ministers and clergy of his realm. may well be doubted. in each monastery and bishopric. There seemed no place to begin. Charlemagne went so far as to direct that "every one should send his son to school to study letters. exhorting them to live clean and just lives. because what pious devotion dictated faithfully to the mind. was not able to the abbots. he commenting on the fact that they had sent letters to him telling him that "sacred and pious prayers" were being offered in his behalf.PRESERVATION OF LEARNING signature tells is 143 In it Charlemagne's." years later (789) Charlemagne supplemented this by a further general admonition (R. 'that he recognized in "most of these letters both correct thoughts and uncouth expressions. work of Charlemagne and Alcuin. and to all the monasteries. created a new Frankish-Roman Empire to be the inheritor of the civilization and culture of the old one. in express in a letter without error.

the division of his empire. contrasts the state of learning in England and Frankland. Charlemagne having substituted merit for favoritism in his realm. promoting to be bishops and abbots the most learned men of his time. let them not refuse to receive and teach such children. as a teacher as well that at his death. and if any of the faithful wish to entrust their children to them for the learning of letters. and appeals to Charlemagne for by books from England to copy (R. nor receive anything from them. soon after his been described. after fourteen years of strenuous service at Charlemagne's court.144 work HISTORY OF EDUCATION which resulted of the to the study of letters. 65) So important was his work inmost of the important educational centers of t^kJMtyWliZMMP the hands of his former . itjJS . The work of Alcuin in directing the copying of manuscripts has In a letter to Charlemagne. copying manuscripts. was rewarded . however. appointment. the king with the office of Abbot at the monastery of Saint Martin. There he spent the last eight years of his life in teaching. seems certain. Moreover." and "they that instruct many in righteousness shall shine as the stars forever and forever. remembering that it is written. Bishop of He carried out most thoroughly in his diocese the instructions of the king. he reviews his labors. let them teach them from pure affection. and the invasions of the declined again. Men knew more of books and wrote better Latin than before." And let them exact no price from the children for their teaching. In a few schools there and these became the centers of learning of the future. giving to his clergy the following directions : Let the priests hold schools in the towns and villages. were against any large success for such an ambitious educational undertaking. the most able of his helpers was Theodulf. at Tours. Another able assistant was Alcuin' himself who. so. many of these became zealous workers in the cause of education and did much to keep up and advance learning when Charlemagne came was no decline. "the wise shall shine as the splendor of the firmament. after his death. and after the death of Charlemagne. education slowly it had reached to the throne. save what their parents may offer voluntarily and from affection. though never to quite the level Northmen. and writing letters to bishops and abbots regarding the advancement of religion and learning. Among Orleans. and those who wished to' learn found it easier to do The state of society and the condition of the times. in a real revival in the edu- cational of some monasteries and cathedral schools.

ex- tending over nearly a hundred years. who became head of the monastery school at Fulda. Other bands of these Northmen (Danes and Norwegians) began prey on the northern coast of Frankland. the Northmen. 145 Perhaps the most important of all these was Rabanus Maurus. and King Alfred. plundering and burning the churches and monasteries. Amiens and to . Where the Danes ravaged England about one half of England. effected by King Alfred in 878. and destroying books and learning everywhere. these Danes gradall ually overran of eastern and central England from London north to beyond Whitby. 66). Five years after Alcuin went to Frankland to help Charlemagne revive learning in his kingdom. From Tours to Corbie (see Figure 41) churches and monasteries were pillaged and burned. In raid after raid.PRESERVATION OF LEARNING pupils. gives a gloomy picture of the destruction wrought to the churches and the decay of learning in England. perishing. By the Peace of Wedmore. shall learn New a fresh series of barbarian invasions began with the raiding of the English coast by the Danes. The damage done by these invaders very large. in his introduction to an AngloSaxon translation of Pope Gregory's Pastoral Care (R. We more of him in the next chapter. and in the tenth century seized all the coast of what is now northern France and down as far as Paris and Tours. Tours and Corbie with ti^i^&^mm>ha^a. invasions. the Danes were finally given Fig. 42. and in return agreed to settle down and was accept Christianity.

68). 2 The Northmen ceased not to take Christian people captive and kill them. and some of the Saxon towns were besieged. Duke of the Normans. . in 912. after six centuries of bloodshed and pillige and turmoil and disorder. nobles. of women. and agreed to settle down in what has ever since been known as Normandy. and one from which the land did not recover for a long time. This was the last of the great German tribes to move. and England did not recover from the blow for centuries. The set-back to learning caused by barbarism was a serious one. . and all who saw Christian people slaughtered were filled with sorrow and despair. others burned. and disorder reigned throughout northern Frankland. including both men and goods. 846 ^'°-Digi^M-b^Viiir^ofm Ji nna ^s °f - ^ aint Vaast. 3 After much destruction. and most terribly did they oppress the Christians. 1 A The Normans inflicted much harm in Frisia and about the Rhine. they returned to their own Frisia .146 HISTORY OF EDUCATION Paris were laid siege to. Three selections will illustrate: According to their custom the Northmen plundered East and West and burned towns. Rollo. The Annals of Xanten and the Annals of Saint Vaast. known to history as Alfred the Great. . mighty army of them collected by the river Elbe against the Saxons. finally accepted Christianity. 884 a. 1 AfinaJs of Xanten. and others. The revival which Charlemagne had started was checked. . of laymen. With their boats filled with immense booty. In northern Frankland and in England the results were disastrous. great efforts to revive Probably inspired by the example of made Charlemagne. he established a large palace school (R. western Europe. children. who ruled as English king from 871 to 901. From here portions of the invaders afterward passed over to England in the Norman Conquest of 1066. and suckling babes. give gloomy pictures of this period. . was at last ready to begin in earnest the building-up of a new civilization and the restoration of the old learning. . and after they had raided and plundered and settled down and accepted Christianity. and to destroy churches and houses and burn villages. education sadly declined as a result of nearly a century of struggle against the invaders this latest deluge of (R. Work of Alfred in England. There was no road or place where the dead did not lie. Alfred. country. Even in the parts of England not invaded and pillaged. two mediaeval chronicles of importance. to the support of which he devoted one eighth of his income he imported . 66). Through all the streets lay bodies of the clergy. learning in his kingdom.d.

67). restored monasteries. Picture the gradual dying-out of Roman learning in the Western Empire. 1 With the great decay of the Latin learning he tried to encourage the use of the native Anglo-Saxon language. foi a time seriously interfered with the development of that native English learning of which Alfred wrote. . and indicated somewhat the great destruction they wrought within the bounds of the old Empire. which took place in western Europe." while those who were to continue study should then be taught Latin. In his Introduction to Gregory's volume (R. and explain why pagan schools and learning lingered longer in Britain. . Digitized by Microsoft® . QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION <jf. The coming of the Normans in 1066. 66) he expresses the hope. that all the free-born youth now in England. "If we have tranquillity enough. the preservation of learning in the monasteries. In the preceding chapter and in this one we have traced briefly the great invasions. the compilation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was begun. ones destroyed. 2 Through Alfred's efforts. Ireland. that the people of England might be able to read the history of their country in thei'r own language. and with some success. .extinct? ^Explain how j. 2. after which we shall be ready to pass to the beginnings of that Revival of Learning which ultimately resulted their kingdoms.. In this chapter we have traced the beginnings of Christian schools to replace the to . 2 and to this end translated books from Latin into Anglo-Saxon for his people.ny intellectual y than gfExplain how the copying of manuscripts led to further educational development in the monasteries. Would the convents have tended to attract a higher quality of women the monasteries did of men? Why? the king's displeasure. who are rich enough to be able to devote themselves it . with the introduction of NormanFrench as the official language of the court and government. and Italy than elsewhere.PRESERVATION OF LEARNING scholars from Mercia and Frankland (R.. and the efforts of Charlemagne and Alfred to revive learning in In the chapter which follows we shall describe it had evolved by the twelfth century. the mediaeval system of education as in the rediscovery of the learning of the ancient world. fearing to learn from their children. sought 1 It is related that ignorant court officials. or migrations. be set tq learn English writing. At what time was the old Roman civilization and learning most nearly the monasteries were forced to develop schools to maintain life. and tried hard to revive schools and encourage learning throughout his realm.

try to picture what would. Alcuin: Letter to Charlemagne as to Books and Learning. Alcuin: Catalogue of the Cathedral Library at York. and of the fight to save some vestiges of the old civilization. and the modern letter of honorable dismissal of a student from a college or normal Digitized school. 54. A Monk: Work of a Nun in copying Books. SELECTED READINGS In the accompanying Book of Readings the following selections are reproduced: 53. Clark: Anathemas to protect Books from Theft. was the relative condition of learning in Frankland and England. Migne: Forms used in connection with monastery life: (a) Form for offering a Child to a Monastery. (a) The Proclamation of 787 a. Othlonus: Work of a Monk in writing and copying Books. (J>) General Admonition of 789 a.d. Ninth-Century Plan of the Monastery at Saint Gall. (b) The letter of dismissal from a monastery (53 by Microsoft® c).d. looking toward a revival of learning in Frankland? V^Explain how Latin came naturally to be the language of the Church. 61. 67. yWhat %. and had Christianity not arisen and conquered.: 148 HISTORY OF EDUCATION why Greek was known longer in Ireland and Britain than elsewhere in the West. 57. 65.d. have been the result had Rome not built up an Empire. about 900 a. and a modern court form for renouncing or adopting a child. Alcuin: Description of the School at York. Bede: On Education in Early England. 59. (J) Theodore's Work for the English Churches. 63.? 8. Charlemagne: Letter sending out a Collection of Sermons. 56. Point out the similarity between (a) The form for offering a child to a monastery and the monastic vow (S3 a-b). 60. King Alfred: State of Learning in England in his Time.nd of scholarship in western Europe throughout all the Middle Ages. . Abbot Heriman: The Copying of Books at a Monastery. What light is thrown on the conditions of the civilization of the time by the small permanent success of the efforts of Charlemagne. ^. 64. (c) How Albinus succeeded Abbot Hadrian. Asser: Education of the Son of King Alfred. Charlemagne: General Proclamations as to Education. 69. 68. Alcuin: Specimens of the Palace School Instruction. Explain is/ After reading the story of the migrations. 66. Symonds: Scarcity and Cost of Books. (c) Letter of Honorable Dismissal from a Monastery.d. (6) The Monastic Vow. (a) The Learning of Theodore. Asser: Alfred obtains Scholars from Abroad. 62. (c) Order as to Learning of 802 a. 58. QUESTIONS ON THE READINGS 1. 55.

W. L. Mediceval Civilization. D. The Monks of the West. Alcuin. West. 1 . analogous to the process in more 5. G. Compart the type of books copied by the Abbot of Saint Mar^ns (55) and thos: copied by the nun at Wessebrunn (56). F. as indicated by King Alfred's Introduction to Pope Gregory's Pastoral Care (66). evolution of the school-teacher out of the copyist at Ratisbon of labor. * Clark. G. Classical Heritage of the Middle Ages. * Eckenstein. W. * Cutts. J. Taylor. Edw. Libraries in the Mediceval and Renaissance Period. A. F. Civilization during the Middle Ages. What was the extent of the destruction wrought by the Danes in England. What was the condition of learning among the higher clergy and monks as shown by Charlemagne's proclamations (64)? 8. History of Mediceval Europe. SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES * Adams. Montalembert. Lina. son (68)? Study out the plan of the monastery of Saint Gall (69). Count de. H. Leach. 3. B. Scenes and Characters of the Middle Ages. Lynn. and the Rise of Christian Schools.PRESERVATION OF LEARNING J 149 2. Munro. Short History of Monks and Monasticism. A. What dc the selections from Bede (59 a-c) indicate as to the preservation of the c Id learning in the cities of southern Italy? What as to the conditio 1 of learning and teaching in England in Bede's day? What is the status of education indicated by the selections from Alcuin. C. E. The Schools of Mediaval England. on the cathedral school at York (60) and the palace school instruction /of Pepin (62)? ^. Was (55)i the' by a specialization modern imes? 4. Women under Monasticism. Explain the mediaeval belief in the effectiveness to protect books from theft of such anathemas as are reproduced in 58. A. and enumerate the various activities of such a center. * Wishart. O. and his efforts to obtain scholars from abroad (67)? 0. and Sellery. Digitized by Microsoft® . What was the character of the education King Alfred provided for his 10. 6. Thorndike.

by the tenth century. and writing by the . the monasteries fhad oped both inner monastic schools for those intending /to take the vows (oblati). a%&839BgAfefefi>£/83!nans. simple reckoning. Elementary instruction and schools In the preceding chapters devel- Monastic and conventual schools. and rules of conduct constituted the range of instruction. religious observances.CHAPTER II. The distinction in name was due to the fact that the oblati were from the first considered as belonging to the brotherhood. outside the main portion of the monastery (see Figure 38). Reading was taught by outer school. The instruction in the inner school was meager. and outer monastic schools for those not so intending (externi). participating in the religious services and helping the monks at their work. VII EDUCATION DURING THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES SCHOOLS ESTABLISHED AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED i. Reading. we found that. the alphabet method. An Outer Monastic School wood engraving) (After an old A similar classification of instruction had been evolved for the convents. The others were not so admitted. and in all monasteries of any size a separate building. music. writing. was provided for the / * 43. and in the outer school probably even more so.

In the cathedral churches. some of the old lesson books of so much importance time and attention. keep his knife sharp and clean. or other large church. not to take a seat unasked. as stated in the last chapter. as _ xizftd rather than read Copy-books. the musical part of the service to secure boys for the choir and for other churches organized what came to be known church services these In these a number of promising boys were as song schools (R. The Psalter. and . nor fidget with He is not to scratch himself. being . though. Special attention seems to have been given to teaching rules of conduct to the oblati. schools were placed under the precentor (choir director) of the cathedral. SCHOOLS AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED use of 151 and the stylus.. the diocese also schools of As the parish churches in need boys for their services. outside the Church and perhaps in Central Italy. except that much more attention was given to the musical instruction. usually wax. in the church services. counting and finger reckoning. Song and parish schools. was the first reading book. not to seize upon vegetaMes. In the convents similar schools were developed.^ usually were given board. Up to the eleventh century this instruction. not to loll against the wall. -Music.. meager as it was. Latin was used in conversation as much as possible. and instruction in "' return for their services as choristers. received much In arithmetic. much more attention was given to the education of those not intending to take the vows. As Latin by this time had practically ceased to be a living tongue. 1 and much corporal punishment was used to facilitate learning. and not to usfTiKrspoWl in i Wrammon dish. the difficulties of instruction were largely increased." . The students in these ^ was very important. or book of Latin psalms. constituted the whole of the preparatory training necessary for the study of theologyand a career in the Church. was taught. the scholasticus confining his The boys attention to the higher or more literary instruction provided. 75). He is to wash his hands before meals. and which "prescribes that the young man is to kneel when answering the Abbot. things within reach. and other larger non-cathedral churches. were used. lodging. after the Roman plan. nor cross his legs like a tailor. Much attention was given had been the practice at Rome. with copies expressing some scriptural injunction. parish a similar nature were in time organized in connection came to 1 Anderson tells of a monastic student's notebook on conduct which has been preserved. and this was memo- wax tablets to Latin pronunciation. 70) trained in the same studies and in much the same way as were boys in the monastery schools. much resembling conversation books of to-day in the modern. .' languages (R.

Chantry schools. mass in honor of some special saint. and to these advanced schools those who felt the need for more training went. As grammar was. 71) France early became celebrated for the high character of their and ^vp^c^ho^ars they produced. came and the schools came to be known as chantry schools. All . It was out of this need. who felt themselves particularly in need of assistance for their misdeeds on earth. and by a very slow and gradual evolution. Advanced instruction- Cathedral and higher monastic schools.. near the latter part of the period under consideration in this chapter. As the song schools developed the cathedral schools were of course freed from the necessity of teaching reading and writing. that the parish school in western Europe was developed later on. but which will be enumerated here became very common. 2. The as well as cathedral or episcopal schools cathedral churches and monasteries of England and instruction (R. on the contrary. and frequently of the Virgin Mary. 73) became quite times. After the twelfth century this type of foundation (R. Men.152 HISTORY OF EDUCATION with them. or stipendary schools. the Creed. Still which did not arise until another type of elementary school. 72). Some- and especially was this the case later on school was ordered maintained. or sometimes who were to chant masses each day for the repose of their Sometimes the property was left to endow a priest to say souls. and in time it became com- mon for those leaving money for the prayers to stipulate in the should also teach a school. where the children were -taught to know the Lord's Prayer. (R. sum of money to a church to endow a priest. Usually a very elementary type of school was provided. in England. This they did. a the Virgin. some of them bqgan voluntarily to teach the elements of religion and learning to selected boys. in dying. certain psalms. the Salutation to will that the priest sign of the cross. leave a two. to sign themselves rightly with the and perhaps to read and write (Latin). grammar common. throughout all the early part of the Middle Ages. as did many of the monasteries. the advanced schools and most important came to be known grammar schools. the -as first subject of instruction. As such priests usually felt the need for some other occupation. would as descriptive of a type which later through wills. and could then develop more advanced instruction.

They were for at least six hundred years the only advanced teaching institutions in western Europe. when the Christian writers summarized the ancient learning under these' seven headings or studies. many being totally destroyed. both for their subjects and for other be found necessary.: . because in these chiefly the commandments of God are manifest and declared. though. who attained to leadership in the service of the Church in either y^ of its two great branches. (6) Astron- omy. '''' barbarian deluges and the reconstruction of society. (3) Dialectic (Logic). bishops shall care diligence. the continent. the advanced instruction of the period. The II. The advanced studies which were offered in the more important monastery and cathedral schools comprised what came to be known as The Seven Liberal Arts l of The knowledge ^contained in these studies. 70. places in which it shall teachers who shall assiduously teach grammar schools and the principles of the liberal arts. SCHOOLS AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED of the 153 these schools. The Qtjadrivium: (4) Arithmetic. 70). the universities of a later period developed. as the following decree of the Lateran Church Council of 826 indicates: On \ Complaints have been made that in some places no masters nor Therefore all endowment bestow all for a grammar and school is found. I. and numerous private gifts of lands and money were made to establish grammar schools to supplement the work done by the cathedral and other large . (7) 'Music. (2) Rhetoric. to establish masters and advanced schools the cathedral or episformed what might be called the secondary-school system of the early Middle Ages (Rs. .\'church schools ^ The Seven Liberal Arts. 71). and out of one or the other of these two types of advanced schools came practically all those?-. . Still more. These Seven Liberal Arts were comprised of two divisions. 1 This expression came into common use in the fifth century. due to the greater deluge of barbarism and the more unsettled condition of society. out of the impetus given to advanced study by the more important of these schools. represents the taught as amount of secular learning which was intentionally preserved by the Church from neglect and destruction during the period of the of These two types copal and the monastic — — . (5) Geometry. * known as Teivium: (i) Grammar. following earlier Greek and R<fiffisfeefclsW!fiftfoaeft®(See p. more difficulty was experienced in getting cathedral schools established. suffered a serious set-back during the period Danish and Norman invasions. the Middle Ages.

and the beginnings of music and numbers). thus completing the Trivium.Fig. the Hornbook (ABC's) and the rudiments of learning (reading. On the door is written the word congruilas. Seneca's Morals. (' Gramaire On the first and second floors of first hath for to teche to speke upon congruite. followed by the RheThe Arithmetic of Boetoric and Poetry of Tully. studying successively Physics. of the Quadrivium. The youth. and of Priscian. and the Theology (or Metaphysics) of Peter Lombard. taking in order the Music of Pythagoras. Euclid's Geometry. p . the last 15fci»&z#tfe6gV*ffcra«Qf](@ which all has been directed. and Ptolemy's Astronomy. 44. On the fourth floor he completes the studies thius also appears on the third floor. from an illuminated picture in the 1508 (Basel) edition of the Margarita Philosophica of Greg- ory de Reisch. The Medieval "System of Education summarized Allegorical representation of the progress and degrees of education. advances toward the temple of knowledge.") the temple he studies the Grammar of Donatus. Wisdom is about to place the key in the lock of the door of the temple. writing. signifying Grammar. and at the first stage at the left on the third floor he studies the Logic of Aristotle. having mastered ' The student now advances to the study of Philosophy.

minds of the and a mediaeval textbook writer of importance. This mediaeval system of education is well summarized in the drawing given on the opposite page. and their use in the Christian scheme of education (R. Rhabanus Maurus (776-865). I. the servant of logic. the relief of medicine. 155 came Ethics or Metaphysics. the interpreter of theology. grammar always came first as the basal subject." the sense we know the study to-day. immensely popular. by Alexander de It Villa Die. was S^fSSSF^ M^> This was in rhyme. "3. In 1 the introduction to an improved Latin grammar. 74).SCHOOLS AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED* Beyond these all studies. was grammar. published about 1 1 19. and only a little of the studies beyond. recopied at Basle. Only a few taught the full range of mediaeval learning. it being. and was the goal toward which all the preceding studies had tended. " the Arts Liberal science which teaches us to explain the poets and historians." Figure 45. and the art which qualifies us to speak and write correctly" (R. also emphasizes the great importance of grammar with the words: Wythout whiche science (s)ycherly ' alle In other sciences in especial ben of lytyl recomme(d). Abbot of the greatest for years at Fulda. the mistress of rhetoric. and became the &fteenth CentUry ' . one Middle Ages. addition to grammar in 1 The Doctrinale. taken from an illuminated picture inserted in a famous mediaeval manuscript.< ''- The foundation and source of all the 1. This last represented the one professional study of the whole middle-age period. THE TRIVIUM Of the three studies forming the Trivium. has left us a good description of each of the Seven Liberal Arts studies as they were developed in his day. grammar is defined as "The doorkeeper of all the other sciences. and the praiseworthy foundation of the whole quadrivium. ana the greatest of Theology. 71). Switzerland. 74 a). and taoght perhaps only a little of the second group. Others emphasized the Trivium. in 1508. the apt expurgatrix of the stammering tongue. of the lesser monasteries Many instruction chiefly in of the times (R. Not all these studies were taught in every monastery or cathe- and schooif offered grammar. from one of the earliest books printed in English. according to Maurus. Grammar. No uniformity existed for the other two. and these were regarded as the great schools dral school.

" The leading textbook was that of Donatus." "A part of speech with case. 76). 1481 (?). figure. (After a After the invention of printing the English soon returned to the Latin forms. and not finotoei) tfy fbuttypatfe tbptfeoul lb b«c0e facnoe pfaxl? aHc ot^et fcienae Fig. These were considered necessary to enable one to read understandingly Holy Scriptures. 1 written in the fourth century. etc. verb. gender." "Noun. interjection. and vocal expression (R. word Cf)*M &*$(& <g*ie £ra. figures of speech. Plate lvi) This is a good example of early English printing. case. and Donatus (donat) and grammar came to be the 1 Donatus begins as follows: "How many "What 'What parts of speech are there?' are they?" "Eight. 26). "though the art be secular. prosody. formations. such as comparison. parconjunction." "Quality. comparison. and is a noun?" commonly. ti) cfpectal 6h) of Ipfgl t«omm& A School: A Lesson in Grammar woodcut printed by Caxton in The Mirror of the World. pronoun. signifying a body or thing particularly or ticiple. analysis. 11. ber. 45.156 HISTORY OF EDUCATION grammar in the old Roman and mediaeval mind also included much of what we know as the analytical side of the study of literature. the Germans are only now doing so." num- Digitized by Microsoft® ." "How many "What Etc. Can you read it? This "Old English. versification. From Blades' Life and Typography^ of William Caxton. shows the change in Latin letters which came about with the copying of manuscripts during the Middle Ages. "it has nothing unworthy about it. attributes have nouns?" are they?" "Six." like the German type (see Eig. preposition.." says Maurus. mapcc/of tpwtjbaftes Kotb. adverb.

written in the sixth century. The cost of writing-material usually precluded the latter method. so that the pupils had to learn from memory or copy from dictation. many Latin authors were read.SCHOOLS AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED 1 157 \ synonymous terms." "Why neuter?" "Why is "Because "Because all nouns whose plurals end in a are neuter. not only during the Middle Ages. and at some other places. at Tours.writing 3 and the prepa1 The following from Priscian. but well into modern times. The text by Priscian. in Switzerland. we find the learned Abbot Alcuin saying to the monks: The sacred poets are sufficient for you there is no reason why you should sully your mind with the rank luxuriance of Vergil's verse. 3 Textbooks on the art of letter-writing began to appear by the eleventh century. simple reading exercises or colloquies (R. but should not have been allowed to accompany him into paradise. Accordingly the art of letter. though where permitted the Latin authors. At Saint Gall. of using secular discourse effectively in the life. and the teacher usually had the only copy. 2 Vergil. Vergil should have been the person to guide Dante through hell and purgatory. Rhetoric. in Dante's Inferno." "Neuter." Etc. The text was of course in Latin. The famous New England Primer was in part in this form. . that is. 74 b). was especially guarded against during the early Middle Ages as the most seductive of It is not at all inappropriate that. of "What part of speech is arma?" "A noun." circumstances of daily and enabling the preacher or missionary to put the divine message in eloquent and impressive language (R. were introduced. questions and answers. After sufficient ability in grammar had been attained. 2 were read. The treatment in each was catechetical in form. usually of a religious or moralizing nature. was "the art 2. reproduced instruction as applied to the first book of the by Graves. and other formal documents." "Abstract. deeds.. which were learned. Much of the old Roman rhetoric had been taken over by grammar. was also extensively used. on the other hand. and many early American textbooks in history and geography were written after this plan. it must be remembered. due to his beautiful poetic form and to his love of nature and life. as well as the priest." not the singular used?" this noun expresses many differ- ent things. etc. explaining in detail how to pBSpefetey^fcffeJS®18 oi a letter: (i) the salutation . proclamations.. the ancient Latin writers. as defined by Maurus. such as wills. 75). illustrates the method Mncid of Vergil. and upon him devolved the preparation of most of the legal papers of the time. This form of textbook writing was common." Rhetoric. especially Vergil. became the secretary and lawyer of the Middle Ages. The priest." "Of what sort?" "Of what class?" "Of what gender?" "Common. but in its place was added a certain amountof letter and legal documentary writing.

of the subjects of this (sahitalio). ration of legal documents were and some study of both the civil ("worldly ") and canon (church) law was gradually introduced. prepared by Boethius.was much more in demand. grammar was the great subject of the seven during all the early Middle Ages. No . 64). Particularly was this the case during the early Middle Ages. constituting the Trivium. 74 c). and the Arabic notation was not known in western Christian Europe until the beginning of the thirteenth century. is the science of 3. Dialectic. expose The error. Digitized by Microsoft® . (2) the art of introducing the subject properly and making a good impression (captatio benevolentia) (3) the body of the letter (narratio). By means of its aid one was enabled to unmask falsehood. with theology more of a rational science and less a matter of dogma. and draw conclusions accurately. After the rise of the universities and the organization of schools of theology. THE QUADRIVIUM cases before the thirteenth century. or logic. sufficed to prepare for the em Europe was exceedingly small. and hence the science of sciences (R. Theological questions formed the practical exercises. dialectic later came to take its place. II. says Maurus. constituted the texts used. Extracts from the works of Aristotle. and While later his complete works. and also subject-matter which . as long as the Roman system of notation was in use (see footnote. and (5) a fitting conclusion (condusio). Dialectic. (4) how to make the request {petitio). The trivial studies. though those few who desired to prepare thoroughly also studied the subjects of In schools not offering instruction in this adthe quadrivium. study was one of preparation for ethics and theology later on. and the schools doing most in dialectic attracted many students because of this. formulate argument. vanced group some of the elements of its four studies were often taught from the textbooks in use for the Trivium.158 HISTORY OF EDUCATION made a part of the study of rhetoric. when the knowledge of arithmetic. based as they were directly on the old Roman learning and schools. understanding. and astronomy possessed by westregular order in the study group was followed. dialectic came to hold first place in importance as a preparation for the disputations of the later Middle Ages. These three studies. 1. contained more that was within the teaching knowledge of the time than did the subjects of the Quadrivium. p. geometry. Arithmetic. in most study of theology. Naturally little could be done in this subject 4.

and our Lord fasted forty days. even. The number 40 contains the number 10 four times. 3 afterwards Pope Sylvester II. adverbial. imperfect. Without strict observance and investigation the matter cannot be explained. He also and made work with large numbers devised an easier form for large divisions. that means to fast forty days. to pointing out the scriptural significance of number. l . portion of a chapter by Capella on the number four. that is. "odd. 400. perfect. made up of the four decades. but regarded as wonderful in its day. autumn. and night. The day consists of morning. for it is composed of length and depth.SCHOOLS AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED 159 and was not much used for two or three centuries later. denunciative.". having studied in the Saracen schools of Spain. Similarly a hundred is twenty. and to the uses of arithmetic in determining 1 in 820. summer. evening. withholding for 10 is taken four times ourselves from worldly lusts. The textbook by Rhabanus Maurus On Reckoning. which are a hundred. Further. four vices. winter. 200' 300. He afterwards became Pope Sylvester II Because of his . the end century Gerbert. the four elements of which it consists reveal themselves clearly. What is to be said of the fact that there are four seasons of the year. that is. by which all is signified which concerns the temporal. solid. simple enough in possible. devised a simple abacus-form for expressing numbers. In the latter is the three for we must love God with our whole heart and soul and mind. composite.scientific knowledge in an age of superstition he was (990-1003). Elijah. plane. the creature which consists of body and spirit. added together in order. thirty. that from one. calculating the date of Easter. and is devoted to describing the properties of numbers. the days and the seasons run their course. The three (trinity) indicated the Creator. the year of spring. reproduces a. according to the number 4. 65). ioo. after the old Roman plan (see Near is church days." says Maurus." 3 Gerbert (953-1003) was one of the most learned monks of his day. largely in dialogue (catechetical) form. "will not pass on indifferently when he reads that Moses. ordinal. it was but little in advance of that given to novitiates in the monasteries. For. four. itself. on the other hand. three. issued of the tenth p. and four is. This greatly simplified calculation. So the Holy Scriptures contain suggestively in many different numbers all sorts of secrets which must remain hidden to those who do not understand the meaning of numbers. So far as arithmetic was taught before that time. So ten thousand is made up of another series. forty. etc. showing how number was applied to Holy Writ. midday. four quarters of the heavens. the seven. illustrative of the mediaeval study of the properties of number: "What shall I call four? in which is a certain perfection of solidarity. except that much attention was devoted to an absurd study of the properties of numbers. two. distributive' multiple. In the body. and a full decade is made up from those four numbers Andepcm is which . It reads: "A real thinker. virtues./jy Microsoft® : — — . and interpreting passages in the Scriptures involving measurements (R." 2 Anderson reproduces a paragraph from Maurus. cardinal. 2 and to an elaborate explanation of finger reckoning. ten. and again four numbers from a hundred on amount to a thousand. accused of transactions with t&^fesiJ. 74 d). we have the number 10 to recognize God and the creature. So if we are moved through that which is signified by the number 10 to live in time chaste. and four principles of the elements? There are also four ages of man.

1 60 HISTORY OF EDUCATION numbers may be shown from the Gerbert's form for expressing following simple Arabic sum in addition: Form 1204 538 2455 6ig .

Jerusalem. is very poorly done. world at that time. corner. was ^ omy. while a very pleasing to any instruction in astronomy worth tion. 46. and the northern the Greek islands. Note the the animal geography (Bethlehem. classical Ptolemaic theory of a the Saracens. Pillars of Hercules) and The Mediterranean Sea in the center. life (lion) introduced in the upper peninsula the Nile. the best-known part of the African coast are easily recognized. An Anglo-Saxon Map map of the World Museum) (From a tenth-century This is in the British mixture of Biblical and one of the better maps of the period. the Italian Western Europe. too. saturate(b/paiJw8^to0te^?® as the selection on the/.SCHOOLS AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED 161 Fig. the the heavenly bodies and around of flat earth located at the center theological concepwhich they all revolved. . the British isles. was absolutely fatal All mediaeval astronwhile and to any astronomical advance. in the eleventh century.

While the textbooks mentioned under the description of each of the Liberal Arts formed the basis of the instruction given. instruction in music was quite extensive.I 62 HISTORY OF EDUCATION motion of the heavenly bodies reproduced from Bartholomew Anglicus shows (R. and from early times a good course in musical theory was taught (R.. through different songs and melodies as well as through ecclesiastical science. Boethius' De Musica. now the British Museum) monastery at Saint became famous as musical centers. This instrument added much to the value of the music course.C. written at the beginning of the sixth century. Music. Physics was often taught as a part of the instruction in astronomy. and the hymns composed by Christian musicians form an important part musical heritage. 47. the 7. and litanies. sequences. and the organ with a keyboard to the close of the eleventh cen- tury. and the supernatural was invoked to explain such phenomena . but everywhere from sea to sea. The organ. Little else of what we to-day know as physics was then known. 77 b). is Church an old instrument. 1 the of our The cathedral school at Metz and Gall Fig. was the text used. most of the instruction For example. two thirteenth-century hymns. the Stabat Mater and the Dies Ira. 74 f). Unlike the other studies of the Quadrivium. too." The great textbooks of the Middle Ages. called the most pathetic and the latter the most sublime of all Digitizid by Microsoft® medieval poems. and consisted of lessons on the properties of matter (R. going back to the second century B. tropes. 77 a) and some of the simple principles of dynamics. and eclipses. comets. and of the work of one of the teachers of music at Saint Gall (Notker) it was written by his biographer: "Through differ- ent hymns. The Copernican theory of the motion of the heavenly bodies was not published until 1 543 and all our modern ideas date from that time. An Early Church Musician in (From a fourteenth-century manuscript. as meteors. Music entered into so many naturally was activities of the that much made of it. the pupils of this man made the church of God famous not merely in Alemannia. 1 / / The former has been .

wrote treatises on the 1 Cassiodorus was an educated later-Roman. the Ostrogothic king. Six of these were so famous and so widely used that each deserves a few words of description. who had been chief minister to Theodoric. desiring to marry. and ethics. arithmetic. and of the writings of Plato. rx. music. Astronomy. 2 " Wisdom hath builded her fej^Se^S^^ffelSft®"14 her seven pillars. Arithmetic.SCHOOLS AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED original works. prepared a digest of each of the Seven Liberal Arts for / monastic use. Bishop of Seville (c. whom we met in the preceding chapter (p. and then to devote themselves to it. Alcuin. with many of which he was familiar. 1. Isidore. were contained in the texts he wrote. Geometry.. prepared an encyclopaedia of the ancient learning for the use of the monks and clergy which was intended While he to be a summary of all knowledge worth knowing. This textbook was more widely used during the Middle Ages than any — — other book. He later founded the monastery of Viviers. 2. 570-636). but 163 before the twelfth century was not given from editions of the from abridged compendiums. was the first of the five great mediaeval textbooks. 3. finally settles on the learned maiden Philology. Rhetoric. geometry. contrary to the attitude of Cassiodorus he forbade the monks and clergy to make any use of them whatever. a learned scholar of the eighth century. Mercury. Isidore full mediaeval. fixing the number at seven by scriptural authority^ 2 4. and Music enter in turn at the ceremony and tell" who they are and what they represent. having prepared textbooks on dialectic. His De Musica was used in the universities as a textbook until near the middle of the eighteenth century. and the seven bridesmaids Grammar. between 410 and 427 a. 5. Dialectic. Cassiodorus was still in part a Roman. book Boethius (475-524) was "another important medieval textwriter. 1. written by Martinus Capella. and had done much to carry over Latin learning and civilization into the new regime. advised to read Cato. under the title of Etymologies or Origines.) . and spent the latter part of his life there in writing and contemHe urged the monks to study. 490-585). and Columella on 'agriculture. The speeches of the seven maidens summarized the ancient learning in each subject. was a in southern Italy. and those who had no head for learning he plation. drew his knowledge from the writings of the Greeks and Eomans.'' (Prov- erbs. Nearly all of what the Middle Ages knew of Aristotle's Logic and Ethics.d. 140). Cassiodorus 1 (c. The Marriage of Mercury and Philology. in his On the Liberal Arts and_ Sciences.

Their purpose was not to stimulate thinking. a pupil of Alcuin. 40 30 [_ Astronomy. Training of the nobility Tenth-century conditions. For such a period such textbooks answered the purpose fairly well. Grammar Rhetoric Dialectic n 14 ' J Geometry J C Arithmetic n n . Capella 425) Boelhius Cassiodorus (c. though even a teacher's books in that day were few. in the third part of which he describes the uses and 1 He also wrote the subject-matter of each of the Arts (R. reduces each of these textbooks to their equivalent in a modern i6mo printed page. but supplemented from other sources. but to transmit that modicum of secular knowledge needed for the service of the Church and as a preparation for the study of the theological writings.' — — — — 67 520) (c. 3. Rhabanus Maurus. Music 15 2 3 12 — — 23 — 128 25 — — — 60 — 115 — Totals in pages. in his monograph on The Seven Liberal Arts. The teacher usually had or had access to a copy. Some of these books were in question-and-answer (catechetical) form. Maurus (c. with the following results: Subject ( . . Maurus. based largely on the work of Isidore. (c. schools in Frankland. a period of organized anarchy followed in western Europe. 78). They were at best a mere shell. Pupils had no books at all. and lists of names. 74). and in 844 issued an encycloDe Universo. Author- magne and 1 Abelson. paedia. was uninviting. 1 their extent and scope can be imagined. 5f5) (c. bits Their style of miscellaneous information. For nearly eight hundred years education was static. In 819 the learned monk of] Fulda. Isidore 630) Alcuin (c. texts on grammar and astronomy. These were the great textbooks for the study of the Trivium and the Quadrivium throughout all the early Middle Ages. Following the death of Charlethe break-up of the empire held together by him. compared with the Greek and Roman knowledge which had been number (R. 800) 844) 25 5 50 14 14 2 1 54 26 55 ' 18 2 2 15 9 11 . issued his volume On the Instruction of the Clergy. These "great" texts were composed of brief extracts. Considering that they were in manuscript form and were in one volume. JUigit&sd by Mgyosoft® 69J 96 .J 1 64 HISTORY OF EDUCATION and on astronomy Vhich were used \ studies of the Trivium in many 6. the only purpose of instruction being to transmit to the next generation what the preceding one had known.

/* archy. "— rise of cities and industries. to realize how much fighting went on then. and small landowners alike came to depend on some nobleman for protection. and this nobleman in turn upon some lord or overlord. series of mimic encounters. of the time When man had been evolved." but quarrels were easily started. and continued as such until a better order of society could be evolved. Serfs. the evolution of modern States by the consolidatidrTbT numbers of theie'Teudal governments. This condi- was known as feudalism. For this protection military service was rendered in return. The lord lived in his castle. ninth to the middle of the thirteenth centuries it was end of the the ^ dominant form life of government. for number of small defensive groups. performing feats similar to those was a day of personal feuds 1 The mediaeval serf was the successor of the Roman slave. and private grievances were settled the "noble way" by sword BX$tk&tf\fy <fflki»6)&fm ch . and private warfare. down more completely than was forced to. and Europe. and every noble thought it his right to wage war on his neighbor at 2 As a preparaany time. personal service was changed from general to definite service.- ^ From the the passing of the conditions which gave rise to it. fighting his battles tion of society if the need arose. and oaths were poorly It kept. and the feudal relations ^„ of lord and vassal came to be the prevailing governmental organi^ Feudalism was at best an organized anzation of the period. The of the nobility under the feudal regime gave a certain picturesqueness to what was otherwise an age of lawlessness and The chief occupation of a noble was fighting. were held. and the peasantry worked his land and before. Gradually. but so well was iPc adapted to existing_con ditions that i t became the prevailing form "p of government. suited to rude and barbarous times. It is hard for us to-day his own quarrel or that of his overlord. easily taken. withouT asking the consent of any one. free 2 This took place rapidly with the dustry toward the latter part of the Middle Ages. - . the obligations of personal service to the lord.SCHOOLS AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED ity broke 165 protection. the 'qo. With the invention of gunpowder. in which it often happened that knights were killed. 1 freemen lacking land. and was a step upward The serf was tied to the soil and by in the process of the evolution of the free man. due to economic causes. In these encounters mounted knights charged one another with spear and lance. and finally to a fixed a fixed money payment took the place of personal service the rental sum. and the^ ~jl establishment of order and civilization. either in disorder. rise of cities and in- in The German private duel and the American fist fight are the modern survivals when personal insults. organize itself into a great ^supported him. known as tion for actual warfare a tournaments. Much was said about "honor. feudalism passed out with i^ .

and chess. He was usually taught to read J ° * 1. the etiquette of love and honor. music. and a knowledge of reading and writing was commonly regarded as of actual warfare. the Mexican bullfight. by his mother. trained in politeness and courtesy. was taught the meaning of obedience. The education evolution. reachraTtS~rraSmTurngrearj3B5sduring the period of the Crusades (twelfth century). and as a partial means of educating the nobility to some better conception of a purpose in life the Church aided in the development of the education of chivalry. hawking. This form of education was an began during the latterpart of the ninth century of the tenth. gallantry. at Digitized by Microsoft® . drinking. was the problem which faced the Church and all interested in establishing an orderly society in Europe. though in case of kings and feudal lords of large importance the children remained at home and were trained in the palace school. minstrelsy. Up to the age of seven or eight the youth was trained home. ravaging. so strong by nature among the Germanic tribes. 79). pillaging. and in so doing to increasingly civilize these Germanic lords and overlords. As a means of checking this outlawry the Church established and tried to enforce the "Truce of God" (R. To tive. and taught him to play chess and other games. After this. take this carousing. He was in particular attached to some lady. It of chivalry. The period of the Crusades was the heroic age of chivalry.1 66- HISTORY OF EDUCATION This was the great amusement of the period. Intelfeasting. fighting. and added its sanction to it after it arose. and refine it and in time use it to some better purpose. courtesy. who supervised his education in religion. usually his father's superior in the feudal scale. the first secular form of education in western Europe since the days of Rome. and passed out of existence by the sixteenth. compared with which the German duel. lectual ability formecTno part of their accomplishments. destruc- and murderous instinct. he was sent to the court of some other noble. and his religious education was begun. The system of education which gradually developed for the children of the nobility may be briefly described as follows: and the early part Page. From seven to fourteen the boy was known as a page. usually at seven. effeminate. He played to develop strength. diversions of the knights and nobles were hunting. The other or the American game of football are mild spprts. mak ing lov e.

conversational ability. 2 Rhyming in the vernacular language came to be an important part of the training. Short was his gowne. al the day. boxing. helping at night his him to dress. made an After fasting. and looking after him and when sick. Chaucer's knight is described as "Syngynge he was or floytynge [playing]. and continuing to render personal service in the castle. con- fession. While continuing to serve his lady. who blest it upon the altar. with whom he was still in company. By the men he was trained in running. At twenty-one the boy was knighted. a night of vigil in and communion armor spent at the altar in holy meditamorning. to handle shield meet his opponent. and the use of light weapons. but in the later times the nobles became increasingly literate. but naturally their training placed its emphasis upon household sing. caring for his clothes. with sieves longe and wyde. spear. service. duties. At fourteen or fifteen he became a squire. to whom he swore ever to be devoted. and wel purtreye and write. Girls were given this instruction along with the boys. the squire became in particular lord or knight. He also learned to rhyme. Wei cowde he sitte on hors and faire ryde. So hote he loved. that by nighterdale [night time] He slept no more than doth the nightingale. music. and to fight with sword and battle-axe. servant at meals. and impressive ceremonial. He cowde songes make and wel endite. he chose his lady-love. 2. to and play the harp. making his bed. to ride in armor. swimming. He himself learned to hunt. By the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries many began to pride themselves on their patronage of learning. and many old love songs and songs expressing the joy of life date from this period. riding. He gave his sword to the priest. 3. who was older than he and who might be married. As he approached the age of twentyone." Digitized by Microsoft® ' . Juste and eek daunce. He was as fressh as is the monthe of May. religion. and was sometimes given a instruction in reading Latin. the ceremony of dubbing the squire a knight took place in the presence of the court. in the of this the Church tion. He then 1 In the earlier days of noblemen's education reading and writing were regarded as effeminate. even though he married some one else. looked after weapons. and attention to guests. Squire. He was in a the personal servant and bodyguard of the sense a^valet for him. 2 to make songs. wrestling.: SCHOOLS AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED little 1 167 and write the vernacular language. good manners. dance. and attended and protected him on the field of com- bat or in battle. To the lord he rendered much personal service such as messenger. He also groomed his horse. and observe the ceremonials of the Church. and Knight.

. It also represents the first type of schooling in the Middle Ages designed to prepare for life here. Such. (5) Hunting. "That such tralnmg^^^iy^n^ffe"ct on the nobility of the : . (2) Swimming. the native language in was emphasized. but also for the Seven Perfections of the Middle Ages (i) Riding. to attack the wicked. charging him "to protect the widows and orphans. For the nobility it was a discipline. to _pre^_ took the oath "to defend the Church. to restore and preserve the desolate. Out of it later on _ was." . I dub thee knight. just as the Seven Liberal Arts was a discipline for the monks and clergy.the education of a gen tle^m an'a's distin ct from th at of a schola r. to respect the priesthood. Latin. evolved . (4) Fencing." knelt before his lord. briefly stated. intellectual training given — few books. even to its last drop. to revenge the wronged. drawing his He then own sword and holding it over him. the castle school evolved. who. (3) Archery. said: "In the name of God. rather than hereafter. of our Lady." The-priest-theTT returhecT him the sword which he had blessed. The chivalric ideals. of thy patron Saint. A Squire being knighted and no training (From an old manuscript) Instead. and to confirm the virtuous. (6) Whist or Chess.1 68 HISTORY OF EDUCATION womgjLjJwTh^poor. and of Saint Michael and Saint George. and prepared not only for active participation in the feuds and warfare of the time. It was essentially an education for secular ends. be brave (touching him with the sword on one shoulder) be bold (on the other shoulder). There was was little that about the in was Fig. to protect serve the country ih~tranquillity7-a3iar to shedEisTblood. and (7) Rhyming. 48. and squires England frequently learned to speak French. be loyal (on the head). in behalf of his brethren. catheschools was the educa- tion of chivalry. The dral and monastery not meeting the needs of the nobility.

who resented restraints and who had no use for intellectual discipline.. were valuable precepts to uphold in that age and time. and impetuous people. During the earlier part of the period under consideration the preparatory study necessary for service The in the Church was small. grammar at first. Ethics. life in dignifying labor and service. (8) to defend the right. quarrelsome. and later all the studies of little the study of the Trivium came to be common as preparatory study. and music. The study of Theology. and very elementary in character. reckoning. of the As the one professional study of the entire early Middle-Age and the one study which absorbed the intellectual energy one learned class. writing. Tbe_Tgri_r!o mmandments of to pray. as taught to As knowledge increased a oblati in the monasteries. 80) 4. (3) to Church. Fig. A Knight of the Time of the First Crusade (From a manuscript in the British Museum) Professional study period. chivalry did for secular life. (4) to protect widows (5) to travel. taught largely from the . sufficed. (9) to love his God. (2) to avoid sin. while not often followed. the evolution of the study of Theology possesses particular interest for us. 49. It and civilizing influence developed the ability to workjogether for comand a sense of honor in an age when these were much-needed traits. or metaphysics. ' elements of reading. What monasticism had done for the religious TmHTTnds]]p^f|bnal loyalty. and (10) to listen to good and true men. while those who made the best preparation added the subjects of the Quadrivium. "and the ideal of a life of regulated service in place of one of lawless ^gratification was set up. SCHOOLS AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED time cannot be doubted. (1) defend the and orphans. (6) to wage loyal war. digest of Aristotle's Ethics prepared[in the sixth century J ° Digitized by microsoft® by J . (7) to fight for his Lady. but after this wave had passed chivalry became formal and stilted and rapidly declined in importance (R. chivalry. restraining 169 Through it the Church exercised a on a rude. In the great Crusades movement of the twelfth century the Church consecrated the military prowess and restless energy of the nobility to her service.

an increasing amount relating to belief. n. Repeated readings of the Old and New Testaments. 7. 3. 6. and a little music as preparatory studies. Rules of the Church as to time reckoning. and Ethics were re- introduced into Europe from Saracen sources (R. and that its -purpose was to impart needed information as to dogma. 8. 1 From the life of the Frankish Abbot.170 HISTORY OF EDUCATION Boethius. was the text for this study until about 1200. Church music. Rules of penance. the writings of the early Latin Fathers. Physics. of the clergy. church practices. Worldly laws. the theological course remained quite meager. and would not have been tolerated. Tractates on the Epistles and Gospels. that it began with the first of the subjects of the Trivium. Such study was not then known. and ethics. there were but few prinand the church organization was exceedingly simple. based on evidences. Elements of grammar and the first part of Donatus. Abbot at Gorze Digitized century. Prescriptions for church services. 5. up to the to be imparted to new members of the clergy. 87). eleventh century at least. Lives of the Saints. we saw in chapter V. In 325 a. In a tenth-century account the following description is of the theological course of the time 1. and such civil (worldly) law as would be needed by the priest in discharging his functions as the notary and lawyer of the age. church organization. as ciples of belief. Decrees of the Church Councils. and additional canons and expressions of belief adopted at subsequent church councils. by Microsoft® in the tenth . writing. 12. Psychology. With the translation of the Bible into the Latin language {Vulgate. The theological course proper experienced a similar develop- ment.d. John of Gorze. 4. the Nicene Creed was formulated (p. and pastoral duties needed Still. There were no other professions to study for. 9. logic. and the first twenty canons (rules) adopted for the government At first. It will be seen from this tenth -century course of theological study that it was based on reading. fourth century). which was studied only in part. Collections of homilies (sermons). 10. and reckoning. when Aristotle's Metaphysics. 96). canon (church) law. Mass prayers. given: l 2. There is no suggestion of the study of Theology as a science.

presented by Nigel Costentin to the church Hanworth. find bishops enforcing theological training on future priests by orders of which the fol- a type Scawby. It repreit sents what the Church evolved 1 2 to replace that which p. Educational Charters. clerk. and to inform the lord 2 bishop if he does not attend school. a master ought to be elected by the prelate or chapter. Ibid. 5. Hugh of of (Potter) And the Dean of Wyville was ordered to induct him into corporal possession of the said church in form aforesaid. In a decree issued by Pope Innocent III and the General Council it was ordered In every cathedral or other church of sufficient means. vide a grammarian and a theologian. The education which we have just described covers the period from the time of the downfall of Rome to the twelfth or the thirteenth century. lowing is in the early thirteenth century. We also. 143. the lord bishop ordered him on pain of loss of his benefice to attend school. and made possible schools of Theology in the universities now about to arise. In the thirteenth century it was made the official textbook at both the universities of Oxford and Paris. was admitted and canonically instituted in it as parson. and in every metropolitan church a theologian And if the church is not rich enough to proalso ought to be elected. The studies of dialectic and ethics were raised to a new plane of importance by the publication of this book. A. and became the standard textbook in Theology for a long time. pDigjt/zed by Microsoft® .. arrangement. About 1 ia < Peter the Lombards published his Book of Sentences and this worked a revolution in the teaching ot the subject In topics. and the Leach. it shall provide for the theologian from the revenues of his church. But on account of the insufficiency of his grammar. and cause provision to be made for 1 the grammarian in some church of his city or diocese. on condition that he comes to the next orders to be ordained subdeacon. It did much to change the study of Theology from dogmas to a scientific subject.: : SCHOOLS AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED . By the close of the twelfth century the interest of the Church in a better-trained clergy had grown to such an extent that theological instruction was ordered established wherever there was an Archbishop.. Characteristics of mediaval education Foundations laid for a new order. 171 Systematic instruction begins. and the income of a prebend assigned to him. F. and method of treatment the book marked a great advance.

the ability to read and write was not regarded by noble or commoner as of any particular importance. though the scholarship is very limited in scope and along lines thoroughly approved by the Church. too. the schools provided were still for a very limited class. the monks and clergy represented the one learned class. though here and there. Society was as yet composed of three classes feudal warriors. logic and ethics. and not for life or service in this. music. Theology was the one professional study. freedom. we note the development of a number of centers of learning (R. who spent their time in amusements or fighting. security. and the great mass of working peasants. the other-worldly attitude of the Church made such education seem unnecessary. wealth. classical learning. it was. by the close of the tweM^^j^^FChurch was beginning to . and secondary rather than elementary in nature. 81). That institution. and. It was still the education of a few for institutional purposes. We also notice. theology) at different church and monastery schools. They were intended to meet the needs of an institution rather than of a people. or economic need to make such education possible or desirable. and all book knowledge was in a language which the people did not understand when they heard it and could not read. privileged priests and monks and nuns. There were as yet no independent schools or scholars. had concentrated its efforts on preparing its members for life in another world. the beginnings of a class of scholarly men. The beginnings new Christian civilization among the tribes which had invaded and overrun the Roman Empire are evident. who controlled all book learning and opportunities for professional advancement. in the sense that we understand it. — . 71) and the beginnings of that specialization of knowledge (church doctrine. after seven or of a nevertheless presents certain clearly marked old lines of development. and will see the same evidence in the following chapter. which promised much for the future of learning. engaged chiefly in agriculture. and but little leisure.172 HISTORY OF EDUCATION Meager as it still barbarians had destroyed. In education proper. and to prepare those who studied in them for service to that institution. For these peasants there was as yet no education aside from what the Church gave through her watchful oversight and her religious services (R. Moreover. toward the latter part of the Middle Ages. and belonging to and helping to fight the battles of their protecting lord. eight centuries of effort. and who had evolved a form of knightly training for their children.

by its relationship to matters of faith. situation which came to exist when he says ably was a necessity at the time. based on knowledge and reason rather than force. formulated the early mediaeval view when he said: "I do not seek to know in order that I may believe. came to be determined. To this end the Church had interposed her authority against barbarian force. that the chronicles of the monks and the lives of the saints. their simplicity. Repressive attitude of the mediaeval Church. to disbelieve — these were among the the early Middle Ages. 82). not by actual inquiry into the facts of the case." "The faith Christian ought to advance to knowledge through faith. with the result that tales the most wonderful were recounted and believed." "The proper order demandjyhaj^e Mje^|o before we presume to reason aBout them. not to . popes. its effect in furthering the influence of the Church or the reputation of a saint Thus it happens in general. 1 to doubt. come _ to through knowledge. not by any application of rationalistic principle. not by inherent plausibility. The Scriptures were made the authority for everything. To question. but by its agreement with religious feelings or beliefs. and this type of absolutism in church government had been extended to most other matters. and had slowly won the contest. ^ _ deep things of Christian faith . charming and interesting as they are in their naivete. became authoritative. The great work of the Church during this period. and interpretations the most fantastic were made of scriptural verses. and. was to assimilate and sufficiently civilize the barbarians to make possible a new civilization. The Bible. and utterly opposed to scientific Monroe well expresses the inquiry and intellectual progress. and disobedience or doubt became sinful in the eyes of the Church. its deadly sins of This attitude of mind undoubtedly had value in assimilating and civilizing the barbarians.: SCHOOLS AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED urge its 173 members to provide some education for their children and the world was at last getting ready for the evolution of the independent scholar. but the The validity of any statement. the actuality of any alleged instance. or rather the interpretations of it which church councils. Unquestioning belief was extended to many other matters. Almost of necessity the Church had been compelled to insist upon her way. but I believe in order that I may know. as we see it to-day. Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to nog. their trustful credulity. and prob- it was bad for the future of Church as an institution. and soon would be ready for the evolution of schools to meet secular needs. theological writers had made. bishops. and their pictures of a life and an attitude of mind — 1 Anselm (1033-1109). (R.

and scientific inquiry and investigation ceased The notable scientific advances of the Greeks. 258. and chantry or stipendary schools. and shock that innate respect for reality. general way the turn in the tide came about the beginning of the twelfth century. called Seven Liberal Arts remained unchanged throughout a so much accumulated knowlperiod of half a dozen centuries edge passed on as a legacy to succeeding generations. In the monasteries. not education. As a recent writer has well expressed it. pressed — literature and philosophy. their to exist. p. Not until the world could shake off this mediaeval attitude toward scientific inquiry and make possible honest doubt was any real intellectual progress possible. Paul. or Renaissance. The educational system which the Church had developed by 1200 continued unchanged in its essential features until after the great awakening known as This system we have For instruction in the elements of learning we just sketched. to stop the waves of free inquiry and scientific doubt from rising higher against the bulwarks it had erected. and for the next five centuries the Church was increasingly busy trying. song schools. TexC^iik^itaiiJMsm^%j Education. The mediaeval educational system. convents. 1 This authoritative and repressive attitude of the Church exitself in many ways. are filled with incidents given as facts that test the greatest faith. in connection with the churches." Inquiry or doubt in religious matters was not tolerated. and particularly their genius for free inquiry and investigation. It represented mere instruction. . that it is the purpose of modern education to inculcate. unchanged throughout the whole mediaeval period. and. parish school for instruction in the elements of learning and the fundamentals of faith for the children of the faithful.174 HISTORY OF EDUCATION so remote from ours. In a rough. no longer influenced' a world domi- nated by an institution preparing its children only for life in a world to come. In these last we have the beginnings of the the Revival of Learning. the whole knowledge and culture contained in the Seven Liberal Arts remained "like a substance in suspension in a medium incapable of absorbing it. and in connection with the cathedral churches we have the secondary instruction fairly well organized 1 Monroe. have the inner and outer monastery and convent schools. The teaching of the period is an The instruction in the soexcellent example of this influence. like King Canute of old. strain the most vivid imagination.

la some of the inner monastery schools and a few of the cathedral TYPE OF EDUCATION . At the close of the period under consideration in this chapter a few privately endowed grammar schools were just beginning to be founded to supplement the work of the cathedral schools (Rs. 141-143).SCHOOLS AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED 175 with the Trivium and the Quadrivium as the basis.

the old Austro-Hungarian States. 83). in 1 179. just as the Bishop had done much earlier (p. T. with centralized control and supervision of instruction. one of the big battles in the process of developing state school systems has come through the attempt of the State century. and the scholasticus and precentor extended their authority and supervision over these. diocesan licenses to teach. which required that thfi scholasticus "should have authority to superintend all the schoolmasters of the diocese and grant them licenses without which none should presume to teach. and some other western nations. claimed and often secured supervision of all elementary.." and that nothing be exacted for licenses to teach issued by him thus stop' ' ' ' . and to substitute its own organization for this religious Digitized monopoly of instruction by Microsoft® . England. The precentor. in the training of the nobility for life's service. As a result of centuries of evolution we tfius find. a limited but powerful church school system. Gerschool many. Toward the latter part of the period under consideration in this chapter an interesting development in church school administration took place. is though even this approved and sanctioned by the Church. As the cathedral and song schools increased assistant teachers were needed. Jjy. and again through Archbishop and Cardinal to the Pope. As we shall see later on. in a similar manner. The centralized religious control thus established continued until the nineteenth still exists to a more or less important degree in the systems of Italy. and the scholasticus and precentor gradually withdrew from instruction and became the supervisors of instrucAs song tion. by 1200. Teachers were also required to take an oath of fealty and obedience (R. or parish schools were established in the parishes of the diocese teachers for these were needed. and especially all song-school instruction. The system was finally put into legal form by a decree adopted by a general council of the Church at Rome. 97) over the training and appointment of priests.igojve have. or rather the principals of their respective schools. for the firsttime in Europei_ofJic£naes to_tgack-(R. The first teacher's certificates and school supervision. the sys tem of central supervision of the tr aining of all t eachers in t he diocese through the issuing. 176 HISTORY OF EDUCATION the precentor in the song school were both responsible to the Bishop. and a curriculum adapted to the needs of the institution in control of We also note the beginnings of secular instruction the schools. ping the charging of fees for their issuance. 84 b). clearly evolved.

16. Compare the knowledge of mediaevals and moderns in (a) geography. iV/What does the fact that the few great textbooks were in use for so many centuries indicate as to the character of educational progress during the •*^f Was Middle Ages? the Church wise in adopting and sanctifying the education of chivalry? Why? contributions to world progress tg^What important . geometry. educational theory. of any value? >^*What great modern subjects of study have been developed out of the mediaeval subjects of arithmetic. conscious or unconscious. to so fully develop and control the education which was provided? modern county superintendent with . formed the basis for mediaeval education and instruction? 19. geometry. Compare the education of the body by the Greeks and under chivalry. and astronomy? 10. Digitized by Microsoft® . •^T Contrast the purposes of medieval education and the education of to-day. "si^Show how the mediaeval parish school naturally developed as an offshoot of the cathedral schools. s^ficture the present world transferred back to a time when theology was What ideals still in use to-day? the one profession. *o/What does the lack of independent scholars during the Middle Ages indicate as to possible leisure? •s/Wai the attitude of Anselm a perfectly natural one for the Middle Ages? Can progress be made with such an attitude dominant? ^/Contrast the deadly sins of the Middle Ages with present-day concep- t^/What tions as to education. About how much (b) astronomy. (a) assuming the body of knowledge then known? (b) assuming the body of knowledge for each subject known to-day? 6. and geography during the early Middle Ages. chantry iif came out of chivalric and practices from chivalry have been retained and are Does the Boy Scouts movement embody any of the chivalric ideas and training? 15. Explain why the Church. What great subject of study has been developed out of one part of the study of mediaeval rhetoric? -f/Why would dialectic naturally not be of much importance. after six or seven centuries of effort. still provided schools only for preparation for its own service. Compare the Athenian ephebic oath with the vows of chivalry.45/ Compare the supervisory work of a that of a scholaslicus of a mediaeval cathedral. and was supplemented later by the endowed \j/'What effect did the development of song-school instruction have on the instruction in the cathedral schools? *2fr~Why was it difficult to develop good cathedral schools during the early Middle Ages? training would be represented to-day by the Seven Liberal Arts. When Greece and Rome offered no precedents. Outline the instruction in an inner monastery school. how did the Church come 24. so long as instruction in theology was dogmatic and not a matter of thinking? SfCharacterize the instruction in arithmetic. 5. Would we consider such knowledge as Explain the attention given to such instruction.SCHOOLS AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION 177 1.

What was the nature of the cathedral school at Salisbury (72)? What type of a school was provided for in the Aldwincle chantry (73)? was it not until after the twelfth century that the endowing of schools (73) began to supersede the endowing of priests. o. Leach: 76. • 8. grammar schools (70). Draper: Educational Influences of the Church Services. Explain the process of evolution of a parish school out of a chantry school.178 HISTORY OF EDUCATION SELECTED READINGS In the accompanying Book of Readings the following selections are reproduced: 70. Mediaeval Latin Colloquy. 81. 82. 80. Mullinger: The Episcopal and Monastic Schools. Cott: A Grammar. and state what was taught in each. When was the great era of each? How do you explain the change in relative importance of the two? Distinguish between song and 3. and Why 6. : QUESTIONS ON THE READINGS 1. 78. 83. Statutes: The School at Salisbury Cathedral. Do we have any modern analogy to the same teacher teaching both schools. English Forms: Appointment and Oath of a Grammar-School Master. 74. as was sometimes done? Distinguish between monastic and episcopal (cathedral) schools (71). 72. Gautier: How the Church used Chivalry. 71. (a) Northallerton Appointment of a master of Song and Grammar. (b) Of Double Moving of the Planets. 84. ro. Winchester Diocesan Council: How the Church urged that the Elements of Religious Education be given. Would the rate of progress of civilization Digitized How by Microsoft® . 4. (a) Of the Elements. Archbishop of Cologne: The Truce of God. Tenth Century Schoolmaster's Books. (b) Archdeacon of Ely: Oath of a Grammar-School Master to. do you explain the need for so many years to master the Seven Liberal Arts (74)? Into what subjects of study have we broken up the old subject of grammar. and how have we distributed them throughout our school system? Is technical grammar at present taught in the best possible place? What stage in scientific knowledge do the selections from Anglicus (77 a-b) indicate? What rate of scientific progress is indicated by its translation and length of use? What scope of knowledge is represented in the library (78) of the tenthcentury schoolmaster? What does the list indicate as to the state of learning of the time? Picture the manners and morals of a time which called for the proclamation of a Truce of God (79). 5. A 79. churches. 75. and the Planets. Quintilian: On the Importance of the Study of 77. 73. Anglicus: The Elements. Aldwincle: Foundation Grant for a Chantry School. Leach: Song and Grammar Schools in England. monasteries? 7. Lincoln Cathedral: Licenses required to teach Song. Maurus: The Seven Liberal Arts. as described by Quintilian (76). 2.

W.s. History of Charles the Great. * Clark. J. Digitized by Microsoft® . Philip. J. Victor. I. 179 and the rate of elimination of warfare up to then. How do you explain the much greater simplicity of the church service of modern Protestant churches than that of the Roman (81) or Greek Catholic churches? Explain the form of mild compulsion toward learning which the diocesan council of Winchester (82) attempted to institute. vol. "The Seven Liberal Arts". E. Thomas. pp. 12. J. W. I. Paul. Addison. Is the modern state teacher's certificate a natural outgrowth of the mediaeval licenses (83) to teach grammar and song? Why did the Church insist on these when Rome had not required such? Show how the modern oath of office of a teacher. is a natural development from the oath of fealty and obedience (84 b) of the mediaeval teacher? Is this true also for our modern notices of appointment (84 a) ? 13.) vol. History of Classical Scholarship. 15.SCHOOLS AND INSTRUCTION PROVIDED 11. (Anglicus' Cyclopaedia.) Mediceval Lore. 467-73. (Historical novel of monastic life. in Educational Review. J. Scheffel. The Care of Books. Besant. 14. Steele. and the possibility of dismissal for insubordination. Abelson. The Schools of Charles the Great. indicate that the Church has been very successful in imposing its will? Show how Chivalry was made a great asset to the Church (80). B. Mombert.) Ekkehard. Sandys. *Mullinger. (Also in his Aristotle. Arts and Crafts in the Middle Ages. and since. The Story of King Alfred. 11. Davidson. SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES * The Seven Liberal Art. Julia de W.

they had been lost during the barbarian invasions and were restored only through their re-introduction by the Moslems. mixed with the Iberian-RomanVisigothic peoples inhabiting the peninsula. Figure 33 (p. and asparagus among vegelablesy-eottor^ rice. and how much of Spain was in their. peach. the culture^ofJthe_ silkworm^. as well as for a number of important maniP~ The orange^ lemon. muJL£rj^_treesj_Jhe__apinach. in lands as hot and dry as Spain. all agriculture to be successful must be. useful plants. MOSLEM LEARNING FROM SPAIN The Mohammedans in Spain. possession. When in their religious conquests they overran Syria (see Map. and gardenjvegetables.. and theHfhaking of moroeeo4eather these are among our debts to these people. and this they absorbed . introduction of many of its orcha rd frui ts. as..d . and said that we should meet them again a little ter later on as one of the minor forces in the development of our western civilization._artichoke. In Spain they developed a skillful agriculture (R. and Jhe^manufacture of silk and cotton garments the manufacture of paper froih" cotton. CHAPTER VIII INFLUENCES TENDING TOWARD A REVIVAL OF LEARNING I. and developed garden and To them western Europe is indebted for the orchard fruits. After their defeat at Tours (732) the Mohammedans retired mto^gajn. Before the time of Mohammed we have practically no records as to any education among them. sug ar_cane. The original Arabians themselves were not a well-educated people. 103). Great absorptive power for learning. apricot. It will be recalled that in chapV we mentioned briefly the Mohammedan migrations of the seventh century. Though many of the above had been known to antiquity. 85).. and began to develop a civilization there. and hem p among useful plants. and facturing proces ses. They introduced irrigation. 114) shows how much of the world the Mohammedans had overrun by 800 a. — mth^g^^^M^ . they came in contact with the survivals of that wonderful Greek civilization and learning. gave special attention to the breeding of horses and cattle. p.

. and the greater control of all thinking by the Church. Western or Latin division of the Church. The Nestorian "In the school ries of Nisibus the Church possessed an institution. and medical treatises belonging to Greek antiquity. developing excellent higher schools of the old Greek type. 94) that the Eastern or Greek division of the Christian Church. and especially the works of Aristotle. and the need of a better statement of the somewhat The same process now took crude faith now became evident.' (See Figure 27.) the year 600 a. p. By the fifth century. scientific. a large number of philosophical. which early had been so hospitable to Greek learning and thinking. was more liberal toward Greek learning than was the-/. Karran. 278.) the far East. the city. p. and in Egypt (642). clothed in Syrian (Miiller. (Davidson. What enlightenment survived had found a home beyond in Ireland. and drove him and his followers. It was also stated (p. unquestioning faith which sank ever deeper and deeper in the mire of superstition. To the olc.d. Edessa. 2 Being now beyond the reach of Christian intolerance and in a friendly atmosphere. Through these Greek wisdom and learning. as it did also in Babylonia (637). and there the Mohammedans found them when they overran Syria. Nisibus. they remained there. literature. known as Nestorian Christians. K. Here mon- were developed in numbers. due in part to the breakdown of government.INFLUENCES TOWARD A REVIVAL 181 It will be recalled.. found a home on these borders of Christendom. Kirchenattire. it was stated that the early Christians developed very important cate- chetical schools in Egypt and Syria. there was added. In 431 the Church Council of Ephesus put a ban on the Hellenized form of Christian theologyadvocated by Nestorius. asteries also for centuries place as 1 had occurred ear her with Christianity." "By — . the Eastern Church lost somewhat of its earlier tolerance. of which Constantinople became the central city. in the extreme West. from These Nestorians now fled to the old Syrian cities. TZbigjbtebfilfystNKvrofcdlllfetcation. D. in 635 a. in Assyria (640).d. that in chapter IV (p. though. Mohammedanism now came in contact with an educated peo pie. 2 1. giving place to a gloomy. consisting of translations. vol. too. the increasing barbarity of the age. It was also stated that the Christian instruction imp. in the limits of the Roman Empire. Antioch. 94). then Patriarch of Constantinople.) parted at these eastern schools was tinctured through and through with Greek learning and Greek philosophic thought.. and Syrian monks had been busy translating Greek authors into Syriac. and Cassarea. which for centusecured her a system of higher education." geschichte. 133. and especially at Alexandria. 89. the triumph of the oriental element in Christendom had well-nigh banished learning and education from the domain of the Church. in Syria. from the middle of the fifth century onward. and therewith an important social and political position.

and Mohammedan faith was clothed in Greek - forms and received a thorough tincturing of Greek philosophic thought. which would make the circumference of the earth 20. Basra. were made. were opened in connection with the mosques (churches). In all the known al-Raschid became Caliph at not even Constantinople. quest was gradually turned to the development of schools and By 900 a good civilizaj^n_and_jntellectual life had ' been developed 1 in Spain. these people were soon busy absorbing Hindu athematical knowle dge. 86). and before 1000 the teaching correct distance JSJ5a miles. The . astronom ical tables were calculated. m algebra. Large numbers of student s thronged the city. and the cities of Syria. and a number of advances on the scientific work done by the Greeks were made. Damascus. Their scholars w rote dictionar ies. In 786 HarounBagdad. a large library. obtaining from them (c. This was determined as being 56 1/3 miles. A degree of the earth's surface x was measured on old Greek the shores of the mined in Red Sea. They develop schools and advance learning. was founded. Schools.1 82 HISTORY OF EDUCATION monks became the scholars for the the Christians and the Syrian ' Mohammedans. scienc e.280 miles. and he and his son made it an intellectual center of first importance. This eastern learning was traveling now Mohammedan scholars. lexicons. was organised. learned Greeks and Jews taught in the schools. Kufa. and an abservatory was built. al gebra and trigonom etry were perfected. Extending eastward. and in medicine and surgery their work was not duplicated until the early nineteenth century. during the century and most of the ninth could vie with Bagdad as a center of learning. and other eastern cities were also noted places. cyclopaedias. Europe until toward the end of the eighteenth century. a. gradually carried to Spain by and there the energy of con- learning. on the Tigris. inri yersit y after the city. discoveries in chemistry not known (c. the obliquity of the ecliptic was deter830). and in particular their capital. or from the original Greek. and pharma- copoeias oFmerit (R. became renowned for their In 760 Bagdad. and superseded Damascus as the capital. and advances i n physics for which western Europe waited for Newton (1642-1727). world probably no latter part of the eighth . 800) the so-called Arabic notation and learning. in Spain. andjnedicine. Within a century they had translated from Syriac into Arabic. model was founded. much of the old Greek learning in philosoph y.

51. in the Mohammedan countries of the East drew permanently to a close. four years after having been elevated to the Papacy. though for this he was to attract a The Moslem West Fig. The Moslem East Showing Centers of Moslem Learning accused of having transactions with the Devil. they obtained the upper hand and succeeded in driv- medans were in reality but little ing out the Hellenic Mohammedans.INFLUENCES TOWARD A REVIVAL especially along Greek philosophical lines. Almost at once a marked further development in the intellectual In Cordova. just as the Eastern Chris- tians had driven out the Nestorians. now Turks only made matters worse. Granada. and was of relatively intellectual short duration. The coming of the rigid orthodoxy. monks over Europe are recorded as having crossed them- and muttered that the Devil had now claimed his reward. . was oiTeTof the first to study there. Toledo. 159). and brought back some of the eastern learning to his monastery. selves A monk from Monte Cassino also studied at Bagdad. 1 The fanaticism of the eastern Arabs now reasserted itself. development at Bagdad was in part due to the patronage of a few caliphs of large vision. Mohammedan The great reaction sends scholars to Spain. triumphed. 183 had become sufficiently known few adventurous monks from Christian Europe. Gerbert (953-1003 ).and. and life of Spain took place. The religious enthusiasts among the Moham- more zealous for Hellenic learning than the Fathers of the Western Church had been. and higher education harsh. Finally. and with their advent education throughout A Arabia and Asia Minor became a thing of the Spain. Some day it will be the task of western Europe to hand back schools and learning to the Mohammedan East. and these scholars of the 1 East now fled to north ern Africa. about 1050. and when he died suddenly at fifty. afterward Pope Sylvester II (p. fatal to educational progress. This piay be one of the by-producfagitiik4 8jx»!teWa5&feWar.

representing the one learned class. little dirty towns. 658. Even the nobility had few comforts ' and conveniences. to the brilliant life of southern Spain. market-places." and in consequence Europe. p. and personal cleanliness was not common.magnificent mosques. unsanitary conditions. surgery were the great_ subjects o f_studv. built between 1238 and 1354. and made Physics^ further advances in the sciences and mathematics.large libraries^jaUght geograjjhy_from globes. -develop ed hospitals and taught medicine and surgery was tauglit. particularly Aristotle.) 2 It was an age of superstition and miracles. in schools (R. had slowly to rediscover the scientific knowledge which might have been had for the taking. also to be willing to accept some of the mathematical knowl- 1 The Alhambra. mathematic s^physi ology medicine. Digitized by Microsoft® . 1 84 HISTORY OF EDUCATION Mohammedans were developed. for an illustration of their architecture and art. inv ented the compass and gunpowder. uti ed. robber bands. advanced far the study of the Seven Liberal Arts to desire corrected enough through and addi- and tional texts of the earlier classical writers. SJunted time byjp&iiSuhxm clock s. ±. public baths. Their jjalacesJL cities were equally noteworthy for their. ch^misJjyT-aatrono my. thus revealing interests marked contrast to those of the fighting nobility of Christian Europe. and miserable homes."" They developed schools . while the insane were scourged to cast out the devils within them. is an exquisite exam(See plate in vol. 90) Western Europe had. and would not do so for centuries to come. 2 and of scientific centuries later. Disease was punishment for sin and to be cured by prayer. of the Encyclopedia Britannica. diabolic influences. 89. and~ paved and lighted streets for centuries to — things unknown It come (R. ple of their art. Western Europe of the tenth to the twelfth centuries presented a dreary contrast. Greek jhil<5sophy also and . Their influence on western Europe. and Seville strong universities lenized . and to collect large libraries of scholars. Only the book science of Aristotle would the Church accept. witchcraft and magic. studied astronomy in observatories. in almost every particular. where Jews and Heltaught the learning of the East. at Granada. however. Monks and clerics. 85). it was still in an age of general The age of reason experiment as a means of arriving at truth had not yet dawned. aqueducts. trials by ordeal. 86).. disorder and of the simplest religious faith. men in to become patrons of and place them at the disposal in Christian Europe became fashionable for wealthy learning. Just emerging from barbarism... and even this only after some hesitation (Rs. no roads. private warfare. regarded this Moslem science as "black art.

and geometry. who 1300. It was here that the Moslem learning in Spain helped in the intellectual awakening of the rest of Europe. studied at Toledo a little later. and Alhazen's (Spanish scholar. and spent most of 1 time in Italy after becoming Emperor. He lived. a few of whom brought back translations of importance. Moslem sources which it prized What Europe obtained through most. his work possessed Among the less significance than it otherwise might have done. studied at Cordova about 1 1 20. ^Fred- employed a staff of Jewish physicians to translate A^a^ic_wpxkjijnto^EathT^uT7 due to his continual war against the Pope and his final outlawry by the Church. 88). a book of astronomical tables. This book described erick II x ailments and their treatment in detail. Germany was left a collection of feudal States. 197). including Ptolemy's Almagest (p. c. ruling from 1227 to 1250. This encroachment Frederick resisted and tried to break. Though a German by birth. at a time when the Papacy was cementing its temporal power and the Pope was becoming the Emperor of Europe. 88). ^Adelhaid. and centuries to come undisputed. the temporal power of the his Pc^'w^^MKfflSP^ . though. was the commentary on Aristotle by Averroes and the works of Aristotle (R. and tried to transfer some of their "knowledge to Christian Europe. and took back with him some knowledge of arithmetic. algebra. and was used until the seventeenth century.INFLUENCES TOWARD A REVIVAL 185 edge of these Saracens. he being regarded as the greatest commentator on of Aristotle from the days ' - FlG 5*. He also translated many works from the Arabic. 49). Aristotle Rome to the time of the Renaissance. an English monk. The list of the books of Aristotle Frederic II was Emperor of the mediaeval Holy Roman Empire. however. At his death the mediaeval German dream of world empire perished. His Euclid was in general use in the universities by Gerard of Cremona. he had lived long in Sicily. but without success. books thus translated was the medical textbook of Avicenna (980I0 377Tbased in turn on the Greek works by Galen and Hippocrates of Cos (p. 1100) book on Optics. Another Moslem whose translated writings had great influence on Europe was Averroes (1126-1198) who t ried to_ unite the philosophy of Aristotle with MohammeHis influence on the danism (R. in Lombardy (1114-1187). became the standard textbook in the medical faculties of the universities. He greatly admired the Saracens for their learning. thinkers of the later Middle Ages was large. Other monks studied in the Spanish cities during the twelfth century. rendered a similar service for Italy.

the elements of algebra." These contributions western Europe was ready for. and that a new Christian civilization would in time arise in western Europe r on Digitized by Microsoft® . the larger scientific knowledge of the Saracens. traveling about the country. then Sicily and Italy. and poetic and musical charm. and Ptolemy's work on the motion of the heavens. Psychology. histories. Euclid's geometry. These were Western Europe also then translated directly into the Latin.1 86 HISTORY OF EDUCATION by 1300 in use in the mediaeval universities great importance of the additions made. Lordlyng listneth to my tale Which is merryr than the nightengale won admission at any castle gate. "Out of these genial but not orthodox beginnings the polite literature of modern Europe arose. their pharmacopoeias. been derived was a roundabout one Castilian. in the Pyrenees. and this gradually found its way across At first it affected Provence and Languedoc. and finally the gay contagion of lute and mandolin and love songs spread throughout all western Europe. elegant courtesies. but they sufficed for the needs of Europe until the original Greek versions were recovered when the Venetians and Crusaders took and sacked Constantinople. From this time it was clear that the battle had been won. was ready to use the Arabic (Hindu) system of notation. By the end II. Metaphysics. southern France. chivalrous gallantry. as well as lated into Latin By (R. and being — — works had — entertained in castle halls. cyclopasdias. Latin and hence the translations could not be very accurate. it was not yet ready to receive. The translation route through which these Greek. some of his Physics. singing in the vernacular." THE RISE OF SCHOLASTIC THEOLOGY The eleventh century a turning-point. Syriac. had been transto be and were beginning made available for study. in 1204. Arabic. A race of troubadours and minnesingers arose. One other influence crept in from these peoples which was of large future importance the music and light literature and love songs of Spain. 87) reveals the the middle of the twelfth century Aristotle's Ethics. dictionaries. There had been developed in this sunny land a life of light gayety. of the in eleventh century a distinct turning-point had been reached the struggle to save civilization from perishing. and minor works. and biographies.

lg^y^/^ufljkftajbJr&reached onlv through investigaries later. the "Truce of God" (R. almost the last of the Germanic Europe had down and had accepted of Christianity. Anselm. Roscellinus. realism... where missionary had been made from goo on. as a nominalist. and Transubstantiation. and centuries first of effort would be required. vol. for a time disturbed the peace of orthodoxy. 1 Christianity manic efforts 2 tribes along the eastern Baltic. and childish prepossession. basing his argument on parts of the Organon of Aristotle. to a new life. 173).) questions arising concerned the Trinity. by the might and the softening There were many evi- dences. 18. fighting nobility of the Europe were being held somewhat in Church. restraint influence of chivalric education (R. 80). that the western intellectual it Christian world. The twelfth century." Ency. contended that the human senses are deceptive." The mysteries of Christianity and the many inconsistencies of its teachings and beliefs were accepted with childlike docility. in the latter part of the eleventh century. a church council had been called to pass upon and give final settlement to the to the precedence of faith over reason. basing his argument largely on some parts of Plato. the Mohammedan tribes in over. illusion. nth ed. p. "Missions. or to explain. its felt that it could now time in more than pause to organize and conquests were settled. systematize faith. was soon to awaken ticular. 1 and the 79). after the long intellectual night. had held that ideas or concepts are only names for real. but the Church. concrete things. perhaps.. and the Church had felt little call to organize. and that revealed truth alone is reliable.' INFLUENCES TOWARD A REVIVAL Much six still 187 remained to be done. had declared that ideas constituted our real existence. to silence all inquiry. by the end of the eleventh -century. and destruction of_ the Northmen had at last ceased. to about the close of the eleventh century western living in Europe an age of simple faith. The more important . as had usually been sufficient Once. had not as yet been introduced among the mixed Slavic and GerIn Prussia and Lithuania. in par- was a period when was evident that some new leaven was at work. Anselm of Canterbury (1034-1109). to systematize. but a statement somewhat similar to that made by Anselm of Canterbury~(footnote. The Christian world everywhere lay under "a veil of faith. and had. when a great discussion as to the nature of knowledge had taken place among the leaders of the Church. success did not come until more than three centu- (See art. as a realist. some question- Up had been ing monk or cleric had raised questions over matters 2 of faith which his reason could not explain. too. 3 This discussion was over what was known as nominalism vs. Roscellinus of Compiegne (10501106). the Eucharist. Brit. almost for the hundred years. Here and there. The invasions. 3 questions raised. to be sure.

in England. Joseph. Digitized by Microsoft® — — . The great teachers and the keenUTrrrjortarice as teaching institutions. and laugh at the nervous folk who peeped out from their coaches over a hedge of pikes and daggers. To these more important cathedral schools students now came from long distances to study under some noted teacher. and the monastic^schccls_ now-Jnst their .earlier iTnpTJTj-jmp^-ft-lea rh in^-TTT^rTFviTTnTir By the twelfth century they had been completely superseded as important teaching centers by the rapidly developing cathedral schools. without pockets. p. scholar. scholastic fever The church of Notre famous for its teachers of the Liberal Arts (particularly Dialectic) and of Theology. frequently in the service of the lord of the land. 1 McCabe. and. thousands of William of Champeaux. It was safest to don the coarse frieze tunic of the pilgrim. strap a wallet of bread and herbs and salt on your back. who is generally regarded as having been the keenest scholar of the twelfth century. and Roscellinus was compelled to recant. and later of Theology. 2 By the beginning of the eleventh century this cathedral school had become the most important in France. As thexMhedraLschoals-gi^w-in and came to have many teachers and students. Canterbury. Robbers. It was the great center for theological study. and to this school. a position which it retained for centuries. in time.1 88 Rise of the HISTORY OF EDUCATION spirit of inquiry. then barely twenty years of age. Peter the Lombard students. You could not travel far over the rough roads of France without meeting some footsore scholar. Says McCabe: * . His name was Abelard. Before long he himself became a teacher of Grammar and Logic at Paris. His The rathoHrfl] grVinnl in connection with the Dame became 2 especially soon enabled him to refute the instruction of them in debate. tion and the use of reason. sling your little wax tablets and stylus at your girdle. Peter Abelard. Few monasteries refused a meal or a rough bed to the wandering Rarely was any fee exacted for the lesson given. a few of them became noted as places where good instruction was imparted and great teachers were to be found. came a youth. The stifling effect of such an attitude toward honest doubt can be imagined. infested every province. and drew to it a succession of eminent teachers and. and several of the cities in northern Italy early were noted for the quality of their instruction. 7. Paris and Chartres in France. Abelard. so widely had he brilliant intellect his teachers and to vanquish The church accepted the realism of Anselm as correct. just as the eleventh century was drawing to a close. had already set in. est students of the time were to be found in the cathedral schools in these places. which was soon to influence the youth of Europe. making for the nearest large monastery or cathedral town.

inquiry so searching that he stimulated many a young mind to a new type of thinking. that was key to wisHis method was to give the authorities on both sides. but to render no decision. who completely redirected Jthe tea^hingof theology^ This was based largely jvith his Bookjrf Sentences ft. The school in connection with this cathedral early be^ came famous." In the introduction to this textbook he held that "constant and frequent queshis teaching. One of his pupils was Efitfirj he LombajcL(p-. T145). formed a type much followed during the great period of cathedral-building (thirteenth century) in Europe. or not. on AbilaH'slnethod. It is built on an island in the Seine. though generally on a smaller scale. at Paris The boldness and in part because of a most unfortunate incident which deservedly ruined his career in the Church. incisive 189 and so 1 he attracted large numbers of students to his lectures. This cathedral front. His method of instruction was for the time so unusual and his spirit of ents in to his retreat present cathedral was begun in 1163. The Cathedral of Notre Dame. while his claim that reason was antecedent to faith was startling. at ir»s^<fltijew/6%£few$ral and monastery schools . so clearly did he appeal to the reason of his hearers. stud- numbers followed him and listened to his teachings. What took place at Paris also took place. consecrated in 1182. His boldness in raising such questions for debate was new.i7i ). and completed in the thirteenth century. 91 a). give the students a decision was quite unusual. and on the site of a church built in the fourth century. To assist in his teaching of Theology he prepared a little textbook. Sic et Non (Y ea and Nay). in which he raised for debate many questions as to church teachings (R.INFLUENCES TOWARD A REVIVAL read. such as "That faith is based on reason. 91 b). The little community which grew up about the cathedral church formed the nucleus about which the city of Paris eventually grew. with its statues and beautiful carving. Even after being driven from Paris. except that a positive and orthodox decision was presented for each question raised. in part because of this 53. and his failure to tioning is the first dom" (R.

ened. after that. who worked intensively a narrow and limited field of thought. and the wayhis ideas as to causes fitted into Christian reasoning. it rapidly declined as an educational force. The Church adopted and guided the movement. and the great era of Scholasticism 1 now arose. Dialectic or Logic superseded Grammar as the great subject of study. For the next four centuries Aristotle thoroughly dominated all philosophic thinking. leaving to Aristotle the task of makThe worship of Aristotle is easily explained by the ing him a thinking being. ' —— . after the translation of his principal works had been effected (Rs. During the latter part of the twelfth and in the thirteenth century Scholasticism was at its height. It means. The spirit of inquiry had at last been awakwas being respectfully challenged by its children to prove its faith. the Church (First Crusade. Aristotle also was in time adopted by the Church. 1099) also began to ask for an explanation of the doubts which had come to them from the contact with Greek and Arab in the East. and restatement and doctrine. 87. the method of thinking workedoutb v the teachers i nthecathedral schools. and the new universities inherited the spirit which had given rise to its labors. and the learning of the Saracens in Spain. The result was a th orough reorganizajjoji_and_i^state ment of the theology of the Church. to discuss the doctrines The rise of scholastic theology.— 190 of western HISTORY OF EDUCATION Europe. 90). In the larger cathe- dral schools. and his philosophy was made a bulwark for Christian doctrine throughout the remainder oi the Middle Ages. literally. which now began to filter across the Pyrenees. 2 The great development and use of logical analysis now produced many keen and subtle minds. A desire for a philosophy which would explain the mysteries and contradictions of the Christian faith found expression among the scholars of the time. Digitized by Microsoft® 1 . prepared to meet and use this new spirit in the organization. great amount of information his works contained. in a very intelligent and commendable manner. and logical analysis was now applied to the problems of religion. of the it became common Church with much freedom. its work being done. With the new emphasis now placed on reasoning. systematization. added to the Returning pilgrims and crusaders strength of their challenge. at least. ""'^The'Ehglish philosopher JoTSTEocEe"trB3i-f704) once said that when he considered the inertness of the Middle Ages he was led to think that God had been content to make man a two-legged animal. of its faith The term scholasticism comes from scholasticus because it was chiefly in the cathedral schools that scholasticism arose. his logical method and skillful classification of knowledge. The Church. and the schools of the time turned their energy into directions approved by it.

Saint Thomas Aquinas in the School of Albertus Magnus (After the painting Digitized by H. Lerolle) by Microsoft® .Plate 3.

Digitized by Microsoft® .

by William of Moerbeke. Padua. studied. and Bologna. Albert the Great (Albertus Magnus. mentioned above. and Petfir_ih«-Lembard's Rook-of-Sentences. 1 193-1280) was the first of the great Schoolmen. It was the Franciscans who followed the armies of Spain to Mexico. He was tojtate the philosophy of Aristotle. missions. Thontas Aq iiyftc (c. were made for Thomas Aquinas at his special request. and then at Paris and Cologne. from the original Greek texts. in systematic form. whose Book of Sentences. He later became a noted teacher of Philosophy and Theology at Rome. and sought to control education and to defend orthodoxy." He was a German Dominican monk. who knew enough Greek This gave him better translations from . . of the work of Peter the Lombard. founded by Saint Francis in 1 2 1 2 Their work was directed still more to preaching. the greatest and mos t influential scholastic philqsopjier_oftiie Middle Ages. 1 The Dominicans. but by a . or Black Friars.* the Vulgate During the Bjble. Digitized by Microsoft® wr^ e . . about 1 260. The Dominicans established themselves in connection with the new Another universities. new order of this same period was that of the Franciscans. a book which has ever since been accepted as an authoritative statement of the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church. It was a revival of monasticism.a&based on Aristotle. last three years of his life he wrote his Summa Theologica.which to lecture and to perform the task. Perugia. and educated in the schools of Paris. or Gray Friars. Later he became a celebrated teacher at Paris and Cologne. under Albertus Magnus. They were a less intellectual but a more democratic brotherhood.systemand o rganization into good teaching form of what had grown up during the preceding thousand years. directed toward more modem ends. To a large degree it was also an "accommodation" of the old theology to the new Aristotelian philosophy which had recently been brought back to western Europe.H&§Jthejrork of Scholasticism. The organizing work of the Schoolmen. and the statement of the Christian doctrines in good philosophic form.. Peter the Lomb ard (1100-1160). 191 characterized a^fofttinn The movement was not by the evolution of new doctrines. first at Monte CassinoTaiid Naples. were a new teaching and preaching monastic porder. and later built and conducted the missions of the central and southern California coast. obtained at Constantinople by the Crusaders. 2 Special translations of Aristotle's Rhetoric and Politics. 12 25-1 2 74).v INFLUENCES TOWARD A REVIVAL Thk. began this work of theological reorganization. Viterbo. and public service. and NaplesT the first / and was noted as an exponent i r Under h im Scholasticism came to its highest developmentjn his harmonizing the new Aristotelianism with. and has been termed " the organizing intellect of the Middle Ages. founded in 1216. Bologna. had so / completely changed the character of the instruction in Theology. the doctrines qf^the^ChurchT"" His class teaching w. 1 bom in Swabia.

and the objections to the correct solution presented and refuted (R. trade and . and a new interest in theological scholarship and general learning was awakened which helped not a little to deflect many strong spirits from a life of warfare to a life of study. Their work was abstract and philosophical instead. was then presented under each. dealing wholly. The ' problem was first stated in the text. - ( 1 spjrit Q-Ltolexance the rising universities inherited. and the result Was a thorough organization of Theology as a teaching subject. After the downfall of the governing power of Rome. This new l earning. They did little to extend knowledge. Next the authorities and arguments for each solution other than that considered as orthodox were presented and confuted. 02). and nothing at all to apply it to the problems of nature and man. the great highways were no longer repairedpbr^da^bj^me common. in order. newjnterest . and their work helped to create a more tolerant attitude toward the supporters of either side of debatable questions by revealing so clearly that there are two sides to every question. and newf "" . The old LAW AND MEDICINE AS NEW STUDIES Roman cities. and to . with some doctrinal point. comparison.192 HISTORY OF EDUCATION The character of the organization made by Peter the Lombard and Thomas Aquinas may be seen from an examination of their method of presentation. and deduction which would prepare learned and subtle defenders of the faith of the. each dealing . heads. it will be re- membered. The orthodox solution was next presented. came to be largely a collection of provincial cities. The purpose was to lay down principles. and a group of problems. The field of Christian Theology 7 was divided out into parts.. These were the centers of Roman civilization and culture. Church. which was dogmatic in form and similar in the textbooks of each. in a way that would cover the subject. 152). The work of the Schoolmen was to organize and present in systematic and dogmatic form the teach' ings of the Church (R. The old Roman Empire.<\ffer a training in analysis. learning. So successful were the Schoolmen in their efforts that instruction in Theology was raised by their work to a new position of importance. classification. with theological questions. subheads. the arguments and authorities for such solution quoted. They made the problems of learning seem much more worth while. This they did exceedingly well. Results of their work. etc.

In other respects they much resembled mediaeval cities elsewhere. Pope Gregory VII humbled the German king (Henry IV) at Ganossa (1077) and won a partial Then foUowed/gH^a$«dK«s«!6ions of Italy. The result there was continThis. and reestablished the old Empire. ) . During the long period of disorder many of the old Roman cities entirely disappeared (R. and full of fight and pride. 1075-1122). did these old cities retain anything of their earlier municipal life. or anything worth mentioning of their former industry and commerce. largely independent of one another. coupled with thej^ids of the ual and pitiless warfare. and Roman legal usages and some knowledge of Roman law never quite died out. Throughout all the early Middle Ages the cities there retained something of their old privileges. the portion of as it now known Germany broke up into fragments. After the disintegration of Charlemagne's empire. \ and towns declined still more and few of any size remained. Only in Italy. and the institution of feudal conditions. For a century the German rule was nominal. though ruled by princebishops residing in them. and the provincial cities which were not destroyed in the barbarian invasions declined in population and number. and particularly in northern Italy. Reestablishment of the Holy Roman Empire. After the death of Charlemagne. the cities in importance. Northmen along the northern coast and the Magyars on the east. In Italy feudalism never attained the strength it did in northern Europe. He descended into Italy (961). By 961 the German duchies and small principalities had been so consolidated that a succeeding king (Otto I) felt himself able to attempt to reestablish the Holy Roman Empire by subjugating Italy and annexing it as an appendage under German rule. 49). but with the outbreak of the conflict in the eleventh" century between king and pope over the question of which one should invest the bishops with their authority (known as the investiture conflict. overthrew the Papacy. But even here they lost most of their earlier importance as centers of culture and trade. becoming merely ecclesiastical towns. and a censuccess.INFLUENCES TOWARD A REVIVAL 193 intercourse largely ceased. passing under the control of their bishops who long ruled them as feudal lords. created a pope to his liking. led to the election of a king in 919 (Henry the Fowler ) who could establish some semblance of "unity and order. subjugated the cities. in name at least. the break-up of his empire. They also retained something of the old Roman civilization.

194 HISTORY OF EDUCATION £ury and_a Jxalf of conflicts between pope and king before the dream of universal empire under a German feudal king ended in disaster. law had never quite died out in these Italian cities. were -. except Turin. little x study was given to it. The Italian cities revive the study of Roman law. Roman legal usages and some knowledge of Roman Fig. and important parts of it were neglected and forgotten. The Italian cities stood with the Papacy in the struggles with the those in the Valley of the German kings. while regarded with reverence. 54. Po formed what was known as the of Uwhaxd-Leagux-ior dejen£g a ^^jjjfej^he pressure German. and the discussions which arose dur- ing the investiture conflict. The struggle with the ruling bishops in the second half of the eleventh century. members of the Lombard League of 1167. The City-States of Northern Italy and Mantua. But. new of attention to be given to (civil) and both the study Roman and Church --(canon) law were revived. Pavia. the law was not much understood. and.All of the cities in the valley of the Po. caused legal questions. . As was stated above. in 1167. and Italy was freed from Teutonic rule.

Justinian (see p. What had been preserved during the period of disorder at last came to be understood. 76)..*u5|:ptt cttisestms*UeMispeluisuxeNC»iFpue*kii ^ $MxUFeptiiY» *-tti? s taw t iv emuT»u>'u>'ppuexustu$iMCcppop»r*}ucsu Blxioetir* tuv»"u*ltiw*?c«fsse-esT (?luu5U&posecuM$tniepumceiii$i*w*pu«» uelAuneopucnircniJiucn^pjxe^tottuiviuii*- bepe 5 iu& e^tup C>*pexti cut u s tuv» pp uct. I / The of \\\r. The result was that the study of Roman law was given an emphasis unknown in Italy since the days of the old Empire. edict. directed that an orderly compilation be prepared of the many and confused laws and decisions which had Producing a standard body of been made in the Roman Ergjpfe^^. INFLUENCES TOWARD A REVIVAL oppression they / /195 [ y ' now began a careful study of the known Roman law in an effort to discover some charter. great student and teacher of law of the period (c. and men suddenly awoke to a realization that what had been before considered as of little value actually contained much that was worth studying. same time the Digest. as well as many principles of importance that were applicable to the conditions and problems of the time. MWoM> . Capitals Fragment from the Recovered "Digest" of Justinian letters are here used.^ Fig. wa s Imerius and this Bologna 1070-1137). who began to lecture on the Code Institutes of Just inian about n 10 to n 15. About s$C &ev$Vf&yCTV€TaVT>to£M05V>\ aVlSVTKTVKfRVMVR. 55. was discovered and made known 1 In 529 the Eastern Emperor. and small but note the difficulty of reading without spacing or punctuation. and soon attracted large numbers of students to hear his interpretations. J& txulu«:tiBpotepTiOA6uiTelUiimu. m uch the largest and most important part 1 This gave clearof the old law. . or grant of power upon which they could base their claim for independent legal rights. additional bo oks of the law were discovered.

This was preserved and used in the East. Under the title of Decretum Gratiani. except that Gratian drew conclusion s from the mass of evidence he presented on each-topic. a monk of Bologna. in fifty books. and included the laws from 533 on. or new Statutes. and the evolution of ~the professional lawyer from the priest made possible. while at the same time showing veneration for authority. 'This was an event of great intellectual significance. Canon law also organized as a by name. and thus made a new contribution of first importance to the list Law now ceased to be a part of of possible higher studies. upon each of which were cited the church canons in place of the unwieldy mass of contradictory material then existing. Gratian set himself to make a compilation of all the Church canons which had been enacted since the Council of Nicaea (325) formulated the first twenty (p.: 196 HISTORY OF EDUCATION like the its discovery the study of Roman law study of Aristotle when only parts of the Organon were known. Roman lawyers being an elementary textbook on the law for the use of students: IV. was the Corpus Juris Civilis. This consisted of I. Irnerius and his co-laborers at Bologna now collected and arranged the entire body of Roman civil law {Corpus Juris Civilis) (R. The Digest. that is. A new study was now evolved which offered great possibilities for intellectual ness to the whole. The Code. containing the Statutes of the Emperors: II. 96). about 1142. Rhetoric (p. Inspired by the revival of the study of civil law. The Novella. Law was thus placed was now for the first time alon gside Theolog y as a profession al subject. containing pertinent extracts from the opinions of Roman law result The celebrated III. it organized canon law as a new and important teaching subject. 93). and of the rules for church government as laid down by the church authorities. subject of study. This he issued in textbook form. So successful were his efforts that his compilation was "one of those great textbooks that take the world by storm. introduced the Digest to western Europe. in twelve books." It did for canon (church) law what the rediscovery of the Justinian Code had done for civil law. the final edition of which was issued in 565. 157) and became a new subject of study. as before was activity and the exercise of the critical faculty. 93). It contained 147 "Distinctions" (questlonsTcases of church policy). but came too late to be of much service to the Western Empire Digitized by Microsoft® The Institutes. and was organized after the same plan as Abelard's Sic et Non. with a body of material large enough to occupy a student for several years. worked out by a staff of eminent lawyers between 529 and 533 (R. . in four books. The Decretum of Gratian was published in three parts.

C. Hence the office of the physician was to reduce this accumulation by some means. II. The Constitutions of Clementine. issued in 13 17. the first He was subject writer on the" to base who attempted the practice of the healing art on careful observation and entific principles. The Father of Medicine proper remedies in place Hippocrates of Cos (460-367? b. and had theorized a little about the functions of the human founder of The real body. 1 This volume was added to by popes later on. 47). and the two subjects of Canon and Civil Law came to constitute the work of the law faculties in the universities which soon arose in western Europe. 460-367 a contemporary of Plato. 2 subdivisions were as follows: Contained 106 "distinctions. Canon Law was thus separated from Theology and added to Civil Law as another new sub : ject of study f or both theological and legal students. Contained 5 "distinctions. of the island of Cos B. 3 He accurate. Aris-_ had given some anatom- "icaTknowledge in his writings on animals.c. The Decretals of Pope Gregory IX. medical science. The beginnings of medical study. phlegm. black bile. yellow bile.INFLUENCES TOWARD A REVIVAL 197 and the views and decisions of important church authorities. was Hipocrates. III.) of sacrifices and prayers to the His descriptions of diseases were wonderfully gods for cures. (c. Several additions of Papal Laws. in five books. IV. . The Greeks had made some progress in the beginnings of the study of disease totle (p. and tried to The I. II." relating to ecclesiastical persons and affairs. issued in 1298. 56. The additions were: I. not included in any of the above. 1 causes of disease." relating to problems arising in the administration of canon law." relating to the ritual and sacraments of the Church. sci- He substi- tuted scientific reason for the wrath offer of offended deities as the Fig. 1 He held that the body contained four humors blood. which was known as the Corpus Juris Canonici. A Supplement to the above by Pope Boniface VIII (Liber Sextus). — and Disease was cauj^/^e ^ui^^g$«mulation of some one of the four. III. though.). 2 so that by the fifteenth century a large body of canon law had grown up. and his treatments ruled medical practice for ages. issued in 1234. Contained 36 "distinctions.

) formed the basis of all medical knowledge until Vesalius published System of Human Anatomy. In medicine he wrote on anatomy.Salerno. Toward the middle of the eleventh century . 1 Galen was born at Pergamon. {4.198 * HISTORY OF EDUCATION little knew. in 1543. diagnosis. He studied medicine at Pergamon. 2 Saint Augustine. the science fell into disrepute and decay. surgery.). p. in his great work on The City of God. Avkenna((Q8o-io37) an eastern Mohammedan. diabolic action. and to which the injured or fever-stricken peasants hied themselves to make offerings and to pray.therapeutics. as to anatomy. diaphoretics. and this practice was continued until well into the nineteenth century. came the Christian and divine punish- ment and Correspondingly the cures were prayers at shrines and images. repositories of sacred relics hope for a miracle. Another Greek writer. Saint Augustine (354-430). He was the first to use the pulse as a means of detecting physical condition. etc. . and Alexandria. ~"\The Roman knowledge of medicine was based almost entirely Con that of the Greeks. These works. physiology. and sometimes of sick persons. speaks with some -iatterness of "medical men who are called anatomists. 194). and after the rise of the Christians. one hundred and eighteen of which have survived. and dietetics. and then for sin. He is credited with five hundred works on literature. blisters. and medicine. wrote a Canon of Medicine in which he summarized the work of all earlier writers. thirty-four miles south of Naples. hygiene." and who " with a cruel zeal for science have dissected the bodies of the dead. and for a time lived in Rome. Returning to Pergamon he was appointed physician to the athletes in the gymnasium there. which were found all over Europe. and in its place theories of satanic influence. began to attain some reputa- such as blood-letting. materia medica. a small city delightfully situated on the Italian coast (see Map. ' edge practically disappeared. pathology. He later went back to Rome and became physician to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. and gave a more minute description of symptoms than any preceding writer had done. . and have inhumanly pried into the secrets of the human body to learn the nature of disease and its exact seat. 69) a blood-letting room was a part of the establishment.d.G_aleni (131-201 a. philosophy. In the monastery of Saint Gall (see Diagram. however. who have died under their knives. R. with their new attitude toward earthly life and contempt for the human body. Smyrna. . purging. together with a few minor writings by teachers in Spain and Salerno. in the reign of the Emperor Hadrian. and how it might be cured." 2 During the early Middle Ages the Greek medical knowlhis. wrote extensively on medicine and left an anatomical account of the human body which was unsurpassed for more than a thousand years^ His work was known and used 1 by the Saracens. The C^yffi/gfeif/llqofeKfaSpftteap.

. published many medical works of his own. undertaken in Europe tant shrines. The instruction. Galen being the great textbook teenth century. to 1 Rome. Duke of Nor- mandy. and finally retired to the monastery of Monte Cassino. and returned to his home in Carthage one Suspected of dealings with the Devil he fled to of the most learned men of his age. visited Egypt and India. drawing much of its medical knowledge from Spain. also Mohammedan early be- About 1065 Constantine of Carthage. the Middle Ages were that series of adventurous expeditions to by the kings and knights of western an attempt to reclaim the Holy Land from the infidel Turks. returning from the First Crusade. Salernum (c. came known here In 1099 Robert. dying there in 1087. The result was the revival of the study of Medicine in the West. 1065) taught there for many years. centuries single pilgrims.INFLUENCES TOWARD A REVIVAL tion as a health resort. and 2 to the birthplace of the Saviour. Often spoken of as Constantius Africanus. and he and his knights later spread the fame of Salerno all over Europe. 2 In 1064 a company of seven flwjiifesBfcbjls ftftfafctoftSye started for the Holy Land. The works of Hippocrates and Galen had been preserved there." began to lecture at Salerno on the Greek and Mohammedan medical works and the practice of the medical art. small bands of pilgrims. IV. stopped here to be cured of a wound. 185). though. a converted Jew and a learned monk. 199 1 In part this was due to the climate and Southern Italy had. who in the eleventh century had pushed in and were For persecuting Christian pilgrims journeying to Jerusalem. and sometimes large numbers led by priest or noble. Montpellier. and sometime toward the middle of the eleventh century the study of the Greek medical books was revived here. until the seven- OTHER NEW INFLUENCES AND MOVEMENTS Perhaps the most romantic happenings during The Crusades. in southern France. who had traveled extensively in the East x and who had been forced to flee from his native city because of a suspicion of " black art. An- other new subject of professional study was of now made possible. in part to its mineral springs. more than any other part of western Europe. . had journeyed to disthe then Far East. (p. and Faculties Medicine were in time organized in universities as they arose'. and Salerno developed into the first of the medical schools of Europe. It is recorded that he studied the arts in Babylon. the monks at Monte Cassino had made some translations. retained touch with old Greek thought. The medical work by Avicenna in translation. most of the was chiefly book instruction. also became another early center for the study of Medi- cine.

peasant and noble. a desire to do penance for sin. would Fig. balancing a certain number for his sins. A crusade was a stupendous pilgrimage. 2d ed. Adams. V t )0F 1 2 — — ! . It was the spirit of the age. the more meritorious. W. knights. tant and more difficult the pilgrimage. Stirring preachers.. B. issued a call to the lords.. Says Adams: J A pilgrimage was . especially if it led to such supremely holy places as those which had been sanctified by the presence of Christ himself. 261. S. In 1077 the Turks captured Jerusalem.. but the Turks were of a different stamp. many special privileges were extended to those who went. 183). p. the pilgrimage was the one conspicuous act by which he could satisfy the ascetic need. for the man who could not." (Davis. whereof the most notable was Peter the Hermit. and those who died on the journey or in battle with the infidels were promised entrance into heaven. near Constanti- The Eastern Emperor now appealed to Rome for help. It was the old gospel of Mohammed recast in Christian guise pardon for sin and the spoils of the infidel if victorious! a swift road to heaven Pressed with this hope and enthusiasm. under especially favorable and meritorious conditions. in a stirring address to the Council of Clermont (France).: 200 HISTORY OF EDUCATION impelled by pure religious devotion. and had taken possession of the fortress of Nicasa (Map. In 107 1 they had defeated the Eastern Emperor. place of penance for sin. p. ^y m . and making his escape from the world of torment The more dishereafter more certain. and returning pilgrims soon began to report having experienced great hardships. or seeking a cure from some disease by prayer and penance. For the man of the world.. go into monasticism. In 1095 Pope Urban. to arming. set all France. and gain its rewards.. armies to be reckoned if slain in the battle by the hundreds of thousandsjyere launched uponthe East. "From Clermont the enthusiasm spread over France like wildfire. 2 To many nople. Mediartlze WcrSs ° ial and Modern Europe. or not. C7 A Vnrvru of Middle Ages Museum) tttf (From an old manuscript British in the possession of the The Mohammedan Arabs who took Holy Land in the seventh century had treated the pilgrims considerately. captured all Asia Minor. and foot soldiers of western Christendom to cease destroying their fellow Christians in private warfare. Civilization during the Middle Ages. in itself a religious act securing merit and reward for the one who performed it. G. and to turn their strength of arms against the The journey was to take the infidel and rescue the Holy Land.

another and with the Greeks. though five others were undertaken during the thirteenth century. in which all alike common ideal and in a common fight against was a new idea now dawning upon the mass of the the infidel. of personal sin. They were at once both a sign and a cause of further change. Christendom as a great international community. though with the Saracens they no surer way established arose. Both those who went and those who remained at home were deeply stirred by the movement. and established there an outpost of their great commercial empire. actuated many who went. These were the great Crusades. but served as were interested in a well to raise the general level of intelligence in western Europe. adventurers. The travel to distant lands. Unfortunately for the future of civilization. people. \> -^> well as a spirit of religious devotion. A second went in 1144. whereas before it had been but little understood. The old isolation was at last about to end. In France and England the call met with instant response. peasants. knights. not only excited the imagination and led to a broadening of the minds of those who returned. of the movement on the intellectual development of western lords. filled 201 with a desire for adventure and a sense of satisfying either was to be found than the long pilgrimage to the Saviour's tomb. Some new knowledge also was brought back. The history of the crusades we do not need The important matter for our purpose was the results to trace. outspirit of adventure and a desire for personal gain.INFLUENCES TOWARD A REVIVAL nobles and peasants. and the contact with peoples decidedly superior to themselves in civilization. JerusaThe Christians quarreled with one lem was taken and lost. but that was not at • the time of great importSMJged bRMigrfsriaMpal gain came in the . and a mutual respect people — — and a laws of all kinds of merchants. In a sense the Crusades were an outward manifestation of the great change in thinking and ideals which had begun sometime before in western Europe. The armies which went were composed Europe. The First Crusade set out in 1096. somewhat friendly relations. and a third in 1 187. Results of the Crusades on western Europe. the sight of cities of wealth and power. an d inter- communication and some common idea s and common feelings were being brought about. as In 1 204 the Venetians diverted the fourth crusade to the capture of Constantinople. the call met with but small response from the nobles of German lands.

fj French than German nationality. This Vwas a crushing blow to the old feudal regime. in the awakening of a npw inte rest in the present world. manufacturing. The revival of city life.rbajdan -invasions were the episcopal cities. An ever-increasing company and of peasants. owned by monks huddled together a walled feudal in 1 or feudal lord. and hence V they were not killed off or impoverished. that is cities which were the residences of bishops. in the marked change of attitude toward the old problems. ^v^ojgng^democratic type of civilization.202 HISTORY OF EDUCATION elimination forever of thousands of quarreling. The greatest of all the results. Of the thousands of petty lords and knights who went to the hot East. advanced the cause of civilization. town eventually resulted its one way or another. and industry in the rising cities of western Europe. however. . clad in the heavy armor of northern Europe. in such places for the protection afforded. 94 a). continued through the early Middle Ages as places of some little local importance. much after the Outside of Italy almost the only cities not old Greek model. as a class. but remained to rule and multiply and be . and craftsmen. who formed a new city class and in time developed a new system of training for themselves and their children. large numbers left their bones along the way or in the Syrian sands. on or adjacent to land at one time ests and new desires among the common people. themselves little more than serfs in the beginning. The old cities of central and northern Italy.A troublesome. fighting noblemen. 194). as was stated above (p. came through the revival of trade. ^bstmyed_clming_the_period-of -the. In Germany the knights $ and nobles. i n the creation of in the new inter- awakening of a spirit of r eligions unity and of national consciousn ess and especially in the awakening of a new intellectual lif e.. which soon found expression in the organization of universities "for study and in more extensive travel and geographical exploration than the world had known since the days of ancient Rome. freedom from monastic control (R.Y England. whose knights went in large numbers to the East. refused to have anything to do with the Crusades. In the eleventh century they overthrew in large part the rule of their Prince-Bishops. Especially was this true in France and . and the landholdings at home reverted to the This is one reason for the much earlier rise and greater strength of . Outside of Italy the present cities of western Europe either rose on the ruins of former Roman provincial cities. and J helped in the rise of the modern nations. secured This later. or originated about some monastery or castle. . and one reason why Germany has been so much Xslower than France and Engja^ jj. bankers. 1 thus giving the kingly power a chance to consolidate holdings and begin the evolution of modern States. with the consequent evolution of a new and important class of merchants. and became little City-Republics. commerce.

the lesser churches. The farming and grazing lands lay outside.for defense. Originally each little city was a self-sustaining community. while to-day the city of London alone contains nearly three times that number. where the great public feasts could take place.pjgdsh. the repeated all failures or destruction of crops high death-rate from disease.rhii. In all England there were but 2.INFLUENCES TOWARD A REVIVAL 203 or feudal lord. 146. the constant warfare. The narrow often beset by pigs in lieu of scavengers. both because — ' where the open-air markets would be held. according to the Domesday Survey (1086). to the eye.) — '"'°i — — . or to don armor and man the walls. and the high houses could shut out the marauder. the tall gray cathedral also.and-therejKo^Id. A Typical Medieval tall Town (Prussian) All the elements of a typical mediaeval town are seen here — the walls for defense. the churches. and evolved into the free city we know to-day. &. and the kept down the population. gates that Fig. The need for walls that could be manned . cathedral. and close by it. A town of a thousand people in the early Middle Ages was a place some importance. had ten thousand inhabitants before the year 1200." (pM&ptf.Mtem68® and Modern Europe.000 people. whence clanged the great alarm-bell to call the citizens together in mass meeting. the City Hall. the narrow. of the limited population.. p. where the council met. a typical mediaeval city would be a remarkable sight. the huddled together. the watch-towers. the castle. and above which rose the mighty belfry.hes-of "^rrtrrtho' Xntc^ f the town extended the great square TTi gprplnn" •""hit°" T 1 "As presented Its extent would be small. and the lack of any sanitary ideas. but streets would be dirty and ill-paved everywhere there would be bustling human life with every citizen elbowing close to everybody else. excepting Paris and London. an elegant secular edifice. while probably no city outside of Italy. many-storied houses would be wedged closely together. 58. while the people were crowded compactly together within the protecting town walls.i:F. all alike tended to keep the towns small. but within these walls the huge. of without and want within.150.rise. 1 The insecurity of life. dirty streets. close by. Out of the foul stree ts_h^e. and the need of making the circuit of the walls to be defended as short as possible. dwarfing market-place the pride of the community.


li fe

After about the vear_iooo^r evivaI of somethi ng like c ity

begins to be noticeable here and there in the records of the time (R. 94 a), and by noo these signs begin to manifest themselves

By 1200 the cities of Europ_e_H££re in many places and lands. numerous, though small, and their importance in the life of the

was rapidly increasing (R. 94 b) As the mediaeval towns increased in size and importance the inhabitants, being human, demanded Between noo and 1200 there were frequent revolts of rights.


rise of a city class.

the people of the mediaeval towns against their feudal overlord,
to^the towns.

and frequent d emands were made for charters granting privileges Sometimes these insurrections were put down with
a bloody hand. Sometimes, on the contrary, the overlord granted a charter of rights, willingly or unwillingly, and freed the people

from obligation to labor on the lands in return for a fixed money payment. Sometimes the king himself granted the inhabitants a charter by way of curbing the power of the local feudal lord or The towns became exceedingly skillful in playing off bishop. In England, lord against bishop, and the king against both. Flanders, France, and Germany some of the towns had become wealthy enough to purchase their freedom and a charter at some time when their feudal overlord was particularly in need of money. These charters, or birth certificates for the towns, were carefully drawn and officially sealed documents of great value, and were
highly prized as evidences of local liberty. The document created a "free town," and gave to the inhabitants certain specified rights
as to self-government, the election of magistrates.

mayor, burgomaster

— the

— aldermen,

levying and


of taxes,


Before the evolution of strong national governments these charters created hundreds of what were virtually little City-States throughout Europe (R. 95). In these towns a n ew estate or classjoLpeople.was now created (R/90X in between the ruling bishops and lords on the one hand and the peasants tilling the land on the other. These were the freemen, bourgeoisie, burghers. Out of this new class citizens

the military service to be rendered.

1 In Italy, in particular, the cities became strong and powerful, and eventually overthrew the rule of the bishops and defeated the German Emperor, Frederick I, in a long battle to preserve their independence. In Flanders such cities as Ypres, Bruges, and Ghent, came to dominate there. In 1302 their burghers defeated the French army; and in the sixteenth century they helped to break the autocratic power of Spain in a great struggle for human and civic freedom. By the thirteenth century Hamburg, Liibeck, Bremen, Augsburg, and Nuremburg were important commercial cities in Germanj0/g/f/ze d by Microsoft®

of city dwellers





orders soon

and demanded

craftsmen —

social orders

— merchants, bankers, trades-

in time arose, and these new and obtained some form of educa-

tion for their children. The guild or appren ticeship education which early developed in the cities to meet the needs of artisans and craftsmen (R. 99), and the burgh or city schools 'of Europe,

A Churchmen



\ Lower nobility.
\ \ Higher commercial





Merchants; manufacturers.


\ Land owners; professional men.
\. Small shop .keepers.


\Craftsmen, farmers.

\. Day laborers.

Fig. 59.

The Educational Pyramid
R., Educational Sociology, p. 176)

(From Smith, W.

The concave pyramid

suggests comparative numbers: Formal education began at the top, and has slowly worked downward.

which began to develop in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, were the educational results of the rise of cities and the The time would soon be evolution of these new social classes. ripe for the mysteries of learning to be passed somewhat farther down the educational pyramid, and new classes in society would begin the mastery of its symbols. The revival of commerce. The first city of mediaeval Europe She early sold to obtain c ommercial prominence was Venice. fish obtained from the lagoons to the Lombards in the salt and Valley of the Po, and sent trading ships to the Greek East. By the year 1000 Venetian ships were bringing the luxuries and riches of the Orient to Venice, and the city soon became a great trading There the partially civilized Christian knight "spent center. splendidly," and the Bohemian, German, and Hunnish lords came 1 to buy such of the luxuries of the East as they could afBy 1 100 Venice was a free City-State, the mistress of the ford. Adriatic, and the trade of the East with Christian Europe passed over her wharves. From the Crusades she profited greatly, carry1 f Venice forbade her merchantP«B gS^Jfl^mCoso«®

They came

there because, due to their plundering

and murdering




ing knights eastward in the great fleet she had developed, and carpets, fabrics, perfumes, spices, dyes, drugs, silks, and precious
stones on the return voyage.

From Tana and Trebizond


traders penetrated far into the interior.

"held the Golden East in fee." and most powerful city in Europe. Genoa in time became the great
also developed a large trade in the

Her ships and merchants By 14.00 she was the wealthie st
rival of Venice.

Marseille s

Mediterranean and with the



these three cities trade routes ran to the cities of

shown in the map below. Nuremburg, Magdeburg, Hamburg, Liibeck, Bremen, Antwerp, Ghent, Ypres, Bruges, and
Flanders, England, and




the thirteenth century, Augsburg,

Cities underlined


show the Ohlef Hnnca Towns. or Eliinsa Trading ^oate.

•.....— Chief Land Routes. Genoese Soa Routes '• Venetian " Eqil Longitude Longitude West 0°







Trade Rwutes and Commercial Cities

London were developing into great commercial cities. Despite bad roads, bad bridges, bad inns, "robber knights" and bandits, the commerce once carried on by Rome with her provinces was reviving. Great fairs, or yearly markets, came to be held in the large interior towns, to which merchants came from near and far



So poor were the mediaeval bridges that the oldprayer-books contained formulas one's soul &$BtB$<iJ&sMie(8fgW cross a bridge."

to display


and exchange their wares, and, still more important, from the standpoint of advancing general education, to exchange jdeas and experiences. The "luxuries" displayed at these mar™ kets by traveling merchants from the south salt, pepper,, spices,


sugar, drugs, dyestuffs, glass beads, glassware, table implements,

perfumes, ornaments, underwear, articles of dress, silks, velvets, carpets, rugs dazzled and astounded the simple townspeople of western Europe. These fairs became educa tional forces of..a_



revival of industry

and banking.

at seaports- and at the interior city fairs

The trading of articles came first, and this soon

worked a revolution in industry. Instead o£ agriculture being almost the only occupation, and the feeding of the local population the only purpose, with only such arts and industries practiced as were needed to supply the wants of the townsmen, it now became possible to create a surplus to barter at the fairs for luxuries from the outside. L ocal industrie s, heretofore of but little importance, now developed into trades, and the manufacture of artiAt first manufacturing was very cles for outside sale was begun. limited in scope, and confined largely to local handicrafts or the imitation of imported articles, but later new and important industhe glagsjnjiusti^in Venice, the go ki and silver tries arose industry of Florence, the weaving industry at Mainz and Erfurt, and the woolmdusjjy of Flanders. The craftsman a.nH artisan, as well as the merchant and trader, were now developed in the towns, and soon became important members of the new social As serfs and villeins 1 were set free from the land 2 they order. came to the towns, adding more members to the new industrial From ijggLpn there was a great revival of indusclasses (R. 96). try in western Europe, and by ijoo_merchants and craftsmen had won back the place once helcfby merchants and craftsmen in Roman life and trade. At Florence a banking class aro se, and instead of barter, banks and the use of morieyanaTcredit were developed. From Florence this system gradually extended to the other commercial cities.

1 The peasants were of two classes: (i) serfs, who were not free and who were attached to the soil, but unlike slaves had plots of land of their own and could not be sold off the land; and (2) villeins, who were personally free, but still were bound to their lord for much menial service and for many payments in produce and money. 2 The Church originally held many serfs and villeins, as did the nobles. It began In time it the process of setting them free, encouraging others to do likewise. became common, as it did in our Southern States before the Civil War, for nobles in dvine to set free a certain number.of their serfs and villeins. These went as free


to the rising cities.

T%ita«ffiy Mcrosoim



Gradually the mediaeval objection to the taking of interest for the use of money, which the Church had forbidden in the early Middle


Ages as "usury" and wicked, was overcome, and Italian bankers and merchants led the world in the establishment of that credit which has made modern trade and industry possible. With money once more in general use as a measure of value, the Arabic system of notation in use for commercial transactions, and credit at reasonable interest rates provided as a basis for finance, an era in trade and commerce and manufacturing set in unknown since the days of Roman rule. Ordej^security,^ and_a_wider extension of educational advantages now were needed, and nothing contributed more to securing these than the growth of wealth and manufacturing industries in the towns, and the extension of commerce and the use of money throughout the country. Nothing
Jtends so powerfully to

session of wealth

Education for

demand or secure these things as the posamong a people. these new social classes. With the evolution of

new social classes an extension of education took place through the formation, of guilds. 1 The merchants of the Middle Ages traded, not as individuals, nor as subjects of a State which protected them, for there were as yet no such States, but as members of the guild of merchants of their town, or as members of a trading company. Later, towns united to form trading confederations, of which the Hanseatic League of. northern Germany was a conspicuous example. These burgher merchant guilds became wealthy and important socially; 2 they were chartered by kings and given trading privileges analogous to those of a modern corporation (R. 95) they elbowed their way into affairs of State, and in time took over in large part the city governments; they obtained education for themselves, and fought with the church




The mediaeval guild was an important institution, and the guild idea was applied forms of mediaeval associations. Thus we read of guilds of notaries in

Florence, pleaders' and attorneys' guilds in London, medical guilds and barbersurgeons' guilds in various cities, and of the book-writers-and-sellers' guild in Paris. In a religious pageant given at York, England, on Corpus Christi Day, 141 5, fiftyone different local guilds presented each a scene. (See Cheyney, E. P., English Towns and Gilds., Pa. Sources, vol. 11, no. 1.) 2 "The ready money of the merchant was as effective a weapon as the sword of the noble, or the spiritual arms of the Church. Very speedily, also, the men of the cities began to seize upon one of the weapons which up to that time had been the exclusive possession of the Church, and one of the main sources of its power knowledge and intellectual training. With these two weapons in its hands, wealth and knowledge, the Third Estate forced its way into influence, and compelled the other two (Estates) to recognize it as a partner with themselves in the management of public concerns." (Adams, G. B., Civilization during the Middle Ages, 2d ed.
P- 2 99-)


by Microsoft®



authorities for the creation of independen t burgh schools; 1 they

began to read_books, and books in the vernacular began to be written for them; 2 they in time vied with the clergy and the
nobility in their patronage of learning; they everywhere stood

with the kings and princes to compel feudal lords to stop warfare and plundering and to submit to law and order; 3 and they entertained royal personages and drew nobles, clergy, and gentry into their honorary membership, thus serving as an important agency in breaking down the social-class exclusiveness of the Middle Ages. In these guilds, which were self-governing bodies debating questions and deciding policies and actions, much elementary political training was given their members whiqh proved of large importance at a later time.

In the same
t echnic al


the craft guild s rendered a large education al

merchant and worker, as they provid ed the and social education of such during the later period of the Middle Ages and in early modern times, and protected their members from oppression in an age when oppression was the rule. With the revival of trade and industry craft guilds arose all over western Europe. One of the first of these was the candle-makers' Soon after we find large numguild, organized at Paris in 1061.
service to the small

bers of guilds

— masons,

shoemakers, harness-makers, bakers,

smiths, wool-combers, tanners, saddlers, spurriers, weavers, goldsmiths, pewterers, carpenters, leather-workers, cloth-workers,
pinners, fishmongers, butchers, barbers


organized on





These were the working-men's

fraternities or

Each trade or craft became labor unions of mediaeval Europe. organized as a city guild, composed of the "masters," "journeymen" (paid workmen), and "apprentices." The great mediaeval document, a charter of rights guaranteeing protection, was usually obtained.


guild for each trade laid


rules for. the

In Hamburg, for example, the city council established four writing schools in them 1402, to which the church authorities objected. The council refused to give up, and for this was laid under the ban of the Church, compelled to recede, admit that it had no right to establish such schools,' and pay the costs involved in the
2 For example, the three most widely read books of the thirteenth century were Reynard the Pox, a profoundly humorous animal epic; The Golden Legend, which so deeply impressed Longfellow; and the Romance of the Rose, for three centuries the most read book in Europe. 3 Despite all the criticisms one may offer against business, commerce has always been a great civilizing force. While not anxious to pay heavy taxes, the merchant has always been willing to pay what has been necessary to support a public power capable of maintaining order and security for property. Feudal turmoil, private an warfare, and plundering are jdeadlyfoes of commerce, and these have come to end where commerce and mcftStry^aWgMfSP'ffie ascendant.



number and training of apprentices, 1 the conditions under which a "journeyman" could become a "master," 2 rules for conducting
the trade, standards to be maintained in workmanship, prices to be charged, and dues and obligations of members (R. 97). They


supervised work in their craft, cared for the sick, buried the dead, and looked after the widows and orphans. Often they provided one or more priests of their own to minister to the families of their craft, and gradually the custom arose of having the priest also teach something of the rudiments of religion and learning to the children of the members. In time money and lands were set aside or left for such purposes, and a form of chantry school. which later evolved into a regular school, often with instruction in higher studies added, was created for the children of members 3
of the guild (R. 98).

For centuries after the revival of manufacturing was on a small scale, and in the home-industry stage. There was, of course, no machinery, and only the simple tools known from ancient times were used. In a first-floor room at the back, master, journeymen, and apprentices working together made the articles which were sold by the master or the master's wife and daughter in the room in front. The manufacturer and merchant were one. Apprentices were bound to a master for a term of years (R. 99), often paying for the training and education to be received, and the master boarded ana lodged both the apprentices and the paid workmen in the family rooms above the shop and store. The form of apprenticeship education and training which thus developed, from an educational point of view, forms for us the important feature of the history of these craft guilds. With the subdivision of labor and the development of new trades the craftguild idea was extended to the new occupations, and a steady stream of rural labor flowing to the towns was absorbed by them
Apprenticeship education.

trade and industry

and taught_the elements

x>L social usages, self-government,
might teach


As a

rule a master craftsman

have only one other apprentice who as one of the family. Theguild still supervised the apprentice, protecting him from bad usage or defective training by the master. 2 This required the production of a masterpiece." This piece of work had to be produced to prove high competency. For example, in the shoemakers' guild of Paris, a pair of boots, three pairs of shoes, and a pair of slippers, all done in the best possible manner, were required. 3 Of thirty-three guilds investigated by Leach, all maintained song schools, and twenty-eight maintained a grammar school as well. In London, Merchant Taylors'

his trade to all his sons, but could received board, lodging, clothing, and training,

School, Stationers' School, and the Mercers' School are present-day survivals of these ancient guild foundatidasyr/zed by Microsoft®




the mastery of a trade. Throughout all the long period up to the nineteentiTcentury this apprenticeship education in a trade and in self-government constituted almost the entire formal education the worker with his hands received. The sons of the barbarian invaders, as well as their knightly brothers, at last were busy learning the great lessons of industry, cooperation, and per-

sonal loyalty.


toil. " So well in fact did this apprensystem of training and education meet the needs of the time

— the long pedigree of


begins, for western Europe, "the nobility of

that it persisted, as was said above, well into. the nineteenth century (Rs. 200, 201, 242, 243), being displaced only by modem power machinery and systematized factory methods. During the later Middle Ages and in modern times it rendered an important educational service; in the later nineteenth century it became such an obstacle to educational and industrial progress that it has


to be supplemented or replaced

by systematic vocational


Influence of these

of the twelfth century, a

new movements. We thus see, by the end number of new influences in western

awakening and to the rise monks and clergy on the one hand or the nobility on the other, and to the awakening of Europe to a new attitude toward life. Saracen learning, filtering across from Spain, had added materially to the knowledge Europe previously had, and had stimulated new intellectual interScholasticism had begun its great work of reorganizing and ests. systematizing theology, which was destined to free philosophy, hitherto regarded as a dangerous foe or a suspected ally, from theology and to remake entirely the teaching of the subject. Civil and canon_lag,had been created as wholly new professional subjects, and the beginnings of the teadun g of medicine had been made. Instead of the old Seven Liberal Arts and a very limited
of a

Europe which point to an

new educated


separate from the

course of professional study for the clerical office being the entire

curriculum, and Theology the one professional subject, we now by the beginning of the thirteenth century, a number of new

and important professional subjects of large future significance subjects destined to break the monopoly of theological study and put an end to logistic hair-splitting. The next step in the history of education came in the clevelopment of institutions where thinking and teachmgxould bejDarried~o1Tiree from civil or ecclesiastical control, with the conse^ujgl^e^^f^n^^epend^entieajned class



This came with the rise rif the universities, which we next turn, and out of which in time arose the future independent scholarship of Europe, America, and the world in
in western Europe. to



also discover a series of

new movements, connected with
the revival of trade and indusoj[

the £rusade_&, the rise of
try^ _all of

cities, -and

which clearly mark the close

the dark period of jthe

— a new Estate — destined

Middle Ages.


note, too, the evolution of


social classes

in time to eclipse in

importance both

and noble and



for long the ruling classes of the


an important independent system of education for the hand-workers which sufficed until the days of steam, machinery, and the evolution of the factory system. The eleventh and twelfth centuries were turning-points of great significance in the history of our western civilization, and with the opening of the wonderful thirteenth century the western world is well headed toward a new life and
also note the beginnings of


modern ways

of thinking.


that a strong religious control


never favorable to originality

in thinking?

the work of the Nestorian Christians for the Mohammedan was another example of the Hellenization of the ancient world. Would it be possible for any people anywhere in the world to-day to make such advances as were made at Bagdad, in the late eighth and early ninth centuries, without such work permanently influencing the course of civilization and learning everywhere? To what is the difference due? v^ What were the chief obstacles to Europe adopting at once the learning from Mohammedan Spain, instead of waiting centuries to discover this

Show how



^learning independently? did Aristotle's work seem of much greater value to the mediaeval scholar than the Moslem science? What are the relative values to-day? "6. should the light literature of Spain be spoken of as a gay contagion? Did this Christian attitude toward fiction and poetry continue long? 7. In what ways was the Sic et Non of Abelard a complete break with mediaeval traditions? 8. How did the fact that Dialectic (Logic) now became the great subject of study in itself denote a marked intellectual advance? What was the significance of the prominence of this study for the future of thinking? 0. What was the effect on inquiry and individual thinking of the method / of presentation used by Saint Thomas Aquinas in his Summa Theological How do you explain the all-absorbing interest in scholasticism during , the greater part of a century? i/. State the significance, for the future, of the revival of the study of Roman /Jaw: (a) intellectually; (b) in shaping future civilization.

# Why



do you explain3/|k£e6bp»fe!fBs3/foStude toward disease, and the



treatment of



that attitude entirely passed away?


was it such a good thing for the future of civilization in England and France that so many of its nobility perished in the Crusades? 14. State a number of ways in which the Crusade movements had a beneficial effect on western Europe. 15. Show how the revival of commerce was an educative and a civilizing /influence of large importance. Would the organization of commerce and banking, and the establishment
of the sanctity of obligations in a country, be one important measure of the civilization to which that country had attained? Illustrate. iy\ Show how the development of industry and commerce and the accumulation of wealth tend to promote order and security, and to extend educa- tional advantages. guild and a 1$. Contrast a mediaeval guild and a modern labor union.



/-modern fraternal and benevolent society.

Why did apprenticeship education continue so long with so little change,
when it is now so rapidly being superseded? Does the rise of a new Estate in society indicate



a period of slow or rapid such an evolution of importance for education and


In the accompanying Book of Readings the following selections are reproduced: .85. Draper: The Moslem Civilization in Spain. 86. Draper: Learning among the Moslems in Spain.
87. 88. 89. 90.

Norton: Works of Aristotle known by 1300.


Roger Bacon:


Aristotle's Greatness. Aristotle was received at Oxford. Aristotle was received at Paris.



92. 93.

95. 96.
97. 98. 99.

Decree of Church Council, 12 10 a.d. Statutes of Papal Legate, 1215 a.d. (c) Statutes of Pope Gregory, 1231 a.d. (d) Statutes of the Masters of Arts, 1254 A.D. Cousin: Abelard's Sic et Non. (a) From the Introduction. (b) Types of Questions raised for Debate. Rashdall: The Great Work of the Schoolmen. Justinian: Preface to the Justinian Code. Giry and Reville: The Early Mediaeval Town. (a) To the Eleventh Century. (b) By the Thirteenth Century. Gross: An English Town Charter. London: Oath of a New Freeman in a Mediaeval Town. Riley: Ordinances of the White-Tawyers' Guild. State Report: School of the Guild of Saint Nicholas. Mediaeval Indenture of Apprenticeship. England, 1396:




Contrast the state of civilization in Spain and the rest of Europe about 1 100 (85, 86). Considering Aristotle's great intellectual worth (88) and work (87), is it him with such reverence? to be wondered that the^Ht^vMs^giSflS®!


to-day accept Abelard's premise (91 a) as to attaining wisdom? his questions (91 b) excite much interest to-day?

Do we

do you explain the change in attitude toward him shown by the successive statutes enacted (90 a-d) for the University of Paris? 5. Would the extract from Roger Bacon (89) lead you to think him a man ahead of the times in which he lived? Why? 6. Did scholasticism represent the innocent intellectual activity, from the Church point of view, pictured by Rashdall (92)? 7. What were the main things Justinian hoped to accomplish by the preparation of the great Code, as set forth in the Preface (93)? 8. Characterize the mediasyal town by the eleventh century (94 a). What was the nature of the progress from that time to the thirteenth century


(94 b)?
the chief privileges contained in the town charter of Wallingit indicate was held by the guildmerchant therein? 10. What does the oath of a freeman (96) indicate as to social conditions? 11. State the chief regulations imposed on its members by the WhiteTawyers' Guild (97). Compare these regulations with those of a modern labor union, such as the plumbers. With a fraternal order, such as the

What were

ford (95),

and what position does




is indicated as to the educational advantages provided by the Guild of Saint Nicholas, in the city of Worcester, by the extract (98) taken from the Report of the King's Commissioner? Does a comparison of Readings 99, 201, and 242 indicate a static condition of apprenticeship education for centuries?

Middle Ages. Short History of the Saracens. *Ashley, W. J. Introduction to English Economic History. Cutts, Edw. L. Scenes and Characters of the Middle Ages. *Gautier, Leon. Chivalry. *Giry, A., and Reville, A. Emancipation of the Mediceval Towns. Hibbert, F. A. Influence and Development of English Guilds. *Hume, M. A. S. The Spanish People. *Lavisse, Ernest. Mediceval Commerce and Industry. *MacCabe, Jos. Peter Abelard. *Munro, D. C, and Sellery, G. E. Medieval Civilization. Poole, R. L. Illustrations of Mediceval Thought. *Rashdall, H. Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, vol. 1. Routledge, R. Popular History of Science. Sandys, J. E. History of Classical Scholarship, vol. 1.

*Adams, G. B. Ameer, Ali.

Civilization during the


Historical Essays on Apprenticeship and Vocational Educa(England.) *Sedgwick, W. J., and Tyler, H. W. A Short History of Science. Taylor, H. O. The Mediceval Mind. Thorndike, Lynn. History of Mediceval Europe. Townsend, W. J. The Great Schoolmen of the Middle Ages.
Scott, J. F.


by Microsoft®

Evolution of the Studium Generate. In the preceding chapter described briefly the new movement toward association

which characterized the eleventh and the twelfth centuries the municipal movement, the me r.rba.Tit gujlds the trade-guilds, etc. These were doing for civil life what monasticism had earlier done
for the religious


life. They were collections of like-minded men 1, united themselves into associations or guilds for mutual all

advancement, and self-government within th This tendenc toward association, in the days when state government was weak or in its infancy, was one of the marked features of the transition time from the early period of the Middle Ages, when the Church was virtually the State, to the later period of the Middle Ages, when the authority of the Church in secular matters was beginning to weaken, modem nations were beginning to form, and an interest in worldly affairs was beginning to replace the previous inordinate interest in the world to come. We also noted in the preceding chapters that certain cathedral and monastery schools, but especially the cathedral schools, stimulated by the new interest in Dialectic, were developing into much more than local teaching institutions designed to afford a supply of priests of some little education for the parishes of the bishopric. Once York and later Canterbury, in England, had had teachers who attracted students from other bishoprics. ^Paris J had for long been a famous center for the study of the LiberaTf Arts and of Theology. Saint Ga ll had become noted for its music. Theologians coming from PafisTi 167-68) had given a new impetus to study among the monks at. Oxford. A series of political events in northern Italy had given emphasis to the study of law in many cities, and the Moslems in Spain had stimulated the schools there and in southern France to a study of medicine and Aristotelian science. Rome w as for long a noted center for study. Gradually these places came to be known as studia publico,, or studia generalia, meaning by this a generally recognized place of
benefit, protection,

limits of their city, business, trade, or occupation.



1 By the twelfth century th^cajhedral schools had passed the monastic schools in importance, and had obtainedS^^tyMflflftfloWtfe evel Uilel 10 lUlUlU (R. yi).—
1 '



study, where lectures were open to any one, to students of
countries and of
conditions. 1

Traveling students came to places from afar to hear some noted teacher read and comthese ment on the famous textbooks of the time. From the first both teachers and students had been considered as members of the clergy, and hence had enjoyed the privileges and immunities extended to that class, but, now that the students

were becoming so numerous and were traveling so
additional grant of protection was_felt to be desirable.




Accordingly the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, 2 in 1 158, issued a general proclamation of privileges and protection (R. 101). In this he (ordered that teachers and students traveling "to the places in which the studies are carried on " should be protected from unjust arrest, should be permitted to "dwell in security," and in case of suit should be tried "before their professors or the bishop of the city." This document marks the beginning of a long series of


privileges granted to the teachers

and students

of the



in process of evolution in western Europe.

The university evolution. The development of a university out of a cathedral or some other form of school represented, in Universities were not the Middle Ages, a long local evolution. founded then as they are to-day. A teacher of some reputation drew around him a constantly increasing body of students. Other teachers of ability, finding a student body already there,
up their chairs" and began to teach. Other teachers and more students came. In this way a studium was created. About these teachers in time collected other university servants
also "set

parchment, parchment, and others who serve it," as i Count Rupert enumerated them in the Charter of Foundation granted, in 1386, to Heidelberg (R. 103). At Salerno, as we have already seen (p. 199), medical instruction arose around the work of Constantine of Carthage and the medicinal springs found in Students journeyed there from many lands, and the vicinity. licenses to practice the medical art were granted there as early At Bologna, we have also seen (p. 195), the work of as 1137. Irnerius and Gratian early made this a great center for the study of civil and canon law, and their pupils spread the taste for these
scribes, illuminators of

— "pedells,

librarians, lower officials, preparers of

tunities offered

As contrasted with the monasteries, which were under a "Rule." The opporby such open institutions in the Middle Ages can hardly be overI, of


estimated. 2 Frederick

the me(fiffi#&eH%W««seflfl®mpire


Germany and




subjects throughout Europe. Paris for two centuries had been a center for the study of the Arts and of Theology, and a succession of famous teachers William of Champeaux, Abelard, Peter the Lombard had taught there. So important was the theological teaching there that Paris has been termed "the-Sfe of instruction" of the Middle Ages. By the beginning of the thirteenth century both students and teachers had become so numerous, at a number of places in western Europe, that they began to adopt the favorite mediaeval practice and organized themselves into associations nr guild s, for further protection from extortion and oppression and for greater freedom from regulation by the Church. They now sought and obtained additional privileges for themselves, and, in particular,


document a charter of rights and privileges 1 As both teachers and students were for long regarded as clerici the charters were usually sought from the Pope, but in some cases they were obtained from the king. 2 These associations of
the great mediaeval



need of companionship which men who cultivate their intelligence feel," sought to perform the same functions for those who studied and taught that the merchant and craft guilds were performing for their members. The ruling i dea was as sociation for protection, and to secure free-

scholars, or teachers, or both, " born of the

and study; the obtaining of corporate rights and the organization of a system of apprenticeship, based on study and developing through journeyman into mastership, 3 as attested by an examination and the license to teach. In the rise of these teacher and student guilds 4 we have the beginnings of the universities of western Europe, and their organization into chartered teaching groups (R. 100) was simply
for" discussion




1 "No individual during the Middle Ages was secure in his rights, even of life or property, certainly not in the enjoyment of ordinary freedom, unless protected by specific guarantees secured from some organization. Politically, one must owe allegiance to some feudal lord from whom protection was received; economically, one must secure his rights through merchant or craft guild; intellectual interests and educational activities were secured and controlled by_the Church." (Monroe, P., Text Book in the History of Education, p. 317.) 2 At first the older institutions organized themselves without charter, securing this later, while the institutions founded after 1300 usually began with a charter from pope or king, and sometimes from both (R. 100). 3 The degree of master was originally the license to practice the teaching trade, and analogous to a master shoemaker, goldsmith, or other master craftsmen. * "The universities, then, at their origins, were merely academic associations, analogous, as societies of mutual guaranty, to the corporations of working men, the commercial leagues, the trade-guilds which were playing so great a part at the same epoch; analogous also, by the privileges granted to them, to the municipal associa(Compayre, G., tions and political communities that date from the same time." Abelard and the Rise of the Univ@igtfo%dpb)$t4jcrosoft®



another phase of that great movement toward the association of like-minded men for worldly purposes which began to sweep over the rising cities in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. 1 The term universitas, or university, which came in time to be applied to these associations of masters and apprentices in study, was a general Roman legal term, practically equivalent to our

modern word corporation. At first it was applied to any association, and when used with reference to teachers and scholars was so stated. Thus, in addressing the masters and students at Paris, Pope Innocent, in 1205, writes: " Universis magistris et scholaribus Parisiensibus"; that is, "to the corporation of masters and scholars at Paris." Later the term university became restricted to the meaning which we give it to-day. The university mothers. Though this movement for association and the development of advanced study had manifested itself in a number of places. by the close of the twelfth century, two places in particular led all the others and became types which were
followed in charters and in



These were Bologna


Paris. 2

After one or the other of these two nearly


Europe were modeled. Bologna or Paris, or one of their immediate children, served as a pattern. Thus Bologna was the university mother for almost all the Italian universities; for Montpellier and Grenoble in southern France; for some of the Spanish universities; and for Glasgow, Upsala, Cracow, and for the Law Faculty at Oxford. Paris was the university mother for Oxford, and through her Ca mbridg e; for most of
universities of western

the northern French universities; for the university of Toulouse, which in turn became the mother for other southern French and northern Spanish universities; for Lisbon and Coimbra in

— Harvard — founded in^cl.

German universities at Prague, Vienna, Cologne, and Heidelberg; and through Cologne for Copenhagen. Through one of the colleges at Cambridge Emmanuel she became, indirectly, the mother of a new Cambridge in America
Portugal; for the early

Figure 61 shows the location of the chief universities founded before 1600. Viewed from the standpoint of instruction, Paris was followed almost entirely in

Theology, and Bologna in Law, while the three centers which "M. Bimbenet, in his History of the University of Orleans (Paris, 1853) reproduces several articles from the statutes of the guilds, the provisions of which are identical with those contained in the statutes of the universities." (Ibid., p. 35.) 2 Bologna and Paris were the great "master" universities of the thirteenth century, while those founded on a model of either were more in the nature of "journeyDigitized by Microsoft® men" institutions.



most influenced the development of instruction in medicine were Salerno, Montpellier, and Salamanca. While the earlier universities gradually arose as the result of a long local evolution, it in time became common for others to be

Fig. 61.

Showing Location of the Chief Universities founded before 1600

founded by a migration of professors from an older university to some cathedral city having a developing stuiium. In the days when a university consisted chiefly of master and students, when lectures could be held in any kind of a building or collection of buildings, and when there were no libraries, laboratories, campus, or other university property to tie down an institution, it was easy
Thus, in 1209, the school at Cambridge was created secession of masters from Oxford, much as bees swarm from a hive. Sienna, Padua, Reggio, Vicenza, Arezzo resulted from "swarmings" from Bologna; and Vercelli from Vicenza. In 1228, after^^jd^^l^ Paris which provoked
to migrate.

a university

by a







^risakjWri th P-idly-ro^my of th.ftTTJJ-SJEr^aTiH students e-jeprisalsJB


/ \

ythe^studium towns of Angers, Orleans, and Rheims, and univerMigrations from Prague sities were established at the first two. helped establish many of the German universities. In this way In i^go. the university organization was spread over Europe.
there were but six studia generalia which can be considered as Salerno, Bologna, and Reggio, having evolved into universities in Italy; Paris and Montpellier, in France; and Oxford, in EngBy 1300 eight more had evolved in Italy, three more in land. France, Cambridge in England, and five in Spain and Portugal.


1400 twenty-two additpnaljnjiversities had developed, five

of which were in

German lands, and by 1 00 thirty -five ore had been founded, making a total of eighty. By 1600 the total had been raised to one hundred and eight (R. 100, for list by countries, Some of these (approximately dates, and method of founding)


thirty) afterwards died, while in the followingfcenturies additional


ones were created. 1 Privileges and immunities granted.
to physicians


in 333 a.d. (R. 26),

the clergy

and teachers and the privileges and immunities granted to (clerici) by the early Christian Roman Emperors

The grant of privileges made by the Emperor Constantine,

R. 38), doubtless form€d a basis for the marry grants of special made to the professors and students the early univerThe document promulgated by Frederick Barbarossa, in sities. 1158 (R. 101), began the granting of privileges to the studia



was followed by numerous other grants. The trial by the city authorities, and the obligation of every citizen of Paris to seize any one seen striking a student, granted by Philip Augustus, in 1200 (R. 102),

grant to students of freedom from


another example, widely followed, of the bestowal of large Count Rupert I, in founding the JJrnyersity_of Heidelberg, in 1386, granted many privileges, exempted the students from "any<Tuty, levy, imposts, tolls, excises, or other exactions



whatever" while coming
the university (R. 103).




or returning

home from



taxation (R. 104) became a matter of form, and was afterwards followed in the
Between 1600 and 1700, although most
of the cities capable of supporting universities

The exemption from

were provided with them, twenty-one more were created, chiefly in Germany and Holland. The first American university (Harvard) was established in In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, 1636, and the second (Yale) in 1702. without counting the United States or any western-hemisphere country, forty more L ** 7> were created. Among the important nineteenth-century creations were Berlin, 1810; <>V3' Christiana, 1811; St, Petersi>^fe<j#^;AfeHS§e)*I>i834; London, 1836; and Athens,





Exemption from


chartering of American colleges (R. 187). tary service also was granted.

So valuable an asset was a university to a city, and so easy was for a university to move almost overnight, that cities often, and at times even nations, encouraged not only the founding of universities, but also the migration of both faculties and students. An interesting case of a city bidding for the presence of a university is that of Vercelli (R. 105), which made a binding agreement, as a part of the city charter, whereby the city agreed with a body of masters and students "swarming" from Padua to loan the students money at lower than the regular rates, to see that there was plenty of food in the markets at no increase in prices, and to^» protect the students from injustice. An instance of bidding by a ^-v State is the case of Cambridge, which obtained quite an addition I by the coming of striking Paris masters and students in 1229, in "^response to the pledge of King Henry III (R. 109), who "humbly sympathized with them for their sufferings at Paris," and promised them that if they would come "to our kingdom of England and remain there to study" he would assign to them "cities, boroughs, towns, whatsoever you may wish to select, and in every fitting way will cause you to rejoice in a state of liberty and tranquillity." One of the most important privileges which the universities early obtained, and a rather singular one at that, was the right of cessa tio which meant the right to stop lectures and go on a strike as a means of enforcing a redress of grievances against either town or church authority (R. 107). This right was for long jealously guarded by the university, and frequently used to defend itself from the smallest encroachments on its freedom to teach, study, / /and discipline the members of its guild as it saw fit, and often the Often the cessatio was invoked fright not to discipline them at all. j on very trivial grounds, as in the case of the Oxford cessatio of / ^1209 (R. 108), the Paris cessatio of 1229 (R. 109), and the numerous other cessationes which for two centuries x repeatedly disturbed


the continuity of instruction at Paris.

The most important of the university in the guild. however, was the right to examine and license its own teachers (R. no), and to grant the license to teach (Rs. in, 112). Founded as the universities were after the guild model, they were primarily places for the taking of apprentices in the Arts, develDegrees

See Compayre, G.,




of these "strikes."

. "The 'license to teach. and took the form of a public disputation on some stated thesis.' and even their banquets.222 HISTORY OF EDUCATION oping them into journeymen and masters. When the student had finally heard a sufficient number of courses. and of which the bishops (or their representatives. or a professional training for practical use aside from teaching the subject. G. a preliminary condition of teaching. .) 2 "It is manifest that the universities borrowed from the industrial corporations their 'companionships. (the Trivium). Abdard. and the cultural ends. Accordingly of study it in the Arts came about in time that. and until towards the end of the twelfth century. and against all It was the student's "masterpiece. 1 Qtytized by Microsoft® . giving of instruction to students for prepare teachers. was a later development. a student was permitted . sought at first The by bachelor's degree was a those not intending to and eventually erected into a separate degree. he might present This was a himself for examination for the teaching licen se. and the successful candidate might now be permitted to assist the master. after a number of years under some master. and he submitted it to a jury of teach. repast being the ordinary sequel of the reception of the baccalaureate or doctorate.' their 'masterships." (Compayre. . a term used in the Church. 2 Upon his masterpiece being adjudged 1 "It is impossible to fix the period at which the system of degrees began to be organized. to be to In England this test came Its passage known by was equivalent advancing from apprenticeship to the ranks of a journeyman. and by the fourteenth century was known as &_baccalaureus. no thought of establishing an examination and a new degree for the completion of this first step in studies. masterpiece of any other guild. a great . At the outset. Things were done slowly. There was at first. there existed nothing resembling a real conferring of degrees In order to teach it was necessary to have a respondent. and certifying to their 1 Their purpose at first was to proficiency in the teaching craft. Abdard. in the presence of the masters. in chivalry. and which meant a beginner. Rhetoric. or even give some elementary instruction himself while continuing his studies. as master and pupils multiplied. to the satis- faction of other masters than his own." analogous to the comers. and Logic the term determine . later development. p. the masters of his craft. He now became an assistant or companion. in the rising universities. pp. Up to the fourteenth century there was hardly any other clearly-defined university title. as required by the statutes of his guild.' nevertheless. public triaj." (Compayre\ G. a master authorized by age and knowledge. though.. became by slow degrees. 142-43. a sort of diploma more and more requisite. to present himself for a test as to his ability to define words de termine the meaning f pl-ira. the chancellors) were the dispensers.^ and read the ordinary Latin <-> texts in Grammar. and in the guilds.

the sons of France proud. Picardy. nations become general in its significance. but the differences between the countries also caused *~»dissensions. in which he says: "The students at Paris wrangled and disputed not merely about the various sects J or about some discussions. or professor. and the doctorate made their one degree. might have a seal. Tours. and much bad blood engendered. the Romans. f rom 6«fe§$( kX>WH<li. 62. there were Orleans had Paris. and Bourges. or Medicine. Picardy. 19^ a. for example. and vulgar and stupid. Normandy. yielding as After such insults from words they often came to blows. Jacobus de Vitriaco. gluttonous.THE RISE OF THE UNIVERSITIES Satisfactory. the Normans vain and boastful. has left us an account of student ^-Jife at Paris. 3 On the side of the masters the organization was by teaching subjects. 3 A contemporary writer. Rheims. 2 France." butter. there were Between the constant quarrels. members. D octor of The teaching faculties. Burgundy. The Bretons were reputed to be fickle and changeable. In England the in Germany the term doctor — — — \ - and cruel. 1 If he wished to prepare himself for teaching one of the professional subjects he to define and studied in time still further.) Sicilians. 223 he also heca. 2 and each "nation" elected a councilor to look after the interests of different its Seal or a Doctor. fickle. or of Theology. the 1 The term professor has countries. the Flemish. seditious.M. turbulent and slanderous. as for example. . the doctor's degree was superimposed on the English plan. while was retained. Trans. Champagne. At Paris. In those days these represented separate nationalities. insults were passed back and forth. who little understood one another. usually for a years. and is used in all term master was retained for the higher degree. (Pa. master in his craft was now able dispute. Lorraine. effeminate and carefully adorned like women. were provided for. "They affirmed that the English were drunkards and had tails.B. number of and he was declared to be a Law. Norten nations mandy. the The Burgundians they considered Poitevins traitors and always adventurers. '/These were again divided into tribes. prodigal. incendiabrigands and ravishers. and Repts. when the German university influence became prominent in the United States. and carried their constant quarrels up to the very lecture benches of the professors. all of which were once synonymous terms.<mft§> pp. Touraine. were often reproached for the death of Arthur. doctor. Guyenne. The Lombards were called avaricious. and slothful. vicious and cowardly. hatreds and virulent animosities among them. Germany. They said that the Germans were furious and obscene at their feasts. men of blood. American followed the English plan in the' establishment of the early colleges. there were four nations and England. tyrannical ries. Sens. University of Paris Fig. and they impudently uttered all kinds of affronts and insults against one another. . and the degree of A. and Scotland. five tribes of the French France. the inhabitants of Brabant. and was variously known as master. was formally admitted to the highest rank in the teaching guild. Later. in one of the professional faculties. and A. The students for a long time grouped themselves for better protection (and aggression) according to the nation from which they came.

ctem. and a long sjtrugg]e_aisued between the rector and the chancellor. prepared learned Fig. The Plate 1. to be known &s^facuities 1 Thus there came be four faculties in a fully orgamzeamedi seval university. 63. a reading and all the and speaking knowledge of Latin was necessary before coming to the university to study. and the deans and councilors elected a rectgz. and was found all in practically the universities. The The- ological Faculty. or School of Law. The rector was ultimately victorious. the scholastics. instead of Faculty of Arts. representing the four great divisions of knowledge which had been evolved Arts. Thus we say College of Liberal Arts. and the position of chancellor became largely an honorary position of no real importance. the most important of the four. cloisters (consecrated in 1400). This was obtained from a study of the first of the Seven Arts Grammar in some monastery. cathedral. The chancellor. was usually appointed by the Pope and represented the Church. Each faculty elected a. or other type of — 1 — In an American university the term college or school has largely replaced the term faculty. and a tall tower. as in One for and was some two centuries controlled by the Church. texts were Latin texts. Law. as worked out at Salerno and Montpellier. who was the head or president of the university. having been founded in 1379. at Oxford service of of the oldest of the Oxford colleges. and Theology. in Europe the t©jp$ misMot»A. m^ . Note the similarity of this early college to a monastery. Arts Faculty was preparatory to the other three. As Latin was the language of the classroom. The picture shows the chapel.. The Law Faculty embraced civil and canon worked out at Bologna.224 HISTORY OF EDUCATION . as ical Faculty taught the knowledge of the medical art. once forming a part of the Oxford city walls. to see who should be the chief authority in the university. The Medlaw. The Arts Faculty was the successor of the old cathedral-school instruction in the Seven Liberal Arts. the and into what came to — successor of the cathedral school scholasticus. Medicine. etc. New men for the College.

(16) school of sanitary engineering. and so fully were scholars convinced that it of had pleased God to permit Aristotle to say the last word upon each and every branch of knowledge that they humbly accepted him. or Theology until 1360. and social sciences. In Europe it is still of great importance as a preparatory subject. (6) college of engineering. economics. a Law Faculty in 1 271. p. (3) school of law. (14) school of library science. one of faculties. but established by the fourteenth century. U2) school of pharmacy. along with the Bible. twelfth century.) ' . (5) school of pure science. (4) school of fine arts. schools. H. 2 "He was called 'The Philosopher'. in 1254. had all four of The very nature of the evolution of the earlier ones precluded this. The teaching material in each facwas much as we have already indicated. 272. and continued to be the chief admission requirement in our universities up to the nineteenth century (R. (7) college of agriculture. but in South American countries it is not required at all.THE RISE OF THE UNIVERSITIES 225 school. (2) school of medicine. in response to new modern demands. a teacher from Bologna "setting up his chair" there. and continued as the typical form of university organization until modern times. (15) school of forestry. Law followed a little later. (8) school of history. the church fathers. H&ltyrftgj jtywtf&MiMfmpe.. Paris began sometime before 1200 as an arts school. A sort of theological school began in 1263. in the beginning. Veryjewjof jhe tr^eseJacultiesT^ universities. and (18) the university-extension division. Thus a knowledge of Latin formed practically the sole requirement for admission to the mediaeval university. J. (13) school of veterinary medicine. 186 a). (17) the graduate school. (10) college of education. Thus Bologna had developed into a sPudium prominence in law. particularly in the United States. With the great university development and the great multiplication of subjects of study which characterized the nineteenth century. as one of the unquestioned authorities which together formeda complete guide for humanity in conduct and in every branch of science. and was virtually constituted it did not add Medicine until 1316. So it was with many of the early universities. After the recovery of the works of Aristotle he came to dominate the instruction in the Faculty of Arts. These four traditional facultie s were well its generate from a university in 1158. Theology witrTsome instruction in Canon Law was aHcled by 1208. but it was not chartered as a faculty until 142 1. and the canon and Roman law. and a Medical Faculty in Montpellier began as a medical school sometime in the 1274." (Robinson. (9) school of business administration. 2 The Statutes of Paris. 1 Nature of the instruction. and household arts. Arts was organized by 1242. many new faculties and schools and colleges have had to be created. giving the ulty our modern state universities is organized into the following colleges: (i) college of liberal arts. (n) school 1 For example.

degree has recently been rehabilitated and now usually signifies a year of hard study in English and American universities. 195) and the Decrelum of Gratian (p. We have here the This tendency increased with time. cusleading school of medicine of the time. due both to the development of secondary schools which could give part of the preparation. and the A. show how fully Aristotle had been adopted there as the basis for instrucThe tion in Logic. H. 1. Finally the arts course was reduced to three or four years (the usual college course). pt. — H and Jewish and Moslem writwere read and lectured on.EttroieJn lite Middle Ages* vol. From four "philosophies" to seven years were required to complete the arts course. In Germany the arts course disappeared. Universities qf. and classified the new works of Aristotle in three additional natural. the Corpus Juris Chilis of Justinian (p. see Rashdall. 2 in 1340. shows the book-nature and the extent of the instruction given at the It was.. 1 98). 116 b-c) gives a good idea as to what was required for degrees in one of the best of the early law faculties. and for the latter even residence was waived during the middle of the nineteenth century. in 1410 (R. & " p. The A. 197). p. moral. degrees (R..!^. translations of In the Medical Faculty a variety of books ippocrates (p. though the time requirements given for each subject show how largely ArisOxford (R. in 1340. 780. 196) were the textbooks read. 198). . being given to the secondary schools entirely in the late eighteenth century.226 HISTORY OF EDUCATION books to be read for the A. though a few eastern American institutions still play with it or even grant it as an honorary degree. 115) kept up better totle predominated there also. show a much better-balanced course of instruction. and metaphysical. 123. Avicynna (p. pt. The list of medical Spain books used at Montpellier. Ethics. and to the increasing number of students who came to the university for cultural or professional ends and without intending to pass the tests for the mastership and the license to teach. 2 For a list of the books used in the faculty of medicine at Montpellier.B. which at that time was the foremost place for medical instruction in western Europe.^ (p.M. u. books required for these two degrees at Leipzig. and the . with perhaps a little more pracThe Oxford tical work in discussion than in Arts or Medicine. the traditions of the earlier Seven Liberal Arts in its requirements.M. and Natural Philosophy by that time. 114). 113).. 1 — In the L aw Faculty^after Theology the largest and most important of ail the faculties in the mediaeval university. moreover. though the tendency was to reduce the length of the arts course as secondary schools below the university were evolved. p. and the universities now confer only the degree of doctor. tomary at Montpellier for the senior students to spend a summer works of certain writers at Salerno ers in — in visiting the sick 1 and doing practical work. and the master's degree to on. course of study in both Civil and Canon Law (R.

Fig. Cabinet of Designs) Both ideal Law and Medicine were so dominated by the scholastic and methods that neither accomplished what might have been possible in a freer atmosphere. In the Theological Faculty the Sentences of Peter Lombard (p. 64." gives an MsH^^dUkMihmSmi instruction which came . kept ca refully withmthe limits prescribed by the Church. Paris. which he calls "horse loads. 116 a) give the course of instruction in one of the best of the theological The teachers were scholastics. both in substance and method. now in the National Library. 118). 189) and the Su mma TKeoloqia of Thomas Aquinas (p. A Lecture on Civil Law by Gijillaiime Benedicti (After a sixteenth-century wood engraving.THE RISE OF THE UNIVERSITIES 227 merest beginnings of clinical instruction and hospital service. (12 14-1294) criticism of this type of theological study (R. but later came to be kjj^Iylfly-e#Aad^wtalJ^L Lhe other books' and by philo sophica ildiscii'i'iion'i nnrUjebat." and "philosophical. 117) and Oxford (R. The requirements at Oxford (R. The medical courses at Paris (R. not at all [in consonance] with the most holy text of on all kinds of hair-splitting questions. and schofaculties of the time. 191) were the textbooks used. The Bible was at first also used somewhat. Roger Bacon's lastic methods and ideals everywhere prevailed. only book instruction being required. 116 d) were less satisfactory. and at this stage medical instruction remained until quite modern times.

churches. in Holland (After an engraving by J. as is Fig. and the^cppying of texts for sale became common. Library of the University of Leyden. and 160 volumes on theology. While the standard textbooks were becoming much more common. 116 a). 1 To provide 1 After the latter part of the thirteenth century the book-writing and selling trade was organized as a guild mdustry. Methods of instruction. A very important reason why so long a period of study was required in each of the professional faculties. and medicine. 175 volumes on civil and canon law. due faculties. or a total of 770 volumes a good- — sized library for the time. 65. dated 1610) This shows well the chained books. C. this shows a library of 35 volumes on mathematics. and a common type of bookcase in use in monasteries. Paris (R. and higher schools. Woudanus. expensive and not owned by many.228 HISTORY OF EDUCATION dominance of the to prevail in the theological faculties under the scholastic philosophers. to much copying and still they were the long-continued use of the same texts. Counting 35 books to the case. and Oxford (R. Years of study were required in each of these three professional shown by the statement of requirements as given for Montpellier. Then'arose the prac erasing as much of the writing from old books i . as well as in the Faculty of Arts. 140 volumes of historical books. 117). philosophy. is to be found in the lack of textbooks and the methods of instruction followed. 70 volumes each on literature.

"reading" to his students. at Berlin.Plate 4. Digitized by Microsoft® . now in the royal collection The master in his chair is here shown of copper engravings. A Lecture on Theology by Albertus Magnus An illuminated picture in a manuscript of 1310.

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containing twenty-seven books. and to this the student listened. summaries. All mstru ction. between $80 and $100. The arguments on each side were advanced. the cost for books during the days of parchment must have been high. day in inute detail. and the lecturer's conclusion The text was thus worked over day after set forth and defended. pp. but in 1355 this method was prohibited at Paris (R. Mediaval Universities. could be copied. 121). m In this way the as could be done. 2 Norton. and the announcei ments of mstruction there still state that the professor will "read" on such and such subjects. and writing the new book crosswise of the page. the in — by others. analyzed. after the manner of Abelard. 119) of a private library. 1 27 1. the masA good example of the ters made the most of what they had. were used in the uni- In Theology and Canon Law they were particularly extensive. itself'. too. and students who tried to force the masters to follow it "by shouting or whistling or raising a din. and in the process many valueless and a few valuable books were destroyed. Even if the students possessed books. or No?" which question see for a good example of mediaeval university instruction and the manner in which a small amount of knowledg^w^s^u^qut^^me^ns of a gloss. a distinguished teacher of Law at Bologna.. about the middle of the thirteenth century. and The "gloss" was a book opinions objections to the statements of the text. Walsh estimates that " an ordinary folio volume probably cost from 400 to 500 francs in our [1914] values. — . often larger than the text. Still. 59-75." were to be suspended for a year.THE RISE OF THE UNIVERSITIES in 229 a loan collection of theological books for poor students we find.'' as we say in the United States. Sometimes he-cead so slowly that the text versity instruction for centuries. a mass of explanatory notes. 2 or commentaries. _The professor read from theXatin text and gloss." 1 In Germany the old mediaeval expression has been retained. on the "Shall Priests be Acquainted with Profane Literature. wa s in Latin. that is. instead of "offer courses. and the comments on the text by various authors were set forth. gives an extract from a text (Gratian) and "gloss" by various writers. or by throwing stones. cross-references. the master "read" : and commented from his "gloss" at great length on the texts being studied. in his Readings in the History of Education. repeating as necessary. Having as yet but little to teach. a gift by will to the University of Paris (R. which Rashdall thinks line . mediaeval plan of university instruction is found in the announcement of Odofredus.. The first step in the instruction was a minute and subtle analysis of the text itself. Besides mere text each teacher had a "gloss" or commentary for it that is. Next all passages capable of two interpretations were thrown into the form of a question pro and contra. and paraphrased. in which each was dissected. expense for parchment was reduced. and these standard glosses.

of thinking offered In teaching new opportunities for the exercise of the intellect. except that from time to time some thinker made a new organization. After the invention of printing libraries (first university increased rapidly I^fe . cited authorities. 78. 230 is HISTORY OF EDUCATION Odofredus equally applicable to methods in other subjects. as were the teachers of the Seven Liberal Arts in the cathedral schools before them. . I shall briefly repeat the contents of the Law fifthly. (R. 116). Figure 65 shows the library of the Universi^of h^olland. iipp°' imagination. First. workshops. when new subject-matter and new ways first. I shall give you summaries you as of each title clear and explicit .. Another method much used was the debate. in such matters each professor being a free lance. These disputations were logical contests. I shall read the text with a view to correcting it. not unlike a modem debate. — book printed in 1456). It will be seen that both studen ts and professors were bound to 11 the text. after the manner of the professors. or disputation and participation in a number of these was required for degrees . Time schedules of lectures (Rs. 123) came in but nasia. says: before I proceed to the a statement as I can of the purport of each Law (included in the title) thirdly. and soon became the chief feature^of the university equipment. these disputations served a useful purpose in awakening intellectual vigor and logical keenness. As a corrective to the memorization of lectures and texts. . I shall reserve it for an evening Repetition. slowly. I shall solve apparent contradictions. in which the students took sides. Nor were there any libraries at first. or some new body of knowledge was unearthed and added. as far as the Divine Providence shall enable me. equipment there was almost nothing a t and but little for centuries to come. They were very popular until into the sixteenth century. thirty-five years 120). by reason of its celebrity or difficulty. all in Latin. fourthly. and summarized the argument. 122. of a Repetition. For a long time books were both expensive and scarce (Rs. 119. and summarized arguments. Laboratories. Each generation taught what it had learned. And if any Law shall seem deserving. I shall give text. gym- good buildings and classrooms all alike were equally unknown. secondly. or experience. adding any general principles of Law (to be extracted from the passage) and any distinctions and subtle and useful problems arising out of the Law with their solutions. Sometimes a student gave an exhibition in which he debated both sides of a question. though in time these developed. gtill Ipcc tn ^c^gti™ t" ^" experiment. There was ^fl.

147. 174 volumes. A University Disputation Deutschland's (From Fick's Auf Hbhen Schulen) and about one hundred and fifty years after It shows a rather large increase in the size of book collections x after the introduction of printing. after its foundation. each of which had its own library. The last two were just before the introduction of 1 all printing. 145. 66. Not many early library catalogues have been preserved.THE RISE OF THE UNIVERSITIES 231 Fig. University Library (1473). 304 volumes. 199 volumes. the following college libraries are known to have existed: Peterhouse College (1418). and a good library organization. 330 volumes. Kings College (1453).) . The Peterhouse . Queens College (1472). but those which have show small libraries before the days of printing. the beginnings of printing. pp. where the university was broken up into colleges.' library (1418) was classified as follows: Subject Theology Natural Philosophy Moral Philosophy Metaphysics Logic Chained 61 ^ 26 5 Loanable 63 19 15 Grammar Poetry Medicine 3 5 6 4 15 '- 13 3 ) Law Canon Law Civil 9 18 20 21 Totals 152 IS2 are of Books. At Oxford.

— except it represented a in — particularly marked a new spirit. and Rome the conditions were almost equally bad. these new universities held within themselves. 67. where there was an undoubted decline due to the absorbing interest in Dialectic Middle Ages. though. Measured in terms of modern standards the instruction was undoubtedly poor. almost in embryo form. civilized student ise for the intellectu^/^fty^^f/c^^grn Europe which had ap- . the largest promtimes would allow. A University Lecture and Lecture at Strassburg. from the standpoint of what had prevailed in western Europe during the dark period struction in the higher schools of Greece Fig.232 HISTORY OF EDUCATION Value of the training given. We could now teach as much information. and in a better manner. the large classes and the poor teaching methods. in but a fraction Viewed also by the standards of inof the time then required. 1608) Room (From a woodcut printed of the early method and content and it marked advance in pure literature. the drunkenness and fighting. and the small amount of knowledge which formed the grist for their mills and which they ground exceeding small. youthful and but poorly prepared for study. as nearly critical as the Despite the heterogeneous and but partially body. unnecessarily drawn out. Viewed. the lack of books and equipment. and the educational value low.

" even though" on very limited subject-matter. and intense application. Luther. was ultimately to awaken inquiry investigation. tirely break away and stand forth as the independent thinkers and scholars in the University arts. Almost from the first the universities availed themselves of their prjyjleges and proclaimed a bo ld independenc e. The preservation and transmission of knowledge was by the university organization transferred from the monastery to the school. from connections with either Church or State. from monks to doctors. schools of Theology were in time to send forth the keenest critics Out of the university cloisters of the practices of the Church. of the universities toward speculation. graduates in Medicine would in time wage a long struggle against to bring forth the bigotry to lay the foundations of in modem medicine. and in ' "training "men tqlHhkand work rathe r "than J^en jny " (R. 124). Copernicus. were to come the men who were to usher in the Calvin. Newton Law would — — modern spirit. and to-day stands. Petrarch. only nomiTheir successors would in time ennally members of the clerici. Dante. Graduates contend with kings and feudal lords for larger privileges for the as yet lowly common man. In these new institutions knowledge was not only preserved and transmitted. modern spirit. The universities as a " public force. Huss. f^fft&flJBFESBi arrest and trial by the . /They were the first organ izations to. 124). as the oldest organized institution of human society. From these beginnings the university organization has persisted and grown and expanded. heroic industry. break the monopoly of the'C hurch in learning and teaching j/fliey were tne centers to which an new knowledge gravitated^ under their shadow thousands of young men found ir^ejlectua^companionship and in their classrooms intellectual stimulationTlrndTT r ^encouraging laborious subtlety. Galileo. professions. and from the Church to a body of logically trained men. but was in time to be tremendously advanced and extended. the Catholic Church alone excepted. they were preparing for the time when western Europe should awaken to the riches of Greece and Rome and to a new type of intellectual life of its own. sciences. and even in Theology. though for long within limits approved by the Church. r ational thinking and .THE RISE OF THE UNIVERSITIES 233 peared since the days of the old universities of the Hellenic world (R. Wycliffe. The manifest tendency . and would help to The university usher in a period of greater political equality.

In the centuries from the end of the Dark Ages to the Reformation they were the homes of free thought. They early assumed national character and proclaimed a bold independence. or even for murder. and this new Estate soon began to express itself in no uncertain tones on matters which concerned both Church and State. In an age of oppression these university organizations stood for freedom. were but when such independence These rights werfe in time given up. Cambridge. they gave their "The authority of the University of Paris. cratic in organization demo- and became democratic in spirit. and the Scottish universities were given represenThe German universities were from the tation in Parliament. and Italians. and everything else. freedom in teaching as the master saw the truth. State. professors were considered as knights. "has risen to such a height that it is no matter on what conditions." writes another. Oxford. Questions Papacy represented the Law 1 Survivals of these old privileges still exist in the German universities which exercise police jurisdiction over their students and have a university jail. 291. . beginnings in independence in an age type of members of socie ty — a new Estate — was evolved. were slowly but defiVirtually anpw nitely taken on in place of the earlier privileges. Abelard. and in the reformation struggle of the early sixteenth century they were the battle-grounds. 'writes one contemporary. representing a heretofore unknown and unexpressed public opinion in western Europe. necessary to satisfy \ versity "wanted to /'/ /( King. fined. and in the American college student's feeling of having the right to create a disturbance in the town and break minor police/jjag^tjajra/^hg^ being arrested and 2 See Compayre. as Holy Roman Empire represented the Germans. of Law one of the three assemblies of the city. and nobility. We find Paris jntervening repeatedly in both church and state_ affairs. and the right to express themselves as an institution on public questions which seemed to concern them. In Montpellier." 234 right to go HISTORY OF EDUCATION on a strike civil authorities for petty offenses. for illustrations. first prominent in political affairs." The unimeddle with the government of the Pope. In an age of force they began the substitution of reason. the it. opinions unsolicited. Paris. 2 and representing French nationality before the so-called the of it had come into being. rankThe universities were ing with j^ hurch. p.. * and in seemed important^ their place the much more important rights of liberty to study as truth se"emed to lead. and after twenty years of In Bologna we find the professors practice they became counts. G. and the if in any way interfered with. ' They did not wait to be asked.

change of students from all lands and their hospitality.«/j trained by the universities were the leaders. as has been the case with universities ever since their foundation. were submitted to them for decision. and out of this young raw material training the leaders of the Educationally. and the subsequent movements for a purer and a better religious life. of course. and to these we owe a somewhat more general diffusion of the little In preparing learning and the intellectual training of the time. theology. fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. the most capable and the most industrious. the universities tended to break riers and to pxepare. to both they freely offered their advice. from both they obtained new privileges. to . no doubt. On tVip masses little no Their greatest work." downfall of Rome the administration of human affairs was now By the interpl aced once more in . among those trained in the practical science Talleyrand is said to have asserted that "their theoof Law. influence.THE RISE OF THE UNIVERSITIES of State 233. one of their most future in Church and State. "found their statesmen and men of business in the universities. and teaching.Eujape_ier larger jn^ejccaurse of fine people. they and had for down barmore of or a common life. the men -Digitized by Microsoft® .thejiand^. and Church in law. . The first great result of their work future leaders for State the universities. 124). . of . to the stranger. and their opinions ignored. "Kings and princes. In this movement for a revival of the ancient learning. and sometimes both were forced to do their bidding. though sometimes opposed in training leaders ' we see in the Renaissance movement of the which we next turn. and Church they discussed with a freedom before unknown." says Rashdall. They were not infrequently called upon to pass upon questions of doctrine or heresy. They presented their grievances to both kings and popes. educated men." For the first time since the logians made the best diplomats. such as it : was. and could not have for centuries to come. in an excellent summary as to the value and influence of the mediaeval university instruction (R. nevertheless contributed materially to the making and moulding of national history. These developed rapidly after 1200. important services was in creating a surplus of teachers in the Arts who had to find a market for their abilities in the rising secondary schools.. At times important questions of State. . was that of drawing to their classrooms the brightest minds of the times. such as the divorce of Philip of France and that of Henry VIII of England. • M . most often.

in any age? influence of the mediaeval university.. •g. / jj '[ 1 u/. Show how the university stood. Has it been successful in this? %J. and Theology have stayed united? ig^ Do universities. professors in a mediaeval university? What has caused the old Arts Faculty to break up into so many groups. the universities symbolized the. '8. of the university as an institution indicate as to its usefulness to society? Does the university of to-day play as important a part in the progress of society as it did in the mediaeval times? Why? Is the chief university force to-day exerted directly or indirectly? / Illustrate.236 HISTORY OF EDUCATION QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION the studia publico tend to attract a different type of scholar than those in the monasteries. Show how the rise of the universities gave an educated ruling class to Europe. 23. / Show how in a university of to-day. and thinking. mediaeval faculties represented? Which of the professional faculties has changed most in the nature and character of its instruction? Why has this been so? Enumerate a number of different things which have enabled the modern university greatly to shorten the period of instruction? Aside from differences in teachers. the chartered university of the Middle Ages was an "associa- tion of like-minded men for worldly purposes. Jr somewhat. Medicine. Why would and teacher 5. morals. when founded to-day. been. Do university professors to-day have privileges akin to those granted 9. whereas the modern university tries to reverse this. as the crowning effort of its time. . barriers of nationality and ignorance among peoples. Show how. in the slow upward struggle £p r ebu^kl c^viliza^gn on the ruins of what had once sp. ultimately? %/ Show how the English and the German universities are extreme evolutions from the mediaeval type. . Show how the mediaeval university was a gradual and natural evolution. To what university mother does Harvard go back. without great changes in character. supremacy of mind over brute force. Compare the and the Greek uni- versities of the ancient world. in an age of lawlessness. 1 tS. f . ij. and the stages of student i. whereas Law. why are some university subjects today taught much more compactly and economically than other subjects? After admitting all the defects of the mediaeval university. usually start with all four of the 11. What is probably the greatest work of any university. even though the nobility may not have attended them. Show the relation between the system of apprenticeship developed for student and teacher in a mediaeval university. and our American universities a combination of the two extremes." v. / as distinct from a founded university of to-day. 4. Explain the evolution of the English college system as an effort to improve discipline. t&. fj. 4 II ' s«. 22f! Show how the mediaeval universities aided civilization by breaking down. and gradually to supersede them in importance? 2. . why did the university nevertheless represent so important a development for the future of western civilization? What does the long continuance. 19. Show how the mediaeval university put books in the place of things. Show that the university charter was a first step toward independence from church and state control.

or cities 1 common in other American foundations? Do an y ftmpriran ill! theltaliarj"cities (. Roger of Wendover: a Cessatio at Oxford. Leipzig Statutes. Fourteenth Century: Requirements for the Professional Degrees. by Microsoft® is the licensing of university professors to teach not followed in our . as exercised by the mediaeval university (107. 116. 114. 1254: Books required for the Arts Degree. 109. Oxford. Roger Bacon: The Scarcity of Books on Morals. Barbarossa: Privileges for Students who travel for Study. 1410: Books required for the Arts Degree. 2. 122. the Brown University grant exceptional. Paris Statutes. 119. Leipzig: Time-Table of Lectures in Arts. Philip Augustus: Privileges granted Students at Paris. Count Rupert: Charter of the University of Heidelberg. in. Master Stephen: Books left by Will to the University of Paris. Rashdall and Minerva: University Foundations before 1600.THE RISE OF THE UNIVERSITIES SELECTED READINGS 237 In the accompanying Book of Readings the following selections are reproduced: 100. Why? Do universities. (c) (d) QUESTIONS ON THE READINGS 1. Villani: The Cost to a City of maintaining a University. Why doe-s-tKe cessatio. 107. 1519. 1408-31: Books required for the Arts Degree. Pope Gregory IX: Early Licensing of Professors to teach. What 2. and what terms Was 5. In Canon Law. does a glance at the page giving the university foundations before 1600 (100) show as to the rate and direction of the university movement? How do you account for the very large privileges granted university students in the early grants (101. Philip IV: Exemption of Students and Masters from Taxation. 121. Vercelli: Privileges granted to the University by the City. Pope Nicholas IV: The Right to grant Licenses to teach. What 7. as d id Afe s6rnewhat similar ends JVIflrrhal schools ? 1 serve 6. 118. 1309. Fr. Toulouse: Time-Table of Lectures in Arts. has your university or normal school? Compare the freedom from taxation granted to masters and students OX Paris (104) with the grant to professors at Brown University (187b). 108. 103. founded to-day. 123. secure a charter? If so. 4. 101. Paris Statutes. Henry III: England invites Scholars to leave Paris. indicate as to standards of conduct on the part of teachers and students? Digitized. 113. from are included? Do normal schools? What form of a charter. Oxford Statutes. n A 117. . 105. 120. Pope Gregory IX: Right to suspend Lectures {Cessatio). In Medicine. 115. Balaeus: Methods of Instruction in the Arts Faculty of Paris. no. Roger Bacon: On the Teaching of Theology. 104. 106. 102) and charters (103)? Should a university student to-day have any privileges not given to all citizens? 3. 102.lo^jr to-day maintain colleges or universities. 1270-74: Requirements for the Medical Degree. In Civil Law. (a) (b) In Theology. 108). if any..Rashdall: University License to teach. Rashdall: Value and Influence of the Mediaeval University. 124. when whom.

1. *Compayre". The Arts Course at Mediaval Universities. J. How do you account for the superiority shown by one? Which one? 14. *Jebb. How do you account for the American practice of admitting students What is the best to the professional courses without the Arts course? American practice in this matter to-day. J.238 American HISTORY OF EDUCATION universities? What has taken the place of the license? What did the mediaeval license (no. Fr. vol. A. John. 10. Compare the instruction in medicine at Paris (1 17) and Toulouse (122). S. Mullinger. 0. 123) reveal as to the nature of a university day. What do the two time-tables reproduced (122. Sandys. Corbin. 13. J. Characterize the medical course at Paris (117) from a modern point of view. History of Classical Scholarship. and the Origin and Early History of the UniversiBoase. The Colleges at Oxford. History of the University of Cambridge. 17. and what tendencies are observable? 12. 7. . The German Universities. Andrew. E. in. < SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES Oxford (Historic Towns Series) Clark. Student Life and Customs. Sheldon. *Rashdall. *Paulsen. W. Readings in the History of Education. The Work of the Universities for the Nation. Compare the additional length of time for professional degrees (1 1 6. What does the extract from Roger Bacon (118) indicate as to the character of the teaching of Theology? 15. G. no. 114. 111. Abelard. 115) with the requirements for the Baccalaureate degree at a modern university. R. Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. ties. Libraries in the Medieval and Renaissance Periods. in. Medieval Universities. Jan. (Univ. Life of a Mediaeval University. Compare the requirements for the Arts degree (113. Charles William. W. Studies. Show how the Paris statute as to lecturing (121) was an attempt at an improvement of the methods of instruction and individual thinking. Show how Rashdall's statement (1 24) that lawyers have been a civilizing agent is true. *Paetow_. o. 112) really signify? 8. 16. Rait. Digitized by Microsoft® . B. Henry. The Care of Books'. Compare the license to teach (112) with a modern doctor's diploma. C. What was the nature and extent of the library of Master Stephen (119)? Compare such a library with that of a scholar of to-day. An American at Oxford. 1 17). *Norton. 1010). Clark. R. vol. J. H. 11. J. and the instruction given? 18. *Clark. L.


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the work time. In many respects. Trade and industry were mcre£MfftoH'tel#sf and merchants and sue- . derful largely in that the forces struggling against modern spirit here first find clear century of rapid and unmistakable progress in almost every line. to organize the dogmatic theology of the Church into a system of thinking. The evolution of the universities which we have just traced was one of the most important of these thirteenth-century manifestations. too. and the logical subtlety developed in discussing the results. which had come into existence alongside of the clergy and the nobility. from another it was full of promise for the future: Though the workers lacked limits materials. though. promThe rise of university instruction. During the thirteenth century. the "heroic industry" and the "intense application" displayed in effecting the organization. but impelled by the new impulses beginning to work in the world. and out of this new burgher class the great general public of modern times has in time evolved. the scholars of the. The thirteenth century has often been It was wonmedievalism to expression.' time went earnestly^ work.CHAPTER X THE REVIVAL OF LEARNING The period of change. and church control. From one point of view the result was barren. By its close great changes were under way which were destined evolve the ultimately to shake off the incubus of medievalism and to transform Europe.crafts guilds were 'attaining a large development. Lacking in intellectual material. were both a resultant of of the Scholastics in organizing the knowledge of the new influences already at work and a prediction of larger consequences to follow. and ised much for the future. began to assume large importance. were overshadowed by the mediaeval spirit of authority. The result was Scholasticism. the new Estate. and kept their efforts clearly within approved by the Church. with men more emancipated from to burst forth in In a later age. The arts-and. It was a called the wonderful century of the mediaeval world. by speculative methods. the same spirit effort to discover was destined an and recon- struct the historic past. the fourteenth was a still more wonderful century.

Mysterxand miracle plays had begun to be performed and to attract great attention. were rising or being further expanded and decorated at many places in western Europe. == "the first literary layman since Boethius" (dT 524). knew so well — an evidence of independence . New natioiialJajiguages also were national epics of the people the Chansons. The Papacy as a temporal power passed the maximum period of its greatness early in the thirteenth century. and the drama. The Divine C omedy. and before long this was to flower in modern forms of expression in painting. French. ' ' The new spirit of nationality. in his native Italian instead of in the Latin which he — the Arthurian Legends. sculpture. of . "" but rel igious p ageants were added. the thirteenth century. agents. New ern France (p. The new spirit moving in west- ern Europe also found expression in the evolution of the modem European States. coming into being. taking place. . the new poetry . and German languages rapidly took Their development was expressive of the new spirit in shape. amfd catHedrart^ildrng and the anart was unmistakably arising setting-forth of the Christian mysteries. toward the close of ing. slowly to deprive it of the governmental functions it had assumed and exercised for so long. western Europe. 186). the developing States. often beautifully carved and highly ornamented. wrote his great poem.. Italian. of the process of making paper for writing. forth all over Europe. each in its own domain. in the its nineteenth century the last vestiges of temporal power were taken away. 242 HISTORY OF EDUCATION cessful artisans were becoming influential through their newly obtained wealth and rights. — the Cid. based on the new national feeling." which Notre Dame~tFigure 53) is a good example. of large future import. T-" native literatures were springing Beginning with the troubadours in south. was Great catbedrals^ those "symphonies in stone. the English. and taken up by the trouveres in northern Digitized by Microsoft® j i_ ii France and by the minnesingers in German lands. and the and the Nibelungen Lied were reduced to writWith the introduction from the East. as also was the fact that Dante (1264-13 21). As the kingly power in these was consolidated. The erection of stately churches and town halls. and to confine the Pope and clergy more and more to their original functions as religious. In the fourteenth century A ll ar t was still religion. and with the increase of books in the vernacular. Spanish. began to curb the dominion of the universal Church.

" (Adams. my heart inspiriting Nature. the terrors of another world beyond were very near and real.) "In the Middle Ages man as an individual had been held He was — . to show him the beauty of the world and the joy of life. through nights of tranquil beauty. only part of a great machine. Songs of gladness meet the ear: Every bird his well-known language Uttering in the morning's pride. and especially of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. no feeling for the beauty of the world around him. The following specimen of his art reveals both the new love of nature and the reaction which had clearly set in against the " other-worldliness " of the preceding centuries: "Oh! how sweet the breeze of April. the order. When to life the young birds spring. 1 A men was beginning to "sing songs as blithesome and gay as the birds" and to express in these songs the joys of the race of 1 world here below. guild. " to awaken in man a consciousness of his powers. with his feeling of personal insignificance. Reveling in joy and gladness By his happy partner's side. and culties. "no sense of the past behind him. National spirit and a national patriotism were finding expression. 363. both incline me — In such joy to bear my part: With such sounds Could 2 I around me " wear a sadden'd heart? of bliss of very little account. Civilization during theO&9ikiA>geMiaA>s&t^p. and new standards of judgment were being applied. G. B. consciousness of his ability single-handed to do great things or overcome great diffiLife was so hard and narrow that he had no sense of the joy of living. "When around me all is smiling. New objects of interest were coming to the front. and to make him feel his living connection with the past and the greatness of the future he 1 One of the best known of the Troubadours was Arnaul de Marveil. feeling his connection with the historic past. Thoughts of love I cannot hinder Come. enjoying life. and realizing the potentialities of accomplish- ment in the world here below. The mediaeval man. lack of self-confidence. Transformation of the mediaeval man." was rapidly giving way to the man possessed of the modern spirit — the man of self-confidence. It was the great work of the period of transition. and very little the commune. While.THE REVIVAL OF LEARNING of nature 243 new and love and joy of living had spread everywhere. and no conception of the possi2 bilities of the future before him. to effect this change. conscious of his powers. Breathing soft as May draws near. He acted only through some corporation He had but little self-confidence. habit. to give him confidence in himself. The fourteenth century was a period of still more rapid change and transformation. as if this world were not dark enough. and.

and they began the work of restoring to themselves and of trying to understand their inheritance.244 HISTORY OF EDUCATION might create./ . B. and inquiry led to the realization that there had been a great historic past of which they knew but When this point little. they began to inquire. Civilization during the Middle Ages. The old Roman life also was nearer to them. and the scho- lastic learning of his time. and meant more. Petrarch Star of the a delight in travel. and of which they wanted to know much. Twelve Adams. 364. ed. "The Morning Renaissance" and the self-confidence to plan a great constructive work. The had preserved more of the old Roman culture than had any other people. too. a strong historical sense. In Petrarch (1304-74) we have the beginnings of the movement. He has been called "the first modern scholar and man of letters. a desire for worldly fame.. This gave them at least a century of advance over the nations of northern Europe." Repudiating the other-worldliness ideal of a art.. They felt young minds of central and norththem something closely akin to patriotic themselves the direct heirs of the political and intellectual eminence of Imperial Rome. The beginnings in Italy. so that a movement for a revival of interthe intellectual unrest of est in it attracted to it the finest ern Italy and inspired in fervor. This revival began in Italy. had been reached. G. he began the task of unearthing the monastic treasures to ascertain what the past had been and known and done. 2 possessed deep love for beauty in nature and Fig. at Liege. had been of barbarism which had engulfed Europe. 2 . 2d. p. 68. and had been the first to develop a new political and social order and revive the refinements of life after the deluge They. western Europe was ready for a revival of learning. At form 1 twenty-nine he made his first great discovery. Italians the first to feel the inadequacy of mediaeval learning to satisfy men conscious of new standards of life. he was outQ/0'^m£ta/y W?SP'lie university methods of his time." l As soon as men began clearly to experience such feelings. Though a university man. in the of two previously unknown orations of Cicero. Petrarch refused to have the works of the Scholastics in his library.

69. ballads. lyrics. so keen in perception. (Symonds. so highly intellectual by nature. J. 125). all filled with a new modern classical spirit. . Petrarch's in Florence. is typical of his labors. which made him the father of Italian prose as Dante was of Italian poetry. Boccaccio equaled Petrarch in his passion for the ancient hunting for them wherever he thought they might be found. whom he first met work was made known and most in 1350.. All his life he collected and copied manuscripts. and from them reconstructing the past. he found half of one of the letters of Cicero which had been lost for ages. and his joy in doing the work himself (R. at Verona. "In the dim light of learning's first Flushed with the dawn they stand. Boc caccio Italian Prose The Father of " ern spirit. first He also constructed the modem map of Italy. as at Florence." . . prepared the first dictionaries of classical geography and Greek mythology. so witty and so subtle. The monasteries and hope of discovering ransacked in the castles of Europe were something new. as Boccaccio found it at the time of his visit (R. He began the work of copying and comparing the old classical manuscripts. glimpses of a long-lost land. The work done by these two friends in discovering and editing was taken up by others. Through Boccaccio. He also wrote many sonnets. and was the first western scholar to learn Greek. and during the century (1333-1433) dating from the first great "find" of Petrarch the principal additions to Latin litera- A ture were made.THE REVIVAL OF LEARNING 245 years later.lrosofm . then the wealthiest artistic and literary city in the world. His letter to a friend telling him of his difficulty in getting a work of Cicero copied. 126)." century of recovery and reconstruction. and letters. He wrote a book of popular tales and romances. filled with the modwriters. The Smaisg^f^^ ^. Fig. One of his pupils has left us a melancholy picture of the library at Monte Cassino. but nowhere else except at nations have surpassed the Italians in their genius Athens has the whole population of a city been so permeated with ideas. A. 1 and there the new knowledge and method were warmly received. or more ac- Other 1 "Florence was essentially the city of intelligence in early modern times.

127 a) the enthusiast. 3 New new and daring spirit in the mediaeval world. near the curate copies of previously Macon.246 HISTORY OF EDUCATION known books. brought on the Reformation. which see. pp. This. at Saint and of copying it for posterity. an awakening of the historical sense.. and we the tive We 3 modem spirit scientific spirit." (Sandys J. 4 For example. compared and collated their various readings. 127 b). near Milan. constructhis applied later to Christian practices. E. but it represented' the spirit and method of the modern scholar. Milan. of less value than the spirit which directed the search. questioning. 1 Thus widely had the old Latin authors been scattered. and Vercelli. near Naples. At monasteries and churches as widely separated as Monte Cassino. exceeded Niccoli in ability in textual criticism. Of the Florentine scholars one of the most famous was Niccold Niccoli (1363- for his beautiful penmanship. he was much collected manuscripts. and Hersfeld. and did much toward laying the foundation of textual criticism. and the reply of his friend (R. subjected the so-called "Donation of Constantine. Cluny. have in break with scholastic methods. in Westphalia. Ciriaco. 4 and an ap- We a list 2 Sandys. Langres. led to the questioning of the theory of the divine right of kings. when applied to the problems of the universe. of whom Sandys says: "Famous more than a copyist. Lodi. J. a craving for truth own sake. itself. Poggio Bracciolini. all The finds. 2 which was done and Roman life and criticizing. when men the wonderful world of science. E. copied. and monasteries in the Vosges Mountains. though. reveal something of the spirit of those and the emotions engaged in the recovery of Latin literature and the re- construction of Roman history. in France Corvey." a document upon which the Papacy based in part its claims to temporal power to the tests of textual criticism and showed its historical impossibility. (1416) the long-lost Institutes of Oratory of Quintilian. of Naples. p. were after in collecting. He extended this method to the Testament and at the request of King Alphonso. revealed to which. tells of finding Gall. Laurentius Valla (1407-57) of Pavia. near the source of the Marne. in his Harvard Lectures on the Revival of Learning. or the careful work comparing. 35-41 gives of the more important later finds. editing corrected texts. and when applied democracy. In a letter to a present city of : — friend (R. was a This in- . 39. added suitable summaries at the head of each. Cologne. history. Harvard Lectures on the Revival of Learning. struck out the more obvious corruptions. He For example.) 1436). / for its 1 to problems of government. in Switzerland: Paris. ofitefesea^^^fggfhas been called "the Schliemann\ deed. and to the evolution of have here a modern spirit. It and reconstructing old new work a complete see in it the awakening of was this same critical. restored the true text broke it up into convenient paragraphs. and forgotten. while important. in Italy: -Saint Gall and other monasteries. and Mainz in Germany important finds were made. inferring.

as well as a number of the northern Italian cities. brought it back in the seventh century to Irish monk who was masSaint Gall. With the new interest in was but natural that a revival of the study of Greek should follow. with Venice and Rome. and on his return accompanied him to revival of The Latin literature it 1 1 1 . 1350-1415). It was natural. and the most accomplished Greek scholar of his age. who earned Greek from Gaul to Ireland in the fifth century. remained a living language in Italy at the time'of the Rengssagc^ few villages there up to the present time. Irish monks.d. pubRome and Italy. a Byzantine of noble birth. This he could not read. was able to translate the Rhetoric and Politics of ArisGreek monks were still found in the extreme south of totle for Thomas Aquinas. papal Italy and the western Christian world seem to have had little contact. a Greek monk from southern Italy visited the Pope. who died in 690. in 1260. Southern Italy {Magna Grcecia) had remained under the Eastern Empire and Greek until its conquest by the Normans (1041-71). and Damascus. coming as an ambassador from Constantinople. a teacher of rhetoric and philosophy at Constantinople. Greek was taught at Canterbury in the days of the Theodore of Tarsus (R. Florentine scholars visited him. While a knowledge of Greek had not absolutely died out in the West during the Middle Ages. of which rich and prosperous Florence became the center. thpjrrnt Trntprn fi'th n ln r tn T""H P"™"r in fhf "nf™ ? Near the end of the fourteenth century it became known in Florence that Manuel Chrysoloras (c. With southern Italy. and again in 1342. he visited the Greek isles. ff^jg^^ Si . William of Moerbeke." After exploring Italy. 59 a). He spent his life in travel and in copying and editing inscriptions. too. Crete. "John the Scot. of his time. In 1353 another envoy brought Petrarch a copy of Homer. Ephesos. Roger Bacon. and none who could read it. These lished a four-volume work on the antiquities and history of «r two men helped to found the new science of classical archaeology. had arrived in Venice as an envoy from the Eastern Emperor. Constantinople. to read Greek. founded by them in 614. and to southern Italy a few Greek monks had from time to time migrated. there were very few scholars who knew anything about it. that the revival of it should come first in Italy. 247 to be worship of classical literature and classical ideas now set in. . of Forli (1388-1463). 845-55). the Oxford monk (1214-94). Flavio Blondo. One of his contemporaries. but in time (1367) a poor transn^^jp ctitrli^H Greek. and from him Petrarch learned the Greek alphabet. the Italy of the Roman 1 Classical scholars assert that Greek became extinct in learned Church in 690 a. In 1339." an (c. as centers of more than minor importance/ was soon A Greek in the West. beinglation into Latin was effected. « said to have been able ter of the Palace School under Charles the Bald also knew a little Greek.THE REVIVAL OF LEARNING preciation of beauty in literature and nature which followed by an appreciation of beauty in art. though.

and accepted. came there. beginning in 1402. . Chrysoloras returned to Constantinople for a time. In i3o6_Qirysoloras was invited to accept an appointment. He also prepared a Greek grammar which superseded that of Chrysoloras. In 141 2 he was elected to the chair at Florence formerly held by Chrysoloras.: 248 HISTORY OF EDUCATION by Florence the Constantinople to learn Greek. in 1403. Digitized by Microsoft® Gian Antonio Campano. A Messer Filelfo. The Renaissance in Italy vol 11. prepared a very popular Greek grammar. A. p. For a few years. went to Constantinople. and later he established an important school at Ferrara. who had been one of his pupils. He had earlier written a Greek Grammar. and returned to Italy. in 1422. Greek has just arrived. who had fled from his native city just before its capture by the Turks (1430). based largely on instruction in the Latin and Greek classics. for the rage for Greek learning and Greek books now for a time set Aurispa. with forty manuscripts and with the grand-niece In 1448 Theodorus Gaza (c. in 1427. returned. accompanied him and spent five years there as a member of his household. Plato's Republic into Latin. in the university there. in. and at Pavia he began a literal rendering of From his visit dates the enthusiasm study of Greek in the West. 75). which will be referred to again in the next chapter. •Another Greek of importance was Demetrius Chalcondyles of Athens (1424-1511). In 1450 he became professor of Greek at Perugia. of Chrysoloras as his wife. 249. to From first chair of Greek letters in the West. 1400a learned Greek from the city of Thessalonica. by J. a Sicilian. at that time the intellectual and artistic center of Christendom. When he returned to Italy he brought with him about fifty manuscripts. and in 145 1 became professor of philosophy Rome. he also taught Greek at Catechism of the University of Pavia. and Guarina of Verona. Symonds. learned Greek. and of his lectures there one of his enthusiastic pupils 1 wrote A 1 pains. after seven years at Constantinople. with 238 Greek manuscripts. and before his death he had translated a number of them into Latin. 1396 to 1400 he taught Greek in the rich and stately city of Florence. because trans. who has begun to teach me with great and I to listen to his precepts with incredible pleasure. who reached Italy in 1447. Other Greek scholars arrive in Italy. to Ferrara as the first professor of Greek in the university at He made many translations. of Padua.

at Florence) (Drawn from a picture recovery and restoration of ancient by scholars of Italy can be imagined. that their knowledge of Greek and the possession of a few Greek books was an open sesame to the learned circles of Italy. on the walls of the church of Santa Maria Novella. In 1463 Demetrius transferred to Padua as professor of Greek. far more when you hear him speak. held to their primacy in law and were but little Digitized by Microsoft® affected by the revival. Merely seeing him you fancy you are looking on Plato. church officials at first movement. but this idea has been exploded by classical The events we have enumerated in this chapter show this. however. 1 and after its fali many more sought there a new home. many other Greek scholars fled westward. being wedded to . seems to me that in him is figured all the wisdom. in particular. 2 Some of the Italian universities participated but little in the new movement.THE REVIVAL OF LEARNING he It 249 is a Greek. 1 For long it was thought that the revival of the study of Greek in the West dated from the fall of Constantinople. the Turks closed in on this wonderful eastern city. on landing. the leaders of the new learning drew about them many of the brightest and most energetic of the young men who came to those universities which were hospitable 2 Greek scholars^ the university towns to the new movement. The enthusiasm for the literature and history which this work awakened among the younger Fig. and the elegance of those so famous and illustrious ancients. He also taught for a time at Milan. Greek authors had. 70. and because he is Demetrius. because he is an Athenian. Enthusiasm for the new movement. and from 1471 sor of to 1491 was profesGreek at Florence. sors in the universities While most of the profes- and most of the had nothing to do with the new scholastic methods of thinking. Demetrius Chalcondyles (1424-1511) of a fresco Ghirlandajo. and was the first professor of Greek in a western European university to be paid a fixed salary. Many of these found. Bologna and Pavia. As five of the important Greek scholars who taught in Italy came before that date. A number of other learned Greeks had reached Italy prior to the fall of Constantinople (1453) before the advancing Turks. painted in 1490. been translated into Latin before then. libraries and academies founded. the civility. and at least scholars. in 1453. for so long the home of Greek The principal learning and culture.

Says Symonds: Never was there a time in the world's history when money was spent more freely upon the collection and preservation of MSS. and to forward them to Florence.. He was a great patron of learned Greeks who fled to Italy. more than the Greek . 2 Cosimo de' Medici (1^)3-1464). and to pjffticipate in its proceedings scholars came from many lands. and eminent burgher with burgher. and this collection formed the foundation of the celebrated library of Saint Mark's. reigning dukes. J.250 HISTORY OF EDUCATION were followed by admiring bands of younger students. . Academies. It was the curious and enthusiastic Italians who. and a few church authorities. and celebrated the ancient festivals. The Ret&faitimi l?it MiSVpsQWn. p. has left us an 1 Bessarion (c. at one time Archbishop of NicEa and afterwards a cardinal at Rome. The members usually Latinized their names. were instructed to purchase relics of antiquity without regard for cost. and who escorted him every morning from his palace to the Vatican. scholars who taught them the language. a banker and ruler of Florence. The best credentials which a young Greek arriving from Byzantium could use to gain the patronage of men like Palla degli Strozzi was a fragment of some ancient the merchandise insuring the largest profit to a speculator who had special knowledge in such matters was old parchment covered with crabbed char. Prince vied with prince. In Venice a Greek Academy was formed in which all the proceedings were in Greek. of which his celebrated press was a department. The most acceptable present that could be sent to a king was a copy of a Roman historian. became a veritable university for classical learning. whose purpose was to promote literary studies. 129). A. The commercial correspondents of the Medici and other great Florentine houses. and the members were known by Greek names. a fifteenth-century bookseller of Florence. The financial support of the movement came from the wealthy merchant princes. 1403-72). whose banks and discount offices extended over Europe and the Levant. were founded in all the important Italian cities (R. On his death he gave his entire library of Greek manuscripts to Venice. acters. spent great sums in collecting and copying manuscripts. The Academia of Aldus. Vespasiano. 139. named after the one conducted by Plato in the groves near Athens. in buying books. who assisted scholars and spent money most liberally in collecting manuscripts and accumulating books. 2 Symonds. opened up the literature and history of Athens to the comprehension of the western world. at Venice.. 1 who soon took up the work and superseded their masters. and when a more complete machinery was put in motion for the sake of securing literary treasures. is said to have been surrounded by a crowd of Greek and Latin scholars whenever he went out.

71. died. It shows the early method of chaining books to the shelves. books collected Vespasiano also describes for us the 1475-80) for the great ducal library at Urbino (R. two expeditions were sent to Greece to obtain manuscripts for the Florentine library. a copyist of Florence. and its construction was begun in 1325. 1 In 1436. 130) and of the difficul- book collecting in the days before the invention of printing. Fig. Niccolo de Niccoli. and cataloguing the volumes on the end of each stack.000 Greek and Latin manuscripts.THE REVIVAL OF LEARNING interesting picture of the 251 work of Cosimo in founding (1444) the great Medicean library ties of 1 at Florence (R. the greatest library in the Christian world at the time of (c. leaving his collection hundred manuscripts to the Medicean Library for the use of the public. who died in 1492. Bookcase and Desk in the Medicean Library at Florence (Drawn from a photograph) This library was founded in 1444. and of a few the only copies known. The building was designed by Michael Angelo. 131). Lorenzo the Magnificent. many of them very rare. meaning thereby any scholar. The bookcases are of about this date. This is said to have been the first public-library collection in western EuropeO/g/Y/zed by Microsoft® of eight . Under Cosimo's grandson. It contains to-day about 10.

252 its HISTORY OF EDUCATION work of completion. A later Pope. The movement extends to other countries. however. (1513-1521). Petrarch made his first great find in 1333. and it in turn became the cultural center of ChWgtWaeMw Microsoft® . Leo X. and archaeological remains of the Greeks and Romans. with hu- Nicholas as a monk had had his enthusiasm for the new movement awakened. The methods employed were the methods used in modern science. built up the university at Rome. and the result was to develop. and patriotic in purpose andspirit. and made Rome a great literary center. often termed the Renaissance. artistic^nHT' historical appr_e_ciationjuiknown since the days of ancient RomeJ~~ and with the greatest enthusiasm for Latin as a living language. brought Frenchmen in close touch' with what had been done in northern Italy. of France. the effect of the direct contact 1 . Nicholas was an enthusiast in the new movement. political point of view. planned to make Rome the international center for Greek learning. Louis XII. a professorship being established at Paris in 1458. and political and social life was reconstructed. mythology. laid the foundations of the great Vatican Library. was entirely an Italian movement. and the Italians were once more in possession of the literature and history of the past. By that date the great work in Italy had been done. There was but little interest in the subject. their own literature. and forcibly occupied Rome and Florence. histori cal. In 1494 Charles VIII. By the time the revival had culminated in Italy it began to be heard of north of the. 132). Alps. inscriptions. and formed a plan for the translation of all the Greek writers into Latin. from a 1 512. and had gone deeply into debt for manuscripts. forty years later. maintaining a French court at Milan from 1498 to Though both these expeditions were unsuccessful. When he became Pope (1447-55) he collected scholars about him. coins. He was helped by Casimo de' Medici. claimed Milan also and seized it and Naples. or in any of the new studies.) in Italy a new type of scholar. After the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent at Florence. until two events of political importance.them the movement was literary. With . With them the movement was known as kymSMS^. and up to 1450 the Revival ofXearning. possessed of a literary. France was the first country to take up the study of Greek. in 1492. claiming Naples as his possession. In their work with the literatures. from an old Roman word (humanitas) jeftmngrcul^eT^Sd this term came to be applied to the new studies in all other lands. Four years later his successor. and the Pope Nicholas in laying the foundations (1450) for the great (1447-1455) Vatican Library at V 1 Rome (R. took an army into Italy. history. the glory that had been Florence passed to Rome.

but these few other scholars went before Linacre and Grocyn and the first to attract attention^n^jr^^n^^g — earlier. In 1473 a Spanish scholar.. translated much of Galen (p. 198) from as professor of the Greek. 72. 1460-1524) Early Dutch Humanist. (From a portrait in the British Museum) Two Early Northern Humanists (c. and early in the sixteenth century Paris became a center for the new humanistic studies. France completely superseded Italy asihe interpreter of Greek life and litera- ture to the modern world. Mebrissensis (1444-1522). and learning were carried back to France. medicine. and. returned after twenty years in Italy and introduced Greek at Seville. returning. another Oxford — man had returned from study under Guarina at have made no impression. studying Greek under Demetrius and Chalcondyles. went to Florence from England. Lectured at Heidelberg English Professor of Medicine and Lecturer on Greek (From a contemporary engraving) Fig. A men were . New ideas in architecture. In Greek. and he and Grocyn lectured on Greek at the Univer- 1 Much but he seems to William Gray (1449) Ferrara Colet. About 1488 William Linacre 1460-1524) and William Gro- cyn (1446-1514). two Oxford graduates. French scholars traveled to Italy. home Rudolph Agkicola (1443-85) Thomas Linacre (c. and Alcala. 1 Linacre. introduced the new learning at Oxford. art." THE REVIVAL OF LEARNING 253 manism in its home was lasting. Salamanca.

85). Thus slowly did the revival of learning spread to northern lands. The first German of whom we have any record as having studied in Italy was P eter Luder (c. and returned home an enthusiastic humanist. by the Arabs. fortunately for the spread of the process and a great invention now that of printing. By about 1250 the Greeks had obtained the process from Mohammedan sources. In 1523 the first chair of Greek was established at Vienna. studied in Fl orence an d elsewhere in Italy in 1481 to 1490." did much "to spread the great inheritance of antiquity and the new civilization to which it had given birth among his uncouth countrymen" (barbari. meaning " Roelof the husbandIn keeping with a Qjgifeeri /pr*«tiraEoft@he time he Latinized his name. early obtained tion of Spain their Very an important in at a most opportune time. to due their introduction into the English secondary school. 1 who has been called "the Petrarch of German lands. Rodolph Agricola (1443Johann Wessel (1420-89) and in 1476 On returning. Agricola. a center of humanistic appreciation. who returned in 1456. and in 1276 man. The Christians who drove the Mohammedans out lost the process. In 1493 the University of Erfurt established a professorship of Poetry and Eloquence. over a century afterward. and a small supply of paper found its way across the Pyrenees. and there learned Hebrew. studied in Italy. He made Heidelberg. HISTORY OF EDUCATION From Oxford the was transmitted to CamHarvard in America. two noted Dutch scholars. He was the first Englishman to attract much attention to the new studies. who studied in Florence from 1493 to 1496." name was Roelof Huysman. A third Oxford man to study Greek in Italy was Jo hn Colet (14671519). for a time. and it now came back once more from the East. and Leipzig. The revival aided by the invention of paper and new came learning^ The manufacture of paper is probably a Chinese invention. a_Germanby birth. and to him is chiefly new learning bridge. he calls them). The process was the manufa cture of papeprthe invention printing. 1 Agricola's real . but awakened no response. In 1506 he published the first Hebrew gramma r.254 sity. he became a professor at Heidelberg and the father of modern Hebrew studies. Erfurt. taking the equivalent Roman word. During the Mohammedan occupa- paper mills were set up there. 1415-74). Returning. and lectured on the new learning at the Universities of HeidelIn 1470 berg. Johann Reuchlin (1455-1522). this being the first German university to countenance the new learning. and.

The when it did. To dissemiFig. new learning involving by copying books. Schoeffer and Faust cast first metal type.THE REVIVAL OF LEARNING 255 the first paper mill was set up in Italy. Gutenberg invented movable wooden types. would have prevented literatures two great An Early SixteenthCentury Press instruction in the jects new sub- becoming general for centuries. 131. we have and Rome. Spread and work of the press. 1450. in Germany. ence. as seen (Rs. scattered the discovery of the art of printing. we can see that the work of the humanists of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries in Italy probably would little have had but elsewhere but nate a influence for the inven- tion of printing. 1 it old books. 73. This was the invention of From the difficulty experienced in securing books for the great libraries at Florprinting. This the first complete book printed. 1438.oo«!/crogoM was sold at a sale of . and the one at the lever is making an impression. and would have materially retarded the progress of the world. A number of four-page printed sheets are seen on the table at the right of the press. and the great cost of reproducing single copies of books. and in 1390 another at Nuremberg. " The prynters haue founde a crafte to make bokis by brasen letters sette in ordre by a frame. 132). The man at the right is setting type. 1 Coster of Harlem made the first engraved single page. By 1450 paper was in common use and the way was now open for one of the world's greatest inventions. Urbino. new invention and its diffusion The dates connected with this over Europe are: 1423. In 1320 a paper factory was established at Mainz. and in ioi^a copy of New York City? tor $ 5 o. coming new learning over Europe. 1456. in This was bound in two volumes. and soon thereafter other factories began to make paper at Florence. and Venice. In 1340 a paper factory was established at Padua. Bible printed in Latin by Gutenberg and Faust at Mainz.. 130. Milan. one at a time by hand. Bologna." An engraving. dated 1520.

1490. the first dated book. 1474. at Erfurt. 1471. 74. used this at first. newspaper established. Qjfoo fo fct to fcltfcof fre&^/fatte&mai* ncrf<on>to $ i Fig. Greek book printed in Germany. Printing introduced into England. 1470. yet in time the was to be found in every country of Europe. but by an ingenious invention of printed characters: and was completed to the glory of God and the honor Gemsheim. a statement which Robinson translates as follows: "The present volume of the Psalms. Milan. drove out the Psalter. First 1563. *X* C mtyt§ J»-» Ipflf fart) (feat tbott ijaue fortgc to fcnotbe $e ctaf fc of Wfcmc go* &tp ttntpnttenplfc* ucitHpfc. }<&V$^\S®**™& ^ZJl'l^ "^ °j «>th of August. in France the University of Paris was given the proceeds of a tax levied on all books printed. First book printed in Greek at Milan. Caxton set up his press 1474-77. and Ferrara. The professional copyists made a great outcry against the innovation. in 1477. First by Aldus Manutius. 1473. The Aldine press established at Venice.256 1457. in Venice. press Inventions traveled but slowly in those days. Printing introduced into Switzerland. in Latin. 1469. 1465. on SCh ° ifher ° f . Press set up in the German monastery of Subiaco. in the Sabine Mountains. Printing introduced into Spain. in Italy. type a style of heavy-faced much like called Gothic 1 — the sothat written by the mediaeval monks Caxton. This press moved to Rome. was used. in England. Printing introduced into Holland and Belgium. and in England the beginnings of the modern copyright are to be seen in the necessity of obtaining a license from the ecclesiastical authorities to be permitted to print a book. and contains at the end. — A second edition of this Psalter was printed two years later. 1476. 1 501. of Saint James by in the year of our Eorcf 1450. Presses at Paris and Vienna. An Early Specimen first or Caxton's Printing let- In cutting and casting the ter. printed. 1467. was produced not by writing with a pen. 1462. which is adorned with handsome capitals and is clearly divided by means of rubrics. HISTORY OF EDUCATION The Mayence Adolph of Nassau pillaged Mainz. and in consequence scattered the art over Europe. 1 printers. presses were at first licensed and closely limited in number. Presses set up at Florence.

* By 1500 it is said that a bopk could be purchased for the equivalent of fifty cents which a half century bel^^itoMS^SStfs? fifty dollars. 2 At Florence about three hundred editions are said to have been printed before 1500. 382. and London soon became centers of the northern book trade. Augsburg. Caxton in England soon vied with Aldus in Venice as a printer of beautiful books. 298. more rapid than it had been educational progress was to be much in the past. When we remember that it required fifty-three days (Sandys) to make by hand one copy of Quintilian's Institutes. and books literally 1 made and paved the way (R. 526. and most of them by the Aldine press of Aldus Manutius. Saint Albans. the enormous importance of an invention which would print rapidly a thousand or more copies of a book. for a great ex tension of schools and learning From now on the press became a formidable rival to and the sermon. often of as many as a thousand copies to an edition. 134. f Venice. all exactly alike and free from copyist Tj. became the center of the book poured from the presses there. Louvain. can be appreciated. Basel. 351. Basel. Oxford. Cologne. Deventer. 4.ri-pm uriously cheapened booksi errors. 925. Mayence. this type which was soon accepted in all non-German European countries. however. The usual early edition was three hundred copies. Strassburg. 530. Nuremberg. 250) connected therewith. From an educational point of view the invention of printing might almost be taken as marking the close of the medieval and the beginning of modern times. and one of the greatest of instruments From this time on for human progress and individual liberty. 134). almost from the trade. Leipzig. 2 By 1500 many books had 3 also been printed in a number of northern cities. at Milan. 169. 7. and Lyons. the general use of the textbook method of teaching possible. 256. had been printed in Italy. . 3 The following numbers of different editions are said to have been printed at the northern cities before 1500: Paris. 116. and at Rome. Rise of geographical discovery. Cologne. soon devised a type with letters like those used by the old Romans the so-called Roman type.THE REVIVAL OF LEARNING and the Germans have continued its 257 use up to the present time. Of this number 2835 had been printed in Venice. and forty-five copyists twenty-two months to reproduce two hundred volumes for the Medicean Library at Florence (R. and edited by the Accidentia (p. The new influences awakened the pulpit by the Revival 1 of Learning found expression in other directions. Leipzig. Paris. Nuremberg. 625. The Italians also devised a compressed type the Italic which enabled printers to get more words on a page. 130). London. 751. 130. By 1500 as many as five thousand editions. 320. at Bologna. The — — — — first. Italians.

ex- that series of ploration. 75. with the accomThese led to travel. and a great era of exploration had been beIn 1402 venturesome sailors. and returning (Polo returned. out beyond the "Pillars of Hercules. returning safely to was round. panying revival of trade and commerce. in Naples. Columbus discovered the American continent. in 1460 the Cape Verde Islands were found. proved that the world study. and. 258 One of these HISTORY OF EDUCATION was geographical discovery. and one which laid the foundations of this modern lan's ships Spain. and in the next two and a half centuries a great expansion of the known world took place. sailing westward with the same end in view." discovered the Canary Islands. the beginning of the fourteenth century the compasethad been perfected. itself an outgrowth of movements known as the Crusades. in 1 519-21. Five years later. The effect of these ^^wMin k§adening tne minds of men s . a book that was widely read.. Magelcircumnavigated the globe. By the latter part of the thirteenth century the most extensive travel which had taken place since the days of ancient Rome had begun. and in 1487 Vasco da Gama rounded the southern tip of Africa and discovered the long-hoped-for sea route to India. The By Voyages of Polo and the Travels of Mandeville were widely read. The World as known to Christian Europe before Columbus travels to Marco Polo and Sir John Mandeville made extended the Orient. and discovery. in 1419 the Madeira Islands were reached. Finally. 1295) described to a wondering Europe the new lands and peoples they had seen. gun. In 1507 Waldenseemuller published his Introduction to Geography. Fig.

its influence was still strongly felt in such cities as Florence and Venice. the first of a long line of English humanistic schools. Greek and Hebrew were how taught generally in the northern universities. The latter part of the fifteenth century and the earlier part of the sixteenth was a stimulating period in the intellectual development of Christian Europe. as had many cities in northern lands. Italian navigators had disfree man all over western Europe. The religious theories and teachings of the Middle Ages as to the world were in large part upset. The new humanistic university at Wittenberg. and scholastic teachers were being displaced from their positions in the universities and schools. The Italian cities. and Michael Angelo were adding new fame to Italy. About 1500 a stimulating time. The Turks had closed in on Constantinople (1453) and ended the Eastern Empire. and many Greek scholars had fled to the West.THE REVIVAL OF LEARNING 259 can be imagined. Everywhere the cities were centers for the new life in western Christendom. (R. - . new continents had been discovered. and robbed the ocean of its tercovered new sea routes Columbus had di^oveged ^. and new worlds were now ready to be opened up for scientific ex- and colonization. Raphael. while in German lands and in England the reform movement awakened by it was at its height. New races and new peoples had been^world. England was rapidly changing from an agriculA The serf was evolving into al tural to a manufacturing nation. England. founded in 1502. Low The court schools of Italy (R. E rasmus was the greatest international scholar of the age. and lands. was exerting large influence among German scholars and attracting to it the brightest young minds in German lands. 138). particularly Genoa and Venice. soon to be peopled rors. in London grammar Leon ardo d aVinci. Everywhere the old scholastic learning and methods were being overturned by the new humanism. -5 5 . a round earth instead of a flat one had been proved to exist. had become rich from their commerce. though ably seconded by disploration tinguished humanistic scholars in Italy. and German lands. the Countries. and carrying the Renaissance movement over into that art which the world has ever since treasured and admired. France. Though the Revival of Learning had culminated in Italy. France (R. 136) were marking out Coletjvas founding reformed grammar school (1510) at Saint Paul's. 135) and the municipal colleges of new his lines in the education of the select few.

and invention seemed almost within grasp. 6. and the progress that seemed possible in 1500 was soon lost amid the bitterness and hatreds engendered by a great religious conflict. What brought about by the pressure of the Turks on the Eastern indicate as to intercourse among Mediterranean peoples / part Empire ^k. Show the awakening of the modern scientific spirit in the critical and reconstructive work of the scholars of the Revival. commerce. Magellan had shown that the world was round and poised in space. Would the interest Greek o.val-type people to-day? l/ Show how the work of Petrarch required a man with a strong historic thing. 8. and which was destined to leave. and a conception of the possibilities of the future before him. and was rapidly multiplying books and creating a new desire to read (R. awakened be comparable with that awakened by the revival in Italy? Why? of What does the fact that no copy of Quintilian's Institutes. Unfortunately the promise was not to be fulfilled. and that the awakening was in large 10. and should discover a key by which to read it.260 HISTORY OF EDUCATION and to become the home of a new civilization. 134). In what way was the fact that Dante wrote his Divine instead of Latin an evidence of large independence? . Of what value to one is a "sense of the past behind him." by way of giving perspective and self-confidence? » Do we have many media. The Church was more tolerant of new ideas than it had been in the past. a legacy of intolerance and suspicion in all lands. / 7. The world seemed about ready for rapid advances in many new directions. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION Y. art. instead of The printing-press flat and surrounded by a circumfluent ocean. Middle Ages? How do you explain during the & t^^t^J^r^very of the ancient learning . Suppose that we should unexpectedly unearth in Mexico a vast literature of a very learned and scholarly people who once inhabited the United States. government. then about to break. and great progress in learning. Of what was the exposure of the forgery of the "Donation of Constantine" a precursor? Contrast the modern and the mediaeval spirit as related to learning. education. had been perfected and scattered over Europe. All of these new influences and conditions combined to awaken thought as had not happened before since the days of ancient Rome. was known in Europe before 1416 indicate as to the destruction of books during the early Christian period? does the fact that the Christians knew little about Greek literature or scholarship for centuries. or soon was to be for centuries to come. Comedy in Italian peace and civilization that the modern languages and writing Latin? Why? 3. V. for Was it a good arose. a very famous Roman book. instead of all speaking . sense. 5. for centuries to come.

center of the book trade? the printing-press became "a formidable rival to the pulpit and the sermon. Symonds: Italian Societies for studying the Classics. is correct? How do you explain the later neglect of so valuable a library as that at Monte Cassino (126) or Saint Gall (127 a)? Was Lionardo Brum's/^gfe^^c^j&J^ b) overdrawn? Is . and one of the greatest instruments for human progress liberty. 133. 129. Explain the long-delayed interest in the Revival in the northern countries. and that older professors in the universities frequently held aloof from any connection with the financial support of the Revival in Italy with the support of universities and of scientific undertakings in America during recent » times.. Benvenuto: Boccaccio's Visit to the Library at Monte Cassino. Symonds: Finding of Quintilian's Institutes at Saint Gall. Green: The New Learning at Oxford. One SELECTED READINGS r .C. 127. Compare the 17. : QUESTIONS ON THE READINGS 1. page 257? uSkJ"'! T/iif Qt\ ?k . 14. how many volumes had been printed before 1 500 at the places listed in footnote 3. to its arrival at Harvard. 130.'#. 132. Y^. Green: The New Taste for Books. magnitude. 2. MS. Vespasiano: Founding of the Medicean Library at Florence. 126. Trace the larger steps in the transference of Greek literature and learning from Athens. Petrarch: On copying a Work of Cicero. it probable that Petrarch's explanation (125) of why many of the older Latin books were copied so infrequently. should a license from the Church have been necessary to print a book? Have we any remaining vestiges of this church control over books? Do you see any special reason why Venice should have become the early Why io/Show how and 20." (6) Reply of Lionardo Bruni.THE REVIVAL OF LEARNING was very 261 largely the work of young men. Vespasiano: Founding of the Vatican Library at Rome. and the substitution of the humanities for the divinities as the basis of education. ry. Vespasiano: Founding of the Ducal Library at Urbino.J" In the accompanying Book of Readings the following selections are reproduced: 125. 18. psalters being preferred instead. What was the importance of the rediscovery of Hebrew? 16. Show how the invention of printing was a revolutionary force of the first ^movement? W. 1 28.." writer has characterized the Revival of Learning as the beginnings emergence of the individual from institutional control. in the fifth century B. Reproducing Books before the Days of Printing. Is this a good characterization of a phase of the movement? 21.* / _ of the . 3. in 1636. Counting each edition of a printed book at only three hundred copies. (a) Letter of Poggio Bracciolini on the "Find. 134. 131. in Massachusetts.

HISTORY OF EDUCATION the Was there anything unnatural about What work and customs of the Italian lit- societies for studying the classics (129)? Compare with a modern erary or scientific society. does the extract from Vespasiano. Jas. in 9. indicate as to his interest in the new humanistic move- 7. Sedgwick. The Evolution of Geography. B. What ment? 8. H. Mrs. W. W. telling how he got books for Cosimo de' Medici (130). Makers of Venice. E. J. J. 5. vol. H. Lynn. Louise. E. or with the National Dante Society. vol. List the larger classifications of the books copied. the Revival of Learning.. Show from the selection from Green (133) that the revival movement England was essentially a religious revival. of Letters. Lilian F. La Croix. W. Oliphant. Paul. SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES *Adams. Whitcomb. The Arts in the Middle Ages and at the Period of the Renaissance. E. *Symonds. Scaife. Mediaeval Hellenism. Introduction to the Study of the Renaissance. as to the lines represented in a great library of that day. *Field. Venetian Days (Venetian commerce). The Renaissance in Italy. Explain Green's cause-and-effect theory. Digitized by Microsoft® . Harvard Lectures on *Walsh. Greatest of Centuries.262 4. *Robinson. *Loomis. M. The Revival of Learning. History of Classical Scholarship. Duff. J. Italy in the Thirteenth Century. as given in selection 134. H. Early Printed Books. John. Civilization during the Middle Ages. J. Florentine Life during the Renaissance. The Thirteenth. William. the First Modern Scholar and Man Sandys. does the work of Pope Nicholas V. 6. B. *Keane. William Caxton. *Sandys. J. in establishing the Vatican Library (132). G. History of Mediamal Europe. Thorndike. A. II. Blades. *Howells. D. indicate as to the scarcity of books in Italy toward the middle of the fifteenth century? The library of the Duke of Urbino (131) was the most complete collected up to that time. 11. and Rolfe. G. Petrarch. D. Source Book of the Italian Renaissance.


Significance of the Revival of Learning.

often stated that

our modern educational practices in .secondary educationiie buried deep in the great Italian Revival of Learning. If we limit the statement to the time preceding the middle of the nineteenth century we shall be more nearly correct, as tremendous changes in both the character and the purpose of secondary education have taken place since that time. The important and outstanding educational result of the revival of ancient learning by
the roots of

was that it laid a basis for a new type of education below that of the university, destined in time to be much more widely opened to promising youths than the old cathedral and monastic schools had been. This new education, based on the great intellectual inheritance recovered from the ancient world by a relatively small number of Italian scholars, dominated the secondary-school training of the middle and higher classes of society It clearly began by 1450, it for the next four hundred years. clearly controlled secondary education until at least after 1850.
Italian scholars


of the efforts of Italian scholars to resurrect, reconstruct, un-



utilize in

education the fruits of their legacy from

the ancient Greek and


world, arose



education, as contrasted with mediaeval church education.
It Mediaeval education, after all, was narrowly technical. prepared for but one profession, and one type of service. There was little that was liberal, cultural, or humanitarian about it. It prepared for the world to come, not for the world men live in here. The new education developed in Italy aimed to prepare directly

world here, and for useful and enjoyable life at that. Combining with the new humanistic (cultural) studies the best physical ideals and practices of the old chivalric education
for life in the


manners arrd-eewtesyr-r^yjexen^e

— — the Italian pioneers'

devised a scheme, of education, below that of the universities, which they claimed prepared youths not only for an intellectual appreciation of the great and wonderful past of which they were descendants, but also fofejm£$tygfflfo§8f&itt in the two great non-



public church occupations of Italy in the fifteenth century service for the City-State, and, commerce and a business life. This new type of education spread to other lands, and a new

type of secondary-school training, actuated by a

new and


modern purpose, thus came out

of the revival of learning in Italy.

The movement

in Italy patriotic.


inspiration for the re-

vival of learning in Italy did not originate with the universities? Even the new chairs when

established in the universities

were regarded as inferior, and,
in true university fashion, the

occupants were tolerated by
the other professors

than approved of by them.



the universities

Pavia and Bologna, in particing to do with the

— had practically nothnew moveand

ment. 1


in the rich

learned city of Florence, the

head and front of the revival movement, the church scholars and many university men took little or no part in the
Fig. 76. Saint

Antoninus and his

restoration of the old studies.

Saint Antoninus (1389-1459) was the learned and pious Archbishop of Florence from 1446 until his death. The picture of him giving instruction is from the Venice
(1503) edition of his

The learned archbishop, Saint Antoninus, who presided over
the cathedral at Florence during the brightest days of that,






mediaeval scholastic instruction undisturbed, and even wrote a


Theologica of his own.

movement, on the contrary, was directed in its by a small group of patriotic Italians possessed of a modern spirit, and was financed by intelligent and patriotic merchants, bankers, and princes. Surrounded on all sides by monuments and remains testifying to Roman greatness, and with
as universities have contributed to intellectual progress, hostility to of thinking and to new subjects of study has beeaf through all time, a characteristic of many of their members, and-s£tgn it hayjequired much pressure from progressive forces on the outside to pYercom?thett^mposition to new lines of


new types

scholarship and public

servic£'9'%°> Microsol

revival of Latin literature


speech in constant use by the scholars of the Church, the meant more to Italian scholars than to those of any other country. It seemed to them still possible to revive Roman life and make Roman speech once more the lan-

guage of the learned world.

meant much more

The revival of Latin literature, too, them than the revival of Greek. The chief value of the latter was to open up a still greater past, and through After about 1500 this' to illuminate Roman life and literature. the enthusiasm for Greek rapidly died out in Italy, and the further interpretation of Greek life and thought was left to the

northern nations. In this effort to revive the old
received the





Roman world the Italian scholars the great men of wealth, and of some of

aided the

It was the Medici family at Florence who movement liberally there, rejuvenated the university of Florence along new humanistic lines, accumulated libraries there

the popes of the time.

(R. 130) and at Venice, and aided scholars all over Italy?' At Milan the Visconti family paid the expenses of a chair of Latin and Greek, established in the university there in 1440. Popes were prodigal in their support of the new Nicholas V and Leo learning at Rome (R. 132), and the university there was reconstructed along modern lines. At Venice the rulers gave large



and other support
(R. 129),

to the leaders of the



were Academies in almost all the northern Italian cities, and those in pofounded litical power did much to make their cities notable centers for

under the patronage

of the nobility,

classical studies.

New schools created. The "finds" began with Petrarch's discovery of two' orations of Cicero, in 1333, and by the time "the century of finds" (1333-1433) was drawing to a close the materials for a new type of secondary education had been accumulated. Not only was the old literature discovered and edited, but the finding of a complete copy of Quintilian's Institutes of Oratory at Saint Gall (R. 127), in 1416, gave a detailed explanation of the old Roman theory of education at its best. A number of "court
cities, to which children from banking and merchant classes were sent to the nobility and the enjoy the advantages they offered over the older types of religious



arose in the different


Two of the most famous teachers in these ,eourt schgols were Vittorino da Feltre, wi*pfi6Bdd,iwJl^(3^arnous school at Mantua



from 1423 to 1446, and Guarino da Verona, who conducted another almost equally famous school at Ferrara from 1429 to 1460. Taking boys at nine or ten and retaining them until twenty or twem^m4-^^OT-^clio6T|^were much like the best private board.Drawing to them a ing-schools of England'and America to-day.

Guarino da Verona (1374-1460) (Drawn from a photograph of a con
temporary painting.
Fig. 77.
at Ferrara, 1429-1460)

VittorinodaFeltre (1378-1446) (Drawn from a medallion in the British Museum. School at Mantua, 1423-46)
Italian Humanist Educators

Two Early

^jie-FSrand morals; employing

mangood teaching processes; and providing the best instruction the world had up to that time known Many of the influence of these court schools was indeed large. the most distinguished leaders in Church and State and some of By better the best scholars of the time were trained in them. methods they covered, in shorter time, as much or more than was provided in the Arts course of the universities, and so became rivals of them. The ultimate result was that, with the evolution of a series of secondary schools which prepared for admission to the universities, the gradual "humanizing" of the universities, and
selected class of students; emphasizing physical activities,

the introduction of printed textbooks, the Arts courses in the

were advanced to a


higher plane.



here one

of the first

<Eiig)tixeuwfo8t:to& (Subsequent

by means



which new knowledge, organized into teaching shape, has been passed on down to lower schools to teach, while the universities have stepped forward into new and higher fields of endeavor. The humanistic course of study. The new instruction was based on the study of Greek and Latin, combined with the courtly ideal and with some of the physical activities of the old chivalric education. Latin was begun with the first year in school, and the regular Roman emphasis was placed on articulation and proper accent. After some facility in the language had been gained, easy readings, selected from the greatest Roman writers, were attempted. As progress was made in reading and writing and speaking Latin as a living language, Cicero and Quintilian among prose writers, and Vergil, Lucan, Horace, Seneca, and Claudian among the poets, were read and studied. History was introduced in these schools for the first time and as a new subject of study, though the history was the history of Greece and Rome and was drawn from the authors studied._ _Iivy and Plutarch were the
chie f historical .writers used.
fall of

Nothing that happened

after the

Rome was deemed

as of importance.


emphasis was

placed on manners,_morality, and reverence, with Livy and PlutardTagain as the great guides to conduct. Throughout all this the use of Latin as a living language was insisted upon; declamation became a fine art; and the ability to read, speak, and compose in Latin was the test. Cicero, in particular, because of the exquisite quality of his Latin style, became the great prose model. Quintilian was the supreme authority on the purpose and method Greek also was begun later, though studied of teaching (R. 25).

and thoroughly. The Greek grammar of Theodorus Gaza (p. 248) was studied, followed by the reading of Xenophon, Isocrates, Plutarch, and some of Homer and Hesiod. This thorough drill in ancient history and literature was given along with careful attention to manners and moral training, and an absolutely each pupil's health was watchfully supervised


less extensively

new thought

in the Christian world.

Such physical sports and

leapgames as fencing, wrestlingjakjvjr^^ and dancing were^ls^^^erl-speciaLempEaMir' Competitive games between -ffiffrrerrTschools were held, much as in modern




was an all-round

physical, mental,

and moral


ing, vastly superior to anything previously offered by the cathedral and other church z^fre^^MtabsBMch at once established a



new type which was widely
studies, the



of these


teachers, called humanists, wrote treatises

on the proper order


to be employed, the right education of a

One of these, BatGuarino, describing the education provided in the school which his father founded at Ferrara (R. 135), laid down a dictum
prince, liberal education,


similar topics. 1


which was accepted widely until the middle of the nineteenth when he wrote:

I have said that ability to write Latin verse is one of the essential marks of an educated person. I wish now to indicate a second, which

of at least equal importance,

namely, familiarity with the literature

and language of Greece. no uncertain voice upon

The time has come when we must speak
this vital

requirement of scholarship.
Italy the


in France.


new humanism was
had occuand when Francis I

carried to France, along with the retreating armies that

pied Naples, Florence, and Milan

(p. 252),

came to the French throne, in 1515, the new learning found in him a willing patron. Though there had been beginnings before this, the new learning really found a home in France now for the first time. Here, too, it became associated with court and noble, and the schools created to furnish this new
instruction were provided at the insti-

gation of some form of public authority. The greatest humanistic scholar in

France at the time, Budasus, was made royal librarian, in 1522. His study of the old Roman coinage, upon which he
spent nine years, would pass to-day as a study representing a high grade of

and was




trast with the scholastic

methods of

I^ his writings Bud^us set forth for France the dictum that every man, even if he be a king, should be devoted to letters and liberal learning, and that this culture can be obtained only through Greek and Latin, and of these, unlike the Italians, he held Greek to be the more important. Other scholars now helped to transfer the center for Greek scholarship to Paris, where it remained for the next two centuries.




For a

list of

these treatS/e^'IK? fjfcMSPf ^clopedia of Education,vol. v, p. 154.



roy al pres s was set up in Paris, in 1526, to promote the inLibraries were built up, as in troduction of the new learning. Humanist scholars were made secretaries and ambassaItaly.



College de France


established at Paris,



tion of the King, with

chairs flfcLatin, Greek,

Hebrew," and mathematics.

To Hebrew
had given

the Italians

almost no attention, but in France, and particularly in Germany, Hebrew became an important


develFig. 79.


of schools in

northern France was hindered by the dissensions following the
religious revolts of

College de France


at Paris, in 1530, by King Francis I. for instruction in the new humanistic learning

Luther and Calvin, but in southern France

many of

the cities founded municipal colleges,

much like

the court

schools of northern Italy-in type. The work of the city of Bordeaux in reorganizing its town school along the new lines was
typical of the

work of other southern cities. Good teachers, libinstruction, and a broad-minded attitude on the part of the

governing authorities made this school, known as the College de Guyenne, notable not only for humanistic instruction, but for intelligent public education during the second half of the sixteenth century. The picture of this college (school) left us by

greatest principal, Elie Vinet (R. 136), gives an interesting

description of its work.

Humanism in Germany. The French language and life was closely related to that of northern Italy, and French religious thought had always been so closely in touch with that of Rome
that something of the Italian feeling for the old Roman culture and institutions was felt by the humanists of France. In Germany and England no such feeling existed, and in these countries


effort to discredit the rising native

Languages was

much more

pedantry. In both these countries, likely to be regarded as mere language of the Church, of the univerthough ' Latin was still the 6 „ Digitized bj/.Microsoft® 1 The distinguished aiitnor .Montaigne, was mayor in 1580.

sities, of all



learned writing, and the means of international inteiw and after the new humanism had once obtained a foothold was welcomed by scholars as a great addition to existing knowlto introduce the

Erasmus, the foremost scholar of his day, not only labored new learning in the schools, but welcomed the restored Roman tongue as an international language frar scholarship, as a potent weapon for destroying barriers of language, religion, law, and possibly in time governments based on nationality, and for the promise it gave of peace in international relationships. In both Germany and England, in place of the patriotic fervor of the Italians, religious zeal, as we shall see later on, was


kindled by the

new humanistic



the universities Vienna, Heidelberg, Erfurt, Tubingen,
(see Figure 61)

and Leipzig

were foremost in the introduction




Erfurt became the center of a group of humanscholars during the closing years of the fifteenth century, and
first Greek book printed in Germany appeared there, in 1 501 At both Tubingen and Heidelberg Reuchlin (p. 254) taught for a time, and both institutions early became centers for the study of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. At Leipzig the reigning duke brought various humanistic scholars to the



university to lecture, after 1507, and in 1 5 19 entirely reformed the university by

— Wittenberg
ters for the

subordinating the mediaeval disciplines to the new studies. Four new universities



Konigsburg (1544), and Jena (1558) Fig. 80. Johann Reuchlin (1455-1522) were established on the new humanistic "Father of modem Hebrew basis, and from their beginning were cen-

new learning.

At Wittenberg,

Martin Luther had been made Professor of Theology, in 1508, when but twenty-five years of age, and to Wittenberg the Electoral Prince, in 1518, brought the young Melanchthon^ then but
twenty-one, as Professor of Greek.


universities of


were more profoundly affected by the introduction of the new learning than were those of any other country. The monastic
orders jmdJhjsjScholastics,

who hadjor J^ngj:ontroIkd~~thTT5 er--:

man Institutions, wye



and by the

close of the first quarter of the sixteenth

century the ne w humanism_was everywhere
frrarrfangs i


tr iumphant


German secondary schools. The enthusiasm of the humanthe new learning led them to urge the establishment of humanistic secondary schools in the German cities. The schools
ists for

of "


of the

Common Life"

(Hieronymians), a teach-

by Gerhard Grote at Deventer, Holland, in 1384, and which had established forty-five houses by the time the new learning came into the Netherlands from Italy, at once adopted the new studies, soon trebled the number of its houses, and for decades supplied teachers of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew to
ing order founded
1 the surrounding countries.

Wessel, Agricola, Hegius, Reuch-

and Sturm were among their greatest teachers, and Erasmus Here and there in German cities Latin their greatest pupil.
schools, teaching the subjects of the Trivium,

but principally the

elements of Latin and grammar, had been established in the course of the later Middle Ages, and to these scholars trained in the new learning gradually made their way, secured employment, and thus quietly introduced a purified Latin and the intellectual

new humanistic course of study. Up to 1520 this method was followed entirely in German lands. As in Italy, the commercial cities were among the first to proIn 1526 the commercial city of vide schools of the new type. Nuremberg, in southern Germany, opened one of the first of the new city humanistic secondary schools, Melanchthon being present and giving the dedicatory address. A number of similar schools were founded about this time in various German cities Ilfeld, Frankfort, Strassburg, Hamburg, Bremen, Dantzig among the number. Many of these failed, as did the one at Nuremberg, to meet the neWls of the people in essentially commerWhatever might have been true in more cultured cial cities.
part of the

— —

Italy, in

German cities a rigidly classical training for youth and early manhood was found but poorly suited to the needs of the The sons of wealthy burghers destined to a commercial career.

commerce of the world apparently was to rest on native and not on elegant Latin verse and prose. The commercial classes soon fell back on burgher schools, elementary vernacular schools, writing and reckoning schools, business exlanguages,
1 This order had begun as an institution for the instruction of the poor, emphasizbut when the new learning came in from ing tihe use of the Bible and the vernacular, of the brotherhood became TFalv\ classical learning was added and the instruction Digitized by Microsoft® hurnanistic.



travel for the education of their sons, leaving the

Latin schools of the humanists to those destined for the service of the Church, the law, teaching, or the higher state service. The Work of Johann Sturm. The most successful classical school in all Germany, and the one which formed the pattern for
future classical creatiHis', was the gymnasium : at Strassburg,

under the direction (1536-82) of the famous Johann Sturm, or Sturmius, as he came to call himself. This was one of the early classical schools founded by the commercial cities, but In it had not been successful.
1536 the authorities invited Sturm, a graduate of the University of Louvain, and at that time a teacher of classics and dialectic at Paris, where he had come in contact with the humanism brought from Italy,
to become head of the school and reorganize it. This he Stofflin) did, and during the forty-frjje years he was head of the school it became the most famous classical school in continental Europe. His Plan of Organization, published in 1538; his Letters to the Masters on the course of study, in 1565; and the record of an examination of each class
(After a contemporary engraving

Fig. 81.

Johann Sturm



influence of the old Greek classical terms in this connection is interesting, another evidence of the permanence of Greek ideas. Sturm here adopted the Italian nomenclature, Vittorino da Feltre having called his school a Gymnasium Palatinum, or Palace School. Guarino wrote of gymnasia Italorum, Both derived the term from the Gymnasia of ancient Greece, just as the academies of the Italian cities took their name from the Academy of Plato at Athens (p. 44). Another famous Greek school was the Lyceum, founded by Aristotle (p. 44). All these names came in during the Revival of Learning in Italy, and were applied to the new classical schools at a time when every term, and even the names of men, were given classical form. As a result the Italian secondary schools of to-day are known as ginnasio, and the German classical secondary schools as gymnasia. The Freich took their term from the Lyceum, hence the French lycees. The English named tljieir classical schools after the chief subject of study, hence the English grammar schools. In 1638 Milton visited Italy, and was much entertained in Florence by members of the academy and university there. In 1644 he published his Tractate on Education, in which he outlined his plan for a series of classical academies for England. Mi lton was a church reformer, as were the Puritans, and the Puritans, in settling Ame, rica, brought over first the term HSm^g tfctyffbrfgffcgp.tet the term academy to /few




in the


school, conducted in 1578, all of which have been preserved, give us a good idea as to the nature of the organ-


and instruction (R. 137). Sturm was a strong and masterful man, with a genius
Probably adopting the plan
of the

for or-

French colleges (R. 136), he organized his school into ten classes, 1 one for each year the pupil was to spend in the school, and placed a teacher in charge of each. The aim and end of education, as he stated it, was "piety, knowledge, and the art of speaking," and "every effort of teachers and pupils " should bend toward acquiring "knowledge, and purity and elegance of diction." J0f_the ten years the pupil was to spend in the gymnasium, seven were to* be spent in acquiring a thorough mastery of pjure idiomatic Latin,

and the

three. remairjing-_y£ars to the acquisition, of elegant Cicero was ,the great model, but Vergil, Plautus, Terence,

TSTartial, Sallust,

Horace, and other authors were read and studExcept that the Catechism was first studied in the native German, Latin was made the language of the classroom. Great emphasis was,placed on letter- writing, declamation, and the acting of plays. Rhetoric, too, was made a very important subject ofstudy. Greek was begun in the fifth year ofj^ooljind continued throughout, all instruction in Greek being given through The instruction in both Latin and the medium of the Latin. 2

Greek was much

like that of the court schools of Italy, except

that in Greek the


Testament was read in addition. JThe

plays and games and physical training of the Italian schools, however, were omit tedT much less "emphasis was placed on manners,

and gentlemanly conduct; and in educational purpose a narrow drill was substituted for the broad cultural spirit of the French and Italian schools. Sturm was the greatest and most successful schoolman of his day. Inxlga rly defined, aim, thorough organization, carefully^ gradedjastructioja, good teaching, and soumi_schplarship, his school surpassed aJTothersT Sturm's aim "was to train pious, learn^drand-dtrqtretrrmra" for "service in Church and State, using religion and the new learning as means, and in this he was very In a short time after taking charge his gymnasium successful.
famous Saxony plan of 1528, had provided for but three class-for-each-year idea was new in German lands. 2 This became a fixed practice, Latin being the one language of the school. century later, when it was attempted by the Jansenists, in France, to teach Greek directly through the vernacular, the practice was loudly condemned by the Jesuits

Melanchthon, in


classes (R. 161).



as impious, because




France and Rome.




in 1578 there

were "thousands


Sturm became widely known throughout northern Europe, and scholars and princes passing through Strassburg stopped to visit his school and secure his advice. He corresponded with scholars in many He was lands, and the influence of his institution was enormous.
pupils, representing eight nations," in attendance.

the author of



textbooks, and of half a dozen

works on the theory and practice

of education.



— gymnasium —

both the type and the name

the Ger-

man classical secondary school,
which to-day is not very materially changed from the form and character which Sturm gave it. Sturm's work deeply


later foun-

dations in Germany, and also

helped to mould the educational system devised later on

by the
Desiderius Erasmus


Fig. 82.



Grocyn, Linacre, and Colet\ had introduced the new learning at Oxford, as


contemporary portrait by the German artist, Hans Holbein the Younger,
in the Louvre, Paris

we have


ready seen


253), in


closing years of the fifteenth They century (R. 133), but had made but little impression. were ably seconded by Erasmus, who taught Greek at Cambridge


ture for the poor Latin

and who labored hard to substitute true classical culand the empty scholasticism of his time.


wrote textbooks

to help introduce the


learning, urged

the importance of history, geography, and^jscience as serving to
elucidate the classics, edited editions of the classical authors,
1 His. phrase book, De Copia Verborum et Rerum, went through sixty editions in his lifetime, and was popular for a century after his death. His book of proverbs, the Adagia, was in both Latin and Greek, and was widely used. His Book of Say-

ings from the Ancients {Apophthegmata) was a collection of little stories, much like some of our best modern books for elementary-school use. His Colloquies, or Latin dialogues, were widely used for two centuries in Protestant countries. These four were written between 1511 and 1519., and largely for use in Saint Paul's School. His Latin edition of Theodorus Gaza's Greek Grammar (1516) gave English schools ized bY Microsoft® for the first time a standard





wrote two treatises of importance on education, 1 and in two other books 2 ridiculed those who mistook the form for the spirit of His Latin Greek edition of the New Testhe ancient learning.


definitely fixed the place of the



in the

humanistic schools. In spite of the oppositipn of monks and scholastics in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, and in the face of the coming religious turmoil in the days of Henry VIII, the new learning

made steady progress in the universities, 3 with the among the scholars and statesmen of the time. With
of Elizabeth to the throne, 4 in 1558, the court,



the coming

from the Queen down, was imbued with the spirit of the new learning (R. 139). Elizabeth appointed new chancellors for the two universities, and these institutions were soon transformed from places for the
training of mediaeval scholars and theologians into places for the production of a "due supply of fit persons to serve God in Church and State." As Sir Thomas Elyot so well expressed it, in his The

Governour (1544)

a book on the education and which was permeated by the new spirit
order requires qualified instruments for
trained governing class

— " the new

of rulers for

a State,


and a
of the

must henceforth take the place

privileged caste

and the

clerk [cleric] education under the mediae-

val disciplines."

Colet and Saint Paul's School.


learning in England

The first real establishment of came through the secondary schools,


and through the refounding of the cathedral school of Saint Paul's, in London, by the humanist John Colet, in 1510. Colet had become Bean of Saint Paul's Church, and Erasmus urged him to embrace the opportunity to reconstruct the school along humanistic lines. This he did, endowing it with all his wealth, and in a series of carefully drawn-up Statutes (R. 138), which were widely copied in subsequent foundations, Colet laid special emphasis on the school giving training in the new learning and in
1 They were On the First Liberal Education of Children (1529), and Study (1511). 2 His Praise of Folly (1509), and his Ciceronian (1528).' 3

On the Order



introduction of the


learning into the English universities was easier

than elsewhere, because the English universities had broken up into groups of residence halls, known as colleges. If the old colleges could not be reformed new ones could be created, and this took place. Trinity College, at Cambridge, founded in 1540, was from the first a center of humanistic studies. That same year the King founded royal professorships of Civil Law, Hebrew, and Greek at Cambridge. 4 Elizabeth had had for her tutor Roger Ascham, author of The Scholemaster, and a teacher of Greek at Cambricjg^igetf 95>)M/crosoff®



Erasmus gave much of his time for years to and writing textbooks for the school. William Lily (1468-1522), another early humanist recently returned from study in Italy, and the author of a widely known and much used textbook 1 Lily's Latin Grammar (R. 140) was made headChristian discipline.
finding teachers

master of the school. The course of study was of the humanistic type already described, coupled with careful religious instruction. In place of

Fig. 83. Saint Paul's School,


the monkish Latin pure Latin and Greek were to be taught, and
the best classical authors took the place of the old mediaeval dis/

met with much opposition, was denounced as a temple of idolatry and heathenism by the men of the old schools, and even the Bishop of London tried twice to convict



Colet of heresy and suppress the instruction. Notwithstanding this the school became famous for its work, not only in London/


From its desks came a long line off, capable statesmen, learned clergy, brilliant scholars, and literarw
but throughout England.

1 For generations this famous grammar was to England what Donatus was to mediaeval Europe. It was also used in the grammar schools of New England. Lily visited Jerusalem and studied under the best Latin teachers in Rome, so that he ranks with Linacre, Grocyn, and CoLet as an introducer of classical culture into



was refounded there were something
of all classes, in England.

Influence on other English grammar schools.j In a preceding chapter (p. 152) we mentioned the founding of many English grammar schools after 1200. At the time Saint Paul's School

three hundred of these,

existed in connection with the old monasteries, cathedrals, collegiate churches, guilds, and charity foundations in connection with parish churches, while a few were due to private benevolence and had been founded independently of either Church or State. The Sevenoaks Grammar School, founded by the will of William Sevenoaks, in 1432 (R. 141), and for which he stated in his will that he desired as master "an honest man, sufficiently advanced and expert in the science


Fig. 84.

Giggleswick Grammar School

of the chief schools of Yorkshire, England, and dating back to 1499. This building was erected in 1507-12 by a chantry priest named' James Carr (Ker). Drawn from an old print. On the front of the building was a Latin tablet (shown in the drawing) now in the British Museum, which, translated, read "Kindly mother of God, defend James Ker from ill. For priests and young clerks this house is made, in 1512. Jesus, have mercy on us. Old men and children praise the name of the Lord."
, :


of Grammar, B.A., by no means in holy orders," and the chantry grammar school founded by John Percyvall, in 1503 (R. 142), are examples of the parish type. The famous Winchester Public School, founded by Bishop William of Wykeham, in 1382, to em-

phasize grammar, religio^^nd^mannei^and to prepare seventy

scholars for

College, at Oxford, 1

trained as priests;

and Eton

College, founded

1440, to prepare students for examples of the larger* private foundations.

where they were to be by Henry VI, in King's College, at Cambridge, are


few, such as the

school at Sandwich (1579), owed their origin (R. 143) to Most of these grammar the initiative of the city authorities.


schools were small, but a few were large

and wealthy



These old foundations, with their mediaeval curriculum, after a feel the influence of Colet's school. Within a century, due to one influence or another, practically all had been remodeled after the new classical type set up by Colet. In the course of study given for Eton (R. 144), for 1560, we see the new learning fully established, and in the course of study for a small country grammar school, in 1635 (R. 145), we see how fully the new learning, with its emphasis on Latin as a living language, had by this time extended to even the smallest of the English grammar schools. The new foundations, after 1510, were almost entirely new-learning grammar schools, with large emphasis on grammar, good Latin and Greek, games and sports, and the religious spirit. One of the most conspicuous of these later foundations was Merchant Taylor's School, 2 founded in London in 1561, and of which Richard Mulcaster (1531-1611), the author of two important books on educational theory, 3 was for long the headmaster. The first American Latin grammar school (Boston, 1635) was a direct descendant of these English influences and traditions.
time began to


reaction against mediaevalism.

Having traced the
it still


duction of the





remains to point

out certain significant educational features of the movement
1 Winchester was the first of the so-called "great public schools" of England, of which Eton, Saint Paul's, Westminster, Harrow, Charterhouse, Rugby, Shrewsbury,

and Merchant Taylors' are the other eight. The foundation statutes of Winchester made elaborate provision for "a Warden, a Head Master, ten Fellows, three Chaplains, an Usher, seventy scholars, three Chapel Clerks, sixteen Choristers, and a large staff of servants," as did Henry VIII later on for Canterbury (R. 172a). The Warden and Fellows were the trustees. In addition to the seventy scholars (Foundationers) other non-foundationers (Commoners) were tobe admitted to instruction. The admission requirements were to be "reading, plain song, and Old Donatus," and the school was to teach Grammar, the first of the Liberal Arts. Except for the change in the nature of the instruction when the new learning came in, this and the other "public schools " remained almost unchanged until the second half of the nineteenth century. 2 Statutes for this school had provided the following entrance regulations: "But see that they can the Catechisme in English or Latyn, that every one of the said two hundred & fifty schollers can read perfectly & write competently, or els lett them not be admitted ^JWf/^iff h'^jM/croso «® 3 His The Positions (15817; ana TheElemenlane (1582). See Chapter xvm.



Stratford-on-Avon Grammar School

Established by the Holy Cross Guild of Stratford-on-Avon, at the beginning of the The Grammar School was built in 1426, of wood, and at a cost fifteenth century. of £10, 5s., i\d- The stone guild-chapel to the left is older. The school was held on the upper floor, the lower being used as a guild-hall. Here Shakespeare went to school, and saw companies of strolling players in the hah below. The lower picture shows the grammar-school room after its "restoration," in 1892.


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Supported as they were by the ruling classes. France. •The spirit behind the Revival of Learning was a protest against mediaeval attitude.EDUCATIONAL RESULTS OF THE REVIVAL which were common 279 / in all lands. as we have seen (chap. the new schools were close to the most progressive forces in the national life of the different countries. The mediaeval Modification of the mediaeval curriculum. Ger^usefulness and success in the world here. vn). They represented an unmistakable reacti on against the world of the medieval moijj and the Scholastic. These schools restored to the world the practical education of the days of Cicero. l many. and the of life here aim and end was to attain everlasting bliss in the world to come. and which profoundly modified subsequent educational practice. and this aristocratic stamp the humanistic schools and courses have ever since retained. court officials. To be prayer. Both the purpose and the method of education were permanently changed. State. religious devotion took the place of the old state patriotism. It restored to the world •self-culture. the salvation of souls took the place of the promotion of the social welfare. established were popular with the higher classes in society. and preparation for intelligent service in the Church. and England the movimim7"to"o7'met with the most thormerchants. in the Seven Liberal Arts^'WaMSff^irst was the great sub- . and holy contemplation were the important things here below. and for a thousand years the chief object was to prepare for the world to come. penance. It was preeminently the age of the self abasing monk. Success and good citizenship in this world counted for little. and the larger business life be- The Revival traditions — — came one of their important purposes. and this mental attitude dominated all thinking and able to appease the dread Judge at the learning. this ful. Day of Judgment. and the protest was vigorous and success- W— ' of Learning was a clear break with mediaeval and with mediaeval authority. was based on instruction curriculum. ough approval from modern men break with the mediaeval type of and scholars who were ready to The court and other types of secondary schools now thinking. _a nd pr eparation for the ideals of ear lier education In Italy. Up to about the middle of the fourth Christian century the aim of both Greek and Roman education had been to prepare men to become good and useful citizens in the State. Then the Church gained control of education. and their early success was in large part because of this.

and the invention of printing came just in time to multiply and scatter this new knowledge throughout western Europe. With the revival of the ancient learning there came. and made a more elementary subject. The last of the quadrivial subjects. was raised Scholastics once more to the place of ture — at first importance. rise of university instruction some new knowledge was added. tail To all the old subjects a new wealth of de- was added which made teaching encyclopaedias impossible. an enormous increase in the world's sum of knowledge. while Algebra and Trigonometry were now organized as teaching subjects. HISTORY OF EDUCATION but later Dialectic became the master science. within a little more than a century. Mjisic. By the latter part of the sixteenth century technical Grammar had been separated from Literature. Knowledge was regarded as an organic whole. Literaas a separate study. which had raised to the place of first importance. and the great mediae val teaching curricul um was changed in content. Geometry. and relegated to a minor position in university instruction. as did also the study of History and Mythology. Arithmetic.28o ject. as a result of the introduction of much new knowledge. Of the subjects of the Quadrivium. Of the subjects in the old Trivium. There they remained for a long time before being passed down to the Out of the very elemental instruction given Geography and Astronomy were in time evolved all the biological and physical sciences. relativejmpoxiance. experienced a different hisIn the Germanic countries it contory in different countries. In its place Grammar. as Quintilian knew and used the term (R. setting-in of Puritanism . chiefly from Moslem sources. and Astronomy were each greatly expanded. while in England and France much less was madeo^jyfe by MSSSo&e. and each was reduced to textbook form. in secondary schools until well into the nineteenth century. Dialectic or Logic. capable of being stated in a With the brief encyclopaedia. and each man could learn it all. tinued to receive its old emphasis. while Rhetoric had developed into a critical study of literary art. and the old knowledge was minutely re-ground. Due to their newness and difficulty these subjects were taught chiefly in the universities. New purposes in education now came to prevail. was dethroned. first the classical and later the Out modern — later came of this. and these new subjects did not reach the secondary schools. though this development belongs to a later chapter (xvn). 76)' and as based on and including Literature.


the physician. The Master. of most diplomatic and legal documents. To what end? my uncle's Magister. with great gains in accuracy of thinking in the use of words. read. p. To change our cloaths. Magister. and Nor was Latin to a large extent spoke and perhaps thought in Latin. When we remember that Latin was still the language of all learned literature. but a living acquaintance with the tongue. The following selection from the Colloquies of Corderius (R. in his Grammar. every town clerk or guild clerk wanted it for his minute book. not a smattering of grammar. The diplomatist. the lawyer.282 HISTORY OF EDUCATION and refinement was to putation.F. Why will you go so quickly? Ad nuptias consobrina:. Clericus. the ancient literature was studied in part as a storehbuse To make l adequate and elegant expression. A need for Latin was not confined the Church and the priest. the naturalist. the philosopher. English Stffflfeg fh y e^eJojmf^on. or a bailiff only the language of the higher professions. wanted it for his accounts. M. the civil A The schools become formal. To my sister's daughter's wedding. 7. 136) illustrates their nature: Col.. ut ego & patruelis eamus domom? Quid e6? C. Cur tarn citd vultis ire? C. When is she to be married? C. and a practical necessity for travel or communication abroad. to It was still the Latin theme or verse or oraof the be sure. merchant. Ut mutemus vestimenla. as a spoken as well as a written language. of the university classroom. After the new learning had ob- tained a firm footing in the schools there happened what has often 1 Solomon Lowe. . tion. and thus prepare the pupils for service as Latin scholars in public or scholarly pursuits. but before long the time was to come when the same method's would be transferred to instruction in the native tongues and for national ends. M. The architect. Master. » Leach. ets Quando nuptura? Crastino die. 7. and the object new instruction teach Latin as a living language. and the Jesuits later on subjected boys to a whipping if reported as having used the vernacular. of a manor. Licetne. we can realize why so much emphasis was placed on the constant use of 3 Latin as the language of the school. A. gives a bibliography of 128 Phrase Books which had appeared by that time. published in 1726. wanted. 105. more directly then than now. Col. every one who was neither a mere soldier nor a mere handicraftsman. 2 As Leach so well puts it: of The far learned professions required a competent knowledge of Latin to servant. 2 Sturm. the general had to study tactics in it. and numerous phrase books were written for use in the schools. To-morrow. and Neander insisted on the use of Latin in all conversation in the school. the musician. may not I and son go h:>me? M. Clericus. wrote. Columbus had to study for his voyages in Latin. the instruction as practical as possible. Trotzendorf. C.

and which made preparation their aim. In the beginning the Italian humanists had aimed at large personal self -culture and individual development. passed out of use as the language of government and of international communication. gradAs a result. the language of th£.lr. for social efficiency in a modern world 1 In consequencejtL£_aim-. was replaced by verses.ansf erred from the larger human point ofjaew_-o£-the-early humanistic teachers'tothe narrower and niuHTIessimportant one of mastering Greek and Latin. th e schools F rench n ow in . and was gradually super- seded in the university lecture room by the vernaculars. when the new-learning schools had become well established and thoroughly organized." Sturm's school at Strassburg clearly shows the beginnings of such a transformation (R. except for service in the Church. being easier to the classics alone remained. alienated p ractical men fr om. formal. and the work of the schools tended to be confined largely to preparing of the world hence turned to a students to enter the universities or the service of the Church. they be used largely jor_d^ciplinary ends. and lost the liberal spirit which actuated its earlier promoter's. both using the classics as a means to these new ends. and educational effort . and fixed. the tendency arose to make the means an end in itself. Men now new type of schools which arose (chapter xvn). After about 1500 in Italy. classical education ually won over the cultural. give.of -the_iiew_hmnamstic education came in time to be Sought of in terms of languages ahcTliteratures. and the northern humanists at moral and religious reform and preparation for useful service. in-' mought Stead of in terms of usefulnesses a^jrepjxartiojo^^ ing. turn became. new educational efforts — that the new became narrow. and better within the understanding of most teachers. writing a nd cultivating a good (Ciceronian) LatuTstyle. and the disciplinary and cultural value of the study of The disciplinary.. -^Instead learning of using the classical literatures to C impart a liberal education. French as the language of polite society. As Latin came to be less and less used by scholars in writing.was. give larger vision. 146).EDUCATIONAL RESULTS OF THE REVIVAL happened in the history of 283 is. the practical motive for learning Latin died out. and drill in composition and declamation and imitation of the style of ancient authors Digitized — by Microsoft® . gradually became narrow and formal. This change. 137). The teaching of came to Campion at Prague (1574) well illustrates this degeneracy (R. and prepare for useful public service. and 1600 in the northern countries.jcourtandjjldipIomacy.

in different countries. By in German lands until the mid-eighteenth. and how in consequence the new secondary education became and for long continued to be considered as aristocratic education. grew to be to be applied to it — the end of the sixteenth century this change had taken place in both the secondary schools and the universities. 8. Explain how the terms college. as the general international language of learning and government. to a consideration of which we next turn. What was the particular importance of the recovery of Quintilian's Of. academy. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION i. following the Protestant Revolt. 9. would it have helped materially in / bringing about the civilizing influences Erasmus saw in it? id. What Voped by Sturm. To that develInstitutes? 5. y? State the educational ideals of the new secondary schools evolved by the Italian humanistic scholars. Had the purified Latin been restored. whence the term " Ciceronianism which came the ruling motives in instruction. gymnasium. and in in all other west- ern European countries and the nineteenth century.284 HISTORY OF EDUCATION " particularly Cicero. and this narrow linguistic attitude continued to dominate classical education. and show whether these ideals have been best embodied in the German gymnasium or the English grammar school. Cicero's Orations and Letters? better methods could the Italian court schools have used to enable them to cover the university Arts course in shorter time? How would this have advanced the character of the instruction in Arts in the uni/versity? V. The new learning in northern and western Europe was also much changed in character by the violent religious dissensions. to designate about the same type of secondary school. Has the development of separate nationalities and different national languages aided in advancing international peace and civilization? y Why ? Digitized by Microsoft® . America until near the middle of It was not until vigorously challenged by the enthusiasts for modern scientific studies that the teachers of the classics awoke to the need of improving their instruction and restoring something of the old cultural value to what they were teaching. Show how the new type of secondary schools was naturally associated with court and nobility and men of large worldly affairs. and grammar school all came to be employed. 5«/4low do you explain the merchants and bankers and princes of Italy being more interested in the revival-of-learning movement than the Church and university scholars? Do such classes to-day show the same type of interest in aiding learning? 4. Explain just what is meant by the statement that mediaeval education was narrowly technical. lyc&e. Show how the type of education developed in the Italian court schools was superior to that of the best of the cathedral schools.

as expressed by the new humanism. 20. by being changed from cultural to disciplinary ends. 282). 141.purposes of the Roman Catholic Church. 136. and marked the beginnings of the end of the importance of Latin as a school study except for the / . 139. explain why a knowledge of Latin was for so long regarded as synonymous with being \ educated. What was the nature of this public? 18. in fixing classical training as the approved type of secondary education. Was the struggle against the introduction of the new learning into. Vinet: The College de Guyenne at Bordeaux. in place of the patriotic fervor of the Italian / scholars? H. London. to. Ascham: On Queen Elizabeth's Learning. Point out the new tendencies in his work. particularly in England and America.the German universities parallel to the late struggle against the introduc13/." and the influence of this. tion of science into American universities? Contrast the aim of Sturm's school with that of the Italian court schools. made French the language of diplomacy and society* tended to elevate all the vernacular tongues. and the English grammar schools. (b) (c) Admission of Children. Show how the new schools were "close to the most progressive forces in the national life.. did the opponents of Colet's school have for denouncing it as a temple of idolatry and heathenism? tSj Show how it was natural that the first American school should have been a Latin grammar school in type. Sturm: Course of Study at Strassburg. Guarino: On Teaching the Classical Authors. John Percy vail: FouMifotfBr^fPfo? a Chantry Grammar School. William Sevenoaks: Foundation Bequest for Sevenoaks School. Colet: Introduction to Lily's Latin Grammar. 140. 137./What was the purpose of the Latin instruction. as you received it? 2q/l Does it require a higher quality of teaching to impart the cultural aspect of a study than is required for the disciplinary? 14. if any. Show that the new conception as to education. Colet: Statutes for St. Grammar 142. (a) Religious Observances. Show how instruction in Latin. 21. SELECTED READINGS In the accompanying Book of Readings the following selections are reproduced: 135. 2». What basis. Show how the methods of instruction employed in the new Latin grammar schools have been passed over to the native-language schools. found a public ready to support it. . Explain how the written theme of to-day is the successor of the mediaeval disputation. From the paragraph quoted from Leach (p. Paul's School.EDUCATIONAL RESULTS OF THE REVIVAL 11. 138. 2$ . . The Course of Study. 4 Does the sentence quoted from Elyot's Governour express well the changed conditions in England at the middle of the sixteenth century? Do such / changed conditions always demand educational reorganizations? It. 285 Why in should the new humanistic studies have developed religious fervor Germany and England.

English Grammar Schools in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. C. Woodward. T. 146. "The Oxford Movement in the Fifteenth Century". Concerning the Method and Aim of Education. *Woodward. pp. Civilization during the Middle Ages. Vittorino da Feltre. 812-30. instead of a song school. : Grammar School.286 143. and with that at Eton (144) a little later. *Stowe. what do you infer as to the reception Show the large scope of was his 5. or not? The same with reference to the course given in a small English country grammar school. C. J. vol. Laurie. S. dictum that a knowledge of Latin and Greek were essential for a well-educated gentleman (135) accepted? Compare the course of study in Sturm's school (137) with that at Bordeaux (136). A. Show that he clearly provided (138 c) for a humanistic school of the reformed type. Watson. Grammar. W. 140-48. *Woodward. The Oxford Reformers of 1408. as described by Martindale (145)? Just what does the instruction described as given by Campion (146) indicate? SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES * Adams. 205300. in School Review. Foster. 145. specialized for the service. 1440-1580". HISTORY OF EDUCATION Sandwich: A City Grammar School Foundation. and other Humanistic Educators. "The Renaissance and the School. (Nov. pp. 7. H. 4. Seebohm. pp. g. 2. R. and not for teaching What was the significance of these as an adjunct to priestly duties. M. Erasmus. 4. Desiderius Erasmus. QUESTIONS ON THE READINGS 1. From Ascham's statements (139). English Grammar Schools to 1660. Digitized by Microsoft® . H. 1890. S. indicate as to the progress of education? Would the action taken by the authorities of the City of Sandwich (143) indicate that the humanistic grammar school had taken a deep hold on English thought. W. Characterize Colet's Introduction to Lily's Grammar (140). S. More. provisions? Show that Colet 1^138 b) desired to train leaders. vol. H. Review. 144. 8. " Vittorino da Feltre ". W. 11. S. B.) in Nineteenth Century. Development of Educational Opinion since the Renaissance. in School Laurie. learning at the English court? Colet (138 a) and William Sevenoaks (141) both aimed to provide for real teachers. vol. 28. Jebb. Humanism in Education. 7. H. *Lupton. What was the educational significance of such a bequest as that of of the new Show how 10. F. *Thurber. H. 202-14. 6. F. How generally 3. as outlined by Guarino (135). G. A Life of John Colet. William Sevenoaks (141)? What did the founding of a chantry grammar school (142). Eton: Course of Study in 1560. Martindale Course of Study in an English Country Simpson: Degeneracy of Classical Instruction. Education during the Renaissance. Palgrave. 12. Colet. rather than followers.

all — these forces and it shouldJiave-assumed toward the p rogr essive ten dencies of . the evolution of the uni- and the discovery of the art of printing had united to develop a new attitude toward the old problems and to prepare western Eur. and by the fifteenth rise of scholastic inquiry century the situation had been furthe r aggravated by a ma rked decline in morality on thepart of both" monk s and clergy. the rise of commerce and industry. the organization of city g^vernments^_th£ rise of lawyer and merchant classes. we~nave~t. ^ . XII S THE REVOLT AGAINST AUTHORITY The student can hardly have followed the history of educational development thus far without realizing that a serious questioning of the practices and of the dogmatic and repressive attitude of the omnipresent mediaeval Church w as certain to come.ope."but particularly among' th e'northernjjeppl'gsT" The Revival of Learning was the first clear break with medig^ valismT In thefcritical and constructive attitude developed by the scholars of the movement.Iar axapid evolution out of the mediaeval conditions which had for so long dominated aIt~a"Ction--and th i rrkmg: Trris~the-6-hur-eh. a nd their continual app eaTto~the origi nal "sources o f knowledge for guid ance. and in time to usher m modern conceptions and modern ways of thinking. thgir renunciation of the old forms pf thinking the new craving for truth for its own sake whic h they everywhere awakened.tie definite be gin-l*^limgrbTamodern scientific spirit whi ch was destined ultimately! ' Joqiiestion all things. the time the same intelligent attitude assumed earlier toward t he But it did not. versity organizations.— CHAPTER The new questioning attitude. and that the new life in Christendom now called for a progressive stand in religious matters as in other affairs.should have unless the Church itself realized that the mediaeval conditions which once demanded such an attitude were rapidly passing away. sooner or later.wkitxcrtt®i this questioning would . The new life resulting from the Cruc sades. the rise of "a new "Estate" of tradesThen and workers. -t-he-forma- tion oTnew national States. which awakened deep and general criticism in all Iands. The authority of the mediaeval -~ Church would be ques&9itii&jl. the new knowledge.

formed a little group of humanists whom werejilso deeplxinterestgd--in_ a reiOr rn_oL the practices of the Church^ _Erasmus. regardless of ligious. and the constant appeal to sources turned the northern leaders almost at once back to the Church Fathers and the original Greek and Hebrew Testa. and Sir Linacre. . a religious reform movement in the North. was also destinedJa-be_questioned. Florence Oxford^oiitii£Epistle£of_Sjin^Paul in the Greek. Groall of Thomas More (author of Utopia).\ ism awakened a new re ligious zeal. In the latter. the introduction of human. In Italy the Revival of Learning was classical and scientific in its and in Humanism became inethods~~an d results. Erasmus. Instead it resulted in something of_ a aganizatioh"~"of "religio n^ wit h the result that the P apacy and the p TEaB an ChurclTprobably re ac hed their lowest^eIigioTIs~leveIs a t a bout the time th e^grgatrS igTous agitation took place in northe rn lands. from England. returned home. and another new "Esta te~^woufar~rn time jjise and substitute. and constructive attitude of the humanistic'scholars These came historically in the order just this order we shall consider them. and began to l ecture_at_ Colet. scientific inquiry" and scholarship and the ultim ate rise" of democracy were afTinvolved in the critical. the divine right of the common people. cyn. not only a humanist. truth would be inquired into and the facts of tablished. I ' ments for authority in religious matters. during the period when Savonarola (1452-98) was preaching moral reform there. of the Renaissance. on the contrary. popular or might be upset thereby. -^-^ OF EDUCATION The reli gious tolerance un^_ great world of scientific in time areligious freedom and a known in the mediaeval world.2BB^^ come y A HISTORY «. questioning. religious and awakened little"or"noJendency"tow'ard I and"moral reform. stated. Religious . modern science esre- what preconceived ideas. in p%r?ti&ttlw/labdffed hard by his writings to . who had spent the years 1493-96 in(p. to_disfiose_of the fortu nes an dhap piness of__the ir peoples as they saw fit. and in large parts of northern France. and religious refo rm and classical learning there came to be asso ci ated almo st as one movement In England. instead. Colet. the new learning was at once direc te d to reli gious andjmoral ends The patriotic emotions roused in the Italians by the humanistic movement were in the northern countries superseded by_religious and moral emoti ons. among others. the Low Countries. The rlivnie righ_tof_kings to rul e. 254). hut a religions r^fnrmpr as well. freedom and toleration. lrTall^pro- and gressTve lands. Germany.

it was declared. This work passed out the errors in translationwhich were embodied over Europe. This de mand was not something which br oke out all at once and with Lu ther._ discovered that of the . Instead. and forbidden to be used in Catholic lands by the Church Council of Trent (1564). the superand the immoralities in the lives of the monks and clergy. and then prepared a new parallel Latin translation. was banned from the classrooms of the University of Paris (1528). a widely used Latin reading book. complete. through numerous editions and sold in thousands of copies all '. The reaction against the mediaeval dogmas of the Church and the demand by the humanists of the North for a return to the simpler religion of Christ gradually grew. new interpretations as to religious doctrin es. i455-i536). the two printed side by side. 1 52. Greek manuscripts. and little more would have been heard of him. and to this time the only Latin Bible had been the Vulgate (p. 270) began. He also added many explanations of his own which Up by Jerome being the Church. h is numerous editions of the writings of the Chur ch Fathers. many practices and demands Ev6rution~or revolution. previous of the original language or Hebrew text read thus. or that a knowledge to interpret the Scriptures cBtn^mh/i'by Microsoft® is necessary . In so doing they Church. translated Erasmus went back to and edited the original in the fourth century._ahumanist and a pione er Protesta nt. contended for the rule jof the Scriptures and for jus tification by faith. aslh^r>ri&em"~Eo~tHnk. and translated the Bible into the French (New Testament. and in time became more and more insistent. were not in harmony with the earlier teachings of Christ. of the JNew Testament ^aTTalike tended_to t urn tMoIogicarichoJars back to the original jsourceiT stitions of the age. and Melanchthon (p. In France.3.'Greek was judged a heretical So dangerous was this comparative method that No one should lecture on the New Testament. 2547. Jacques Lefevre (c. bysimilar methods. the Apostles or the earP^Fathers. instead of to the scholastics for the foundat ions of their religious In Germany such men as HegiQs (p. and his Latin-Greek edition (1516). all of which had grown up during the long mediaeval period. His Colloquies (1519). without a tongue It was held to be heresy to say that the Greek theological examination. 27iX ~Reuchlin (p. His work as Professor of Divinity at Cambridge. 131). because of the way in which it held up to ridicule the abuses in the Church. "Haci this been so he would soon have been suppressed. and pointed mercilessly exposed the mistakes of the theologians and in the Vulgate. 1530) that the people might read it. the literature of the me clearly reveals that there had jj SeehTlorTwo~centuries7an increasing 1 7 criticism"o i~the Church.THE REVOLT AGAINST AUTHORITY 289 remove religious abuses. to go back to Greek and Hebre w sources and to the Church Fathers for faith.

Church were wrong and he refused J. 86. in manuscript form. to the. A few of the more important attempts at reform may be mentioned here. there. Wycliffe translated only a part of the Old Testament. His revolt was as direct and vigorous as that o f Luther. outside of Ita ly and souTHe rn France. The large number of copies of parts of this translatM'^fliWi nWe°?u¥fived. and the reverters (Al-_ btgmsesfwhxe so fearfu lly punisKedn3^flre^^sword_that it was not_attemp ted there agai n! In 1378 there was_a_disguted_r japal election. John Wycliffe (i32o?-84) print) of the A popular English preacKer" (R. The discussions which accompanied this " Gre at Schism^ d idmuch to weaken~t hlTautiiori ty_oj_the C hurch in all Christian lands. each attempting to control the Church and each denouncing the other as Antichrist . and for nearly forty years there were two Popes. The remainder was done under his direction by others.290 a HISTORY OF EDUCATION number of local and unsuccessful efforts at reform had been a ttemptedr^TEe~demand Tbr relorm walTgeneTaXTand of long standHad it been heeded ing. in German landsTa century and a half later (R. 148). In England a popular preacher and Oxford divinity graduate by the Wycliffg_was name of John led. The^irsj?organized revolt against the Church occurred in south ern France. The translation was from the Latir Vulgate> Ani^crude ancLimperf ect.o 93). t o a careful study of the B ibleHe came to the conclusion that many of th eT claims of the Pope s and many practices Fig. as a background for our study. This was accomplished between 1382 and 1384. in the e arly ^thir teenth century. by the s ad condition of the Church. 147). and the Gospels of Saint Matthew and Saint Mark of the New. Sq-gre at wasTns^IloT^ rm"that he and his scholars attempted atranslation of_the Bible into Ehglr^^eFlgm-e for 1 (Drawn from an old . one at Rome. 1 1 a£cep^te^drmg£p^theCiiuxch which he could not find sanction in the Bible. and one at A vignon in southern France. probably much subsequent history might have been different.

_b. Wycliffe' s teac hings were carrie d to Bohemia. and After this Council made a serious attempt at church reform. i t drew up a list of abuse s It also attempted to est abwhich it ordered remedied (R. and he and his followers £called_ went about the country teaching what they believed ixTbe the true Christianity. and even c> Even torture and death were regarded as"* to sneak with a heretic was an offense. Due to tfarthiyijcl ose conne ction of the English andB ohemian courts^Jh rough royal marriages. in Switzerland^ to at Nuremberg) heal t he papal s chism. reuniting the Church under one Pope. were "T prohibited from marrying or from giving a son or daughter in marriage. 149) lishTa democratic form of organization for the government of the CTmrcETwith ChurcrT CojmcjlsToe&Ei^^onTTGne" to T3me~to .of the Sacking a village in true German style ConChuich-J!Kas called at (From a picture in the Germanic Museum stance. worthy of the most severe punisjjments. as a heretic After a series of massacres his followwere forced. to accept once more the old terrible e rs system. Heretics could not give evidence in a civil court. The Church regarded heresy as a crime. it should be remembered.ned at stake 1 . present time show that it must have awakened much interest. was the anarchist of the Middle Ages. w here a popular preacher and university theologian by the name oijohn. first Huss was th e cated.ur. and been widely copied and recopied during the century before the invention of printing. He denounced the e and he tried Jxjjn- c onduct of the clergy. -Hiiss. 1 The heretic. (13 73-141 ^expounded them. Religious Warfare in Bohemia In 1414 a Coujicjl . £ The Church and the civil governments proceeded against the heretic^^against' an enemy of society and order.THE REVOLT AGAINST AUTHORITY that the people might read aUqrd$) _ 291 it. What had before in England been a widesp read bu t undefined feeling of disaffection tor the r ich and" Careless clergy anrl mnnlr^ ttl p wnrlr n f Wyrliffp nrganj ^prl hiroa poli tical arid stftSaTf orce. arid_then . and his followers troduce several into the new custom s For this excommunidangerous Ch urch. teec bY Microsoft® justified to stamp out heresyP'S» ' y f Z~ — < jL </ _ — . in large part.

of to the usages and beliefs and practices of the earlier Christian Church. Th at the different rebellion s and refusals o f reform h elped di- Luthe r is not prolpable. and a\o{^B^fflMifi&. the failing allegiance of signs of laymen and scholars — public opinion — seemed to have no all men of affairs. 2 protests sometimes of bishops. much_Uke__the government of a modern parliament and king." (Adams. actions of legislative as- 3 semblies. Had this_suj^_ ceeded. 403. though. it is hard to of a great federal and constitutional State. mucITTuTure history might haveljeen different and the civilization of the world to-day much advanced.) 2 In 1302 the first "Estates-General" of France supported the King. the fifteenth century. s 9M . B. After 1500 the rising demands for moral reform and the recognition of individual judgment could not be put aside much longer. 1893. Each of these earlier defiances of authority and tjie later defiance of Luther were alike. in two respectsC-^Each demanded a return rectlyjtp the ultimate break. p. Protests of princes. see why all the results which were accomplished by the reformation of Luther might not have been attained as completely without the violent disruption of the Church. we see the new intellectual standards established by the Revival of Learning in full force. the right of the Pope to levy taxation on the English was disputed by King and Parliament. and forbade appeals from Saxon decisions to any foreign / — court. and the assertion of the right to personal investigation and conclusions. and denied the right of the Pope to any supremacy over the State in France. as derived from a stucWvOf the Bible and of the writings of the early Christian Fathers >4Erid each insisted that Christians should be permitted to study the Bible for themselves.. It seems almost equally certain that with this the churches of each nationality would have gained a large degree of local independence. In 1446 William III of Saxony limited the powers of ecclesiastical courts. and the ahsolutism of the reunited Papacy became st ronger l than ever before. p. during Luther advocated later. and reach In this demand to their own conclusions as to Christian duty. about the same time. G. published evidence to show that there was a widespread demand among the bishops of Spain for church reformation. be allowed to go back to the original sources for authority. In England. Civilization during the Middle Ages. 3 The London Academy. 197. Unless there could be evolu1 "What would have been the result had the Council of Constance succeeded whereit failed? It seems certain that one result would have been the formation of a government for the Church like that which was taking shape at the same time a limited monarchy with a legislature gradually gaining more and in England more the real control of affairs.1 292 M HISTORY OF EDUCATION advise with the Pope and formulate church policy. as Luther seems to have worked out his posi tion by himself. and the general government of the Church have assumed by degrees the character If this had been the case. But the attempt failed. the increasing condemnation and effect ridicule from a strong undercurrent of on those responsible for the policy of the Church.

whether right or wrong. but he believed that reformation should come from within. All that we need concern ourselves with is that a certain Martin Luther lived. 406. Luther represented the other type. And its resisting power was very great. belonging to the Middle Ages which still stood unaffected by the new forces and opposed to them.. CiviliChristianity. as scarcely to be broken. In government. 2 all these attempts at reformation in the Church. and whether we approve or disapprove of what Luther did or of his methods.) 2 Every reform movement produces two kinds of reformers. leaving the Church as thoroughly mediaeval in doctrine and in practical religion as it was in polity. . Evolutio n was refused. 412. and what he did.THE REVOLT AGAINST AUTHORITY tion there 293 1 would be revolution. the type which feels that things are too bad for mere reform to be effective. "The Church had remained else. and that what is wanted is rebelThe tws/|jfg^ys^d{flgri§ag)?®as to means. made certain stands for what he believed to be right. but differing materially as to methods of work. unaffected by the new forces which had transformed thoroughly mediaeval. In other directions the changes had been many. . Over a question involving so much religious partisanship we do not need to take sides. had had those of the early fifteenth century to reform its government. to be successful in a large Discontent in German way broke . That the same or even better results might have been arrived at in time by other methods may be true. and its power of defending itself seemed 1 "But failed. happened that the first revolt out in Germany. in doctrine. strong in numbers in every State. stands as a great historical fact with which the student of the history of education must take account. everything It was still . as it regarded them. and usually part lion against the old. pp. . and it was determined to remain unchanged. It was the modern scientific_spirit_of inquiry and reason in conflict with the mediaeval spirit of doglnaIic~lmtL67ity. makes little difference in this study. with no lack of able and thoroughly trained minds. and Professor of Theology in the University of Wittenberg by the name of Martin Luther Had it not centered about Luther the revolt would (1483-1546) have come about some one else. Endowed with large wealth. G." zation during the Middle Ages. large and small. therefore. but what we are concerned with is the course which lands. In the religious Erasmus was conflict these two types are well represented by Erasmus and Luther. as deeply interested in religious reform as Luther and devoted the energies of a lifetime to trying to secure reform. its interests. It and revolution was the result. here nothing had been changed. each seeking the same ultimate goal. in maintaining the old were enormous. whether beneficial to progress and civilization or not. and in life it still placed the greatest emphasis upon those additions which the peculiar conditions of the Middle Ages had built upon the foundations of the primitive (Adams. It was the one power. did certain things. and Two such forces are sooneF or l ater destined to clash WhetheTMyeTDeT Catholic or Protestant. . and that the way to obtain it was to remain within the old organization and work to reform it. had it not come in Germany it would have come in some other land. B. history actually took. and about the person of an Augustinian monk.

rapid tbroke. and that the immoral and inefficient clergy should be replaced by upright. The crisis came oyer_the sale ol-iBduLg ences_for_sins by the papal agent. And leaving the silly layman to fast. the It alian Church . which drained the money of the people to Italy. One is content to be known as a conservative or a conformer. Their priests are living on poultry and wine. Failing to obtain any satisfaction. in 1516. company. wh^jioMnfreg^ntly^ drew the perquisites. been drainin g. in his zeal to raise money for the rebuilding of the church of Saint Peter's at Rome. and Salzburg. that the German money which flowed to Rome should be kept at home. Tjjejale^howeyer. earnest men who would attend better to their religious duties (R. The princely and feudal Archbishops of Mayence. Their silver is flowing into my far-away chest.Germany of money to s upport Germany's greatest minnesinger. The whole German people. from the princes down to the peasants. but did_jiot_reside in Germ any. . a radical. Cologne. three centuries before Luther von der Vogelweide the German people how the Pope made merry over had sung to the stupid Germans. frequently proved to be serious sources of irritation. (i i "All their goods will be mine. exceeded his instructions and made claims as to the nature and efficacy of indulgences which were not_war ranted by church doctrines Such would be only human. irrit ated Luther. and he appealed to the Archbishop of Magdeburg to pro hibit it. Treves. though. arose over the heavy church taxation. he followed the old university . felt themselves unjustly treated. a great undertaking then under way. Tetzel^ who began the practice in the neighborhood of Wittenberg. and enabled Luther to rally so many of the princes and people to his side when once he had defied authority.294 made such HISTORY OF EDUCATION wh en once i There were special reasons why the troub le." «^/Many positions in the German Church had been filled by the Pope with Italians. chiefly because it had for Ions. the other delights in being classed as a^progressive or evenas. with their fortified castles and lands and troops and large governmental powers. where Luther was a Professor of Theology. The most widespread discontent. 150). Walther 170-12 28). The German revolt. headwayjnjG^erman la ndsy/The Germans had a long-standing grudge against the Italian papal court. There is little doubt but that Tetzel. It was these conditions which prepared the Germans for revolt.

It was through the teachings of this Church that the individual was to receive his ideas of the Christian religion. and to be his official representative and mediator in the world.THE REVOLT AGAINST AUTHORITY 295 custom. C. Following Jru^uTuveTsItyTustom. and salvation were to be worked out through a direct study of the Scriptures. in 152 0. and direct appeal to God through prayer for help in leading a Christian life. and salvation through the Church versus salvation through personal faith and works. 1 Luther a lso f orced. The Catholic position. came to be that the individual's religious life was to be achieved through the intervention of the Church. From one step to another.e of the canon. which claimed on historical grounds to have been founded by Christ. also. and that the Western know Church. and the battle was now joined between the forces representing the authority of the Church versus the authority of the Bible. Suffice it that great portions of northern and western Germany followed Luther. setforth what™ HtT conceived to be the true Christian doctrineTn the~matter7and challenged all c omers to a debate on the theses (RT~i~"-i). or reasons. We to do not need to follow the details of the conflict. but what the early university masters and scholars had stood for in intellectual matters." S. 152) must needs be stamped out. He then expressed his defiance by publicly "burning the bull of excommunication. History of Modern EleWgHiW$tiB&imHk&om>35-) . This was open rebellion. made out ninety -five t heses. and tq obtain salvation. which had remained one for so 1 many centuries and been "The early Protestant theory was that an individual's Christian religious life. They had been carried everywhere on the currents of discontent. printed. the . T5 17. these. and finally. and such heresy (R. Luther followed still another university custom and nailed them to the church door in Wittenberg. was excommunicated from the Church. w hy he did not jeTIeve^tepracti ce justihable7d etailed the abuses. acceptance of the obvious teachings of Christ as there presented. Luther at first intended no_r evolt frornjhe Church v Jbut only a protest^ against its practices. and in two weeks had been scattered all over Germany.issue for freedom of thought in religious matters^ It was. as is shown in Figure 88. Luther was probably__as_rnuch_jujgrised_as any one to find that these were at once translated into German. on the other hand. convictions. Luther now asserted in religious affairs as well. some three centuries before freedom in religious thinking and worship became clearly recognized. and in October. to be stimulated to believe (Parker. together with a_volum. Within aTmonth they were known in all the important centers of the Western Christian world. these theses were made out in Luther took his stand on the authority of the Scriptures. thoughTTie was gradually led into open rebellion. to be sure. to be kept in the path of righteousness.

. Since that date. and the sciences of philology and historical criticism thoroughly established. while the by-me new life Fig. . w as permanently The large success of by the Protestant Revolt. . Adams expresses the situation well when he says x A revolution had been wrought in the intellectual world in the century between Huss and Luther. insisted upon remaining hiediasval and tried to force others to remain mediaeval with it. Showing the Results oe the Protestant Revolts Church. which now permeated western The world was rapidly becoming modern. as his inalienable earlier reformer. 88.: 296 the one split HISTORY OF EDUCATION great unifying force in western Europe.[Mmiml&ytMiwAmftic Middle Ages. At the death of Huss the worldhad only just begun the study of Greek. G. familiar with independent investigation. . with a perversity almost unexplainable. L uther is easily explained Europe. the great body of classical literature had been recovered. As a result Luther had at his command a well-developed method impossible to any . 413. The world also had become 1 Adams. and with the proclamation of new views and the upsetting of old ones. . ^-. p. By no means the least of the great services of Erasmus to civilization had been to hold up before all the world so conspicuous an example of the scholar following. .

Wycliffe made almost as direct and vigorous an appeal to the public at large. Luther dicTnbt create the Reformation. a public European in extent. . . and expectant of great things in the future. In Sweden the Church was shorn of some of its powers andjDrogerty in £527. giving the impress of his powerful person- movement. for Luther's success as compared with his predecessors. ian rule were equally familiar. of the innovator. but tolerant. and directing and moulding its form. and honest in his public utterances as to the results of his studies." an amazing industry he issued tract after tract in the tongue of the people.502 Lutheranism was defithe adopted as the religion for the naThis included Finland. in a certain way. Huldreich aims made "considerable headway in Ger- Zwingli (1487-1531) man ^Switz£ilandL_c. Luther spoke to a very different public from that which Wycliffe or Huss had addressed. and with . Fig. then a part oTSweden. . It. where the German grievances against ItalRevolts in other lands. and in 1. The printing press was of itself almost enough to account. might in a. ality to the He rather popularized the work preceding protesters. Norway^ being then a parif of Denmark.i z of Huldreich Zwm^L &. His was the crowning work of a century which had produced in the general public a greatly changed attitude of mind toward intellectual independence since the days of Huss. but a revolution in thinking much more than a political revolution. The outbreak in Germany soon spread Lutheranism made rapid headway in Denmark. to other lands. he found it and wherever it appeared to lead him. was carried fo r Luthe ranism also. closely akin to Lutheranism in its nitely tion. and one not merely familiar with tho assertion of new ideas. . It was but a further manifestation of the inquiring and questioning tendency awakened by the Revival of Learning. f j^rfe^ePn a series of sermons on . ." but Luther had the advantage in the rapid multiplication of copies and in their cheapness. and in 1537 Danish Dietsevered all connection with Rome and established Luthefanp3m~as the religion of~the country. An independent reform movement. 89. and he covered Europe with the issues of his press.ontemporaneously with M~LTT£rieTlh~G1irmany. — A revolution it undoubtedly was. of as well as from Erasmus and Luther.THE REVOLT AGAINST AUTHORITY right. This was under the the reforrnjwork learTersIup~oTa popul ar humanistpreacher in Zurich by the name t. the truth as 297 . sense he dated from Wycliffe and Huss.

eventually e ven abolishing the mas s. bulXaly 2 tant who had fled to Switzerland. the of allegiance to the new oath of the Church. and a free National Church had lor long been a growing ideal with English statesmen. made many changes in church practices and worship. and civil_j£ar_was the result. but the people did not experience any great change in This new National Church became religious feeling or ideas. combined church and city government. in 1531. of sixty-three half cantons. gion of the ruling prince in Germany. so in Switzerland the cantons divided on religious lines.ngjisnjlational Church. a French Protescanism. the most important reform movement was neither Lutheranism nor Anglijnism. and German Switzerland b ecame mixed Catholic and Protestant.adeTiea^~otTh¥T!. and used the knowledge and training derived from both to help hi&§SmAMsxMQCOSS^kensive system of belief. following the religious wars of 1597 square miles. entirely under the Swiss Reformed Church. 2 Calvinism is also a product of the northern humanism. being supported by the people. as most of known as the English or Anglican Church. in northAs each small governmental division had to follow the relieastern Switzerland. excellent theological and legal education. continued in the churches. Calvin's difficulties with Calvin had received an the Church arising out of his study of the Greek texts. fe 1534 Parliamen t pass ed the Act of Supremacy (R. 153) which severed England from Rome. some reforms were instituted. The change was in no sense a profound one. real religion. and in 154 1 he was entrusted with the task of organizing For this he established a there a little religious City-Republic. — . By it the King wasjm. the service was changed to English. To compromise matters in Appenzell the canton was divided into two Inner Rhoden. though the independence of the English Church had been asserted from time to time for two centuries. such The priests who took as had taken place in Lutheran Germany._ Mjmx_olherJx>wns took up thi s rgZwingli was form movement. In 1537 John Calvin. but his • head King instead of the Pope as the them did. and Outer Rhoden. 1 In England the_struggle came nomina^jOVCT^^drySree-fi^s^) of Henry VIII from Catherine of Aragon. of ninety-six square miles.298 Testament HISTORY OF EDUCATION writings. he had learned it from a study of the New Zwingli. So far as the early history Qf_ America i s concerned. was invited to submit a plan for the educational and religious reorganization of the city of Geneva. killed in battle reformers. as between Swiss partisans of the old regime and work though checked persisted. in which religious affairs and the civil government were as closely connected as they had 1 A good illustration of the way parts of Germany and German Switzerland were divided by religious differences is to be found in the Canton of Appenzell. exclusively Roman Catholic.

to Scotland (1560). the principles of Calvinistic doctrine. Calvin's The Ins titutes of Christianity.three* years that Calvin dominated Geneva it became the Rome of Protestantism. From G eneva a reformed Calvinist ic religion spread over northern France. and in nine different languages. It was adopted by the Scotch. During the twenty. as against that of the Church and Pope. where they were known a s Scotch Presbyte rians. the Scotch Presby. vol. Calvin based his work on the infallibility of the Bible." in Monroe's Cyclopedia of Education. to the Netherlands (1572). 1. 1 The early settlement of America was thus a Protestant Like the famous Sentences of Peter Lombard (p. and presented. John Calvin and to portions of central England (1509-1564) where those who embraced it became (Drawn from a contemporary known a s Puritans. published in Latin in 1536 andTn French in 1541. THE REVOLT AGAINST AUTHORITY 299 ever been in any Catholic country. w as the first orderly presentation" of the principles of Christian_faith from the_Protestant^ standpoint. Th rough the Puripainting) ta ns who settled New E ngland and l ater through the uguenots in theJTarolinas. and America. known in America as the Episcopalian. . J ^-Calvinism was carried to America. was for long the dominant profoundly colored alT early American eduso came in through the Swedes along the Delaware and the Germans in Pennsylvania. and Walloon (Dutch) churches. In 1562 the persecutions began in earnest. 1 while his F rench Catechism ( 1537) was extensively for used JMn Calvinistic lands as a basis elementary religious instruction. York. . 2 This went through seventy-seven editions (fourteen in English) before 1630. as many as seventy-four full editions and fourteen partial editions of the Institutes had been printed.hj2_AngJican Church. came in through the landed aristo cracy in Virginia and the later settlers in New religiou s belief. and was widely used in Holland. in a remarkably clear and logical manner. _and. H teri ans in jie_j^nl£aL£olanies. . and in nearly all the languages of Europe. and In 1598 the Edict for the next thirty-six years religj^^y^fftr^i^e^jfl^'rance. 90. French-Swiss. and demanded religious freedom. and was one of four Catechisms. it formed a splendid textbook of the new faith. while J. Huguenot.. Before 1630. one of which was required of all Oxford undergraduates in 1578. England. where originated the Dutch Reformed Churc h Fig. 3 ^ where its followers became known as Huguenots. though this was revoked in 1685. (See " Calvin and Calvinism.) 3 By 1560 the Calvinists had two thousand houses for religious worship in France. of Nantes established religious freedom. a nd" cation. 171). the^ Dutch in New York.

Calvinists. "' \ \ 'I . for example. The religious wars of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were_ waged with greates t /intensity in Sp ain. plundered and pillaged lands and murdered one another lor tHe~~ . and only one alternative. provided only for religious freedom for the rulers. was an idea to which the world has required a long time to become accustomed. in 1546. When religious tolerance finally became established by law. while the migration to America of large of peorjk5sjrom_^ajth^hc_Jands ment. Finally. The same right to freedom in religious belief which Luther claimed for himself and his followers had of course to be extended to others. civilization had made a tremendous advance. So deeply was the idea of Church and State as inseparable embedded in the minds of men that no provision was made for the religions freedom of subjects. and the German States^ though nojand wholly escaped. could not be stopped. hated equally by Catholic and Lutheran. and religious toleration. during wh ich Catholic and ^rote s'ShTwaged^waFoh one another. and from the breaking-out in that year of the struggle between Charles and the German interest in educational or The struggl e to suppress — — 1 Even the celebrated Peace of Augsburg (1555) which left to each German prince and each town and knight the liberty to choose between the beliefs of the Roman Church and the Lutheran.the people forn early thr ee centuries. coming first in America. The result of this religious strife was to check_the progress of the higher civilization. This w£smf'g9&folM<9r<JS«ffiltion. L u theranism in Germany wa s postponed Tor^twenty-five years due to outside pressure7~cnieny~that of the Turks in southeastern Europe from the time that the Diet of Worms decided against Luther (1521). were not included. once inaugurated. numbers move - Religious freedom and religious warfare. France. 1 though established in principle by the revolt. the German-Spanish Emperor Charles V felt at last free to proceed against the Lutheran heresy. Of course the revolt against the authority of the Church.of. This the Protestants were not much more The willing to grant than had been the Catholics before them. It took two centuries of intermittent religious warfare. world was not as yet ready for such rapid advances. and to delay greatly the coming of the great~blessihg~of freedom in matters of religious belief.300 HISTORY OF EDUCATION is_a relatively rece nt settlement. while the poverty and misery resulting from the devastation of these religious wars? left neitheTThT"eliefgv'far_iLor the political progress. salvation of" their respective souls. before the people of western Europe were willing to stop fighting and begin to recognize for others that which they were fighting for for themselves.

Though fought on German soil. and Sweden were deeply involved in the struggle. this „. religion. In a short time four hundred thousand thr0t^ft^Mgfefy«iitelligent Huguenots had verity. or organized industry. Germany was so reduced that it was not until the second third of the nineteenth cen- tury that central and southern Germany had and two fully recovered.alojie. when religious ferocity and hatred reached its climax in the period known as t he Thirty Years' War (1 618-48). outside. sided with Luther. whole trades were swept away.s.. Spain.. to the Peace of Westphalia. forty-fiv e thou^and_ additional.fif. was stamped out and France became once more a Catholic country. a nd th e genera^ tion which survived t he war came_to manhood without k nowing Not education.q. and not until the middle of the nineteenth century did parts of Germany come to have as many people or cattle as before this devastating religious war broke . More than half the population thirds of the movable property were swept away. and voked. which embraced one tenth of the population of France. The HuguenoisjceJDe-Jic^given. law and order.Fig. Paris and the sect. a period anrl carna ge devastation prevailed.r t -j. the ^dto_hay^p^mhjdJrjJ^is. THE REVOLT AGAINST AUTHORITY the German years. It left Germany a ruin. in 1648. t ants are and city. A French r6oo) TES^aystobe^SMcIorJeaveJiaiice. inj^a^laa-thon. in 1550. . religious toleration. The people were so reduced by starvation that cannibalism was openly practiced.8) ^Though had 91.sanrl Protest . 301 princes^ who. P^testant (c r^The demands were enforced with \ never was fully granted in 1 685 the Edict was re-_ accomplished. until the end of the eighteenth~century was Gennany again able to make any significant contribution to educa- tion or civilization. represents a century of almost continual religious warfare in The worst of the period was the last thirty States. due TcTan attempt to exterminate the Qalyinistic In the massacre of Saint BarHuguenots tholomew's eve. the Edic t "of Nantes (i. Land tilled for centuries became a wilderness.1 i great se- ' A restoration* Musee d'Artillerie. thousands of towns were destroyed. out. France. From 1560 of to 1620 in* France also. But one tenth of the inhabitants of the Duchy of Wurtemberg were left alive. From the most prosperous State in Europe.

made at the conclusion World War. especially in France. 1 . which ended the bloody Thirty Years' War. in the following words: 2 The long and terrible wars to which the ecclesiastical schism had everywhere given rise the wars of the Huguenots in France. this treaty marked the end of the attempt of the Church and the Catholic States to stamp out Protestantism on the continent of Europe. was followed by a reaction against religious intolerance which contained within itself the germs of much future liberty and human progress. The Peace of We stphalia (164 8). . instead of wasting breath and arguments. .L created a feeling ofjndifference toward religious and theologic al pror> DW-itTeally pay.. once definitely begun for the ruling princes. convincing to nobody. predestination. peoplF^sked-t-hemselvesT-tcrki'tl each other lems: ancTclevastate each other's countries for the sake of such questions? C ould these problems eve r be decided at all? If not. 2 Paulsen. such as mathematics~and~hatu ral philosophy. This new freedom of conscience.302 left HISTORY OF EDUCATION France for other lands. whereas those transcendental^speculations were of no use at all. and America many found a new home. of the In the proposals for the League of Nations Covenant. Changed attitude toward the old problems. and one of the greatest blessings of mankind finally be firmly established by law. German E@iaitiffiti. 96-97. in the en. itse8~the culmination of a century of bitter and vindictive religious strife. Fr. religious freedom for all persons in any State in the League was finally decided to be a necessary principle for any world league. and. The religious independence of the Protestant States was now acknowledge 37"an d 'the "beginnTngs oTTehgious freedom were established 5y treaty. Though the persecution of minorities for a time continued. Holland. and real presence. 1 The end of the period of bitter religious warfare. though it might be centuries away. Toward the end of the seventeenth century this spirit of indifference3ndsce]> ticism t oward theology^ and sometimes even towaxdjghgianJn general- — — . tQ_ cultivate sciences whic h re ally plac edjasting and verifiable truths \yjtliin the reach of t he understanding. in 1919. pp. on transubstantiation. and the Civil War in England had. the Thirty Years War. was it not much more reasonable to let everyone believe what he could. too. England. geography and astronomy? Here were sciences whichorl'ered knowledge to the mind that could be turned to account in this eafthly life. Paulsen has well expressed the change. was certain in time to be extended further.bPMm<m>Phsenl. when individual as well as national freedom in religious matters must be granted as a right. In Southern German lands. has often been regarded as both an end and a beginning. Ultimately the day must come.

In most particulars the reforms forced by the work of Luther were thorough and complete. formed a most important - 303 factor in the ch anging intelectuS^ISEuBi^LiEilSiaZr Physically exhausted. During the century following the Peace of respective points of view. suspicion. The spirit of inquiry which had Jbe^n_aroused by the methods of. and to a close supervision of both preaching and teaching as safeguards to orthodoxy. If they were to make headway "against this greaFrebellion they must reform abu ses. and since the middle of the sixteenth century the Catholic Church. reform which shoulcthave come at least a cenlast undertook the tury before. to almost every prominent philosopher and scientist Digitized by Microsoft® and independent thinker. or any practices they saw fit to approve. The effect of the Protestant Revolts on the Church was good. Onless the mass of the people could be made loyal to the Church by reverence for it.the humanists would in the future force them to explain and to defend. but still thoroughly convinced as to the correctness of their now settled down to another century and more of religious hatred. and the pulpit and the school now took the place of the sword and the torch as converting and holding agents.THE REVOLT AGAINST AUTHORITY and the future world. For the first time in history Catholic churchmen learned that they could not rely on the general acceptance pf any teachings they promulgated. doctrines of the new and 1 The terms atheist and atheism now arose. and intolerance. has been a reformed Church. purify church practices. and recognizing at last the futility of fire and sword as means for stamping out opposing religious convictions. and se e that monks and clergy led up right C hristian lives. both sides Westphalia greater reliance than ever before was placed on the school as a means for protecting the faith. by the churchmen of the time. further revolts and the ultimate break-up of the The Council ofJTrent (1545-63) at institution were in prospect. Irritating practices Church were reMoral reforms were instituted. Religious reform. in The laws and better form. Better men were selected for the church offices. A were abandoned. in morals and government. stated. and bishops and clergy were ordered to reside in their proper places and to preach regularly. . whose pur- pose was to prepare priests better for the service of the Church and for ministry to the needs of the people. A bove all. attention was turned to education rat her than force as a means of winning and holding territory. and during the next two centuries these were applied. New religious orders arose. as the modern substitutes for excommunication and imprisonment.

and consequences . The by early educational history of America is hardly understand- able without some knowledge of these of the religious forces awakened the work of the Protestants. Show the analogy between the freedom of thinking demanded by Luther. however. was placed under strict license. which had been the cause 1 of all the trouble. Such. as a disseminator of heresy. on the scholars of the time. in 1543.£04 rigid HISTORY OF EDUCATION quarantine was. Perhapsthe most extreme and ruthless measure was the prohibition. of the reading of the Bible. for_a time rigidly prohibited. for having been caught reading the sacrea Boots:. established in Catholic lands against the further spread of heretical text books and literature. once started. he being decapitated and she buried alive in the squar^rmyng^th^jfajlig^l at Louvain. Certain books were ordered burned. and that obtained three centuries earlier by the scholars in the rising /universities. in brief. certain other consequences must / 1/6. The printing-press. significance QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION explain the difference in the effect. and separate off into smaller and still different sects. under penalty of death. "/•How do you /abled him to succeed where they had failed. because so much of future educational history arose out of the conditions resulting from these revolts. How can the bitter opposition to the reading and study of the Bible be explained? 7. which en. To the educational revolts we next turn. which split the Roman Catholic Church These have been stated. Why were the universities not opposed? Enumerate the changes which had taken place in western Europe between the days of Wycliffe and Huss and the time of Luther. As one example may be mentioned the sister of the Flemish artist Matsys and her husband. Was it perfectly natural that the reformers should refuse to their followers the same right to revolt. 4/ Explain the analogy of a heretic in the fifteenth century and an anarchist of to-day. as briefly and as impartially as possible. and that. which they had contended for for themselves? Why? ' Very severe measures were enacted to prevent the spread of the contagion of heresy. of the Revival of Learning in Italy and in northern lands? / V. Assuming that the Church had encouraged progressive evolution as a policy. How do you explain the serious church opposition to the different attempts of northern scholars to try to turn the Church back to the simpler /religious ideals and practices of early Christianity? ^/Explain how opposition to the practices of the Church could be organ//ized into a political force. Especially was the readin g of the Bible. and thus warded off revolution and disruption. in what ways /might history have been different? s. That this harsh act was carried out the record of martyrs shows. All Protestant literature was forbidden circulation in Catholic lands. are the historical facts connected with the various revolts against authority in the sixteenth century. . inevitably follow in time. 9/ Explain in what ways the Protestant Revolt was essentially a revolution in thinking.

A. Try to state the possible change in the progress of human history and civilization. A Saint Thomas Aquinas: On the Treatment of Heresy. Beard. Eve of the Reformation. Wycliffites: Attack the Pope and the Practice of Indulgences. QUESTIONS ON THE READINGS 1. 152. Civilization during the Middle Ages. Johnson.THE REVOLT AGAINST AUTHORITY 11. Digitized by Microsoft® . Europe in the Sixteenth Century. Council of Constance: List of Church Abuses demanding Reform. Geiler: German Priest's View as to Coming Reform. 2. The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century in its Relation (Hibbert Lectures. Wycliffe: On the Enemies of Christ.vith them that of the in the SELECTED READINGS In the accompanying Book of Readings the following selections are reproduced : 147. Fisher. Martin Luther and the Reformation. George G. of the Council of Constance (149) been Thomas Aquinas Considering the nature of heresy at the time. Perry. 151. 305 * On what basis could Catholic and Protestant to try to enforce their own particular belief? wage war on one another . History of the Reformation. Compare the individualism of the Greek Scphists Protestant reformers. History of the Reformation in England. Beard. Luther: Illustrations from his Ninety-Five Theses. Charles. Gasquet. 148.) to Modern Thought and Knowledge. Wycliffe's attack (147) as direct and fierce as Luther's (151)? Explain the difference in the results attained by the two attacks? Was the challenge of Wycliffe's followers on indulgences (148) any less direct than that of Luther (151)? Does the list of items drawn up by the Church Council of Constance (149) indicate a general recognition of the need for extensive Church reform? 5. Did Greece attempt to deal same way? . 1883. Charles. had the demands out in good faith. A. carried 6. of Henry VIII: The English Act Supremacy. 4. 149. Was 3. 150. F. 153.vith 12. G. George P. H. does the extract from (152) indicate a narrow or a liberal attitude? SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES *Adams. B.

and strict religious strife. makes the relation of the individual to the Church depend his relation to Christ. B^Adams.'" and of substituting individual respon- conception of Jultification through personal faith and prayer. Philip Schaff the Church historian.'" -(Quoted bjj G.nice versa. Much. conformity which educational signifi- followed the period of religious The cance of the reformation r Ultimate consequences of the break with authority. religious formalism. Many changes naturally resulted at once. 1 Whether one believes that the 1 Dr. too. : for ^salvation. hatred. attempted failed of results because they involved too great advances for the time. though. in Luther's ' on Protestantism. lies in the far-reaching nature of its larger results and ultimate consequences rather than in its immediate accomplishments. of the progress that was inaugurated was lost in the more than a century of religious strife which followed. . from a pamphlet. Luther . and because of this the importance of the immediate changes effected have been overestimated by Protestants and underestimated by Catholics. says " Schleiermacher reduced the whole difference between Romanism and Protestantism to the formula. and Calvin as wellfwas that of substituting the authoritv of the Bible inreligious matters for the authority ofthe" Church ^t>f substitut- and ing individual judgment in the interpretation of the Scriptures (^and in formulating decisions as to Christian duty for the collective ~ judgment sibility of the Church. Romanism makes the relation of the individual to Christ depend on his relation to the Church: . AMONG LUTHERANS AND ANGLICANS That the . for the collective responsibility for salvation of the Church. some of which were good and some of which were not. and the additional century and more of suspicion. Protestant Revolts in the different lands produced g e immediate and permanent changes in the character of the education provided in the revolting States is no longer accepted as being the In every phase of educational history growth has proceeded by evolution rather than by revolution.CHAPTER XIII EDUCATIONAL RESULTS OF THE PROTESTANT REVOLTS I. while others which were enthusiastically case. for that matter the revolts of Wycliffe. Huss. and this applies to the Protestant Revolts as weU as to other revolutions. The dominant idea underlying Luther's break with authority. Zwingli.

by the Protestahlslt became_ very imp ortaiitrirr-theoTy at least. the judgment of the Church rather than that of individuals it was not important that more than a few be educated. as it makes no difference with the course of history. and need not concern us here. The great struggle'of thelaxteenth and seventeenth centuries. This was soon seen and acted upon. became one for religious freedom and toleration. of^e'P^testant^position regaTding "the interpretation of the Scrrptures^rjdJheplace'andauthoru^ofTheX hurch. Under the^ new theory of individual* judgment and indiyid uarresponsibility promulgated. to supply universal education has been left to the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. and a more extensive development of the cathedral and other larger church schools took • place. the great struggle of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries has been for political freedom and political rights. and the rise of democr atic gover mngnts and the provision of universal fHiicaHorTmeyp thejaatu ral and ultimate corollaries.RESULTS AMONG LUTHERANS 307 Protestant position was sound or not depends almost entirely upon one's religious training and beliefs. In England. Schools and learning before the sixteenth century. in consequence. Under the older theory of collective judgment and collective responsibility ioTsaTvation that is. L * Digitized~by Microsoft® . 154) thinks that by 1400 the opportunity to attend a LatiiLgrjirmiaxschooLwasxather c^minon^jixqainiQn in which Leach and Nohle concur. The educational consequences of the position taken by the Protestants. to individual participation in and responsibility for the conduct of government was not a long step. many Latin secondary schools were founded in western Europe. participate "gjarlyTrTthe church servJces'rancTsriape his life intelli- ( \ as he understood was in~1iccorcIanc(r with Hie" commandments of the Heavenly -^-^ Father. Rashdall (R. are important. though not immediately att ained. for examplez_jQmg_Jwo hundred and fifty Latjn_gram mar schools are known to have been in exisTencen5y~i5ooT In Germany^ as we have seen (chapter xi). thaTevery — • — "*) / ( bne--shotrld'bT^hTe~to~read the~wOTd~oTTfod. though. This undoubtedly called for the education of all. After the humanistic learning had spread to northern lands these opportunities were increased and improved. and the course that history took remains the same. Still more. After the rise of the universities. as we have seen. with freedom of judgment and personal responsibility in religious matters. from individual participation in the services of the Church. We can believe either way.

and for teaching. though often only after quite a struggle with the local church authorities. however. See an interesting monograph b Xijlft$g&%y L^/cLj £0^iee«tt Century Arithmetic (Trs. we say). to Jrairi writers. Other city schools.jnonopoly"ot all" instruction as a protection to orthodoxy. schools in the vernacular hardly existed outside of a few of the larger commercial cities Eveji_the_burgh and guild schools (p. College Pubs. and often the two were combined in one person. 2 Reckoning schools were to meet direct commercial needs in the cities. th^church senr These schools. The Church had also for long aintained or_exercised control. In 1482 the first reckoning book to be published in Germany appeared. there was almost no instruction in the vernacular outside of the commercial cities. manners. Writing masters sometimes taught reading also. rilled with merchant's rules and applied problems indenohiinate numbers and exchange. for those intending to go to the universities to prepare for service in either Church or State. which throughout the Middle Ages had maintained_a. 1906). over. and religion were also taught in these schools. however. .he_ secondary schools. largely Latin in type. traveling writers. estabof the north. lished in the fourteenth and fiTteenth~centuries7"were es sentially Latin schools. there being the "city writer" (city clerk. 205). while Latin came to be rather widely diffused. 8. writing teachers. Just as the monk was carefully trained to copy manuscript. hospital (chapteFvii) to prepare for ceTtain phases of — the chief pur- pose ice. in the language of the educated classes of the time. but containing some vernacular instruction to meet local business needs not met by schools the cathedral or parish schools of the city. etc.308 HISTORY OF EDUCATION many such schools were founded before the time of Luther. In the commercial cities of the North. time developed similarly to that of the professional writer. No. In some French cities the guild of writing masters was granted an official monopoly of the privilege of teaching writing in the city. These offered a form of advanced education. too. such as writingiscjiools. nor was there any particular demand for such instruction '•The importance of writing before the days of printing can readily be appreciated. 2 Reading. were also developed.. of chantry. The arithmetic taught in the Latin schools as a part of the Seven Liberal Arts was largely theoretical. the arithmetic The work of the professional reckoner in in the reckoning schools was practical. Up to the time of the Protestant Revolts. whichwas or to enterj. 1 and reckoning-schools to train young men to handle accounts. and were seldom found outside of commercial towns. so the clerk for a city or a business house needed to be carefully trained to read and write. Writing formed a distinct profession. When employed by a city he was known as the city clerk. were taught partly or wholly in Latim In consequence. different types of elemental^ vernaTfflur^ctooliniadH}^^ to meet local commercial needs. a number oTtypes of more~Hementa ry~school s m — parish^ song. Latin and vernacular secretaries. but usually not.

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and no great issue which appealed to the imagination of the masses had as yet come to the front to create any strong desire for the ability to read. Venice. 1505) Fig. on the other hand. 1563) or magazines. and the a^^flfy^ofe^ication was scarcely felt. The vernacular he could leave to tradesmen. — German (From a woodcut. Latin. the trades. wenTscarce and expensive. he needed to study the learned language of the time. and religion. v^rnacular^tongues. As a result. a statesman. Even here the sign of the cross would do. These people. and not uTbooks. aside from~a~very small amount_for business needs. soldiers. There were no newspapers (first newspaper. or to join a religious brotherhood. and these had to be copied by hand and. the education of the masses was in hand labor. Such little vernacular literature as did exist was transmitted orally.RESULTS AMONG LUTHERANS 309 elsewhere. There was little knowledge that could not pass from mouth to mouth. and the servant classes. 1528) Two Early Vernacular Schools With this in western he could be at home with people of his kind anywhere Europe. a teacher. a churchman. (After a drawing French by Soquand. There were but f ejaLiKiQks_smtten injthe.. Spectacles for reading were not known until the end of the thirteenth century. If one wished to be a scholar. and were not common for two centuries after that.. laborers. printed at Nuremberg. had^rartically no_ne_ecL£or-a written language. 92. a diplomat. . in consequence. craftsmen.

carefully 1522) it direct from the original Greek and so done that virtually fixed the character of the German language. These could now be reproduced rapidly and in large numbers. '• 2 The French version of this great original work represents the first use of French as a language for an argumentative treatise.which in combination soon produced vast and far-reaching changes. While there had been imperfect translations of the Bible in German was before Luther's. 3 "Tyndale's translation is not only the first which goes back to the original tongues. The printing of the Bible in the common tongue did far more to stimulate a desire to be able to read than did the Revival of Learning (Rs. which stirred intellectually the masses of the people in northern lands as nothing before in history had ever done. written in the vernacular. Lede vs nott in to temptacion. and was made the basis for the later Authorized translation. The discovery 6f the process of making paper and the invention of the printing-press changed the whole situation as to books. and these. Amen. beautiful diction that it has been but little improved on since. but it is so noble a translation in its mingled tenderness and majesty. sold for a penny or two.) The following extract from Matthew is illustrative: "O oure father which art in heven." (J. Geve vs this daye oure dayly breade. and still stands as the most conspicuous landmark in the history of the German language. as well in erth. Let thy kingdom come. It sometimes took him weeks . halewed be thy name. A new demand for vernacular ing The invention of prin t- and the Erotestant_R£volts were in a sense. Paterson Smyth. and mothers to secure good colloquial expressions. The leaders of the Protestant Revolts. 155. in asserting that each person should be able to read and study the Scriptures as a 1 LutherTxied 10 makea translation so simple that even the unlearned might listening to its reading. and its smooth. 2 and Tyndale's translation of the was into such simple acter of New Testament (1526) and homely language 3 that it fixed the charthe English tongue. were peddled in the market-places and from house to house. 170). Then came the religious discussions of the Reformation period. his translation (New Testament.. and could be sold at but a small fraction of their former cost.310 HISTORY OF EDUCATION schools. and. as hit ys in heven. it did much to fix the character of this national language. Every succeeding version is little more than a revision of Tyndale's. And forgeve vs oure treaspases. How We Got Our Bible. but so satisfactory was the result that it fixed the standard for modern German. Thy wyll be fulfilled. even as we fffi®#^i/r63mMK^sbff®easpas vs. manner fixed the character of the French lan- guage.. To insure that his translation should be in a language that would be perfectly clear and natural to the common people^ he went about asking questions of laborers. 400. children." .tw& re v ul u tiorlary forces. as Calvin's work was more widely profit by discussed than any other Protestant theological secure the right word. In an effort to reach the people the reformers originated small and cheap pamphlets.1 1 541) in a similar Calvin's Institutes of Christianity (French edition. its Saxon simplicity. but delyvre vs from yvell.

Calvin. in which he Luther. while had little or no interest in learning. but the language which they had already learned to speak. the masses of the people a new class s» Jcrcbiflyimqi gtaefis' !1 na- x ^etoflptrajnupjjuo tnaoe of noujMirara?" jfcab wpz tytove vc erpcibflS itei ivoilfa ink vc fptryt ouyetBatii»auDgt)6 toil?/ jof f elo^ngas bow juelfitf usetmou pefiare of feppe/aud /ttieas^ooijiliet^flrti^cl^tftobcclnicms. ftud qtrdqnirpclqtoaii'attD^e Ocrbne&s <i))i : ny#7 tVCeumtiOrmouBrtiD lBaStnaao. Heretofore the demand had been for schools only for those who expected to become scholars or leaders in Church or State. • The First Page op Wycliffe's Bible verses of Genesis ' Translated between 1382 and 1384. Now became desirous of learning to read. not Latin. b%diz?8®pvm&s%ym general Catechisms. 93.RESULTS AMONG LUTHERANS means 3ii to personal salvation. tor elementary schools in the vernacular. created an entirely new demand. Facsimile of the first ^mewyanO^niatUoimwiBctUiteaswaaO:^^ Fig. translating the Bible. in ProteS tan r lands. and Knox alike insisted on the importance of the study of the Bible as a primary necessity in the religious life. 290) copies of his transla- Zwingli had written a pamphlet on The Manner of Instruction. besides urged the importance of religious education. Luther. Huss.oOflt/oioptf pBnotyye ftrmamettt be raaao trio w ye tupofotfof roofe: oqjffrtetofltns fro wMxiS/mtigoD motive ftr imnent' ftnO tegwhteycwetcis ywifinmwm&ur fycGwnawcnt^prfi^atrisvatiocmi ouyefir' tnaiumt/titiyas Dm fo/aafl pDdepidrpeftrmmtief. tion and Bringing up Boys in a Christian Way (1524). In an effort to bring the Bible within reach of the people Wycliffe's followers had attempted the laborious and impossible task of multiplying by hand (p. one . Wycliffe. Zwingli.

parish sexton is one of the interesting bits of Digitized KyWcro&dm our educational history. heaven. The world Roman Church. which he said were "deteriorating throughout Germany. The sad condition of the schools. Luther thought that "every human being. for the instruction of youth is a matter in which Christ and all the world are concerned.." 2 The evolution. 1. I of Luther's German hymns. had written hymns. . Ein gute Wehr und Waffen. bridges. they were entirely too lar teachers advanced 2 for the time. out is not surprising. defense." awakened his deep regret. 1 and issued numerous letters and sermons in behalf of religious education. and one expressive of the Protesthe one beginning: "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott. for a long time to come." All towns had to spend money for roads. and the religious wars which followed made such educational advantages impossible. "Were there neither soul." he declared. which the very core and marrow of his life is bound. is tant . we That his ideas could be but partially carried find these set forth." A bulwark never failing. Parents continually neglected their educational duty. "A mighty fortress is our God." In his sermons and addresses he urged a study of the Bible and the duty Calvin's Catechism similarly was of sending children to school. by the time he has in reached his tenth year. for schools? This they now and the like. ." This hymn has often been called "The Marseillaise of the Reformation. should be familiar with the Holy Gospels. of Luther enunciated the most all the German Protestant of re- In his Letter the to the Mayors and Aldermen all the Cities Germany in his Sermon on and in Duty of Sending Children to School (1530). of the German vernacular school-teacher out_of . nor hell. and why not some could easily afford. 1 The most famous spirit." .the. and he begged of those in authority "not to think of the i * subject lightly. the importance of such training was not understood. All these were printed in the vernacular and scattered broadcast. during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. there was no body of vernacu- or means to prepare them. 156). "it would still be necessary to have schools for the sake of affairs here below. progressive ideas on education of formers. Lutheran School Organization Educational ideas of Luther. "since. yet there must be civil government. who could understand such progressive proposals.Divine Grace has released them from the exaction and robbery of the». There were but few among his followers behalf of Christian Schools (1524) (R. extensively used in Protestant lands.312 for adults HISTORY OF EDUCATION and one for children.

girls. and clergymen should have had experience of the services of the teacher At the The importance basis of all education lay Christian as teachers. to be taught in the vernacular. high and low. rich and poor. though representative popular instruction — boys and give practical instruction in a^r^^^jfegj^hold duties-. 157)." he said. and the State must not only see that the means are provided. Teachers should be trained for their work. was beyond ordinary comprehension (R. 158). 1.Upon this . It was the inher- ent right of each child to be educated. and direct the affairs of their households." "The welfare of the State depends upon the and virtue of its citizens. but also require attendance at the schools (R. to include rca^mgT-j&mtingj^rjhysicaL training. and equally open to all Fig. Vernacular Primary Schools. 94. intelligence The parents and of children civic education. " and it is therefore the duty of mayors and aldermen in all cities to see that Christian schools are founded and maintained" (R.RESULTS AMONG LUTHERANS 313 has need of educated men and women to the end that men may govern the country properly and women may properly bring up their children. he held responsible for their Christian This must be free. care for their domestics.. 156). singings and~7eligiSi7~aTtd. divided into: Schools for the common people. Luther giving Instruction of early Protestant An ideal drawing. to be open tft_b oth sex es. A school system for German people should be a state system.

"that we should send boys to school for one or two hours a day. The organizing work of Bugenhagen. (R. andjj. Latin Secondary Schools. 156) as preparatory schools by means of which a learned clergy was to be perpetuated for the instruction of the people. the supervision of one pastor" 'gte!}}^flfeSBMnited all the parish schools under .314 HISTORY OF EDUCATION " It is attendance should be compulsory. of The organizing genius of the Reformation. was not essentially an organizer. my opinion. Leipzig (1523). It is desirable that these two occupations march side by side. For the reorganization of each of these a more or less detailed Ordnung had to be written out (Rs. while the song. 95. and gymnastics. Philipp Me- lanchthon (1497-1560). had to be reorganized as Lutheran churches. another of Luther's colFig. of course. history^science. In northern Germany it was Johannes Bugenhagen (14851558). More re- than any other Germans these Father of the Lutheran Volksschule in northern Germany two directed the necessary organization of religion and. and other types of parish elemen1 Magdeburg is typical. dialectic. and Magdeburgy/( I 5 2 4) nection with all ) m con- which he provided for Lutheran-type schools. Johannes Bugenhagen (1485-1558) leagues at Wittenberg.. Luther assisted in re- organizing the churches at Wittenberg (1523).. and have them learn a trade at home the rest of the time." he said." Upon these he placed great emphasis 2. The Universities. Hebrew. rhetoric. in central and southern Germany. 159. The churches.tate. 160). chantry. Professor of Greek at the University of Wittenberg. 1 Luther. and the schools connected with them refounded as Lutheran schools. For training for the higher service in Church 3. In these he would teac^Latin^jGreek. mathematics. was Luther's colleague. education in those parts of Germany which changed from Roman Catholicism to German Lutheranism. In this change cathedral and other large church schools became Latin secondary schools.

for his native State of Pomerania (1534). he organized elementary vernacular schools in each parish. 159. to reorgarrize-the-University of Copenhagen and the Danish Church and schools as Lutheran institutions. unBugenhagen. like The Reorganizing work of Melanchthon. 315 tary schools were transformed into Lutheran vernacular parish Bugenhagen was sent to reorganize the churches of northern Germany. Efforts were also made to create JErotestant schools in the Scandinavian countries. in which instruction in reading. and carried on by means of sermons. for Schleswig-Holstein (1537). 160) for many northern German cities and towns. for both boys and girls. German and religion was to be given in the has been called the father of the German Volksschule. He the redirection of existing schools. he drew up church and school plans (Kirchen und Schule-Ordnungen) which formed models (Rs. In 1537 he was called to Denmark. and the sexton of each-parish was" ordered to gather the children together once a week for instruction in the Catechism. he made good provision for Lutheran parish schools in connection with each of the churches he reorganized. while the religious instruction should be conducted by the clergy. writing. At Brunswick (1528). the Catechism. 159). ordered that. i when Charles XI ordained that the sacristan of each parish should instruct the children in reading. then including essary for communion. by the Danish King. Besides providing for a Latin school for the city. "No Finland. Lubeck (1530). Melanchthon. to be supported by the State. though probably much of what he did was merely tongue. The ability to read and a knowledge of the Catechism was made nec- A Swedish law of this same time also one should enter the married state without knowing the lesser Catechism of Luther by heart and having received the sacrament. and a yearly public examination. Hamburg (1529) (R. was eWfit&^iT'mffiarustic scholar." This latter regulation drove the peasants to request the erection of children's schools in the parishes. though it was not for more than a century that this was generally brought about. early became literate nations. In Sweden little was done before 1686. The general result of this legislation was that the Scandinavian countries. In Denmark^ writ ing-schools for both boys anoTgifls ~were organized. Being in close sympathy with Luther's ideas. and his .RESULTS AMONG LUTHERANS schools. and elsewhere in northern Germany.

" His great work was copied by other leaders. . 271). In the second class Latin became the language of instruction. the Lord's prayer. 272) was faith were combined. so great were his services easily be seen. and their purpose was to prepare those likely to become the future leaders of the State for entrance to the universities. and the result was the organization of a large number of humanistic gymnasia throughout northern Germany. . and Saxony (1528). By 1540 the process was begun of endowing such schools from the proceeds of olti monasteries. Horace. very properly. Eisleben (1525). and rhetoric and dialectic were studied. Sallust.6 31 HISTORY OF EDUCATION He prepared many cities interest lay chiefly in the Latin secondary schools. and so well did such schools meet the demand of the time for educational leaders that he has. plans for schools in and smaller States of central and southern Germany. Latin authors were read. and Latin grammar was thoroughly learned. Cologne (1543). and Cicero) was given. Latin grammar (Donatus). work in reading Latin (Livy. How different was Melanchthon's conception as to the needs for education from the conceptions of Luther and _Bugenhagen in organizing may Yet. and Wittenberg (1545) among cities. of is which an abstract: ' Each school was to consist of three classes. he outlined in detail plans for school organization for the State (R. among which were Luther's native town. the Creed. one of the more important and better organized of this type. and for Nuremberg (1526. The schools he provided for Saxony may be described as typical of his work. and many c . and reliIn the third class more advanced gious instruction was continued. in which the new learning and the Protestant Sturm's school at Strassburg (p. and advising. confiscated by the State. or Book of Visitatiofi^which was probably the the following school survey report in history. and the prayers and hymns of the church service. In 1527 he was asked by the Elector of Saxony to head a commission of three to travel over the kingdom and report on its needs as to schools. . been called "the Preceptor of Germany. p. In the first class there was to be taught the beginnings of reading and writing. and the Palatinate (1556) among States. many of which have had a continuous existence up to the present.Diakized by Microsoft® German gymnasia of to-xiay trace tneir origin back to some old /~i . 161). in both the vernacular and in Latin. ' . Vergil. Mecklenberg (1552). . . In first his Report. Herzeberg (1538). These were essentially humanistic schools with but a little preparatory work in the vernacular.

and of Saxony revised its school organization after the state-system plan thus established. the same date Duke Ernest the Pious of little -Saxe-Gotha and Altenburg established the An first school system of a modern type in German lands. singing. and courses of study. in This marks the real beginning of the German state school 1559. .RESULTS AMONG LUTHERANS 3^ monastic foundation. 163). In 1619 the Duchy Weimar added compulsory education in the vernacular for all In 1642. Three "classes of schools were provided for: (1) Ele mentary schools. : Th^se^sisJio-be^rjXYideajS^ver-y-iillage in-tKelJl CJJLatin schools {P articular schulen) with five or six classes/m^wliich the ability to read. he worked out a School Code (Schulmethode. and religion. write^andjyDeaJsJLatiivtagether -with the elements of athemati cs and G reek in the last year.. Ten years later Brunswick followed in 1580 the the same plan. grading. Melanchthon's Saxony plan was put into partial operation as a Lutheran Church school system. after the ravages of the Thirty Years' War.. all in the vernacular. 162). systems.. (3) the universities or colleges of the State. . < 7. • by a wise economic administration and universal education. pensions for their widows and children were provided. and textbooks were prepared anrt~5rrp^were his efforts that Gotha became one ~ So successful Digitized by Microsoft®. intelligent and ardent Protestant. children from six to twelve years of age. m Acting through the church authorities.Wurtemberg (R.h were to bejmighlreading _wnting. altered by state authority to meet. of which the University of Tiibingen (L1476) and the higher school at Stuttgart were declared * ~> to be constituent parts. were to be taught.Teachers wptp paitLan1aries which for the time_were large. f or both j£xgg L jn_whir. as the first Massachusetts school law (chapter xv). . he attempted to elevate his miserable peasants. .. these schools were to be under the supervision of the State. Early German state school systems. With the help of a disciple of the greatest educational thinker of the period. John Amos Comenius {chapter xvn). in southwestern Germany. and regulated the details of method. reck oning. modern needs and purposes. and it was -said Dlied free. . but the first German State to organize a complete system o|_sclwcilsjsa. smaller The example of Wurtemberg was followed by a number of German States.of the most prosperous Tittle spots in Europe. In it he provided for compulsory school attendance. 1642) which was the pedagogic masterpiece of the seventeenth century (R.

no one This established freedom of conscience for the rulers. in Protestant lands. It was left for the United States (1787) to completely divorce Church and State. a very important tendency. In the later Middle Ages nobles and rising parliaments had at times sided with the king against the Church warnings of a changing Europe that the Church should have heeded but there had been no — — serious trouble with the rising nationalities before the sixteenth century. as Church and State had been united for so many centuries that a complete separation of the two was almost inconceivable. and the Catholic creed. writing. This was as much progress toward religious freedom as the world was then ready for. the Church had been the State as well. in^uj^. with instruction in reading. By the Peace of Augs- burg (1555) each German prince and town and knight were to be permitted to make choice between the Catholic and Lutheran faith.D. of purely spiritual affairs. control of both Church and State. following the Crusades. From Church the suppression of the pagan no one Reformation there had been complete monopoly of edu^ cation. and for long humbled any ruler who dared dispute its power. and to reduce the churches to the control rulers. the schools to be responsible through the Church to the State. large or small. Throughout all the long Middle Ages the Church had absolutely controlled all education." By the middle of the States seventeenth century most of the German had followed the Wurtemberg plan of organization. Even Duke Albrecht V of Bavaria. all was changed. thus uniting in the person of the ruler. Now. and. The German fioWe^ wITfnow free to develop schools . to the time of the to dispute' with the its trol.. Protestant state school organization. It also gave them control of both religious and secular affairs. Until the beginnings of the modern States. Even Charlemagne's attempt at the stimulation of educational activity had been clearly within the lines of church conschools. The authority of the Church was overthrown. and all subjects were to accept the faith of their ruler or emigrate. or- dered the establishment of "German schools" throughout his realm.318 HISTORY OF EDUCATION that "D^uke Ernest's peasants were better educated than noble- men anywhere else. We see here in German lands a new. for the future. but for else. which was a Catholic State.

in Hesse. from old moand Kiel (1665) nastic or ecclesiastical foundaflisiifesJiifeJi Mfl±4ra*@lissolved after the Reformation. Lutheran Church . 2 Even Evolution of German State School Control state-control idea in Catholic States. and. and its educational results in consequence were very different. Duisberg (1655) The support of these came. Roman Catholic the ultimate fruition of which The CHURCH State School Middle Ages Early Reformation Period. Other Protestant universities in 1607. Strassburg (1621). was the first of the universities to become Protestant. Melanchthon. and took on that of the ruling prince. and in which Luther. . We came first in German lands. Rinteln (1621). When this later went over to Calvinism. in 1527. German \\ Anglican foundations V The Reformation and education in England. Saxony. the German took root early. established. and Gotha was brought about by their rulers. and Bugenhagen were professors. It was through the kingly or ducal headship of the Church.School Busenhagren Melanchthon Lutheran State _f Later system of the kingdom or duchy. and through it of the educa- have here the beginnings of the transfer of educational control from the Church to the State. to control education therein. by a migration of the Lutheran professors. Helmstadt (1576). and which was to be the great work of the nineteenth century. through their headship of the Church in duchy or city. . in Protestant. 2 The first Protestant university to be founded was Marburg. 96. in thesense that Luther or Calvin or Zwingli or 1 Knox Wittenberg. founded were Konigsberg (1544) Jena U5S6). Saxony Wiirtemberg Gotha Bavaria Church School GERMAN STATES German Lutheran Church Schools] Catholic The Nineteenth Century Prussia ing princes that the universities German Church Saxony Wiirtemberg Bavaria reformed 1 and the new Protestant universities were Baden Fig. that the great educational development in Wiirtemberg. Many of the important features of the modern school systems are to be seen in their beginnings in these Lutheran state-church schools. In England the reform movement was much more Henry VIII was no political in character than in German lands. and it was through the rultional Reformation Period. The Reformation England took a very different direction from what it did in Germany. to a considerable extent. as Bavaria. ^ 2. Gradually the other universities in Protestant Germany threw off their allegiance to the Pope. founded in 1502 as a new-learning university. and the free-city universities of Altdorf (1573).RESULTS AMONG ANGLICANS as they principality or 319 their saw fit. a new university was founded at Giessen.

ers (R. and now licensed the teachcation State. supervised prayers (R. The English Church. while the schools. In particular. out by the ruling classes. in spirit and serw ice. the Lutheran idea of personal responsibility for salvation. when made. and not to. and hence the need of all being taught to read. and tuition fees.320 was. explain objections to the old faith. and the church doctrines and church practices were not greatly altered by the change in allegiance. and the reformation movement of Luther. 167). merely took over most of the functions formerly exercised by the Roman Church. and the tutor in the home became the rule with families of means. the new learning had awakened less of monks and somewhat there a spirit of moral and religious reform. The English Church merely succeeded the Roman Church in the control of education. and the masses of the people were in The English National Church no way deeply interested in it. The poorer people largely did without schooling. 164-166). after a decade and a half. of the the educational results of the to Church relate almost entirely grammar schools ancPW'i^HftiwePsfi&es. has in consequence retained the greatest resemblance to the Roman Catholic Church of any Protestant denomination. elementary change in the headship . HISTORY OF EDUCATION He distrusted their teachings. was in consequence much more nominal than had been the case in German As a result the severance from Rome was largely carried lands. As a consequence. as they had done for centuries before. had roused no The change from the Roman Catholic faith general interest. took their oath of allegiance (R. had been the much less The people antagonized by and was always anxious to of England as a the exactions of the Roman Church and the immoral lives of Roman clergy. and was no business of the and this attitude continued until well into the nineteenth century. charitable funds. in general the same priests remained in charge of the parish churches. made scarcely any impression in England. 169) and the instruction. an independent English Church. 168). too. to By the time of Elizabeth (1558-1603) it had become a settled conviction with the English as a people that the provision of eduwas a matter for the Church. Private tuition schools in time flourished. aside from the private tuition and endowed schools. and became very strict as to conformity to the new faith (Rs. continued to be maintained chiefly from religious sources. The changing of the service from Latin to English was perhaps the most important change. body.

When this finally came the development was due to and economic. "though maintaining that he was not compelled by God's Word to set forth the Scriptures in English. 153). .) exposition. had been passed by parliament in 1534. Psalter. only without noise. the Lord's Prayer. 170). In 1536 an English Bible was issued to the churches. 1547). where it might be read. and the people were ordered instructed in English The English Act (R. and in 1549 the English Prayer Book. of elementary schools AMONG ANGLICANS of 321 The development for anything approaching a system left England was consequently for the educational awakening of the latter half of the nineteenth century." 3 The right to read the Bible was later revoked. and Catechism were put into use. in ^43.-' political religious of Supremacy which severed England from Rome. p. 1 the services were ordered conducted in English. or laborers " journeymen. which provided that "no woman (unless she be a noble or gentle woman). the dissolution of the monasteries. Between 1536 and 1539 the most striking result of the Reformation in England took place. 30. and not to causes. A Chained Bible in the Creed. 30. (Redrawn from an old print showing and the Ten Commandments. History of the Booh Prayer.. 2 that the people might read it (R. or disturbance of any public service. or (Ibid.RESULTS education.) injunctions directed that 'a Bible of the largest volume in English' be set up in some convenient place in every church. apprentices. 97. under the degree of yeomen should read or use any part dPifjtf&fflaiS! MidtepSIn of fines and. husbandmen. 3 Suppression of the monasteries and the founding of grammar schools. Fig. . England) change of the service to English was perhaps the largest educational gain the masses of the people obtained as the result of the Reformation in England. The a chained Bible in a church in York. The King finally granted the request. no artificers.' " (Procter and Frere. and without any disputation. of 2 Common "The . . servingmen. nearly two years before. imprisonment. p. by an act of Parliament. In 1538 the English Bible was ordered chained in the churches. during the closing years of Henry VIII's reign (d. Their doubtful reputation enabled Henry and Par- — 1 This was in response to a petition to the King. yet 'of his own liberality and goodness was and is pleased that his said loving subjects should have and read the same in convenient places and times.

171). the intended endowments were never made. As the song schools had been established originally to train a few boys "to help a priest sing mass. A number of the monasteries were converted into collegiate churches. and amended to convert them to good and godly uses as in the erecting of grammar schools. nunneries. and a large part of the proceeds from sales was spent on coast defenses and a navy. Cam- were also richly endowed from the monastic proceeds. Being regarded as nurseries of superstition. 171). and "the dead hand of monasticism was removed from a third of the lands of England. In 1546 another Act of Parliament vested the title of all chantry foundations. 172)." There were precedents for this in pre-Ref ormation times. and for the government of which he made detailed provisions (R. many of the monasteries. the need for choristers largely disappeared." and as the service was now to be read rather than sung. The result of the change in religious alleriance. with schools attached. of the land was given to influential followers of the king in return for their support. and were refounded as cathedral church schools. The Much College of Christ Church at Oxford. changed. and the cathedral churches in nine English cities were taken from the monks (R.322 HISTORY OF EDUCATION . in England was a material decrease . and abbey churches were destroyed. who had driven out the regular clergy during the tenth to the twelfth centuries. after their sale. the church authorities themselves having converted several monastic foundations into grammar schools. though in the long course of history beneficial to the nation. with a song school attached. Result of the Reformation in England. they were abandoned without regret. some two hundred in number. some eight thousand monks and nuns were driven out." but so pressing became the royal need for money that. and was later refounded as a result of the confiscation of the monastic property. is typical of a school which had fallen into bad repute (R. It was a ruthless proceeding. liament to confiscate their property. and Trinity College at bridge. The cathedral church school at Canterbury. At one blow Parliament now suppressed the monasteries of all England. and the monastic lands were forfeited to the Crown. in the Crown that they might be "altered. Some of the almshouses and hospitals confiscated at the same time were similarly used. which Henry refounded in 154 1 as a humanistic grammar school. though more than was formerly thought to be the case was used in ref ounding grammar schools.

The names of famous "old boys" are seen lettered on the wall at the back.Plate One of the " 7. building finished in 1593. Founded in 1571. in his illustrated History of the Colleges of Winchester. Great Public" London. etc." reciting to the masters. Pupils are seen seated in "forms. in the reign of Elizabeth. 1816. (From a picture published by Ackermann. Westminster. Eton.) Digitized by Microsoft® . The Free School at Harrow Grammar Schools of England.

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and hospital schools took away most of the elementary schools which had once existed. the abolition of the song. the charity school. so well by this time had the humanistic type become established. chantry. The clerk of the parish usually replaced them by teaching a certain number of boys "to read English intelligently instead of Latin unintelligently. These types of schooling constituted almost all the elementary-school advantages provided in England until well into the eighteenth century. especially during the reign of Elizabeth." many new parish ele- mentary schools were created. and apprenticeship training arose (chapter xvm) and became regular English institutions. as follows: . one and allj-grammar to be taught schools of the reformed humanistic type. though with a material improvement in the quality of the instruction provided. 1 The grammar in schools thus founded were. as it was assumed that every one knew what a grammar school was. This was soon 1 These were. and in time the dame school. and during the century and* a half before the outbreak of the struggle with James II (1688) to put an end in England for all time to the late-mediaeval theory of the divine right of kings. What was them was seldomlnentiohed in the foundation articles. The dominating religious purpose. The religious conflicts following the reformation movement everywhere intensified religious prejudices and stimulated religious bigotry. distributed by Henry VIII reigns. a total of 558 grammar schools were founded or refounded. time. 275) in London. and such modifications had been sanctioned with. and a consequent decrease in the number of boys given free education in the refounded grammar schools. the writing school. As for elementary education. They were one and all modeled after the instruction first provided in Saint Paul's School as (p. and this continued to be the type of English secondary school instruction until well into the nineteenth century.RESULTS AMONG ANGLICANS in the 323 number of places offering grammar-school advantages. The post-Reformation educational energy of England was given to the founding of grammar schools.

and whether they appear well affected to the Government of his Majesty. and cause their scholars to do the same. 165) ima posed a fine of £10 on any one employing a schoolmaster of unsound faith. or teachers of youth. 166) required every schoolmaster in any type of school. where nonconformists were prohibited by law (1558) from receiving degrees. (1553-58) and the final reestablishment of the English Church under Elizabeth (1558). to subscribe to a declaration that they would conform to the liturgy of the Church. publicly or privately. and teachers were deprived of their positions for nonconformity (R. as established by law. in 1662 the obnoxious Act of Uniformity (R. 164 b). and the almost complete purpose of elementary instruction came to be to train pupils to readjhe Ca^^^beJgaffler jBqpk. perhaps more than in any other Protestant country. 164 a). More effectively to handle the problem a series of laws were enacted. under penalty of a fine of £40. ushers. in 1665 the so-called "FiveMile Act " forbade Dissenters to teach in any school. and all private tutors. Mary By schools had become the middle of the seventeenth century the grammar nurseries of the faith. and_the Bible. schoolmistresses. do themselves frequent the public prayers of the Church. In England. after the resto- reflected in the schools of all lands. and in that same year bishops were instructed to see that the said schoolma'sters. as well as very formal and disciplinary in character. a condition that was not remedied until 1869. In 1580 a law (R. in 1603 another law required a license from the bishop on the part of all schoolmasters as a condition precedent to teaching. and the doctrine and discipline of the Church of England. with disability and imprisonment for the schoolmaster so offending. with fine and imprisonment for breaking the law. all school instruction became narrowly religious and English Protestant in ration under Catholic type. The great purpose of instruction came to be to support the authority and the rule of the Established Church. Bishops were instructed to hunt out schoolmasters who were unsound in the faith (R. This attitude also extended upward to the universities as well. . and instructors. Christianity came to be identified with a strict conformity to the teachings and practices of the Established Church.324 HISTORY OF EDUCATION In England. and to teach that particular faith became one of the particular missions of all types of schools. the result of which was to institute such an inquisitorial policy that the position of schoolmaster became almost intolerable.

and the relation which had for so long existed between prayer and penance and almsgiving and charity was altered. a series of laws were enacted which attempted to provide for the situation which had been created. due in part to the rise of the wool industry in Flanders. were confiscated as The groundwork of the a result of the reformation activities. and to the cities the surplus of rural peasantry began to drift. and a number of persons in need of poor-relief. Accompanying this decline in the importance of farming there had been a slow but gradual growth of trade and manufacturing in the cities. As this new conception dawned on the English people. from begging. ^v^. First the poor^i. and with the In the place of the old system care of the children of the poor. The nation was thus forced to deal with the problem of poor-relief. The next step flpfeetoflftKPdikihe local authorities to . These were progressive in character. culminated at the time of the Reformation when the religious houses. and its educational significance. and the people were to be urged to give. as we shall see in a following chapter. England began to change from a farming to a sheep-raising country. and those persons of means who would not give freely were to be cited before the bishop first (R. and materials with which to work. Then workhouses for the poor and their children.. Next church collections and parish support for the poor were ordered (1553). the people were forced. which had previously provided alms. situation. and if necessary forcibly assessed (1563).RESULTS AMONG ANGLICANS 325 This intense religious attitude in England was reflected in early colonial America. After the thirteenth century. outside of certain specified limits. The Poor-Law legislation. were ordered provided. and the justices later. and service. good feeling. In the time of Elizabeth (1558-1603) it has been estimated that one half the population of England did not have an income sufficient for sustenance. - » which had been growing worse for two centuries. The and ranged over much of the sixteenth century. charity. and great numbers of children were running about without proper food or care. As a result there was a marked shifting of occupations. 173). constantly increasing much unemployment. and growing up in idleness and vice. old system of religious charity was thus swept away. by circumstances. The cost of living also in- creased rapidly after the fifteenth century. were restricted. to develop a new conception of the State as a community of peoples bound together by community interest.

. 2. where neces4.. The excessive burdens of the hundred or county. but also " to read & understand the principles of religion & the capitall lawes of this country. with general taxation of those of property to provide workhouses and materials for such a purpose. after a long period of slowly evolving legislation (R. 326 raise HISTORY OF EDUCATION needed funds by strictly local taxation (1572). on the foundations of the English Poor-Law of 1601. obligation of the master to train his apprentices in a trade. sary. among English-speaking peoples. obligation of the overseers of the poor to supply. to learn a useful trade. the opportunity and the materials for such training of the 3. we have the germ. Digitized by Microsoft® . 174) finally gave expression to the following principles: 1. "In euery towne ye chosen men" ters shall see that parents and masnot only train their children in learning and labor. male and female. but with the significant children of the poor to labor Calvinistic addition that: 7. and without reference to any benefits derived 6. In 1601 the last step was taken. The compulsory apprenticeship of the children of the poor. as an obligation of the State. that the first Massachusetts law relating to the schooling of all children (1642) was framed (R." with power to impose fines on such as refuse to render accounts concerning their children. the English Poor-Law of 1601 (R. 217). The The 5. The apprenticing of the. and the requirement that they be taught the elements of religion soon became a fixed English practice (R. 190). and in the seventeenth century this idea was carried It was to the American colonies and firmly established there. with the obligation imposed that such children must be trained in a trade and in proper living. when the compulsory taxation of all persons of property was ordered to provide the necessary poor-relief. and the excessive burdens of one parish were to be shared by neighboring parishes. 173). of the idea of the general taxation of all persons by the State to provide schools for the children of the State. from the taxation. The compulsory care of the poor. children of the poor. Thus. The compulsory taxation of all persons of property to provide the necessary funds for such a purpose. above stated. any one parish to be pooled throughout In this compulsory apprenticeship of the children of the poor.

Luther: To the Mayors and Magistrates of Germany. and by the English at the time iS. 155. Show what different conditions were likely to follow. that the schools . from the different stands taken as to the relation of the State and Church to education by the German people by the middle of the sixteenth # century. m. before 1520. in 1524. Compare the origin of Germany and England. ^f. 156. 19. Leach estimates of Elizabeth. 15. For the times was it a more practical plan? Why? f. > tion of girls? ra Was Luther's idea that a clergyman should have had some experience as a teacher a good one. and English lanExplain the fixing in character guages by a single book. and show that the natural educa17. in later centuries. Show how Melanchthon's Saxony Plan differed from Luther's ideas. the vernacular elementary-school teacher in that. . French. About what opportunities for grammarschool education did this afford? grammar SELECTED READINGS In the accompanying Book duced: 154.RESULTS AMONG ANGLICANS 327 \f. W: What was the significance of the position of Luther for the future educa. Luther: Dignity arflfcfiai^^^aMfceosfc/fcbe Teacher's Work. or not? Why? i£. Explain why the religious discussions of the Reformation should have ^he Protestant position. tional consequences of this resulted. tried so hard to ^prevent the establishment of vernacular schools. Vso strongly stimulated a desire of the German. of Readings the following selections are repro- Rashdall: Diffusion of Education in Mediaeval Times. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION Why is progress that is substantial nearly always a product of slow rather than rapid evolution? tf Show why quence the evolution of many of the position assumed by Luther. How do you explain Luther's ideas as to coupling up elementary and trade education in his primary schools? i^f Point out the similarity of Luther's scheme for a school system with the * German school system as finally evolved (Figure 96). Explain why the Lutheran idea of personal responsibility for salvation made so little headway in England. Times: The Vernacular Style of the Translation of the Bible. What" haS"nx~ed~fh"e~ Italian? Was Luther probably right when he wrote. Explain why the local Church authorities. Y."were deteriorating throughout Germany"? Why? r^Give reasons why Luther's appeals for schools were not more fruitful. 157. % Why was universal education /quence to fead. Protestant sects was a natural conseWhat is the ultimate out- come of the process? "Ng/Why was it not important that more than a few be educated under the older theory of salvation? \f Show how modern democratic government was a natural consequence of involved as a later but ultimate conseof the position taken by the Protestants? \f. there were approximately three hundred schools in England for a total population of approximately two and one half millions. in 1546.

Raumer: The School System Established in Wiirtemberg. 5. Statutes: The English Poor Law of 1601. 160. 169. 162. 164. Melanchthon: The Saxony School Plan. 167. What are the marked features of the refounding act (172) for Canterbury cathedral school? What improvements are indicated? State the steps in the development (173) of the English Poor-Law of 1601. 173. Show the close similarity of the Wiirtemberg plan of 1559-65 (162) and a modern German state school system. How advanced was the ground taken by Luther (158)? Would we accept the logic of his argument to-day? Just what do the Hamburg (159) and Brieg (160) Ordnungen indicate? Compare Melanchthon's Saxony Plan (161) with Sturm's (137) and the French College de Guyenne (136). Letter of Queen's Council on. of a school attitude is indicated by the close supervision of English teachers. 172. Green: Effect of the Translation of the Bible into English. Duke Ernest: The Schulemethodus for Gotha. Carlisle: Oath of a Grammar School Master. Strype: The Supervision of a Teacher's Acts and Religious Beliefs in England. Hamburg: An Example of a Lutheran Kirchenordnung. 11. How advanced for the time was the work of Duke Ernest of Gotha From (163)? 9. 13. Dismissal of a Teacher for non-conformity. 161. 10. 170. 3. Strype: An English Elementary-School Teacher's License. 14. 15. 159. the selection from Rashdall (154). 166. 4. and grade the three in order of importance. (a) (b) QUESTIONS ON THE READINGS 1. Luther: On the Duty of Compelling School Attendance. and just what elements necessary to the creation of a state school system were incorporated Digitized by Microsoft® into it. Elizabeth: Penalties on Non-conforming Schoolmasters. Brieg: An Example of a Lutheran Schuleordnung. What kind . 8. 7. Nicholls: Origin of the English Poor-Law of 1601. 2.: Ignorance of the Monks at Canterbury and Messenden. 163. just what the law provided for (174). 165. Statutes: English Act of Uniformity of 1662.328 HISTORY OF EDUCATION 158. Characterize the three extracts (156-58) from Luther. 168. what do you infer as to the What kind of schools does effect of the Reformation on the schools? Rashdall describe as existing? Contrast the vernacular style of the Bible (155) with the Ciceronian. 174. as described in 164 and 165? What would be the natural effect on the teaching occupation of such legislation as the Act of Uniformity (166)? Compare the form of license of an elementary teacher (168) with a modern form. 6. 171. Old MS. What have we added and omitted? What do the statutes regarding prayers (169) indicate as to the nature of the grammar schools of the time? Characterize the educational importance of the translations of the Bible into the native tongues (170). Parker: Refounding of the Cathedral School at Canterbury. 12. Cowper: Grammar School Statutes regarding Prayers.

Harry E. H. Painter. vol. "The Position of Luther upon Education. G. Philipp Melanchthon. 3. the Protestant Preceptor of Germany. Paulsen. Richard. Francke. Civilization during the Middle Ages. Education during the Renaissance. Barnard. pp. Fr.RESULTS AMONG ANGLICANS SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES 329 *Adams. Woodward. J. de. de. The Progress of Education in England. B. German Teachers and Educators. V. W. J. Digitized by Microsoft® . 1Q17). 6. E." in School *Good. Social Forces in German Literature. Kuno. Luther on Education. German Education. State Intervention in English Education. J. ^*Montmorency. Henry. 511-18 (Nov. G. N. W. F. G. E. and Society. *Montmorency.

compelled them to realize. both elementary and higher institutions of learning. their ideals of college and common school. In Monroe's Cydopedjgf i p. 499. in wholesome touch with the common man. arithmetic. he held that (1537) learning was "a public necessity to secure good political administration. Their disciplined and responsive conscience.'' This involved the organization of secondary schools. Their industrious habits and productive economic life provided funds for education.) !r ft^ 1 — trinal. and in the countries where Calvinism became dominant the leaders included general education in their scheme of religious. D. or colleges as he called them. 1 In the governmental program which Calvin drew up for the religious republic at Geneva (p. ^ ^j0ji ^ . careful grammatical drill. From the point of view of American educational history the most important developments in connection with the Reformation were those arising from "Calvinism. H. as had Luther. principle. and social. which involved instruction in reading. This program_demiindeAthe_education^)f_a]l. the Calvinists everywhere had a program for politicaL-eco nomic. CALVINISTS AND CATHOLICS Educational work of the Calvinists . and maintaining. economic. and training for civil as well as In his plan of 1541 he upholds the for ecclesiastical leadership. their consequent intensity of moral conviction and spirit of self-sacrifice for the common weal. but furnished the organization necessary for founding. AMONG 3. writing. While the Calvinistic faith was rather grim and for-' bidding. political. in concrete and permanent form. The organizing work of Calvin. published in 1538. "These Calvinists had a common program of broad scope not merely docbut also political. Their representative institutions in both church and commonwealth not only necessitated general diffusion of knowledge. and social reform. and maintain humanity among men. religion. he ouU lined a system of elementary education in the -vernacular for all'. Their common program and their social ideals demanded education of all as instruments of Providence for church and commonwealth. and social progress which has left a deep impress on the history of mankind. 298)." (Foster." In his plan for the schools of Geneva. supervising. that "the liberal arts and good training are aids to a full knowledge of the Word.. sustain the Church unharmed.CHAPTER XIV EDUCATIONAL RESULTS OF THE PROTESTANT REVOLTS II. viewed from the modern standpoint.

p. Calvin's great educational work at Geneva has been well sum- 2 marized by a recent writer. the usual humanistic curriculum was. which has been preserved for us. two_origipa. forth. In the higher classes. EIocu_tipn_was also given much importance in the upper classes as preparation for the ministry. and".RESULTS AMONG CALVIN ISTS 331 following the French nomenclature. combined with_ in tensive jre ligious ins truction! These "colleges became famous as institutions from which learned men came. i. . tendency toward civil. The course of study in the seven classes of one of the. his epoch-making defense of interest taking. letters.orations. "good morals. and the Bib le" carefully s tudiedT The men who went forth from the colleges of Geneva to teach and 1 to preach the Calvinistic gospel were numbered by the hundreds. his development of primary and university education. The lowest class began with the. reveals the nature of the instruction (R. vol. and theTiiual Latfn authors were read. religious. as follows: training of the Genevese was an essential part work as an educator." and common sense was carried out is The strenuous moral of Calvin's pictured in the delightful human Colloquies of Calvin's old teacher. ~ "Greek was begun in the fourth class. his intimate knowledge of the dialect and ways of thought of the common people of Geneva.. and without respect of persons." In the colleges (secondary schools) which he organized at Geneva and in neigKboring places to give such training. ajid def end_the faith. to prepare leaders for the ministry and the civil government through "instruction in the languages and humane science. but enacted and enforced by representaHow fully the tives of the people. Calvin's memorials to the Genevan magistrates. argue. p. based upon Scripture. his correspondence with reformers and statesmen. fourth of those. as was common also in German gymnasia. Corderius (once a teacher at the College of Guyenne.. Psalms were snn. being required each month . 175). the New Testament was read in Greek. in addition to" the usual Greek authors. was printed. 269). training of children. Monroe'sQSP5f&BH BpJBSBaSoB. but also in manners. in Belgium. sermons preache d and questioned on. logic and rhetoric were taught to "~ < ' prepare pupils to analyze. . All were trained to respect and obey laws. listed had studiedin the colleges of Geneva. and economic liberty. his drafts for civil law and municipal administration. D. and which became models of their kind which were widely copied. his growing . 491. and his 1 In 1625 a list of the famous Foster More than one 2 H men of the city of Louvain. reading was taught from a FrencF-Latin Catechism.^ p rayers offered.1 . Geneva colleges. whom he twice established at Geneva. . not merely in sound learning and doctrine.

the Walloons Fig. deserves to be ranked with that of the Lutherans in Germany importance. wherTthe severe~persecutions and religious waxsfo§ism by Microsoft® support. and we in America probably most of all.332 him out and HISTORY OF EDUCATION as a great political. Geneva became a refuge for the persecuted Protestants from other lands. the Presbyterians of Scotland. in the face of heavy persecution. 98. the Germans American colonies. The world owes much ius of to the constructive. A French School of the Seventeenth Century (From an old woodcut by Abraham Bosse. and politics mark religious reformer. and later to the Calvinism in other lands. and through such influences the ideas of Calvin spread to the Huguenots in France. the Puritans in England. broad understanding of European princes. free Had the Calvinists had the same opportunity for development the Lutherans had. 1611-78) of the Dutch and Belgian Netherlands. there can be . and especially their state little doubt that their work would have greatly exceeded the Lutherans in importance and influence on the future history of mankind. statesman-like gen- Calvin and those who followed him. and educational as well as a a constructive social genius capable of reorganizing moulding the whole life of a people. The great educational work done by in its the Calvinists in France. Beginning with one church in IS3& L they hacLajjfijdrurches by 156*1. economic. diplomats. in the Pa- latinate.

a notable emphasis on vernacular. They emphasized.M$rffl}[eSlion. 498. lar in the lower schools. and in ters of Huguenot teaching. . and ment. as follows: 1 The significant characteristics of Huguenot education were: an emphasis on the education of the laity. and university training for all. (f. the study of the vernacuin the colleges and arithmetic. i nsistence uponk nowledge the wide-spread demand for education.v_prmadfid was not only religious but civil. p. that part of the Belgian Netherlands inhabited by the Walloons. collegiate. before they were driven from the land. an astonishing familiarity with Scripture. and 1636) were Calvinistic. RESULTS AMONG CALVINISTS True practice. The long list of Greek and the New Testafamous teachers found in their universiFoster has well ties reveals the character of their instruction. and finally a progressive spi rit of inquiry and investigation. while municipalities provided for colleges and elementary education. Groningen (f. 1575). -ircp-ftf-fiill texts. especially about Strassburg. training for "the republic" and virtue as w all as "society" as well as for the Church. arithmetic. through secondary schools or colleges. As a people they were thrifty and capable of making great sacrifices to carry out their educational ideals. and a view of it as essential to liberty of conscience. . up to eight Huguenot universities. a spirit of carrying a thing through at any cost. supporting. 1614). In the Palatinate Calvinist ideas as to education 'dominated. andeconranic. The universities of Leyden Utrecht lar (f. lowest classes. not only int ellectual bu t moral. an dlibraries. and closely in touch with the Calvinists and Huguenots of German lands and France. : - ing churches (see map. utilization of representative church organization for founding. a comprehensive working system of elementally. vol. i. and unifying education. extending from elementary education for all. businesslike supervision of money. 1630). Th e education the.. poor as well as rich. readiness to sacrifice for education. Popueducation was looked after among these people as it was in 1 In Momoe'Qigfy&9$W. Their synods made liberal appropriations for the universities. even among the. social _ ^ EducalbnJW-asJar_ajya_rich and poor alike. Greek. and systematic supervision of both professors and students. Amsterdam (f. Figure 88) some progress in foundand schools was made. summarized the distinguishing characteristics of Huguenot education in France. and the universities of Heidelberg and Marburg became the cenIn the Dutch Netherlands. they organized 333 to the Calviriistic teaching of putting principles into an extensive system of schools.

and especially that the children of the poor may be gratuitously instructed by them and not be excluded from the benefits of schools. to visit. dated 1662. from The province of Groningen' constituted the pastors the attendance officers to see that the children got to Amsterdam and many other Dutch cities demanded an school. 99.334 Hague and HISTORY OF EDUCATION and Geneva. and elementary education HMVMi WKMrnrnm Fig. whether attending school or not. 176) ordered that: Schools in which the young shall be properly instructed in piety and fundamentals of Christian doctrine shall be instituted not only in cities. but also in towns and country places where heretofore none have existed. Calvinistic France The Church Synod of The (1586) ordered the establishment of schools in the cities. 178) was of Dutch activity. The Christian magistracy shall be requested that honorable stipends be provided for teachers. The province Drenthe ordered (1630) a school tax paid for all children over seven. now in the Louvre. School A Dutch Village The province yssel of Over- (After a painting by Adrian Ostade. at Paris) levied (1666) eight a to school tax for all chil- dren twelve years of age. in 1618 the Great Synod held at Dort (R. ' i and report (R. 176). examination of all teachers before being licensed to teach. was made all. By the middle of the sev&tfltZsnlthy fetota^ a good system of schools . made as to the certificating of schoolof the schools. and the pastors were made superintendents ~ ' ~~1HfiSlm * examne encourag e advise. Further provisions were masters. and that well-qualified persons ma)' be employed and enabled to devote themselves to that function. Provision for the free education of the poor became common. accessible to The careful pro- vision for education made by of the province typical of Utrecht (1590. 161 2) (R.

The minutes of every religious body bear overwhelming testimony not only to the existence of (Kilpatrick. such a one as is able at least to teach Grammar and the Latin tung. took over the superintendence of education in Scotland. John Knox. 178). schools were finally established by decree of the Priyy Council. and by the legislation of 1633 and 1646 (R. to instruct them in their first rudementie and especially in the catechisme.RESULTS AMONG CALVINISTS l 335 seems to have been provided generally by the Dutch and the Belgian Walloons (R. but also a zealous interest in their maintenance. introduced the Calvinand educational ideas into Scotland. zation cient in "That public schools abounded throughout the Netherlands is evident. yf the Town be of any reputation. but the Scottish nobles hoped to share in these. ' ^and when parish however. Yf it be upaland then must either the Reider or the Minister take cayre over the children . The new Church. 179). while not always suffinumber to meet the educational needs. as of all other vernacular schools of the time. . . These schools. were well taught. the Church was given an important share in their organi- and management.) 1 Digitized by_ Microsoft® . framed closely on the Genevan model. and Knox's plan was not approved. the leader of the Scottish Reformation (1560). p. . contained a chapter devoted to education in which he proposed: That everie severall churche have a schoolmaister appointed.. as had the English nobility under Henry VIII. scaooIs. and have deeply influenced the national character. and this the thrifty Scotch were not ready for. Knox and his followers then proposed to endow the new schools from the old church and monastic foundations. who had spent some time at Geneva and who was deeply impressed by istic religious the Calvinistic religious-state found there. This delayed the establishment of a real national system of education for Scotland until the nineteenth century. . His BoohTo] Discipline jor the Scottish Church (1560). H." Diitch Schools of New Netherlands. The educational plan proposed by Knox IG would have called for a large expenditure '(uo^i of money. . That the teaching of religion was the main function of the Dutch elementary schools. W. 37. 178). Every study of the archives of town or province discloses their presence. is seen from the official lists of the textbooks used (R. in 1616.

but with only partial success. or southern Belgium (see map." This had been founded. by a Spanish knight. the stake. man of large ideas. while in France. and soon set about using it. persecution. and he in turn alone\to the Pope. though. Now it naturally happened that the countries which remained loyal to the old Church. 303). Excommunication. p. nine tenths of the people remained loyal Rome. pilgVim. in 1540. In a general way it may be stated that those parts of western Europe which had once formed an integral part of the old Roman Empire remained loyal to the Roman Church. Spain. all these countries the reform ideas had made to greatest progress. and scholar by the name of Ignatius Loyola. and reforming some church practices and methods. The quiet life of the cloister was abandoned for a life 1 For long the Church had had the Inquisition. the results had been in no way commensurate with the bitlter hatred which its work awakened. while those which had been the homes of the Germanic tribes revolted. where of. 296). Portugal. which was positive and effective and did not awaken opposition. learned from the Protestants the value of education as a means to larger ends. and the sword had been tried extensively." but more commonly called the "Jesuit Order. It was a long-headed and far-sight ted plan.336 4. and had been sanctioned as an Order of the Church by Pope Paul III. and its success was propSiTOgftety 4$Jfp? ofi ' ® . and from the reformer's zeal for LatKn grammar schools to provide an intelligent ministry the Church took its cue of estalblishing schools to train its future leaders. '•all members being responsible to its General. 1 After the Church Council of Trent (1545-63). The Protestant Revolt made but little headway in Italy. the Catholics inaugurated what has since been called a counter-reformation. in an effort to hold lands which were still loyal and to win back lands which had been lost. In this last the chief reliance was upon a new and a very useful organization officially known as the "Society of Jesus. It was organized along strictly military lines. much of France. but. Italy was scarcely disturbed at all. too. Besides reforming the practices and outward lives of the churchmen. in 1534. the church system of education which had developed during the long Middle Ages remained undisturbed and largely unchanged. experienced none of the feelings of the necessity for education as a means to personal salvation which the Lutherans and Calvinists felt. In education the reformers had shown the Church a new method. while it had rendered lolyal and iniquitous service. imprisonment. . The Church as an institution. the Church inaugurated a campaign of educational propaganda. There. where definite church reform measures were carried through (p. HISTORY OF EDUCATION The Counter-Reformation of the Catholics The Jesuit Order.

2 after it had been driven out of a 1 This is not true of their missions in foreign lands. Ignatius monks and and the ex torti on and neglect practiced by the Church. . had established two hundred colleges (Latin secondary schools). All for the greater glory of God) and the means to be employed by it to accomplish these ends were the pulpit. and to try to reach and train those likely to be the future leaders in Church and State. and by 1756. been developed in the United States. Great success of the Order. p. though not in France or Germany. when the Order was for a time abolished. and that priests the chief jdifEcultyJivas in the higher places of authority. and to strengthen the authority of the Papacy.) were added. 337 open warfare under a military discipline. in 1832. to advance the interests of the Church. 2 The Order was reestablished in 1814 and it has since been allowed to reestablish There are 41 Jesuit itself in most countries. lished at Quebec as early as 1635 and 'one at Newtown. In the revision of its course of instruction. . in. a work 'in which it was remarkably successful and through which it exercised a very large influence. the Order. Realizing clearly that th e real cause of the Reformation had been the ignor. (For list see Monroe's Cyclopedia of Education. it de Loyola (1491-1556) became the prime principle of the Order to live upright and industrious lives themselves. In 1773. and training seminaries. by 1640. Thus a mission school was estabJesuit missions of North and South America. 1 Our interest lies only with the educational work of this Order. The Jesuit was to and all peculiarities of dress or rule which might prove an obstacle to worldly success were suppressed. 372. universities. in Catholic Maryland. where the mission priests Elementary schools were maintained in the usually gave elementary instruction.COUNTER-REFORMATION OF CATHOLICS of live in the world. The purposes of the Order were to combat heresy. Its motto was Omnia ad Majorem Dei Gloriam (that is. by 1600. 540. The service of the Order to the Church in combating Protestant heresies was very marked. colleges in America. by 1706 (150 years after the death of its founder). 728. and_vicious lives of so many Fig. but the Society has never played any such conspicuous part in education since its reestablishment as ibdjdy^j^^sey^eenth and eighteenth centuries. the confessional. 769. After 1740 elementary parish schools were opened by the Jesuits among the German From these beginnings Catholic parish schools have Catholics in Pennsylvania. modern studies vol. With the education of the masses of the people the Order was not concerned. ioi. the mission. in 21 states. ance^ neglect. Beginning in a small way. and the school. Of these the school was given the place of first importance. in 1640.

to roll back the tide of Protestantism which had advanced over half of western Europe. about Its colleges (secondary schools) and half of whom were teachers. the peculiar Jesuit stamp.338 number ods it HISTORY OF EDUCATION of European countries because of the unscrupulous methadopted and the continual application of its doctrine that the end justifies the means^lhTOrder had 22. with dormitories. They were finally driven from France. the German States. Poland. Austria. though some had an attendance of 600 to 800. Here was the great battle In line. and their colleges their former large influence. and a few as high as 2000. and governmental struction. As far as possible the in- pupils were a selected class to whom the Order offered free The children of the nobility and gentry. and German lands. and here the Jesuits deeply entrenched themselves. classrooms." (De Argumentis. At their period of maximum influence the colleges and universities of the Order probably enrolled a total of 200. and received. singlecolleges. They did much. and Hungary. France alone there were 92 handed. quarreled with any one who crossed their path. 24 houses for novitiates. The children of many Protestants. mixed deeply in political intrigues. 2 By the middle of the eighteenth century the Jesuits had lost much of their former vigor. however unworthy the means may be. and so deeply impressed their training on the children of the nobility there. 4. were attracted by the high quality of the instruction offered. and refused to change their instruction to meet new intellectual needs. Portugal. dining-haUs. at an impressionable age.000 Their graduates were prominent in every scholarly students. and play-grounds. activity of the time. 1 Bacon gave his opinion as to the success of their instruction in the following sentence: "As for the pedagogical part. In 55 seminaries. universities were most numerous and its work most energetically carried on in northern France. Belgium. has had any connection with the attitude of German and Austrian political leaders for two centuries that the end justifies the means.) 1 It is an interesting speculation as to whether the fact that the Jesuits made such headway in German lands. and were ultimately abolished as an Qgfejfized by Microsoft® . 217 colleges. 2 the shortest rule would be. Consult the schools of the Jesuits. and 160 missions. and the brightest and most promising youths of the different lands were drawn also. Spain. for nothing better has been put in practice. and to hold other countries these portions of true to the ancient faith. in 1750.589 members. The usual number of scholars in each was about 300. into their schools. The colleges were usually large and well-supported institutions. They had become powerful and arrogant. There they were given the best secondary-school education of the time. Europe alone there were. vi. Holland.

and the opportunity to sort the carefully selected members according to their ability for service in the different lines of the Order gave them the best-selected teaching force in Europe. equaled in effectiveness for liberal-education ends such institutions as the court schools of Vittorino da Feltre. and the better English grammar schools. the lifetime of celibate service. intensely practical in all their work. in the and possessed of an indefatigable zeal accomplishment of their purpose. In their course of study they incorporated the Ciceronian ideal of the humanistic learning. combined with religious warfare and persecution. but with a keen eye for. and for their purposes excellent. they adopted the planofxlass-^^anizatipnj with a teacher for each class.COUNTER-REFORMATION OF CATHOLICS 339 Success of the Jesuit schools. viewed from a modern liberal- education standpoint. which was worked out in the Prefect of Studies for their colleges. in time drove out or dwarfed all competing institutions in the countries they were able to control. and incorporated these into their educational plan. 267) the French and Swiss colleges of Calvin (p. or other Italian humanistic educators of the Renaissance (p. . and Sturm's organization at Strassburg (p. 269). . The military brotherhood type of organization. the colleges of Calvin (p. practical. they accepted the best and used it much as others had worked it out. 331). That their educational system. intolerant of opposition. Too practical to make many changes. which. The method of instruction and classroom management which they worked out was detailed. what was best. and these men they trained for the teaching service with a thoroughness unknown before and seldom equaled since. From the municipal college of Guyenne (p. 273). From le Calvinists they obtained the idea of the careful supervision of instruction. Displaying a genius for organization worthy of Rome.33: ) Colet's school at Saint Paul's (p. 275). Batista da Guarona. From the I talian c ourt schools they took the idea of and as careful religious instruction as was provided by any of the reformers. they gave Europe in general and northern continental Europe in particular a system of secondary schools and universities possessed of a high degree of effectiveness. Knowing why they were at work and what ends they should achieve. or the schools of the Brethren of the . Loyola and his followers absorbed the best educational ideas of the time as to school organization and management and curriculum. The reasons for their educational work gave them a clearly denned aim and purpose.

and een. the Below these were the Professors or the tor.. 180) known as the Ratio Studiorum. interns Their schools were divided ~ihTo*~Iwo^oursesT The sludia inferiora. and a Pfefecfof Studies. Each college was presided over by who was in effect the president of the institution. oL. and finally a preliminary Ratio was issued. and the training of their teachers. and in the and sixth years a rhetorical study of the Latin authors was made. — a Rector. Jesuit school organization. 271). the whole being experimental. Careful at1 The care with which the Ratio Studiorum was worked out is typical of the thoroughness of the Order. that it will pay us to examine a little more closely their educational organization to see more fully the reasons for their large success. In so and their educational suppress rather than to doing their we will methods examine three points their school organization. This was again revised and cast into final form. teachers. Latin was the language of the classroom and the playground as well. To proselyte for the Church rather than to liberalize point of view there had been too their ultimate aim. were the ends aimed at. which followed. official disciplinarian" of the institution. The first little three years were given to learning Latin grammar and a Greek.students. instruction.monitors.. . of instruction. known as* the Correc- the . Reports on it were made. There were two classes of students. much liberalizing already — from — was their work was organized to awaken more Protestant heresy. For the whole. Common tended for to-day. and includecTthe "Higher college and university courses.i^sA r/^ltoSWn&/|iaodern studies were added. who" was the superintendent. The retention of Latin as the language of all scholarly and political intercourse. there was a very worked-out manual of instruction (R. in 1599. and for two centuries so dominated secondary and higher education in Europe. In this form it remained unta). in 1586'. Greek was studied through the medium of the Latin. A preliminary outline of work was followed for many years. and the cultivation of the style and speech of Cicero as the standard of purity and elegance. Souse Prefect. with philosophy and^theol"carefully ogy as the important subjects.and the . The work of this Order was so successful. though. would hardly be conSuch.— 340 HISTORY OF EDUCATION Life in the Netherlands (p. In the fifth fourth year Latin and Greek authors were begun. and the studia superiora. or lower school. 1 The boy entering a Jesuit college was supposed to have previ- ously learned how to read Latin. was not their purpose. the mother tongue being used only by permission. which covered the six years from ten to twelve years of age up to sixteen to eightexterns.

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. and speregard was paid to moral and religious training. month. Each day the work of the previous day was reviewed. Thoroughness. but little training of the judgment . Repetition. and year. and and some metaphysics were added.or. but was more formal in character and partook more of the nature of the later formalized humanistic schools. Slight variations were allowed in places. and there were further reviews at the end of each week. The teacher planned and gave the In the upper classes the instruction. the four-year course for preachi ng and the jix^yeajj Above_JJi£_pJiilos^feieal course a J course for teaching. when some history. of the (logic) The study dialectics Latin classics "anxTrEetoric was continued. the pupils received it. In 1906 each Province of the Order was permitted to change the Ratio further. geography. needs. ^Jesuitschool methods. was distinctly a teaching and not a questioning method. then compared the style with that of other writThe memory was drilled. the modern German Volkschule. then called attention to the rhetorical and poetical forms and rules. Following this lower_jc hool of six years came the so-called philosophical courslTof three years (sometimes _two_)." The nine years together covered aboutthe samescoperas Sturm's school (R. geographical.or_ understanding was given.COUNTER-REFORMATION OF CATHOLICS tention cial 341 was given to the health and sports of the pupils. 137) at Strassburg (p. then the construction of each part.yalufijxLstudies were foundation stones in the Jesuit's educatiqnaljLheQry. but this course of study remained practically unchanged until 1832. was the mother of memory. they said. and elementary mathematics and science were added to the lower schools. then gave the historical. and the disciplinary . ers. 273). memofy'drills. and archaeological infornjation needed further to explain the passage. To retain the mterest^/£hj©puftj]&§gftid such a load of memorizretained • . like that of official Corrector of the institution. if necessary to adjust it better to local coure^fjour. schools The characteristic method of the was oral. teacher explained the general meaning of the entire years in philosophy and theology prepared for the higher work of the Order. with a consequent closeness of contact of teacher and pupils7 This closeness of contact and sympathy was further by the system whereby all punishment was given by the Their method. and finally drew the moral lesson. to meet particular local needs. and advanced mathematics and science to the philosophical course.

emulations. as shown in Figure 102. The system of rivals. chief . been made pleasant and attractive. whereby each boy had an opponent constantly after him. rivals. among which and public disputations. was one of the peculiar While the schools were said to have features of their schools. the idea of the absolute auing various school devices were resorted to.342 were HISTORY OF EDUCATION prizes. ranks.

and then entered the theological course at some Jesuit university. and his will and determination tested. theology. which required that the boy be sixteen to eighteen years of age before he could take the preliminary steps toward joining the Order. theffifeSeeaiidaiirgroseteols had become as formal . however. away from the world. and six for those who were being trained for professorships in the colOn completing this course the final vows were taken.COUNTER-REFORMATION OF CATHOLICS the Order for life. and parts of France came with the establishment of the Jesuit humanistic colleges. Sturm. Then a two-year novitiate. carefully selected and well-educated teachers. Before the eighteenth century. and for college (secondary) The training was in classes training until at least twenty-nine. or in the Catholic Church itself rightness of life. This was a trial of his real character. The six-year inferior course had to be completed. followed. themmodels of upright life in an age when priests and monks had been careless. and an apprenticeship in teaching. and and for a time they put new life Lily. For their schools they the Protestant books. and might remain there. were not possible of use With such selves — — into the humanistic type of education. scholarship. Portugal. If retained and accepted. religion. age of from twenty-nine to thirty. and supplied Europe with its best secondary schools during the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. at an leges. poverty. upand absolute obedience to the commands of the Order. his weak points were noted. the most celewrote new school books brated of which were those of Erasmus. and was superior to that required for a teaching license in any Protestant country of Europe. The training to-day is still longer. To become a teacher in the inferior classes required training until twenty-one at least. he took the preliminary vows and entered the philosophical course of study. He was now assigned to teach boys in the inferior classes of some college. Many were dismissed before the end of the novitiate. 343 was vowed to celibacy. outside of the Jesuit Order. On completing this he was from twenty-one to twenty-three years of age. chastity.two. This required four years for those headed for the ministry. Melanchthon. it is not surprising that they wielded an influence wholly out of proportion to their numbers. and the real introduction of humanism into Spain. If destined for higher work he taught in the inferior classes for two or three years. In the loyal Catholic countries they were virtually the first secondary schools outside of the monasteries and churches.

and their universities more narrow and intolerant. in 1 the large cathedral cities. as preachers. Nevertheless the Church. and their indefatigable industry as courtiers in royal palaces. as teachers in the schools. in the following 1 words: The order of the Jesuits was anti-democratic. did mot see the need for doing anything. in fact. and. For. eral provision for education. As was stated on a preceding page. In spite of their wonderful organization. there was no theory of education except the religious theory. and was founded to uphold authority. 2 now began to make extra of efforts. Man^jphiirch4«€tf. and. in the beginning of their activity. never having made gen- was not prepared for such work. 2 For example. as confessors. in their system of education. The elements of strength and weakness in the Jesuit system of education has been well summarized by Dabney. With masterly skill they ruled the Catholic world for about two centuries.. H. 203. and was expanded but slowly with the passage of time. they were utterly unable to crush the spirit of doubt and inquiry. although with the intention of perverting them to their own ends. to fit pupils merely for so-called practical avocations. The Church. In such lands the church system of education which had grown up during the Middle Ages remained undisturbed. Teachers were scarce. spurred on by the new demands of a world fast becoming modern. and to avoid all subjects likely to stimulate them to independent thought. the germs of their own decay. tow^an^yijkp^^d^ were passed urging the clergy to establish general system of compulsory .:' of France met four times during the seventeenth century. although they aimed. instead of diffusing knowledge. they sowed. and by the exhortations of the official representatives of the people. the " States-General. p. 344 as far HISTORY OF EDUCATION had those in Protestant lands (R. performed services of great value to mankind. as professors in the universities. and. with weighty problems of religion and state for consideration. During the first half century were intellectually in advance of their age. R.. 146). fgw knew what to do or how to do it. and to antagonize the right of private judgment. the countries which remained loyal to the Church experienced none of the Protestant feeling as to the necessity for universal education for individual salvation. to remedy the deficiency Dabney. In dropping the old scholastic methods. it was nevertheless the best system which had then appeared. of their existence they after that The Church and elementary education. and as missionaries. and teaching new and fresher subjects. The Causes of the French Revolution. saw that the only hope of retaining their dominion was to oppose it with all their might.'Jtoo. but they gradually dropped behind it. yet in three of the four meetings resolutions schoolmasters in all the education for all.

and singing. teenth centuries we find a large number of decrees by church councils and exhortations by bishops urging the extension of the existing church system of education.. . though. of the Presentation 1684 — The the Christian Schools. t-fc^r*** the Presentation.S.» Sisters of of *• (Jansenists). Charity 1633 — The 1809. the first one established.) (Suppressed 1637 — The Port Royalists Providence. "in reading. in 1661. *i6so — The 19th C.. Sisters of of Sisters of of (U. and the Balkan States. . the rudiments of Latin Grammar. Mary 1652 — The the Blessed Virgin.S. 1845. writing.) — The Congregation Christian Doctrine. See Monroe. Catechism. The teaching orders for elementary education. Cyclopedia of Education.) — The Visitation Notre Nuns. taught by some 330 masters and mistresses. 1627 — The Daughters (US/. p." By 1675 these "Little Schools" in Paris came to contain "upwards of 5000 pupils. • (U.S. ifc&eMMeoBelfliDthat of vol. 1592 *iS98 *i6io 1621 of Sisters of (U. founded before the eighteenth century. 528.) Sisters of Sisters of Jesuits. — The Dame. were for the children of the laboring — The Order Ursulines..) 1684 — The Brothers * I S3S of (U. with teachers licenced by the Precentor of the cathedral of Notre Dame and nominally under his typical of other French cities. with the dates of their foundation. the aim of which was to assist the Church in providing elementary and religious education and artisan classes in the cities. reckoning. in which instruction artisan was offered to children of the both sexes." All such schools. of and laboring Church to greater activity in elementary.: ' COUNTER-REFORMATION OF CATHOLICS more than a thousand years. general state systems of education have not even as yet been evolved.. 1662. late the number of teaching orders were organized. * Have communities in the VnitQi&tiaed. which was" Church organized a regular system of elementary schools.. for example.S. 1643 — Tn e Rule based on Saint Joseph. Saint Vincent de Paul. as well as in In the sixteenth and sevensecondary and higher education. of course.S. The general effect of the Reformation. Portugal. 1729. so as to supply at least reliAs a result a gious training to all the children of the faithful. 1847. Teaching orders established. In Spain. was to stimuclasses. (U.) — Patres piaruni^sfcEolarum school opened in 597 authored by the Pope. the supervision. remained under the immediate control of the Church. and modern state systems of education in the Catholic States are late nineteenth-century productions.) Saint Charles Borromeo. First 1 j of ». 1799. Poland. v. (Piarists). 345 In Paris.

1535 girls. writing. at Cavaillon. Toul. and more perfectly. girls in France. sec. is part in the education of ticularly in Lorraine. whilst one is reading hers in an audible and intelligible voice before the mistress. in 1598. the first school being opened in Rome. At a time when handwork Fig. that all the pupils of the same mistress have each the same book. The following extract from the Rule illustrates the approach to class organization which he devised: cerns this present as well. Avignon. in their books at the same time. par- where Calvinism had made much headway. more readily. The catechetical schools of this Order were prominent in southern France up to the time of the French Revolution. 6. by a Spanish priest who had studied at 1 xi. or mistress of the class. chap. The now been prominent in Italy. and divers manual arts. in order to learn and read therein the same lesson. which were revised and perfected in 1694. All of these. not only in religion but in "that which conlife and its maintenance" were taught "reading. Les wais Constitutions des Religieuses de la Congregation de Nostre Dame. arithmetic. 103. and second was founded by Father Cesar de Bus. except the Ursulines were founded The first has long found in all lands. methods of teaching the different branches. all the others. The third was founded by the Blessed Peter Fourier (1565-1640). honorable and peculiarly suitable for girls" of their station of life. ^-Digitized by Microsom . In this he laid down rules for the organization and management of schools. HISTORY OF EDUCATION and the Piarists. This noted Order offered free instruction to tradesmen's daughters. In 1640 Fourier gave the sisterhood a constitution and a rule. shall endeavor. and provided for a rudimentary form of class organization. as far as it possibly can be carried out. had not been thought of for boys.. following her and following this lesson. 2d ed. in southern France. and played an important many of them originating in Paris. may learn it sooner. so that. sewing. the beginAn Uesuline nings of such work were here introduced for Order founded.346 in France. 1 The Piarists were established in Italy. in 1597. and its purpose was to teach the Catechism to the young. The girls The inspectress.

influential' of the The largest and most teaching orders established for elementary education was the "Institute of the Brothers of the Christian tioned by Father La Salle at Rouen. and after 1648 in Austria and Hungary. By 1606 he had 900 pupils in his schools. and which have revealed what a modern type of educational experiment they conducted. religion) education. counting. condemned them to extinction. 181) reveals the dominant characteristic of most education for church ends at the time. and were organized by provinces and were under discipline as were the members of the older Order. Schools. had a scheme of studies similar to their Ratio. It included both elementary and secondary education. The Jansenists. 1898). and in 1684 he organized his disciples. but never extended itself. New York." The congregation was a reaction against the work and methods of the Jesuits. and by 1613 he had 1200. at Port Royal. "There they wrote those books which have explained : to succeeding generations what they attempted. tional opportunities for the poor. conducted a very interesting and progressive educational experiment. 182). As early as 1679 La Salle had begun a school at Rheims. The members wore a habit much like that of the Jesuits. founded by Saint Cyran. Valencia. in an age of suspicion and intolerance. in 1640 in Bohemia. and outlined the work of The object was to provide free elethe brotherhood (R. in 1642 in Poland. writing. After seventeen years of work it was suppressed through the opposition of the Jesuits. and their schools have become known to history as the "Little Schools of Port Royal. and probably never had more than sixty pupils and teachers.COUNTER-REFORMATION OF CATHOLICS Lerida. The progressive and modern nature of their teaching. in 1684. Port-Royal Education (Scribners. The Brothers of the Christian School s. many of the brief pedagogical writings of members of the Order. In 1621 Pope Gregory XV gave his work definite recognition by establishing it a teaching Order for elementary (reading. and saneby the King and Pope in 1724. all tHe intense religious atmosphere which they threw about their work (R. but its chief services were in border Catholic lands. Digitized by Microsoft® . Yet despite the progressive nature of their instruction. The Order did some work in Italy and Spain. and its members fled to the Netherlands. he 347 Being struck by the lack of educaopened a free school for their instruction. In 1 63 1 it began work in Moravia. modeled on that of the Jesuits. prescribed a costume to be worn. and Alcala." founded 1 for translations of See especially Felix Cadet.

2 ing. In addition to a good education of the type of the time and thorough grounding in religion. Realizing better than the Jesuit s the need for wellto supply trained rather than highly educated teac hers for and unable members Icfmeet the outside calls for schools. under were graded into cl asses^ and Thecufriculum was unusually rich for a time when teaching methods ancTtfertbooks were but poorly developed. to the 1 The dis cipline in contradistinction customary practice of the time. To have graded the children and introduced class instruction in 1684 was an important advan^g^raeK fcKeMt'BrWSis been slow in learning. -La Salleiarganized at Rheims.ed in inrJustry. It was the method in American schools until well toward the middle of the nineteenth century. what was prob- ablyJhe-second norrmdjjghx^far training teachers in-the-w&r-ld. first published in 1720. dates from 2 The numerous pictures of schools and educational literature well into the nineteenth century show the general prevalence of the individual method of instruction. the stud ent tea chers learned_ to teach in the direction of experienced teachers. In addition to elemen- tary schoolsTafew of what wejh^uJdjcaLpart-tirrjje_cx>ntinuation schools were organized f or j^httdrenj^gaj. Francke's German Seminarium Praceplorum. p ractice schools. and spell French.r injjrance. Much prominence was given to writ"The pupIIs"inTJa Salle's schools the class method ofinsJxuction was introduce d. and to do fpr elementary education what the Jesuits had done for secondary education. notes. telling their beads. Much free questionin g was allowed in arithmetic and the Catechism. mass was said daily. to Insure perfect understanding of what was taught. Those who mastered this easily were taught the Latin Psalter in addition. 1696. though all pun- Father Demia. Children learned first to read. the needs for literary education small. A half-hour daily was given to the Catechism. the crucifix was always on the wall. La Salle's training-school dates from 1684. had organized what was probably the first training- school for masters. at Halle.348 HISTORY OF EDUCATION mentary and religious instruction in the vernacular for the children of the working classes. the instruction being applied to the writing of bills. Religious training was made the most prominent feature of the school. La Salle's Conduct of Schools. 1 Another was organized later at Paris. the first in German lands. and the like. as was natural. in 1685. was mild. instruction inthgjvgrnacula. and two or three pupils were always to be found receipts. write. was the ratio studiorum His work marks the real beginning of f ree primary of his order. at Lyons. and to do simple composition work in the vernacular. commerce and little children. in 1672. kneeling. . and when children could not as yet be spared from work longer than the age of nine or ten.

four normal Though schools for training teachers. which must be made of two All offenses. and a code of signals replaced speech for many ^ the Order met with much opposition from both church and civil authorities.COUNTER-REFORMATION OF CATHOLICS 349 Fig. 104. A School of La Salle at Paris. at Rouen) rule.three primary schools. it made slow but steady headway. Later the corporal punishment was replaced by pengjj^s&ed by Microsoft® Everything was according to rule. the Order had one general normal school. thirty-five years after its foundation. ten to twelve inches long. were specified. sewed together. in 1719. all speech was to be in a low voice. 1 James ishments were carefully prescribed by in the school The rule of silence tone of things. and one continuation school. thirty. and the strips of leather. At the time of the death of La Salle. . was rigidly enjoined. number and location of the blows for each. three practice schools. 1 The Order re- even the ferule. II it A visit of and the Archbishop of Paris to the School (From a bas-relief on the statue of La Salle.

and approximately 30. by 1792. Total : 137 housm. about 1000 brothers. While relatively small in numbers. B e» T J p ^. showing the locations of their communities 1792 elementary education in any Catholic country before well into the nineteenth century.350 HISTORY OF EDUCATION mained largely French. ohont 1 000 Brotliera and 36000 pupil*. and at the time of its suppression. Eslmyer IT) In Switzerland Fort-Royal (F) in Martinique. and it Church. This was approximately 1 child in every 175 of school age of the population of France at that time.000 children in its schools.F) 1767-1777 Aoalhon (A> 1777-1795 the eommuniilei in <BA. in 1792. Or. when La Salle was declared a Saint of the had 1898 co^punj^e^p^j^: continents. In 1803 the Order was reestablished. had schools in 121 communities in France and 6 elsewhere. The distribution of their schools throughout France. their schools represented the best attempt to provide * 5 '*T *xT~\ a 1 fl- o f -si*- " V 131 had in France communities— SO 0(B<leUSaU«(B)lftt0-l7l7 t of B Barlholonww 1717-17*) 65 Timothy (Tl 17-20-1 7M 11 9 — - 9 Widei Rome Clauds <C> 1751-1767 Florence <. —faiitUlnaudajy VRoua Fig.\ Ferrari (Tf. in 1887. by 1838 it had schools in 282 communities. 109 of which . 105. is shown on the map above. vleio'Aiin Italy. The Brothers or the Christian Schools by Map.

and schools alike suffered. and it required time to replace them. and was teaching a mately 300. 5 . but of the latter. in all Protestant lands. 351 total of approxi- General Results of the Reformation on Education Destruction and creation of schools. was very far number needed to carry out the Protestant religious theory. but in England probably most of all. Monasteries. the grammar schools of a to train scholars and leaders. as we have seen. proposed to extend the elements of an education to large and entirely new classes of people who never before in the history of the world had had such advantages. In all the countries where revolts took place these institutions suffered more or less. with the accompanying bitter hatreds and religious strife. quired time. tion. and long periods of the number short of the time have been required for its accomplishment. and no source of taxation from which to derive a steady flow of funds. was slow. no theory as to education except the religious.000 primary children.COUNTER-REFORMATION OF CATHOLICS were in the United States. and the parish schools into Protest- ant elementary schools to teach reading and the Catechism. though. the reformers made an earnest effort This. they had nevertheless answered partially the need of the times. to the limited number whom it taught. The evolution. and unsuited to the needs world fast becoming modern. no theory of state support and control. especially as there Was as yet in the world no body of vernacular teachers. Out of the Protestant religious conception that all should be educated the popular elementary school of modern times has been evolved. This from the proceeds of its age-old endowments and educational foundations. reto create new schools and supply teachers. The old schools which were not destroyed were transformed into Protestant schools. In the pj/pesa e| /teagfemation from a Catholic . their functions. could not help but result in extensive destruction of established institutions. This. In place of the schools destroyed. Throughout the long Middle Ages the Church had supplied gratuitous it or nearly gratuitous instruc- could do. no supply of educated men or women from which to draw. Any such general overturning of the established institutions and traditions of a thousand years as occurred at the time of the Protestant Revolts. or the teachers driven out if no destruction took place. no institutions in which such could be trained. though. churches. Even though they had been neglectful of inadequate in number.

In consequence there was for long little money for school support. . The landed unused to providing education for 1 their villein tenants and serfs. tuity or not furnished at all. and the Reformation movements had brought into being. more than a cen- tury of turmoil and religious the old relations. were averse to supplying the Nor were the rising deficiency by any form of general taxation. The creation of a largely new type of schools. while the Thirty Years' War which formed its culmination left the German of centuries. Out of the parish sextons or clerks a supply of vernachad to be evolved. the rise of modern nationalities. The great demand of the time.352 HISTORY OF EDUCATION and especially during the strife to a Protestant State. too. As the Protestant reformdiverted ers were supported generally by the ruling princes. largely Latin in type. a where the largest early educational progress had been ruin. and religious interest and church tithes had to be depended on almost entirely for the establishment and support States. of schools. and in sufficient numbers to meet the needs of large classes of people who before had never shared in real No the advantages of education. were demanded rather than elementary vernacular schools for both sexes. demand for elementary schools. For this secondary schools for boys. was not so much for the education of the masses. which followed the rupture of endowments were lost or were from their original purposes. many of these of the old tried to many remedy the deficiency by ordering schools established. it took until well into the nineteenth century actually to create and make a reality. and the feeling of need for education awakened sufficiently ular teachers In consequence what to make people willing to support schools. but for the training of leaders -for the new religious and social order which the Revival of Learning. however desirable or even necessary this might be from the standpoint of Protestant religious theory. Luther and Calvin declared at the beginning of the sixteenth century to be a necessity for the State and the common right of all. tion made. a system of school organization and supervision worked out and added to the duties of the minister. in consequence proved to be a work The century of warfare whichfollowed the reformamovement more or less exhausted all Europe. merchant classes in the cities any more anxious to pay taxes to provide for artisans and servants what had for ages been a granobility though.

the secondary schools were in the Latin tongue and for the training of the scholarly leaders. 1500 to 1700 time to be considered as important also. The elementary vernacular and for the masses. It will be seen from this that not only was the secondary school still the dominant type. Tendencies in Educational Development in Europe. 353 We accordingly find the great creations of the period were secondLines of future development established. The drawing given here will' help to make this evident. The secondary schools also frequently provided preparatory schools for their particular classes of children. though elementary schools began for the first 106. This — As a result. This difference was further emphasized with time. and a secondary-school system for the classes We in America did not develop exist to-day side by side. an elementary-school systhrough Europe two school Systems tem for the masses. Be- tween these two schools. lines of future Still more. there was little in common. though we started that way. so different in type and in clientele. all — was because the conc^fie^ W%t«fisMon we finally developed . such a class school system.COUNTER-REFORMATION OF CATHOLICS ary schools. but that the secondary schools were in the schools were wholly independent of the elementary schools which now began to be created. The elementary schools later on added subjects of use to the common people. certain development now became clearly established. while the secondary schools added subjects of use for scholarly preparation or for university entrance.

Compare the attention to careful religious instruction in the secondary What schools provided by the Lutherans. 18. man of vision. was a teaching and not a ques. Does the success of the Order show the importance to society of finding and educating the future leader? Can all men be trained for leadership? tt What does the statement that the Jesuits were "too practical to make many changes. HISTORY OF EDUCATION of a new democratic for elementary and secondary teaching with those required by the Jesuits: (a) as to length of preparation. and why England and the Catholic nations of Europe were so long in develo$WpfitMfe8f Sterns. What is meant by the statement that the Jesuit teaching method. 3. Explain why modern state systems of education developed first in the German States. 14. ' — — . 13. how do you explain the great freedom allowed in questioning on arithmetic and the Catechism? i^. How could we develop an aim as clearly defined and potent as theirs? Could we select teachers with such care? How? the religious and educational propaganda of the Jesuits with the recent political propaganda of the Germans. analogous instruction do we provide in the American high schools? Is it as thorough or as well done? Compare the scope and ideals of the educational system provided by the Calvinists with the same for the Lutherans and Anglicans. (b) as to nature and scope of preparation. as will be explained QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION i. Calvinists. Why must the education of leaders always precede the education of the masses? *?. as summarized by Foster. tioning method? te.' Explain how European countries came naturally to have two largely independent school systems a secondary school for leaders and an elementary school for the masses whereas we have only one continuous system. in mind. like that of the modern German Volksschule." but had"akeeneye for what was best " in the work of others. . Why should La Salle's work have been so opposed by both Church and civil authorities? Do you consider that his Order ever made what would be called rapid progress? *£. indicate as to the nature of school administration and educational progress? ^/indicate the advantages which the Jesuits had in their teachers and teaching-aim over us of to-day. with present-day state educational purposes. Just what kind of a school system did Knox propose (1 560) for Scotland? j/'Show how the educational program of the Jesuits reveals Ignatius Loyola 2. W. 4.354 was a product later on. and English. Compare present American standards for teacher. How do you explain the introduction of sewing into the elementary vernacular Catholic schools for girls. so long before handiwork for boys . Compare the characteristics of Calvinistic (Huguenot) education. as a (i. Viewed from the purposes the Order had was it warranted in neglecting the education of the masses? \jf. Compare — was thought of? is/ In schools so formally organized as those of La Salle.

History of the Rise of the Huguenots of France. H. Compare the religious care at Port Royal (181) with that suggested by Saint Jerome (R. Laurie. Kilpatrick: Work of the Dutch in developing Schools. Schwickerath. Education during the Renaissance. W. Statutes: The Scotch School Law of 1646.-de la Salle. W." QUESTIONS ON THE READINGS 1. H. 6. B. Loyola. C. A. Kilpatrick: Character of the Dutch Schools of 1650. Ravelet. 176. C. 2. and the Educational System of the Jesuits. Wm. Baird. S. Synod of Dort: Scheme of Christian Education adopted. History of the Burgh Schools of Scotland. 177. Kilpatrick. Blessed J. school supervision. Grant.COUNTER-REFORMATION OF CATHOLICS SELECTED READINGS 355 In the accompanying Book of Readings the following selections are reproduced: 175. 180. ' SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES Baird. 182. History of Educational Opinion since the Renaissance. Jas. its History and Principles in the Light of Modern Educational Problems. 5. Gerard: The Dominant Religious Purpose in the Education of French Girls. and ministerial duties? Compare the work of the Dutch (177) and the Lutherans (159-163) in creating schools. 4. Woodward: Course of Study at the College of Geneva. Woodward. La Salle: Rules for the "Brothers of the Christian Schools. Jesuit Education. Thos. Huguenot Emigration to America. the College at Geneva (175) a true humanistic-revival school? Just what did the Synod of Dort provide for (176) in the matter of schools. Digitized by Microsoft® . 179. 178. Just what type of school is indicated by selection 178? Just what did the Scotch law of 1646 provide for (179)? Characterize the schools provided for by La Salle (182). 7. R. 181. Was 3. S. The Dutch Schools of New Netherlands and Colonial New York. Hughes. Pachtler: The Ratio Studiorum of the Jesuits. W. 45).

After some warfare. In 1685 this was revoked. under which the so-called "Edict of Nantes" guaranteed religious toleration for the Protestants. Europe was in the midst of a century of warfare in a vain attempt to extirpate the Protestant heresy. the Calvinistic in 1 Dutch and Walloons. The members^w^fgh^we^er^faj^dden to leave. because here they could enjoy a religious freedom impossible in This was especially true of the French their old home-lands. By the time that the futility of conversion ha'd finally expression in terrible trip fire and sword as means for religious dawned upon Christian Europe and found Peace of Westphalia (i6 4. the Scotch and Scotch-Irish Representing not over one tenth of the population. after the revocation of the Edict o1 Nantes 1 (1685). England.8~). new world just twenty-five years before Luther by the nailed his theses to the church door at Wittenberg. Practically the early settlers in America came from among the peoples and from those lands which had embraced some form of the Protestant faith. THE REFORMATION AND AMERICAN EDUCATION The covered the Columbus had disProtestant settlement of America. and time the northern continent had been roughly explored and was ready for settlement. fled to America and settled along the coast the Carolinas. though. are so closely tied up with the Protestant Revolts in Europe that a chapter on the beginnings of American education belongs here as still another phase of the educational results of the Protestant all Revolts.. and many of them came to America to found new homes and establish their churches in the wilderness. who settlei e* and about New Amsterdam. These settlements. and their ministers were given fifteen days to leave France. TJoun got away. Huguenots. a treaty was made. the Protestants in France had from the first been subjected to much persecution. Many. Engla . many of whom. In the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew (1572) over one thousand had been massacred in Paris and ten thousand more in the provinces. and the beginnings of education in America. 30).CHAPTER XV EDUCATIONAL RESULTS OF THE PROTESTANT REVOLTS III. in 1598. the first permanent settlements in a number of the American colonies had been made. escaping to the Low XJoun tries. and to America.which closed the Thirty Years' War (p.

and because of this will be considered first. The EngBible and the English Prayer-Book had been issued to the churches (R. and a few English Baptists and Methodists in eastern Pennsylvania. what were virtually little religious republics. i7o). who settled the New England colonies. who settled in large numbers in the mountain valleys of Pennsylvania. the foundation of those type attitudes toward education which subsequently so materially shaped the educational development of the different American States during the early part of our and later in New York and New Jersey. the Calvinistic Puritans who came to who settled the New England colonies contributed most that was valuable to the future educational development of America. in the colony in which they settled. As a result of these settlements there was laid. from the first elicited the serious attention of these pioneer settlers. Moravians. Of all those this early period. and Reformed-Church Germans. during the early colonial period of American history. and who.BEGINNINGS IN AMERICA Presbyterians. in what is now the United States. Dunkers. that through them they might the better perpetuate the religious principles for which they had left the land of their birth. gave direction to the future development of education in the American States.Mnd the King instead of the Pope had been xn and lish xiii. along the Delaware. These settlements are shown on the map on the following page. more than any others. Each set up. by a group of persecuted English Catholics who obtained a charter from Charles II. Englishmen who were adherents (Anglicans) also settled in Virginia nies. the English Quakers about Philadelphia. and the perpetuation of a learned ministry for the congregations. 357 who settled in New Jersey. and later extended along the Allegheny Mountain ridges into all the southern colonies. Digitized by Microsoft® . Mennonites. in 1632. The original reformation in England. national history. The Puritans America during in New England. who came under the leadership of William Penn. Practically all of these early religious groups came to America in little congregations. bringing their ministers with them. as was stated in chapters had been much more nominal than real. the Swedish Lutherans. Education of the young for membership in the Church. known as Puritans. of the English national faith ' and the other southern colowhile Maryland was founded as the only Catholic colony. and the Calvinistic dissenters from the English National Church. the German Lutherans.

had continued in the churches under the new regime. and the church service had not greatly changed aside from its transformation from Fig. 183). though. its Neither the Church as an organization nor religious reformation. 153) to be the head of the English National Church. The same priests. and in consequence there came to be a gradually increasing number who desired a more fundamental reform of the English Church. Map showing the Religious Settlements in America Latin into English.358 HISTORY OF EDUCATION declared by the Act of Supremacy (R. members experienced any great Not all Englishmen. though. took the change in allegiance so lightly (R. 107. By 1600 the demand for Church reform had Digitized by Microsoft® .

after living for several years at Leyden. finally set in 1620. and particularly the introduction more preaching into the service. 108. and had become deeply imbued with Calvinistic thinking. The other class constituted a much more radical group. in Holland. and many of their congregations were forced to flee from England to obtain personal safety and to enjoy religious liberty (R. in north184) . landed on Plymouth Rock. central England. moreover. when Charles I was beheaded and "The Commonwealth" was established under Cromwell. known or Separatists. and formed the germs early the later Congregational groups of of New England. Homes of the Pilgrims. and their Route to America Elizabeth (1558-1603) and James I (1603-25) savagely persecuted this more radical group. and began the settlement of that "bleak and stormy coast. the elimination of a number of the vestiges of the old of Romish-Church ritual. sail for America. or congregathe and desired complete elimination of all vestiges of the Romish church faith from 'as the services. from Scrooby. for Protestant Commonwealth — ^j^fjTO^gJJ^^fg^- . possessed of no desire to separate Church and State. 359 purification and the question of Church (whence the name "Puritans") had become a burning question in England." 2 many after the establishment of the Some of these went back to England II nas been estimated.BEGINNINGS IN AMERICA become very insistent. The English Puritans. One was " a moderate but influential " low-church " group within the " high State Church. 1 They became Independents. it having been 2 estimated that twenty thousand English Puritans migrated to 1 The culmination of this dissatisfaction came in 1649. During the troubled times which followed (1649-60) much damage was done to the churches of England by way of eliminating vestiges of "popery. of the different stood for the local inde- pendence churches tions. Both Fig." Other congregations soon followed. but earnestly insistent on a simplification of the Church ceremonial. One of these fugitive congregations. tion to This group gradually came into open opposiany State Church. were of two classes.

to secure religious freedom. and which became known as a New England town. 334). Being deeply imbued with Calvinistic ideas as to government and religion. America homes and the setting up of the civil government (R. they fairly well-to-do at once set up a combined civil and religious form of government. English precedents were followed. were established to provide this rudimentary instruction. somewhat after the model of Geneva after the building of their (p. 201). federation. Having come to Beginnings of schools in New England. with practically the same iuT\ctioWiptfa$tfy<JStfchsso8® . which was quite common in England among the Puritans. and later the English "dame schools" (chapter xvtii). At first. that the population follows: by decades was approximately 1640 1000 14000 8000 1650 3000 18000 1 7000 1660 6000 25000 33000 as New 1 Netherlands Massachusetts Virginia 1630 500 1300 3000 The name and the form came alike from old England. or legislature. The English apprentice system was also established (R. or Scotland (p. 1 In time the southern portion of the coast of New England was dotted with little selfgoverning settlements of those who had come to America to obtain for themselves that religious freedom which had been These settlements were loosely bound denied them at home. 298). 185). or the Dutch provinces (p. it was but natural that the perpetuation of their particular faith by means of education should have been one of the first matters to engage their attention. Home instruction. These represented a New type of middle-class Englishmen. Settling along the coast in little groups or congregations. in which each town was repretogether in a colony The extent of these sented in a General Court. they desired to found here a religious commonwealth. 335).360 the HISTORY OF EDUCATION England wilderness before 1640. the corner-stones of which should be religion and education. town elementary schools under a master. Almost every town and parish officer known in England was created by the new towns in New England. where an irregular area known as a "town" or a "township. and the masters of apprentices gave similar instruction to boys entrusted three of the early colonies. was naturally much employed to teach the children to read the Bible and to train them to participate in both the family and the congregational worship. settlements by 1660 is shown on the map on the opposite page. modeled in a way after Calvin's City-State at Geneva." constituted the unit of representation in the shiremoats and the membership of the church parish. After 1647. practically all of whom had had good educational advantages at home.

as a few^ towns in England had done (R. The grammar school at Fig. 143) before the Puritans migrated. also began the little grammar schools. 109. under which congregations organized themselves. 361 all The town religious governments. much as the little religious parishes had been organized in old England.BEGINNINGS IN AMERICA to their care. Ni0^^&M#' SS9gfi®M£NTS < ) 1660 . v The "Latin School" at Boston dates from 1635. and has had a the voluntary establishment of town continuous existence since that time.

the town of Boston. as ter. and though the main stream of English theology was by this time flowing in the channel of the mother tongue. in either old or New England. 225. In 1639 Dorchester voted: Tomsons Island that there shall be a rent of 20 lb a year for eve r imposed vpon toward the mayntenance of a schoole in DorchesThis rent of 20 lb yearly to bee payd to such a schoole-maste]. 194 c). and also writing.) centuries of tough life in it. These are among the earliest of the permanent endowments for education in America. The founding of the "free (grammar) school" at Roxburie.362 HISTORY OF EDUCATION Charlestown dates from 1636. 3 Massachusetts. See The Development fy^h^^ff^XtjP fM° n Jackson. and other tongues. such fitting cal! ' and them x The original schopl. the sacred tongue of western Christendom. in 1670. and the Vulgate Bible had been dethroned by the original text. on School Street. in 1639. in 1641. 188) of the early methods. and Plymouth. shall vndertake to teach english." Cam- : ' ' ' 31 bridge also early established a Latin grammar school " for the training up of Young Schbllars. devoted the income from Deere Island to the support of schools. E. by George L. Though the Latin service was no longer used by Protestants.. and their church establishment was the very heart of their enterprise. ^ . There was no uniform plan as yet. voted "foure akers of upland" and "sixe akers marsh" to Anthony Somerby "for his encouragement to . 185)." f JjsajjjgpB^ : and later levied a town rate of Siiftiip'E 8SfejF%' ' £24 at for a "schoole to be kepte MbF* WkmS&^&li-' -lite? ' ^e meetul& house. It became therefore a matter of primary importance to educate preachers. The Boston Latin Grammar School for AcademiLearning" (R. a town tax. The said schoole-master to bee chosen from tyme to tyme pr the freemen. Fig. no. ^^ ___ keepe schoole for one yeare. . for a careful study%rthe different early msthods of school support. ." 2 For example. The support for the town schools thus founded was 'de j rived from various sources. fee?. in 1645. and the school at Salem from 1637.' 1 trre-mcome from town lands or 2 fisheries set aside for the purpose. with King's Chapel on the left as th e levying *of tuition _ . The Transit of Civilization. or a combination of two or more of these methods. appropriated the income from the Cape Cod fishing industry to the support of grammar schools (R. the notion that all ministers should know Latin had still some (Eggleston. p. voluntary contributions from 3 the people of the town. - . that at Ipswich from the same year. . For ages preparation for the ministry had consisted mainly in acquiring a knowledge of Latin. i • 1 "The settlers were in the first freshness of their Utopian enthusiasm. latine. of salt Newbury. is representative (R.

by the General Court (legislature) of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. and many were graduates of Cambridge University. 186 b) reveal the of studies (R. located at Newtowne.H>f the arts and a media^ gcyiiversity. the attendance during that time seldom exceeding twenty. a college was founded. In 1639 the college was christened Harvard College. about £850^^^ The instruction in theological the new college was a combijBtit . call for The entrance requirements for the college (R. In addition to establishing Latin schools. who died in Charlestown." This new college. The colonial legislation: the Law of 1642. college. the rules and precepts for the government of the lege (R.hundred and sixty volumes and half his property. A century later Brown College. in 1636. was granted even more extenIn the charter for the sive exemptions (R. 185) to the churches after "our present ministers shall lie in the dust. For the first fifty years at Harvard this coninstruction given in tinued to be true. 186 d) show that the instruction was true to the European type. the Latin grammar to New England represented a sturdy and well-educated They came of thrifty and well-to-do class of English country squires and yeomen. was modeled after Emmanuel College at Cambridge. 187 a). cational advantages. Cambridge. though at Harvard the President. an English Puritan college in which many 1 of the early New England colonists had studied. and in loving memory of which they rechristened Newtowne as Cambridge. All had had good edustock. 186 a) the completion of a typical English Latin grammar-school col- education. 186 c) both. 187 first b). We also see the establishment in the wilderness of New England of a typical manifested early in English educational system ing New — that is. and who left the college his library of two.BEGINNINGS IN AMERICA grammar 363 Founding of Harvard College. It has The Puritan emigrants been asserted that probably RtSife^AmeMi&e^sS^ropoTtion of college men in the community been so large. after a graduate of Emmanuel College. Master Dunster (Iff 185)..Calvinistic zeal for learning as a bulwark of Church and State. to perpetuate learning and insure an educated ministry (R. the shiftless and incompetent not being represented. private instruction in read- and religion by the parents in the home and by the masters of apprentices. granted by the colonial legislature in 1650 (R. did all the teaching. . 1 and later by a town schoolmaster. a year after his arrival in the colony. deep religious motive. and the schedule and the requirements for degrees (R. we find exemptions and conditions which remind one strongly of the older European foundations. We thus see England the deep Puritan. in Rhode Island. by the name of John Harvard.

if the parents and masters were attending to their educational duties. a legislative body representing the State ordered that all children should be taught to read. of 1642 (R. &c. Councilmen) of each from time to time. and if children were being taught "to read and understand the principles of religion and the capital laws of the country.364 HISTORY OF EDUCATION school in the larger towns. Still further." and empowered them to impose fines on "those who refuse to render such accounts to them when required. It early became evident. but also the influence of the English Poor-Law legislation which had developed rapidly during the half-century immediately preceding the coming of the Puri- Poor the tans to America (R. to prepare boys for the college of the them for the minwas clearly subordinate to the Church. many parents and masters of apprentices colony. all evidently proved neglectful of their educational duties. and the suffering which ensued. As in England. The law shows clearly not only the influence of the Reformation theory as to personal salvation and the Calvinistic conception of the connection between learning and religion. . 174) our New England settlers moulded first American law relating to education. the system was voluntary. ingly the Gjtthrfi appealed to in the coliM I Accord- its servant. The was the famous Massachusetts Law to ascertain. halfe pikes. too. if the children were being trained "in learning and labor and other employments profitable to the Commonwealth". the deep religious interest which had brought the congregations to America being depended upon to insure for all the necessary education and religious training. On the foundations of the English Law of 1601 (R. 190)." In 1645 the General Court further ordered that all youth between ten and sixteen years of age should also receive instruction "in ye exercise of arms. . that these voluntary efforts on the part of the people and the towns would not be sufficient to insure that general education which was required by the Puritan religious theory." The Law of 1642 is remarkable in that. bowes & arrows. 173). as represented assist it in compelling «islature (General Court) to parents result an^JSters to observe their religious obligations. Under the hard pioneer conditions. as in England also. the State. adding to the principles there estabfiffiSJ^ ^JS^Ptfflistittct Calvinistic contri- . which directed town "the chosen men" (Selectmen. and an English-type college to prepare istry. English-speaking world. though. as small guns. for the first time in the .


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and That every town having one hundred householders must provide a grammar school to fit youths for the university. by keeping ym in an unknowne tongue. The Law of 16/fl. 2. 179). The provision of education. the General Court enacted another law by means of which it has been asserted that "the Puritan government of Massachusetts rendered probably its greatest servmasters ice to the future. lie rather in the practices of the different German States 318). and the courts usually looked after their duties in the matter (R. 334." After recounting in a preamble (R. the authorities of the civil town should see that all children were taught "to read and understand the principles of religion and the capital laws of the country. . was still left with the homes.BEGINNINGS IN AMERICA 365 bution to our new-world life that. 192)." This law the Selectmen. the results of which were not satisfactory. or direct the employment of schoolmasters. the actions of the Dutch synods (R. acting again as the ." so now "by pswading from ye use of tongues. and the general Calvinistic principle that educa- tion was an important function of a religious State. until the latter part of the nineteenth century that England took such a step. The Law of 1642. under a penalty of £5 (afterwards increased to £20) for failure to do so. 176) and provinces (p. the Acts of the Scottish parliament of 1633 and 1646 (p." learning was in danger of rs e r e being "buried in y grave of o fath in y church and comonwealth". 191) that it had in the past t been "one cheife piect of y ould deluder. however. while ordering " the chosen men" of each town to see that the education and training of children was not neglected. were ordered to enforce. establish schools. and provide for his wages in such manner as the town might determine. or the courts if they failed to do so. Satan. did not. and for this there are no English precedents. Principles establishiSfofeeThje/v&tateff&ere. 335). That every town having fifty householders should at once appoint a teacher of reading and writing." e e and "obscuring y true sence & meaning of y original!" by "false glosses of saint-seeming deceivers. to keepe men e from the knowledge of y Scriptures. This law represents a distinct step in advance over the Law of It was not 1642. The precedents for the compulsory establishment of schools (p.. After a trial of five years.. after the English fashion. R. the Court ordered: 1. and providing for fines on parents and who failed to render accounts when required.

" adds Mr. The Evo^no^fhe^fassa^seUs . though the school attendance is not. states the fundamental principles which underlay this legislation. Public money. ^ Martin." To prevent a return to the former state of religious ignorance it was important that education be provided. may be used to provide such education as the State requires. Tjfie State has a right to enforce this obligation. 3. 5. 6. "that the all this legislation is neither paternalistic nor socialistic. nor because it can educate better than the parent can. is important to note here. for youths who wish to be fitted for the university. Martin. in the light of later developments. The tax may be general. s'chool Law of 1650 establishing a Connecticut Colsystem. Education higher than the rudiments may be supplied by the State. pp. This law became the corner-stone of our "It idea underlying American ony. The obligation to furnish this education rests primarily upon the parent. for the first time among English-speaking people. but because the State will suffer if he is not educated. and the minimum amount. Opportunity must be provided. as follows: 1 schools. under penalty if they refused to do so. The child is to be educated. H. It asserted. there was an assertion of the right of the State to require communities to establish and maintain — can be safely two laws of 1642 and 1647 represent the foundations upon which our American state public-school systems have been built. and — secondary for youths in the larger towns but. The State does not provide schools to relieve the parent. not to advance his personal interests. that the 1. Martin. but because it can thereby better enforce the obligation which it imposes.366 HISTORY OF EDUCATION servant of the Church. Influence on other New England colonies. combined the Public-School System. enacted a law and fixed a tradition which prevailed and grew in strength and effectiveness after State and Church had parted company.. Not only was a school system ordered established elementary for all towns and Children. Mr. 4. To assure this the colonial legislature enacted a law requiring the maintenance and support of schools by the towns. Geo. the historian of the Massachusetts public-school system. universal education of youth is essential to the well-being of the State. The State may fix a standard which shall determine the kind of education. The 2. at public expense. in its state school systems. raised by general tax.

Where Yale College was folinded schools were founded The home of the Reverend Samuel Russell. though stated in different words (R. 193). In 1702 a college was founded (Yale) and finally located at New Haven. in September. in 1665. ear- for the ministry in the Connecticut as lier had been done in Massachusetts. and the Law of 1647. new college. 194 a). having over fifty families and maintaining a grammar school were ordered aided from the fishery proceeds (R. and Latin grammar Fig. 194 d). that the influence of the Massachusetts legislation on these States was negligible until a later period Digitized by Microsoft® . ordered that children and apprentices in 1642. 189) reveal the purpose and describe the instruction provided »in one of the earliest and best of these. in 1655. 1701 ford. the necticut Code Conbecame the law for the united colonies. The first meeting to organize the was held there. in 1677. The Massachusetts laws shire. in 1658 and again in 1663. but on the union of New Haven and Connecticut Colo- nies. Massachusetts Laws of 1642 and. 194 c). Harvard College by gifts (R. hi. also applied to and Vermont. proposed to the towns that they "sett vp" a schoolmaster "to traine vp children In 1672 the towns were to reading and writing" (R. and regulations for the grammar school at New Haven (R. in 1680. New Haven Colony. stated word for word. as these Maine. at Branin Connecticut towns to prepare for the the Conn. as also The rules . New Hampwere then a part of Massachusetts When New Hampshire separated off. In Maine and Vermont there were so few settlers. should be taught to read. the Colony. 1647 were continued in force. as had been done in Massachusetts. 194 b) In 1673-74 the asked to aid income from the Cape Cod fisheries was set aside for the support Finally. to offer preparation colony. until near the beginning of our national life. BEGINNINGS IN AMERICA spirit of 367 the Massachusetts Law of 1642. Plymouth Colony. all towns of a (grammar) school (R.. college had been done earlier in Massachusetts.

dating from 1682. did the Massachusetts legislation fail to exert a deep influence. In the central colonies a series of parochial-school systems came to prevail. — — . and some dozen villages about New York and up the Hudson had been founded by the time it passed to the control of the English. the appeal to the State as the servant of the Church was seldom made during the early colonial period. and organized on a basis of hospitality to all who suffered from religious oppression elsewhere. in 1664. the churches handling the educational problem own way. and laid down the conditions under which the school should be conducted. which was copied in the New'?wiKmaTO(Wa?sflK8 a combination of a public and parochial. in their The church schools of New York. 195). In these the Dutch established typical home-land public parochial schools. employed and' licensed the teacher. but sat apart and recited in separate classes. school. nevertheless the public authorities at that time a mixture of civil and church officials provided the. sometimes a little arithmetic. the reading of a few religious books. Outside of the New England colonies. 1 1 The charging of a tuition fee to those who could afford to pay was a common European practice of the time. and the contract with a Dutch schoolmaster in Flatbush (R. while in Episcopalian Virginia and the other colonies to the south the no-businessof-the-State attitude assumed toward education by the mother country was copied.368 HISTORY OF EDUCATION Only in Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. the religious basis for education was as yet the only basis. The schoolmaster was usually the reader and precentor in the church as well (R. and often acted. . as New York Colony was called before the English occupation. determined the textbooks to be used. The rules (1661) for a schoolmaster in New Amsterdam (R. the Dutch Catechism. as in Holland. Girls attended on equal terms with boys. and certain prayers. As a result the beginnings of State oversight and control were left to New England. the religious As stimulus to the founding of schools naturally was lacking. 196). The schoolmaster assisted the church by participating in the Sunday services. 195). All except the children of the poor paid fees to the schoolmaster. was settled by the Dutch West India Company. as sexton besides. Settled as these two had been by refugees from New England. the first development of schools in Rhode Island awaited the humanitarian and economic influences which did not become operative New until early in the nineteenth century. The instruction consisted of reading and writing Dutch. under the > control of the Reformed Dutch Church. and a free and pajtschool. New Netherland. The elementary school of the Dutch. of all the England colonies. reveal the type of schools and school conditions provided.

considered as most satisfactory. Draper. and all toward the establishment of schools as a part Unlike New England. As the Dutch had not come to America because of persecution. A trivial (Latin) school was also established in New York. S. All the English schools in the province ' — — The settled parochial schools of Pennsylvania. Baptists. Presbyterians. and no appeal was made to the State to have it assist the churches in the enforcement of their The clergymen were usually the teachers in religious purposes. humiliating as it is. of course.. Moravians. church control for each denomination was sect was in a majority. with schooling on a tuition or a charitable basis. all believed in the necessity of learn- to personal salvation. Lutherans. with the favor of the government The law governfor the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. Pennsylvania was of the by Quakers. and this continued up to the beginning of our national period. did nothing to facilitate the extension or promote the efficiency of free elementary schools among the people. all of whom came to America to secure greater religious liberty and had been attracted to this colony by the freedom of religious worship which Penn had provided for there. 1 of Of the English colonial schools New York Draper has written: 2 of the Declaration of from 1700 down to the time Independence were maintained by a great religious and. 3 the parochial schools established. no student of history can fail to discern the fact that the government of Great Britain. A. and members German German Reformed Church. . Indeed. society organized under the auspices of the Church of England called "The Society of course. who constituted nearly one fourth of the total population of the colony.BEGINNINGS IN AMERICA He was 369 licensed by the Dutch church authorities. Methodists. no of their church organization. much more true of New York City and Island than of the ing to read the Bible as a means made efforts looking 1 In these latter a public school was for long maintained." ing this Society provided that no teacher should be employed until he had proved "his affection for the present government" and his "conformity to the doctrine and discipline of the Church of England. a s8M/£&dMM&<i&>8£lre been established alongside the outlying 2 Dutch villages. though. 3 Among the German Lutherans. Origin and Development of the New York Common School System. in 1652. All these were Protestant sects." Schools maintained under such auspices were in no sense free schools. Mennonites. the schools they developed here were typical of the Dutch European parochial schools of the time (R. during its supremacy in this territory. came to prevail. After the English occupation the English principle of private and church control of education. while private pay schools were This was. and were in no way out of sympathy with religious conditions in the home-land. 178).

while. 198) hav- ing fyeen established the year Girls the city was founded.37o HISTORY OF EDUCATION opened in the villages and towns. provision of education. to read sermons on Sunday. a Quaker school in Philadelphia (R. So much in advance of English ideas as to what was fitting and proper was this compulsory law that it was vetoed by William and Mary. In summer I promise to hold cathechetical instruction. So lax in the matter of providing schooling had many communities become that the second Provincial Assembly. These were taught in English. John Hoffman. church by each of the congregations "at the earliest possible period after its formation. according to the origThe Quakers seem to inal language of the different immigrants. in 1774: "I. and also to lead them in the sm^gW MM¥mW clock. The result was the development in this colony of a policy of depending on church Fig. An Old Quaker MeetingPennsylvania (From an old drawing) and private effort. Under the primitive conditions of the time the interest even in religious education often declined almost to the vanishing point. have promised in the presence of the congregation." . rather than upon any higher form of training. A fine of £5 was to be assessed for failure to comply with the law. have taken particular interest in schools (R. German. writing. with the young. sitting in Philadelphia. for a short many communities made but indifferent provisions or suffered their schools to lapse. so that they might be able to read the Scriptures by the time they were twelve years old. 112." The close connection between these Lutheran congregations and their schools may be seen from the following contract. aside from certain rudimentary and religious instruction. as long as we have no pastor. when submitted to their time. or the Moravian tongue (Czech). passed an ordinance requiring (R. parochial teacher of the church at Lancaster. dated at Lancaster. 197) that all persons having children must cause them to be taught to read and write. 199). was left largely for those who could afford to pay for the privilege. and the House and School at Lampeter. and religion. and the emphasis was placed on reading. under the freedom allowed. and. were educated as well as boys. the undersigned. and also that all children _ be taught some useful trade. in 1683. Charitable education was extended to but a few. counting. aa becomes a faithful teacher. to serve as choirister.

After the English succeeded the Dutch in New Amsterdam (1664). led to the development of classes in society instead of to the New England type of democracy. attending the settlement of Virginia were in contrast to those of the New England colonies. class of English but with the impor- tant difference that whereas the senters from the England settlers were DisEngland and had come to America to New obtain freedom in religious worship. nor Pennsylvania may be said to have developed any colonial educational policy aside from that of allowing private and parochial effort to provide such schools as seemed Scotch-Irish Presbyterians ish desirable. and this in time became so firmly established that the do-as-you-please idea persisted in this State up to the establishment of the first free state school system. situated as was near the center of the different colonies.BEGINNINGS IN AMERICA majesties for approval." and later negro slaves. English methods and practice in education gradually came into control throughout most of New Jersey. the settlers in Virginia were gain. The early settlers were from the same yeomen and country Church of squires. Scotch and came from the mother country. and as a result here. New York. and Quakers and German Lutherans came over from Pennsylvania. 371 Ten years later it was reenacted by the Governor and Assembly of the colony. the EngConnecticut and later from New York. The educational practice of the colony or Jand from which each group of settlers came was reproduced in the colony. as in New York. SwedLutherans settled along the Delaware. and the lack of a strong religious motive for little New Digitized by Microsoft® . adherents of the National Church and had come to America for The marked differences in climate and possible crops led to the large plantation type of settlement. instead of the compact England town. The Dutch came from New Amsterdam. the introduction of large numbers of "indentured white servants. but proved so difficult of enforcement that it was soon dropped. The colony now settled down to a policy of nonstate action. Almost all the conditions Virginia and the southern type. the early develop- ment lish of education there was the product crossed from number of different influences. but little was accomplished in providing schools for other than a select few until well after the beginning of the nineteenth century. Mixed it conditions in New Jersey. in 1834. Neither New Jersey. In New of a Jersey. and the chance of starting education in Pennsylvania somewhat after the New England model was lost.

. "If the estate be so meane and inconsiderate that it will not reach to a free education. then that orphan [shall] be bound to some manuall trade except some friends or relatives be willing to keep them. "according to the aforesaid laudable custom in the Kingdom of England. The tutor in the home. the justices of the peace should bind put children to tradesmen or husbandmen to be . Delaware. 200 a). training in a trade. all. and the Carolinas followed the English fashion of Virginia. were typically All is education the seventeenth-century legislation relating to based on the English Poor-Law legislation. attitude. or education in the mother country were the prevailing methods adopted among the well-to-do planters. .. . As the mother country." 1646. and included the compulsory apprenticeship of the children of the poor. characteristic feature. the require- ously described the public authorities must provide opportunities for type of education. Virginia remained practice. and followed the English example. "To avoid sloth and idleness . reached by this ment that Massachusetts in 1642. . education was considered to be no business of the State.. . most like the Throughout the entire colonial period mother country in spirit and of the English attitude in and stands among the colonies as the clearest example toward school support and control." It was not until 1705 that Virginia reached the point. as also for the relief of parents whose poverty extends not to giving [their children] breeding. 200 b for some interesting North Carolina records) prenticed] orphan shall be obliged to teach was a During the entire colonial period mother country to general education was steadily reflected in Virginia and in the colonies which were essentially Anglican in religion. Rhode Island. Orphans to be educated "according to the competence of their estate. brought up in some gWiMWm^nSg. as we have previously seen. of requiring that "the master of the [aphim to read and write. or to the education of orphans Mary College (founded in Both these English. 1 previ-' (p. while the poorer classes were left with only such advantages as apprenticeship training or charity schools might provide. and the use of both local and colony funds for the purpose (R. New Jersey." 1660-61. and the children of the poor. interests. 325)." In all the Anglican colonies the apprenticing of the children of the poor (see R. the indifference of the 1 The seventeenth-century Virginia legislation relating to education is as follows: 1643.372 HISTORY OF EDUCATION education naturally led to the adoption of the customary English practices instead of to the development of colonial schools. much after the Practically all the Virginia colonial legislation relating to edu- cation refers either to William and 1693)." . as the Statutes state. New York. education in small private pay schools.

Moravians. and education to the new American colonies. and is best represented by State. in Monroe's Qjgfti&iibyof/lEfasetign. p. conc eived of pnhliV prhmarirm aside from collegiate education. I. and by the eighteenth century we find three clearly marked types of educational practice or conception as to educational responsibility established on The first American soil" was the strong Calvinistic conceptio n • of a religious system of common vernacular Firb^n-hirhrr L atin schools. This was the educational contribution of Calvinism to America. but the Dutch. State. and deeply influenced the educational development of all States to which the New Englander went in any large numbers.) — . and a college. Scotch. which typified well the laissezin tended chiefly for orphans . because the most widespread and complex illus- tration of the educational genius of Calvinism is to be found in the American colonies. H. 1 "Perhaps the most remarkable. for both religious and civic ends. was dominated only poses. Presbyterians. This type is best represented by Anglican Virginia. with a considerable Puritan admixture in Anglican Virginia and Catholic Maryland. Paupers and orphans. in limited numbers and for a limited time." (Foster. From New England this attitude was carried westward by the migrations of New England people. Walloons. 498. religion. Quakers. 1 state school systems of to-day. as. D.BEGINNINGS IN AMERICA 373 Type plans represented by 1750. German Reformed Church. ana m by church purtune came to be a serious obstacle in the way of and control. Mennonites. The second resented state in terference. The seventeenth century thus witnessed the transplanting of European ideas as to government. or were taught by tutors in their homes. rational state school organization third type. It stood for church control of all educational efforts. Huguenots. This type dominated New England. by the separation of Out of it our Church and have been evolved. Baptists. " . and for such instruction paid a proper tuition fee. supporting a Massachusetts.This type is best represented by Protestant Pennsylvania nr>A ryi^iirMaryland. might be provided with some form of useful education at the expense of either Church or State. w as the parochial-school conception of the Dutcji. and Catholics. The and the children of the poor and as a charity which the State was under little or no obligation to assist in suppo rting All children of the upper and middle classes in society attended private or church schools.. and Scotch-Irish. German Lutherans. into which the second type tended to fuse. where the various European streams of Calvinism so converged that the seventeenth-century colonists were predominantly Calvinists not merely the Puritans of New England. .. vol.

One learned to read chiefly that one might be able to read the Catechism and the Bible. The seventeenth century was essentially a period of the transplanting. Each sect or nationality on arriving set up in the new land the characteristic forms of church and school and social observances known in the old home-land. with pictures as crude and unfinished as their own glacial-smoothed boulders. Lutherans. A digest of the contents of this. that all might be brought to realize how slight a chance even the least erring had of escaping eternal damnation. There was purpose in the mainte- sPMy^ny^^r . English. with a few pages reproduced. and as Jonathan . "young vipers."* God was made sterner and more cruel than any living judge. they were afraid that they " should goe to hell. They were also dominated by the same deep religious purpose. religious attitudes. Scotch. 202. / I Edwards said.were tutored. is given in R. the American colonies the The dominance well illustrated of this religious purpose in all instruction is by the great beginning-school book of the time. almost unchanged in form. and infinitely more hateful than vipers" to God. and forms of government to American shores. between stiff oak covers which symbolized the contents. This book." salvation.: 374 faire policy HISTORY OF EDUCATION which dominated England from the time of the Protestant Reformation until the latter half of the nineteenth century. Anglicans. The New England Primer. Here was no easy road to knowledge and New England. from being unregenerate. Presbyterians — reproduced in main type of schools existing at the time of their migration in the mother land from which they came. These three types of attitude toward the provision of education became fixed American types. the children. manners. the Puritan mood is caught with absolute faithfulness. Dutch. As one glances over what may truly be called "The Little Bible of and reads its stern lessons. This book Ford well characterizes the following words children learned to read. Calvinists. as expressed by Judge Sewell's child. with poetry as rough and stern as their storm-torn coast. of the characteristic European institutions. as we shall point out in a later chapter. until. Germans. they attained that happy state when. and to know the will of the Heavenly Father. and each deeply influenced subsequent American educational development. but with prose as bare of beauty as the whitewash of their churches. Dominance of the religious motive." and were "stirred up dreadfully to seek God. from which all alike in the in was used by Dissenters and Lutherans American colonies.

the schools established were merely homeland foreign-type religious schools. p. 1 and by the careful religious oversight of the pastors and elders in the colonies where the parochial-school system was the ruling plan for education.BEGINNINGS IN AMERICA nance of 375 elementary schools." (Johnson Cliftf^^-ffifflfJ^ggftlg. The church parochial and charity schools were essentially schools for instilling the church practices and beliefs of the church maintaining them. with nothing distinctively American about them. and grammar-school pupils were obliged to report each week on the Sunday sermon. This state of affairs continued until well toward the beginning of the nineteenth century. and organized play were unknown. and it was the duty of parents. Calvinistic religious atmosphere in by the somber New England. as typified by Erasmus and Luther. taking care that his scholars do reverently attend scholars his labors and during the same. and the Bible was read and expounded. colleges students J3uch studies as history. Powers of darkness and of light were struggling for the possession of every soul. geography. ministers. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION 1. Compare the conservative and radical groups in the English purification movement with the conservative and radical groups.the burning. Show how." Religious matter constituted the only reading matter. The Catechism was taught. for each group. Church attendance was required. but everywhere the religious purpose was dominant. Children were constantly surrounded. drawing. I cannot do better than to cite the occasion when Judge Sewell found that the spout which conducted the rain water from his roof did not perform its office." and it was made "a chief part of the schoolmaster's religious care to commend his amongst them unto God by prayer morning and evening. This insistence on the religious element was more prominent in Calvinistic New England than in the colonies to the south. a ball belonging to the small children was found lodged in the spout.) . 2. and Schoolbooks. at the time of the Reformation. outside the instruction in Latin in the grammar schools. upon the father sent for the minister and had a season of prayer with his boys that their mischief or carelessness might be set in its proper aspect and that the event might be sanctified to their spiritual good." These institutions existed mainly to insure a supply of learned ministers for service in Church and State. their scholars in the principles of the Christian religion.secular literature. science.. music. week days and Sundays. 12. Schoolmasters were required to " catechise. and teachers to lose no opportunity to pluck the children as brands from . 1 "To illustrate how omnipresent this religious atmosphere was. After patient searchThereing. In the grammar schools and the were "instructed to consider well the main end of life and studies.

Dutch. The provision of the Law of 1642 requiring instruction in "the capital do you explain this addition to laws of the country" was new. Explain what is meant by "The Puritan Church applied to its servant. and show how we have adopted each in our laws. 14. in the colony. 1650. Martin. 192. and Scotch sources. Show why such copying school. 189. Baird: Rules and Regulations for Hopkins Grammar School. . the Law of 1642 was Calvinistic rather than Anglican in its 6. How mother-land practices? 5. o. First Fruits: 186. 193.— Dillaway: Founding of the Free'Schdol at Roxburie. Legislation. 13. showing Privileges. as well as modern state school laws. The First Rules for Harvard life. 11. or the Pennsylvania laws of 1683 or 1693. 191. to modern state school practice. Explain the meaning of the preamble to the Law of 1647. Apply the six principles stated by Mr.187. Flatbush: Contracfi/gi/i&ctoDMfdiDsSdSDolmaster. Show how the Law of 1647 must go back for precedents to German. Gov. College. Explain the indifference of the Anglican Church to general education during the whole of our colonial period. How do you explain the opposition and failure to do so? Show how the charity schools for the poor. the State. Requirements for Degrees. 12. 7. 1764. 190. College Charters: (a) 188. even to the Latin grammar natural. First Fruits: (a) (b) (c) The Founding of Harvard College. Statutes: The Massachusetts Law of 1647. Statutes: of 1650. Extracts from. (6) Harvard "College. as embodied in the legislation of 1647. 195. 15. 4." etc. HISTORY OF EDUCATION was perfectly of home-land types. Court Records: Presentment of Topsfield for Violating the 1642. SELECTED READINGS In the accompanying Book of Readings the following selections are reproduced: 183. and church missionary-society schools. though the mixture of religious sects in Pennsylvania made colonial legislation difficult. Brown Law of The Connecticut Law Plymouth Colony . Show why origin. 184. Nichols: The Puritan Attitude. were the natural outcome of the English attitude toward elementary education.. Which of the three type plans in the American colonies by 1750 most influenced educational development in your State? State the important contribution of Calvinism to our new. Rules and Precepts. is neither paternalistic nor socialistic in essential purpose. still it would have been possible to have enforced the Massachusetts Law of 1642. (d) Entrance Requirements. 185. 376 3. Show also that the Law of 1647. Bradford: The Puritans leave England. Statutes: The Massachusetts Law of 1642. Time and Order of Studies. Show that. 10. 8. ^. Statutes: 194.

and what does this new law indicate as to needs in the colony for classical learning? Show how the Connecticut Law of 1650 (193) was based on the Massachusetts Law (190) of 1642. What was the nature and purpose of the Harvard College instruction as shown by the selection" r86 a-d? Point out the similarity between the exemptions granted to Harvard College by the Legislature of the colony (187 a) and those granted to mediaeval universities (103-105). 200. 1-3) and the North Carolina court records (200 b. Murray: Early Quaker Injunctions regarding Schools.." 8. The Puritan Attitude (183) reveal as to the extent and depth of the Reformation in England? Characterize the feelings and emotions and desires of the Puritans. What kind of a school was the first one established in Philadelphia (198) ? 20. 202. 198. 16. 1-3)? Characterize the New Bflgfe&d l^imtSSiSffd Apprenticeship given in 2 1 22 . each. Laws in the Southern Colonies. 4. 10. Compare the proposed Pennsylvania Law of 1683 (197) and the Massachusetts Law of 1642 (190). What does the court citation of Topsfield (192) show? What new principle is added (191) by the Law of 1647. 14.Compare the privileges granted Brown (187 b) and those contained in 104. What does the Plymouth Colony appeal for Harvard College (194 b) indicate as to community of ideas in early New England? What type of school was it intended to endow from the Cape Cod does the selection on fisheries What (194 c)? the difference between the Plymouth requirement as to gram- What is 17. 9. 5. QUESTIONS ON THE READINGS 1. expressed in the extract from New England's First Fruits (185). . Compare the Massachusetts Law of 1642 and the English Poor-Law of 1601 (190 with 174) as to fundamental principles involved in. Stiles: A New England Indenture of Apprenticeship. What does the distribution of scholars at Roxbury (188) show as to the character of the school? State the essentials of the Massachusetts Law of 1642 (190). Just what type of education did the Quakers mean to provide for. 12. 11. 197. (ft) North Carolina Court Records. Statutes: Apprenticeship (a) Virginia Statutes. 15. as. 13.. 201. The New England Primer: Description and Digest. 199. The Pennsylvania Law of 1683. Characterize the spirit behind the founding of Harvard College. 2. 21. as shown in the extract from their Rules of Discipline (199)? 19. BEGINNINGS IN AMERICA 196. mar schools (194 d) and the Massachusetts requirement (191)? Compare the rules for the New Haven Grammar School (189) with those for Colet's London School (138 a-c). Characterize the early Dutch schools as shown by the rules for the schoolmaster (196) and the Flatbush contract (195). What conception of education is revealed by the Virginia apprenticeship laws (206 a. Minutes of Council: The First School in Philadelphia. 3. 377 New Amsterdam: Statutes: Rules for a Schoolmaster in. 18. 6. Compare the founding of the Free School at Roxbury (188) with the founding of an English Grammar School (141-43). as expressed in the extract (184) from Governor Bradford's narrative. 7.

Geo. 23. G. chusetts. Wm. pp. Cheyney. W. P. pp. The Development of School Support in Colonial MassaJackson. H. G. *Heatwole. A History of Education in the United States. (September. York and New England. G. The Dutch Schools of New Netherlands and Colonial New York. W. L. 1902. E. *Eggleston. vol. E. 513-3^- W. 10.) vol. F. Education in the United States. H. R. in School Review. Edw. P. The Secularization of American Education. H. A History of Education in Virginia. L. Edw. Small. H. The New England Primer. Apprenticeship and Apprentice Education in Colonial New *Small.) *Ford. "The New England Grammar School". 191 5. European Background of American Education. W. *Knight. Brown. C. S. Fisk. ^vV M Digitized by Microsoft® . The Transit of Civilization. •>. Early New England Schools. *Kilpatrick. *Martin. R. "The English Parish and Education at the Beginning of in School Review. American Civilization". R. 433-49. J.37$ HISTORY OF EDUCATION SUPPLEMENTARY REFERENCES Boone. C. Dexter. Public School Education in North Carolina. Evolution of the Massachusetts Public School System. (September. Seybolt.

CHAPTER XVI THE RISE OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY New attitudes after the eleventh century. which. which.• its repressive attitude toward all independent thinking. globe. inferring. Many different influences and movements had contributed to this change the Moslem learning and civilization in Spain. was the natural consequence of this awakening of the istic modern spirit. we see the beginnings It was this same critical. modern scientific spirit. the evolution of the modern languages. aeval System. The Revival of Learning. questionlater to geographical knowledge. In consequence the mediaeval man. comparing. possessed a new selfconfidence. with his feeling of personal insignificance and lack of selfconfidence. first in Italy and then elsewhere in western Europe. when applied and editing the texts. came to be replaced by a small but increasing number of men who were conscious of their powers. Digitized many wonderful fields of modern and which. of the led to the discovery of America and the circumnavigation when applied to matters of Christian faith. revealed the science.there had been a slow but gradual change in the character of human and a slow but certain disintegration of the Medi.. From the beginning of the twelfth century onward. and new standards of judgment gradually were applied. the beginnings anew of commerce and industhinking. with — try. and in the careful work done by the human- scholars of the Italian Renaissance in collecting. brought on the Protestant Revolts. New objects of interest slowly came to the front. the revival of city life. when applied to government. the rise of a small scholarly the new consciousness of nationality. criticizing. and in and history. as we have already noted. and realized new possibilities of intellectual accomclass. questioning. the recovery of the old legal and medical knowledge. the beginnings of a small but important vernacular literature. — plishment. the evolution of the universities. when applied to the problems of the universe. reconstructing the ancient of the life ing spirit which. led to a ques- by Microsoft® . and the beginnings of travel and exploration following the Crusades all of which had tended to transform the mediaeval man and change his ways of thinking.

and their combined work formed the basis upon which modern medical science has slowly been built up.. yellow bile. For an interesting discussion of these early attempts to explain creation.).) had all made interesting speculations as future advances. air. and Aristotle (384-322 B. On Fractures. and earth. phlegm. 3 For example. Heraclites (c. On Regimen in Acute Diseases. History of the Intellectual Development of Europe.C. accompanied by "indestructible forces.C.). science of medicine could be established. or Digitized by Microsoft® other means. water. The awakening of scientific inquiry and the scientific spirit. and the questioning of the doctrines and practices of the Mediaeval " Church. Waters.). Empedocles thought that fire and heat.C. 1 to the nature of matter.). Hippocrates had held that the human body contains four "huand that disease was caused blood.). 1. and had worked out a complete scheme of creation. Xeni&phanes (628?520? B. 197). and had prepared the way for defects. From the point of view of scientific inquiry. 2 Among the treatises by him accepted as genuine are On Airs. 3 and modern physicians were compelled to begin all over and along new lines before any real progress in medicine 1 Thales had guessed that water was the primal element from which all had been derived. all ancient learning possessed certain marked fundamental their time and age in The Greeks had made many notable scientific observations and speculations. vol. had observed the sick and had recorded and organized his observations 2 as to form the foundations upon which the in such a manner The Roman physician. rv. and Places On Epidemics. Xenophanes had guessed air. Aristotle finally settling the question by naming the world-elements as earth. Pythagoras (570-500 B. chap. Heraclites fire. purging.C. world-civilization considered — — Thales (636?~546? B. and black bile mors" by the undue accumulation of some one of these humors in some organ. fire. . 500 B. to which we now turn.) added to these observations. W.). see J. fire. Draper. Insufficiency of ancient science. Anaximanes (557-504 B. and On Injuries of the Head.). water. Empedocles (46o?~36i? B. may be regarded as only another phase of the awakening of the modern inquisitive spirit which found expression earlier in the rise of the universities. some of what each wrote was mere speculation and error. and the attempt of a few thinkers to apply the new method to education. Galen (130-200 a. and ether. the recovery and reconstruction of the ancient learning. which it was — — the business of the physician to get rid of by blood-letting. Anaximanes guessed air. Hippocrates (460-367? B." formed the basis.C. 3 8o HISTORY OF EDUCATION tioning of the divine right of kings and the rise of constitutional government.C. Pythagoras held that number was the essence of all things.C. On the other hand. as we have seen' (p. blistering. the awakening of geographical discovery and exploration.d.C.

C. Aristotle 381 organizof his had done a notable work use in Europe in.). proved serious obstacles to real scientific progress. 87) will show. 280 B. and in time. But even at Alexandria the promise of Greek science was unfullaid the foundations of . of which the works of Aristotle and the Alexandrian mathematicians and astronomers form the most conspicuous examples. invention and perfection of instruvanced in scientific work to the ments for the standardization of their observations. the most notable Greek scientific work had been Euclid (323-283 B. Herophilus (335-280 B.C.).). Archi- medes (27o?-2i2 many ways and B. was the fundaThe Greeks never admental weakness of all Greek science. filled. The "book science" of the Greeks.C. Some remarkable advances also were made in the study of human anatomy and medicine by two Greeks. and the great contribution made by the Greeks to world civilization was less along scientific lines than along the lines of literature and philosophy. who explained the motion of the earth. thenes (270-196 B. and this tendency to speculate. due to the many inaccuracies. but little scientific knowledge of which the modern world has been able to make much use. and especially that of Aristotle. due to the reverence accorded him as an authority by the mediaeval scholars and the church authorities. the father of astronomy.). who measured the size of the earth. were among the more famous Greeks who studied and taught there in the days when Alexandria had succeeded Athens as the intellectual capital of the Greek world. Their great strength lay in the direction of philosophic speculation.) in geometry. but in time. who applied science in dynamics.) and Erasistratus (d. As a result they passed on to the mediaeval world an extensive "book science" and not a little keen observation.C. contained many inaccuracies. a pupil of Euclid's. rather than to observe and test and measure and record.C. ing and codifying Greek scientific knowledge. as the list many scientific treatises in by 1300 (R. Hipparchus (160-125 B. was highly prized for centuries. Aristarchus (third century B.C. but his writings were the result of a mixture of keen observation and brilliant speculation.C. had to be discarded and done anew by modern vances. who studied the heavens and catalogued the stars. the hopeful beginnings did not scholars.) who apparently did much dissecting. Eratos- At Alexandria done. Digitized by Microsoft® . Despite many notable speculations and scientific ad- • come to any large fruitage.THE RISE OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY could be made.

d. which could contain nothing of value and only served "to subvert the faith of the unstable. Pliny the Elder (23-79 a. not portant undertakings of a practical character. it will intolerant. as we have seen in the study of the Seven Liberal Arts (chapter vn). which other learning tended (see Figure 44. bridges. governors. the Western be remembered ject all Hellenic learningj and to was from the first to redepend upon emotional faith and the enforcement of a moral lif e. p.).. and of in time be- came exceedingly Church. in Greeks^ were. executives. but they contributed to the realm of pure science. came to be regarded as rejected along with other scientific useful only in explaining passages of Scripture or in illustrating the ways of of study God toward man.d. 203). then best represented by Alexandrian learning.382 HISTORY OF EDUCATION as The Romans. whereas" they cultivated it largely as a mental exercise (R. The tendency (p. and which contained much that was of great importance. we have seen (chapter good at getting the work in). and public buildings. They were organizers. aqueducts. first The Christian attitude toward inquiry was from the inhospitable. of the were essentially a world done. The three great names in sci- ence in all their history are Strabo the geographer (63 B. and have left us a literature little and a legal system of importance. They. engineers.d. who did notable work as an observer in natural history. and literThey executed many imary workers rather than scientists. By the close of the third century the hostility to pagan schools and Hellenic learning had become so pronounced that the Apostolic Constitutions (R. to The one and only all science worthy was Theology." In 401 a. 41) ordered Christians to abstain from all heathen books. was pagan learning. The very meager knowledge that persisted into the Middle Ages in the great mediaeval textbooks (p. In consequence Greek science. pervaded by_ the same fear that their science might prove use'ful. the Council of Carthage forbade the clergy to read any heathen author.d. and the emphasis of y Digitized by Microsoft® . practical people. and Greek learning now rapidly died out in the West.). 154). and Galen (second century a. organized government and commerce on a large scale.c-24 a. The ' history of Christianity throughout history of the distrust of inquiry all the Dark Ages is a and reason. 94). such as the building of roads. For a time it was almost entirely lost. like the The Christian reaction against inquiry. but much given to theoretical discussion or scientific speculation. 162).) medicine.

1 The literature on magic was extensive. THE RISE OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY blind emotional faith. caused an intellectual stagnation along lines of scientific investigation which was not reThe many notable adlieved for more than a thousand years. One's future was determined by the position of the heavenly bodies at the time of birth. and hysteria and insanity were possession by the devil to be cast out by whipping and torture. The insistence of the Church on "the willful. Both in time stood seriously in the way of real scientific thinking and discovery.. and medicine made by Moslem scholars (chapter vni) were lost on Christian Europe. Famine. interpretation of natural 383 Mysticism. was common before 1200. and a regular schedule of prayers for cures was in use. and punish the wicked. the crippled. following careful religious formulae. Disease was attributed to satanic influence. Eclipses. out of their chemistry they got only alchemy. During the long period of the Middle Ages the miraculous flourished. and comets were fearful portents of Divine displeasure: Eight things there be a Comet brings. though prohibited shortly afterward by papal decrees (12 15. devilish character of heresy. and the phenomena as manifestations of the Divine will from the first received large emphasis. War. and Direful Change. in 1618. wonder-working images. The worship of saints and relics. vances in physics. Earthquakes. Out of the astronomy of the Arabs the Christians got only astrology. Plagues and pestilences were manifestations of Divine wrath. changed the earlier religion into a crude polytheism. meteors. Trial by ordeal. 204). good and evil spirits. and miracles through prayer stood in the way of the development of medicine (R. Plague. to interpret the orthodox theory of comets 1 . The most miraculous happenings were recorded and believed. When it on high doth horrid rage Wind. and Death to Kings. by the names of Grassner and Gross. Floods. and had to be worked out again centuries later by the scholars of the western world. foretell the future. pools. Sacred the royal touch. and the great development of the sensuous and symbolic. astronomy. Sanitation was unknown. The most extreme superstition pervaded all ranks of sociMagic and prayers were employed to heal the sick. chemistry. restore ety." and the extension of heresy to cover almost any form of honest doubt or independent inquiry. 1 From a collection of doggerel rhymes put out by two pastors and doctors of theology at Basle. 1222).

founded in 1534-40. had this not been By the middle of the fifteenth century it looked as though the Renaissance spirit might extend into many new directions. ancient Rome. The Church took alarm and attempted successful challenge of its authority during its long history. In an effort to stop the further spread of the heresy. It would have been surprising. After the rise of the universities. and by 1500 the world seemed on the eve of important progress in almost every line of endeavor. The tolerance of inquiry recently extended was withdrawn. the Church Council of Trent (1545-63) adopted effect of these religious revolts The Church toward intellectual liberty stringent regulations against heretical teachings (p. 259). and about the year 1500 was the most stimulating time in the history of our civilization since the days of Alexandria and the case. the first In 1 51 7 berg. was and the Jesuits.384 HISTORY OF EDUCATION Growing tolerance changed by the Protestant Revolts. The Inquisition. Luther nailed his theses to the church door in Wittento crush him. Within hah a century all northern lands had been lost to the ancient Church (see map. while the sword and torch and imprisonment were resorted to to stamp out opposition and win back the revolting lands. a sort of universal mediaeval grand jury for the detection and punishment of heretics. the expansion of the minds of men which followed the Crusades and the revival of trade and industry. the church authorities assumed a broader and a more tolerant attitude toward inquiry and reason than had been the case for hundreds of years. 303). It was into this post-^Bf?9«hto. on the attitude of the was natural and marked. 296). with the large number of universitytrained men entering the service of the Church. p. and soon the greatest contest since the conflict between paganism and Christianity was on. the awakening which came with the revival of the old learning and the rise of geographical discovery. As was pointed out earlier (p.Msrp«^osphere of suspicion and revived. and the hatreds engendered by the long and bitter struggle over religious differences put both Catholic and Protestant Europe in no tolerant frame of mind toward in- quiry or new ideas. fense of the . were vigorous in deChurch and bitter in their opposition to all forms of independent inquiry and Protestant heresy. century of A merciless warfare ensued. and an era of steadily increasing intolerance set in which was not broken for more than a century. the Church was more tolerant than it had been for centuries.

that the earth. . was born.) had offered an explanation which was accepted by Christian Europe and which dominated all thinking on the subject during the Middle Ages. It has no motion of translation.. 1 This explanation accorded perfectly with Christian ideas as to creation. situated in the center of the heavens. and moved around the earth. if it were not. as well as with Christian conceptions as to the position and place of relation to the man and his heavens above and to a hell beneath." Almagest. The earth is but a point in comparison to the heavens. method. One of the great problems which has always deeply interested thinking men in all lands is the nature and constitution of the material universe. because the stars appear. their methods and purposes were alike suspected. while immovable in space. that the Egyptian geographer Ptolemy (138 a. This theory 1 "The earth is a. and to this problem people in all stages of civilization have worked out for themselves some kind of an answer. fixed in crystalline spheres. after the Protestant Revolts the middle of the sixteenth to the middle of the seventeenth cen- tury was not a time in western when new It ideas were at a premium anywhere and Europe. immovable. and any challenge of an old long-accepted idea was likely to bring a punishment that was swift and sure. It was one of the of scientific The beginnings modern and it was at Alexandria.. in circular motion. inquiring. itself another form of expression of the intellectual attitudes awakened by the work of the humanistic scholars of the Italian Renaissance. one side of the heavens would appear nearer to us than the other. periods of reaction are not favorable to intellectual progress. If there were a motion. as applied to the forces of the universe. From ful hearing. in the decadence.d. A century earlier the first scientists might have obtained a respectand might have been permitted to press their claims. Digest of argument of Book i of the turns round on its own axis.) s Digitized by Microsoft® . was essentially a period of reaction. This also disproves the suggestion made by some. had torn Christian Europe asunder this could hardly be. It was into this century of reaction that modern scientific inquiry and reasoning.THE RISE OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY distrust 385 and hatred that the new critical. period of its was located at the center that the heavenly bodies of the visible universe. He had concluded that the earth great speculations of the Greeks. As a result the early scientists found themselves in no enviable position. of the same magnitude and at the same distance inter se. sphere. it would be proportionate to the great mass of the earth and would leave behind animals and objects thrown into the air. no matter where the observer goes on the earth. Their theories were bitterly assailed as savoring of heresy. (Ptolemy. and the stars would be larger there. questioning spirit of science. made its first claim for a hearing.

was obviously simple and with time. 3 86 HISTORY OF EDUCATION satisfactory. Nicholas Kopernik (Copernicus) In the dedicatory letter (R.ut. without long and bitter opposition. so-called "Donation of Constantine. after feeling that the Ptolemaic explanation was wrong. in which he set forth the explan- He ation of the universe which piously dedicated the we now know. 2. . Paul III.. 1 . In both cases the results were revolutionary. In 1 543 a Bohemian church canon and physician by the name of Nicholas Copernicus published his De Revolutionibus Orbium Celestium. In the dedicatory letter Copernicus states that he had had the completed manustudy for thirty-six years. to see if the observed facts would support his theory. Long observation and testing o. Careful thought on the subject.. As Petrarch stands forth in history as the first modern classical scholar.^ c S-e • / V'A. The theory held to be correct. Both used a new method the method of modern scholarship.. thing so completely upsetting the Christian conception as to the place and position of man in the universe could hardly be expected to be accepted. Fig. The steps he set forth form an excellent example of a method of thinking now common." an example of deductive reasoning. offered. so Copernicus stands — 1 script in his friends. tion could As we see it now the wonder for so have been accepted and became sanctified that such an explanaOnly among an uninlong. is quisitive people could so imperfect a theory have endured for over fourteen centuries. 113. work to Pope and wisely refrained from pub1 Anylishing it until the year of his death. They were: (1473-1543) 1. 's This is as clear a case of inductive reasoning as was P-eferarchis exposure of the forgery of the. . to see if any better explanation A had been 3. Dissatisfaction with the old Ptolemaic explanation. he came to arrive at the conclusions he did. 4. but then almost unknown. Copernicus explains how. 205). study of all known literature. because it reduced all known facts to a systematic order and harmony. 5. and published it now only on the urging of Digitized by Microsoft® . particularly at the time of its publication. until his thinking took form in a definite theory.

storms.THE RISE OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY forth as the first all 387 of modern scientific thinker. At first Coperwork attracted but little attention. during which time he collected "a magnificent series of observations. This poisoned stuff then fell down on people's heads. In 1609 a German by the name of Johann Kepler (15 71-1630). by the Creator Fired with the red glow of the rushing morn." showed Aristotle to be wrong in many particulars. recent writer (E. using the records of observations which Tycho Brahe had accumulated and applying them to the planet Mars. far transcending in ac- and extent anything that had been accomplished by his predecessors. An Italian Dominican by the name of Giordano Bruno (1548-1600). pierces with its head the mists that overshadow them. L." (Dryer^J. that they were changed into a kind of gas. The beginnings Of his date from 1543.) x . such as pestilence. Like some iron peak. as we look back through the long vista of the history of science. 114. Morton) has said: scientific investigation modern work a Copernicus cannot be said to have flooded with light the dark places nature in the way that one stupendous mind subsequently did but still. etc. causing all kinds of mischief. E. and that the common view of (1546-1601) the time as to their nature 2 was absurd. after twenty-one years of careful observation of the heavens. Tycho Brahe possible. sudden death. set forth in Latin and Italian the far-reaching nicus' and majestic implications of such a theory of creation. J. and catches the first gleam of the rising sun. and was burned at the stake at Rome for his pains. thus permitting readings to a fraction of an inch. His observations of the comet of 1577 led him to conclude that the theory of crystalline spheres was imFig. with a brass scale.. deeply impressed by the new theory. . of — — . C. the dim Titanic figure of the old monk seems to rear itself out of the dull flats around it. Digitized by Microsoft® Tycho Brahe. A Dane. curacy 1 To secure the greatest possible accuracy he constructed a wooden outdoor quadrant some ten feet in radius. Tycho_ Brahe. The new method of inquiry applied by others. . and ignited by the anger of God. proved the truth of the Copernican theory and framed his famous three laws for planetary motion. 2 "The current view was that comets were formed by the ascending of human sins from the earth.

So strongly had the forces of mediaevalism reasserted themselves after the Protestant Revolts! Finally the English scholar Newton (1642-1728). 1 "For over fifty years he was the knight militant of science. the . Finally an Italian. in his Principia (1687). of Pisa. 116. compelled to recant of the Inquisition. 207) to escape the stake. 206) . For his pronounced advocacy of the Copernican theory he was Aristotelians. and was then virtually made a prisoner of the Inquisition for the remainder of his life. called to Fig. His LifeU&iliWbtiy. Galileo and abjure his errors (R. through the use of new scientific methods. even in an indirect manner. J.yVlicrosoft® . made clear the nature of light. knowing all the circumstances. like Peter. J. settled permanently all discussions as to the Copernican theory by his wonFig. proved Kepler's laws to be plained gravitation and the tides. 115. Galileo. I^hT story of his discovery of the satellites of Jupiter is another interesting illustration Galileo also made of the careful scientific reasoning of these early workers (R. Galileo Galilei. Sir Isaac derful mathematical studies." and Galileo was compelled to recant (1616) his error. (Fahie. no honest man. and almost alone did successful battle with the hosts of Churchmen and Aristotelians who attacked him on all sides one man against a world of bigotry and ignorance.." — . . of the planets He dem- Newton (1642-1727) true. developing a telescope that eters. under a new Pope. ex- onstrated mathematically the motions and comets. Rome (161 5) by the Cardinals ' Copernican theory Galilei (1564-1642) was condemned as " absurd in philosophy and as "expressly contrary to Holy Scripture. defend the Copernican theory. . will be in a hurry to blame him. which completely upset the teachings of the and made the most notable advances in mechanics since the days of Archimedes. a rofessor at the University p would magnify to eight diam- discovere^Jupiter's satellites and Saturn's rings. denied his Master. If then when face to face with the terrors of the Inquisition he.' 388 HISTORY OF EDUCATION . a number of discoveries in physics. he was again called before the inquisitorial body. 1 For daring later (1632) to assume that he might.

THE RISE OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY and reduced dynamics to a science. William Gilbert (1540-1603) published. To Paracelsus. William Harvey. henheim. 1500-88) applied chemistry to pottery and the arts. the human body. the foundations of the study of modern chemistry. "Let Newton be. 198). but who Latinized his name to Paracelsus (1493-1541). has said: Of his 389 writer. God said. He ridiculed the medical theories of Hippocrates (p. and Galen and. Karl Pearson. applied of chemistry to mining and metallurgy. and Palissy we are indebted for having the sixteenth century. its importance was the scientific work of ton that Pope's couplet seems exceedingly applicable: So far-reaching in New- Nature and Nature's laws lay hid in night. and always with fruitful results. resembles the mighty genius of an Arabian tale emerging amid metaphysical exhalations from the bottle in which for long centuries it had been corked down. and a French potter named Bernard Palissy (c. and it seems to me that physical science. and for so doing was sentenced by the Inquisition to perform a penitential' journey to Jerusalem. in in the medical faculty at the Univer- 1526 broke with mediaeval traditions