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Electric Ships: Literature Survey
What are different types propulsion system used for ship propulsion?
Diesel Engines Dual Fuel Engines Gas Engines etc. What is All Electric Ship? What are different electric systems for ships? (Details of system components and combinations) What are different architectures of electric powertrain? What are different types of motors used in ship for different applications (list down the applications as well, ratings are not required at this stage, recommendation: tabular format) What are the safety requirements of the electric drives/ powertrains? What are legislative norms for electric ships (apart from safety norms)? Which are the biggest players in the market to provide total solution for electric powertrains? Find the examples of electric ships available currently in the market. (Concentrate on internal combustion engine as a propulsion system, not gas turbines) What general considerations of the electric drive/ powertrains (may be tabular format, e.g. frequency ratings/ fluctuations/ AC/ DC Motors/ 3 phase, Single phase etc??)
1. Electrical propulsion in Ships:
The shipping industry has come a long way as far as R & D for reducing costs of propulsion without increasing marine pollution is concerned. The conventional propulsion system of the ship is efficient but requires high operating costs and increases the marine pollution. Among all the prospective alternate power sources, electrical propulsion system is one of the best tried out alternative in today’s time.
© Ricardo Deutschland GmbH 2012
2. creating electricity that powers electric traction motors. Diesel electric ship: A diesel-electric transmission system includes a diesel engine connected to an electrical generator. © Ricardo Deutschland GmbH 2012 Page 2 . diesel-electric ship propulsion systems use a combination of a generator operated by electricity attached to a diesel motor.C or A. The technology has been in use since the early 1900s.C driven and are known as propulsion motors.Vertraulich Confidential DRAFT The electric propulsion system consists of a prime mover which may be of two types: Diesel driven Turbine or steam driven The propeller shaft of the ship is connected to large motors. In today’s times. Diesel-Electric Propulsion: In simple terms. which can be D. submarines and merchant ships incorporate the diesel-electric propulsion system to propel themselves. Power for propulsion motor is supplied by the ship’s generator and prime mover assembly.
a common power source that allows nearly all shipboard systems-from propulsion and radar to weaponry and communications-to be driven by electric power.Vertraulich Confidential DRAFT 3. Electric Ship: The concept behind all-electric ships is Integrated Power Systems. or pneumatically powered. With an electric © Ricardo Deutschland GmbH 2012 Page 3 . Some ships use auxiliary systems that are steam powered. hydraulically powered. Converting these systems to electrical power and combining them with electric drive propulsion would produce an all-electric ship.
ICR Gas turbine driven generator. PG3 3MW. Energy storage. 3phase. 3phase. switch gear and cable. auxillary propulsion. 1000VDC to 775V DC PCM2 Multi Ship Service Inverter Modules. PG5 12MW.3phase. 3 phase. 3 phase.60Hz. Heat transfer and thermal management. 4160V AC. diesel driven generator. PDM2 1000V.4160V AC.4160V AC. 360rpm. 60Hz. 60 or 400Hz PCM3 Multi Ship Service Converter Modules. a generator converts the engine’s high speed RPMs into electricity.75MW. 60Hz to 1000VDC The highlighted points are the specifications for the Cruiser. motors and actuators.60Hz. retracable and azimuthing Power Distribution Model Specifications: PDM1 4160V. Distribution and Control. Reference: © Ricardo Deutschland GmbH 2012 Page 4 .60Hz. +/-150rpm. Ships with such a system can be designed so that a single set of engines produces a common pool of electricity for use by the ship’s propulsion and non-propulsion systems.3phase.150rpm. cage induction motor with power converter PMM6 12MW. 360rpm.150rpm.Vertraulich Confidential DRAFT drive. Power Conversion Module Specifications: PCM1 Multi Ship Service Converter Modules. DC.diesel driven generator. 3phase. 4160V AC. 150rpm.diesel driven generator. Propulsion Motor Module Specifications : PMM1 19MW. AC. cage induction motor with power converter PMM2 38MW. PG4 8MW.60Hz. Focus Areas are the Power Generation. cage induction motor with power converter PMM3 38MW. tandem cage induction motor with power converter PMM4 800kW. cage induction motor with power converter PMM8 1400kW. retracable and azimuthing PMM5 52MW. 775VDC to 450V AC.501-K34 gas turbine driven generator. 150rpm.4160V AC. PG2 3.60Hz. 775VDC to 155VDC or 275VDC PCM4 Ship Service Converter Module 4160V AC. cage induction motor with power converter PMM7 28MW. Power Generation system in the Integrated Power system consist of modules Power Generation Module Propulsion Motor Module Power Distribution Module Energy storage Module Power Conversion Module Power Control Module The Power Generation Module Specifications: PG1 21MW. ship service cable. auxillary propulsion. 150rpm.3phase.
it has been introduced also for large power applications. Typically. The electrical motors in use are: . The synchronous machine is normally not used as a motor in ship applications. The design of a synchronous motor is similar to that of an synchronous generator. The asynchronous or induction motor is the workhorse of the industry.Permanent magnet synchronous motors. also for direct on-line applications. Permanent magnet synchronous motors are used in industrial drives for some few kW drives. In recent years. The benefit of this design is high efficiency with compact design. . or as a variable speed motor fed from a static frequency converter. Electric Machines for the propulsion systems: The electrical motor is the most commonly used device for conversion from electrical to mechanical power and is used for electric propulsion. The DC motor must be fed from a DC supply. in several MW propulsion drives. the asynchronous motor is normally cost-competitive. typically >5MW directly connected to propeller shaft.DC motors. fans. In power range smaller than this. etc.doerry.Synchronous motors.pumps. either as a constant speed motor directly connected to the network. or >8-10MW with a gear connection. This gives also a speed control of the motor. and other on-board loads such as winches. The asynchronous motor is used in any applications.Asynchronous (induction) motors. It is normally not used without a frequency converter supply for variable speed control in ship applications. and since the power generation and distribution system normally is a three-phase system. © Ricardo Deutschland GmbH 2012 Page 5 . . thrusters for propulsion or station keeping. For detailed description of the various construction of the DC motor. Its rugged and simple design ensures in most cases a long lifetime with a minimum of breakdown and maintenance. making it especially interesting for podded propulsion where the dimensions should be as small as possible and direct water cooling would eliminate the need for air cooling of the pod motor and simplify the construction and installation work.Vertraulich Confidential DRAFT http://www. 80-90 % of the loads in ship installations will be some electrical motors. this means that a DC motor must be fed from a thyristor rectifier. firstly in navy applications but now also in podded propulsion applications. with exception of large propulsion drives. .pdf 4.org/norbert/papers/PoweringTheFutureWithIPS_ASNE_96.
Large quantities of harmonics can lead to malfunctioning of the system that results in downtime and increase in operating costs. Harmonics are currents and voltages that are continuous multiples of the fundamental frequency of 60 Hz such as 120 Hz (2nd harmonic) and 300 Hz (5th harmonic). Transformers are used to isolate the different parts of the electric power distribution system into several partitions. in order to reduce the injection of distorted currents into the electric power network by cancelling the most dominant harmonic currents.Vertraulich Confidential DRAFT 5. The second harmonic would have a frequency of 120 Hz. This reduces the voltage distortion for generators and other consumers. © Ricardo Deutschland GmbH 2012 Page 6 . Phase shifting transformers can be used to feed frequency converters. which have a large number of non-linear loads. especially if the transformer is equipped with a grounded copper shield between primary and secondary windings. The transformers also have a damping effect of high frequency conductor emitted noise. e. Harmonic currents provide power that cannot be used and also takes up electrical system capacity. the third harmonic would have a frequency of 180 Hz and so on. for variable speed propulsion drives. Harmonic Filters: A harmonic filter is used to eliminate the harmonic distortion caused by appliances. normally in order to obtain different voltage levels and sometimes also for phase shift. 3-wire filters: Are power units that are large and typically used in variable speed drives and other such applications. Electrical Circuit for the Propulsion System.g.
Typically motor currents. motor speed. normally for synchronous motors. and in some cases temperatures and voltages are measured. or dynamic position control is normally required.Cycloconverters (Cyclo) for AC motors. controllability of the driven load will be greatly enhanced by controlling the speed of the motor. and the control of motor currents by controlling the switching elements of the rectifier and/or inverter. An interface to an overriding control system.DC converters or SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) for DC motors. pumps. synchronous and permanent magnet synchronous motors. The motor controller acquires measurement signals and feedback signals from sensors in the drive. Variable speed motor drives and control strategies For propulsion. .e. The most commonly used motor drives are: .Current source inverter type (CSI) converters for AC motors. Also. asynchronous. vessel management system. i. .Vertraulich Confidential DRAFT 6. thrusters.Voltage source inverter (VSI) type converters for AC motors. and motor.. etc. A motor controller contains the speed control. winches. © Ricardo Deutschland GmbH 2012 Page 7 . normally synchronous motors. . maneuvering control. there might be significant savings in power or fuel consumption by reducing the no-load dependent losses in operations.