Load Balancing in Cellular Network through Cell Breathing

network structure being much dispersed, mobile AbstractIn cellular network, teletraffic continues to grow at a proliferating rate. Thus existing networks often encounter undesirable phenomenon like call drop due to overloading of cells. To overcome this problem, this thesis aims to perform load balancing using the technique of cell breathing in a novel way. Unlike previous works on cell breathing, where the radius of the overloaded cell was shrunk, this model proposes cell overlap. Here the coverage area of a lightly loaded neighboring cell who’s AP provides optimum power to the concerned clients, is expanded and overlapped with the heavily loaded cell. This ensures that ongoing calls in the overloaded cell are not dropped and transfers only the extra load to the lightly loaded neighboring cell without handoff. Furthermore, this paper also introduces Genetic Algorithm to optimize relevant parameters like power more efficiently than the conventional optimizing algorithm. Keywords: Load Balancing, Cellular Network, Cell Breathing, Grade of Service, Blocking Probability.

phone is creating huge impact especially among poor people in the village. This advantage is further enhanced by the tremendous potential for Wireless Internet in Bangladesh. However, as the cellular network grew, the traffic demand began to mount to a level of being strenuous. Thus a major limitation being faced is call blockings due to power limitation. This problem is specially faced in CDMA where code limitation may occur prior to power limitation. Henceforth, we propose an efficient dynamic load balancing scheme in cellular networks for managing a tele-traffic hot spot in which channel demand exceeds a certain threshold. With the advent and flourishing of wireless and cellular network, many other novel technologies followed the trail into our country. Besides, hyper advanced mobile sets and equipments like Bluetooth, a remarkable trend started on the experimentation of new algorithm for traffic handling. As such, an optimizing tool that we



Wireless networks have been playing an immensely vital role in developing the telecom sector and mass connectivity in Bangladesh. Wireless networks have given a boost to the telecommunication industry of Bangladesh. Growth in Bangladesh’s mobile telephone sector, from a humble beginning in the early1990s, has really picked up pace in the past few years, aided by higher subscriber volumes, lower tariffs and falling handset prices. BTTB’s

In doing so. called Genetic Algorithm. but the concept of GA is so inspired from nature. we tried to contribute. cellular traffic continued to . To accomplish this task. Improvements in telecommunication have given us new horizons of hopes and dreams. Today. With the increasing popularity of cellular phones and arrival of giant phone companies. Thus. II. one can talk to somebody even on the farthest and most remote corner of the globe through the virtues of telecommunication. It is possible to even communicate with astronauts in outer space and no wonder we are dreaming to soon come in contact with our extraterrestrial brothers! Yet. perhaps the biggest contribution of grow alongside the ever increasing demand for better and newer customer services. To achieve efficient resource usage without requiring changes to client software. telecommunication is the most evolving and most prospective arena. we were motivated to experiment using an optimization algorithm. The mapping between clients and the APs that service them is a critical determinant of system performance and resource usage. Motivation On a global perspective. Cellular technology not only connects people. An AP can get seriously overloaded even when several nearby APs are lightly loaded. to the development of the cellular network. we propose the use of cell breathing technique in a novel way called cell overlap. telecommunication has perhaps been to bring us humans closer to one another. one of the greatest contributors has been cellular phone technology. especially from the concept of evolution and survival of the fittest. that we found it worth implementing in cellular load balancing. This has never been used in load balancing mechanisms.want to introduce for the first time in cellular traffic load balancing is Genetic Algorithm. it is also playing a colossal role in boosting the economy of Bangladesh. to our limitations. The proliferation of lightweight hand-held devices with built in high-speed Wi-Fi network cards and the significant benefit of any-where anytime Internet access has spurred the deployment of wireless “hot-spot” networks.

e if it is getting overloaded. its coverage area is expanded to serve the client of the neighboring AP and MSC assigns the client to this new AP. We increase the transmitted power of the target AP. i. Thus the overloading call is not dropped and the grade of service is improved. the MSC will check if the capacity of the cell is exceeded. As such. i. if the client demand is of the concerned . Problem Formulation Our target is to find the minimum acceptable power for better reception that will be received by the client. In case of overloading. the MSC searches which neighboring AP transmits optimum power to this client and has free load i. In optimizing power with respect to distance. where the radius of the overloaded cell was shrunk.III.e. We have applied this technique to an arbitrary cluster of 10 cells. the received power of the client (to whom the call is directed) decreases below the threshold. Then we have provided a comparative analysis to show how the grade of service improves after applying cell breathing. Then we determine the nearest cell which can provide the same received power. IV. If any cell is overloaded. our model expands and overlaps the coverage area of a neighboring cell whose AP provides optimum power to the concerned clients. Once such an AP is found. This ensures that ongoing calls in the overloaded cell are not dropped and transfers the extra load without handoff. Thus the area of the targeted AP extends. Unlike previous works on cell breathing. Objectives In our proposed cell breathing technique. its current load is less than its maximum capacity. the mobile switching centre (MSC) performs the pre-calculation as outlined: Before assigning a call to the base station or access point (AP) of a cell.e. we have implemented Genetic Algorithm and tried to provide a comparison that it provides better optimization parameters.

Pt denotes the transmitted power.j)α……(1) Assumptions: 1) The initial transmission powers to all AP’s are equal. “a” is a constant that usually denotes the channel gain or gain factor of the cell. To formulate the problem.greater than the capacity of an AP then this process will take place. 3) We assumed a threshold power level below which transmission is not possible. d(i. the notations and assumptions used are as follows: Notations: • • • • • • • • Pt: Transmitted Power Pr: Received Power C: Capacity of an each AP α: Attenuation factor a: Gain factor d: distance between AP and client D:Clients demand n: Number of clients an AP can handle at a time • N: Number of clients First we calculate the distance between the Host AP and the client. The overall procedure applied in our cell breathing technique is outlined below: Equivalently Pr(i.j) is the corresponding Figure 1: Flowchart of cell breathing procedure Here. whereas Pt(i.j) implies the . 2) The received power from the first AP can be measured.j) implies the received power between them. [1]We can find it from the general Received Power equation.j)=a*Pt/d(i. Pr(i. transmitted power between ith cell and jth client.

1 W. Finding the distance: We will start our algorithm if and only if the cell is heavily loaded.distance and. and a′ that fit the model Pr(i. [3] Normally for cellular transmission the power is between 0dbm to 20dbm. j) and Pi are from the measurement. But by introducing virtual distance. [2]Wireless propagation model does not always follow the above equation. that MS received the call with certain . Figure 2: Cell Breathing We first assume unique transmission power at every AP. α′ (virtual attenuation factor). It is obvious that this equation is applicable for both free space propagation and two ray ground reflection model. j) =a′ Pt/d′(i. we can estimate the actual wireless propagation by following the above equation. Then we should initiate our cell breathing process. we assume that an AP’s capacity can be defined as the number of clients served successfully at a specific time. j)α′ ……(2) where Pr(i. called AP’s capacity. we can have a parameter. In case of obstruction this equation varies. j) (virtual distance). we are omitting the detail discussion about the different path losses. So to make those calls successful we have to balance the cells load. α is the attenuation factor of the medium. To define or to identify the cell is over loaded or not. The various path loss elements are considered within the attenuation factor of the medium. AP’s can collect the measurement of transmitted power and the received power and then approximate the actual wireless propagation by finding d′(i. Then we apply our power assignment to the virtual distances and virtual attenuation factor. For our calculation we consider the power of each AP primarily 20 dbm or 0. If the number of calls is greater than the AP’s capacity then those call will be dropped. When the number of clients exceeds the capacity call drop occurs. Now. As our main goal is to deal with the power. we first compare the number of calls connected with the AP’s capacity. To do this. when a call is generated and directed to the targeted mobile station. For our help.

After that if we increase the transmitted power to the desired level. the client comes under the coverage area of that AP. So. After finding the minimum distance from the neighboring cells now we have to assign the appropriate transmission power to serve the client. When there are two same powers from two different AP. only the neighboring AP’s area is changed. Now. the call at the host usually drops because of shortage of capacity. we calculate the minimum acceptable power as well using the above equation. whose transmission area is overlapped with the overloaded AP. this one could be the better solution. then the call is automatically directed to the closest lightly loaded AP. it is always better to change the power as less as we can. So. we do not change the transmission power of the hosting AP. one from the host AP. another from the closest neighboring cell with minimum load. we can then . In our proposed technique of overlapping cell breathing. And determine the location of that AP simultaneously. Thus only the extra load is transferred without interrupting ongoing calls in the overloaded AP. We can find the distance between the AP and the client or MS by using equation 1. We find which AP is the nearest AP for that certain client or a group of clients. Then we go for the calculation or finding the distance between different AP’s and different clients. When the distance and received power have been found. so to allocate the client to the next sell we can make this receive power as standard power for reception and convert the transmission power of the neighboring cell as after covering the distance the client’s receive power are equal to that receive power. As. if the main AP was not overloaded that power will be the best for reception as it was the nearest AP. than automatically.received power. Thus the cell breathing procedure can occur. Also. Problem Formulation using Genetic Algorithm (GA): We first apply our previous technique to find the overloaded cells and their distances among the uncongested APs. In this case handoff is less frequent than the nonoverlapping cell breathing technique.

The next step is to define the objective function which and fitness function that help determining the minimum distance between the targeted client and the neighboring APs and provides the optimal solution for the new transmission power that increases the cell radius.001W-0. producing a new generation that will (hopefully) be even better. Then the overloaded APs were detected and their calls rearranged by changing the AP’s transmission radius. • • The Capacity of each AP is 5 mbps Client demand is uniform and that is 1 mbps • There are 10 APs randomly distributed in the experiment set • Attenuation factor is 4 and gain constant is 0. the lowest numerical value of the associated objective function is declared as the fittest individual. In the case of a minimization problem.1W Some arbitrary load was applied to 10 APs. V. This [5]The fitness function quantifies the optimality of a solution (that is. Selection is the next stage of a genetic algorithm in which individual genomes are chosen from a . a chromosome) in a genetic algorithm so that that particular chromosome may be ranked against all the other are population for later breeding (recombination or crossover). which in our case is completion of power calculation of all the APs in a specific network. Results Assumptions: To measure the efficiency of our algorithm we made the following assumptions. Generational process of the GA is repeated until a termination condition has been reached.9 • • Radius of each AP is 2 km or 2000m The range of power should between 0 dbm -20 dbm or 0. The fitness is decided according to the nature of the problem. Optimal chromosomes allowed to breed and mix their datasets by any of several techniques. the fitness value corresponds to the number of offspring that an individual can expect to produce in the next generation.search for the transmission power for a particular distance and receive power. chromosomes. In many cases.

50 0.00 0.11 Offered Load2 4 5 5 5 2 4 4 1 5 2 37 Dropped Calls2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Grade of Service2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 breathing technique.00 0.67% to 0%.00 28.00 6.00 0.00 0.00 37.00 0.00 28.00 0.00 0. The results are tabulated below: Offered Load=37 Offered Load 1 2 2 7 6 4 2 4 4 1 5 2 37 AP's Capacity 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 50 Dropped Calls 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Grade of Service 0.00 0. Similarly.00% to 0% Offered Load=55 AP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Offered Load 5 8 7 8 2 5 1 AP's Capacity 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Dropped Calls 0 3 2 3 0 0 0 Grade of Service 0.GOS is chosen as the performance indicator since lower GOS implies lower blocking probability and hence better network quality.50 28.00 16.00 16. Offered Load=30 Grade of Service 0.00 0.00 0.11% to 0% Offered Load=50 Offered Load 4 8 5 7 6 5 2 6 1 6 50 AP's Capacity 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 50 Dropped Calls 0 3 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 1 8 Grade of Service 0.00 0.00 0.57 0. we ran the algorithm with different offered loads and calculated the Grade of service (GOS) of individual AP and the overall system before and after applying our proposed cell AP and ran our proposed algorithm to justify our model.00 0.00 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total AP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Offered Load 2 3 4 2 7 2 2 2 2 4 30 AP's Capacity 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 50 Dropped Calls 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 Offered Load2 2 3 4 4 5 2 2 2 2 4 30 Dropped Calls2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 2: After Cell breathing the GOS decreases from 8.57 16.00 0. Hence.00 0.00 0. we assumed different offered loads Total Table 3: After Cell breathing the GOS decreases from 16.67 0.00 Offered Load2 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 50 Dropped Calls2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Grade of Service2 0.57 16.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.67 0. After applying cell breathing the overloaded cell was load balanced to 5 units of load.00 .00 0.00 8.00 28.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Offered Load2 5 5 6 5 5 5 5 Dropped Calls2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Grade of Service2 0. the 5th AP became overloaded.00 AP 1 2 Table 1: After Cell breathing the GOS decreases from 6. Thus the system’s GOS decreased from 6.00 16.00 0.00 0.00 0.67% to 0% First.00 37.57 37.67 0. we assumed total load on the network is 30 whereas it can handle 50 clients at a time.00 0.00 0.67 16.00 0.00 0. But all 30 clients were not evenly distributed in every AP.67 0.In this way.00 0.67 Grade of Service2 0.00 0.

justifying the significance of our proposed model.57 0.11 and Pr=0.22 and Pr = 0.001696211 For d=2. we find the minimized transmission power as follows: Figure 5: Best Transmission power for d=2.57 9.00 28.11 and Pr=0.57 0.12 and Pr = 0.001542238 Figure 3: Best Transmission power for d=2. Figure 4: Best Transmission power for 2.82 7 5 7 55 2 0 2 5 28.12 and Pr = 0. it is observed that the GOS decreases significantly by applying the proposed cell breathing technique. Summarizing the above results in the following graph.09 For d=2.00 28.82% to 9.57 21. In the above table. since offered load>maximum capacity.8 9 10 Total 7 5 7 55 5 5 5 50 2 0 2 12 28. GA Implementation Results For minimization of transmission power we used two different methods: General method and Genetic algorithm.001961386 For d = 2. For different runs of GA.22 and Pr = 0.001961386 Table 4: After Cell breathing the GOS decreases from 21.001696211 Figure 7: Grade of Service before and after cell breathing.001542238 Comparison between Different Runs: Figure 6: Best Transmission Power for 5 different runs .09%. yet it’s significantly improved by our cell breathing algorithm. GOS is not achieved to be zero.

So implementing GA instead of the general process will be more efficient and cost effective.12 2.001696211 0.092401 Received Power using general process 0. One of the main aspects of good transmission is a minimum power level.00174661 0.00205963 0. So we estimated the distances among the APs and clients randomly.001542248 Transmitted Power Using GA 0.Comparative Study between General Process and GA: the increase or decrease of distances and the transmitted power to support the cell breathing process. any probability of a new call being dropped is pre-calculated by the MSC and the call transferred to the appropriate AP (before the call is actually connected) through .1 0. Therefore.074734 0.3 2.089155 0.001961386 0. Run 1 2 3 4 5 Distance 2. Conclusion This paper presents a novel cell breathing concept in cellular WLAN that performs load balancing with the aim of improving the Grade of Service. it finds the appropriate AP for better Table 5: Transmission Power for GA and conventional method From the above table we can clearly observe that the transmission power selected through GA is lower than the transmission power derived from general process. Limitations: One limitation in this model is that it does not include any tracking system. Without the actual coordinates we had to run this program for each overloaded client separately.098 0. VI.091145 0.1 Lastly.15 2.001959071 0.09 0. we could not geometrically plot the increased and decreased area of the APs and therefore. Also.22 Received Power using GA 0.11 2.080708 0.001045013 0. Unlike previous works on cell breathing. The transfer procedure from one AP to another is seamless. we assumed a fixed capacity of each AP and which in practical scenario varies within a range. could not show the minimized load plotting.001669082 Transmitted Power using general process 0. and only then the call is assigned to that AP. where the radius of the overloaded cell was shrunk. This procedure is done by the MSC. This ensures that ongoing calls in the overloaded cell are not dropped and transfers the extra load without handoff.00215194 0.1 0.001258479 0. But we became successful showing transmission. our model expands and overlaps the coverage area of a neighboring cell whose AP provides optimum power to the concerned clients.

Results show that the proposed scheme does indeed improve the level of service received by users in the form of lower Grade of Service and improved overall throughput. Wireless Sensor Networks. Other optimization tools could be experimented to yield better minimization results and shorter run time for calculation. Future Possibilities As discussed earlier in the limitation section we could not include the tracking system for this problem. VII. which should be possible with simple software update of APs. this proposed model could be further modified to be implemented in different types of networks like. Computer Networks etc. and the second algorithm also does the same thing but it uses GA in minimizing the power. With few modifications. our proposed cell breathing substantially improve the quality of the existing technique efficiently achieves load balancing by . On a broader scale. If we can enable a tracking system like GPS. this proposed load balancing mechanism can serve to balancing technique allows the network to adapt itself to changing network load conditions in order to maintain or improve the current level of service being provided to users. Further studies and research are needed for this purpose. This load dynamically reconfiguring transmission power and cell boundaries. and showed that it significantly out-performs the popular fixed power schemes. this procedure can be done with more accuracy. Furthermore. We only assume the control on the transmission power of the AP beacon messages.this cell breathing technique. It does not require changes to the client software or the standard. thereby making it rapidly deployable. The first algorithm minimizes the load of congested AP(s) in the network by changing the coverage area of the AP. Henceforth. we provided rigorous analysis of the problem and presented two algorithms to determine the optimal solutions. These optimal solutions are obtained only with the minimal information which is readily available without any special assistance from the users or modification of the standard. Thus we have demonstrated the effectiveness of cell breathing. This technique has not yet been implemented in our country.

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