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Dr. D.

Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012


Forging
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Schematic illustration of the steps involved in forging a knife
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Characteristics of Forging
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Metals in Decreasing Order of Forgeability
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging Operations
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging Operations: Fullering and Edging
(a) Stages in forging a connecting rod for an internal combustion engine. Note the
amount of flash required to ensure proper filling of the die cavities.
(b) Fullering and
(c) Edging operations to properly distribute the material when preshaping the blank
for forging.
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging Operations: Cogging
(a) Schematic illustration of a cogging operation on a rectangular bar.
(b) Reducing the diameter of a bar by open-die forging; note the movements of the dies and the
workpiece.
(c) The thickness of a ring being reduced by open-die forging.
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging Operations: Swaging
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging Operations: Swaging
(a) Schematic illustration of the rotary-swaging process.
(b) Forming internal profiles on a tubular work piece by swaging.
(c) A die-closing swaging machine showing forming of a stepped shaft.
(d) Typical parts made by swaging.
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging Operations: Swaging
(a) Swaging of tubes without a mandrel; note the increase in wall thickness in the die gap.
(b) Swaging with a mandrel; note that the final wall thickness of the tube depends on the mandrel
diameter.
(c) Examples of cross-sections of tubes produced by swaging on shaped mandrels. Rifling (internal
spiral grooves) in small gun barrels can be made by this process.
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
(a) Schematic illustration of the coining process.
The earliest coins were made by open-die forging
and lacked precision and sharp details.
Forging Operations: Coining
An example of a modern coining
operation, showing the workpiece and
tooling. Note the detail and superior
finish that can be achieve in this process.
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
(a) Heading operation to form heads on fasteners, such as nails and rivets.
(b) Sequence of operations to produce a typical bolt head by heading.
Forging Operations: Heading
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
(a) The stepped pin
(b) Illustration of the manufacturing steps used to produce the stepped pin.
Forging Operations: Stepped pin
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging: Classifications
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging: Machines
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Hammer and Press forging processes
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Board Hammer Forging
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Drop Hammer Forging
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Drop Hammer Forging
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Power Hammer Forging
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Hydraulic Press Forging
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Hydraulic Press Forging
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Mechanical Press Forging
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Typical velocity of different forging machines
hydraulic press
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Closed and Open die forging processes
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Impression-Die Forging
(a) through (c) Stages in impression-die forging of a solid round billet. Note the formation
of flash, which is excess metal that is subsequently trimmed off
(d) Standard terminology for various features of a forging die.
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Open die forging processes
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Closed die forging processes
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Closed die forging processes
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Closed die forging: Role of Flash
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Closed die forging: Design
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Closed die forging: Design
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Closed die forging: Design
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Die Materials
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Die Materials
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Die Failure
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging Load
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging Load: in absence of friction
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging Load with friction in Plane-Strain
Friction force t
xy
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Friction force t
xy
Forging Load with friction in Plane-Strain
( ) 0 2 = + dx h d h
xy x x x
t o o o
Taking the equilibrium of forces in the X-direction
dx
h
d
y
x
u
o
o 2
=
( ) 0 2 = + dx h d h
y x x x
uo o o o
p =
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging Load with friction in Plane-Strain
0 0 3 1
3
2
o o o o
'
= =
C
h
x
y
ln
2
ln + =
u
o
h
a
C
u
o
2
ln ln
0
+
'
=
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging Load with friction in Plane-Strain : FRICTION HILL
( )


'
= x a
h
y
u
o o
2
exp
0

|
.
|

\
|

'
=
L
x
h
L
y
2
1 exp
0
u
o o
Since, L= 2a
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Since, is a small number, we neglect higher order terms of
( ) + + + + =
! 3 ! 2
1 exp
3 2
Y Y
Y Y
( ) ( )

+
'
~


'
= x a
h
x a
h
y
u
o
u
o o
2
1
2
exp
0 0
Forging Load with friction in Plane-Strain
( )
a
a a
y
h
x
h
ax
x
a
dx x a
h a
dx
a
p
0
2
0
0 0
0
2 2
1

+
'
=

+
'
= =

u u o u o
o
|
.
|

\
|
+
'
=
h
a
p
u
o 1
0
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging Load: Sticking friction
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging Load: Sticking friction
( ) 0 2 = + dx h d h
xy x x x
t o o o
Taking the equilibrium of forces in the X-direction
h dx
d
xy
x
t
o
2
=
h dx
d
xy y
t o 2
=
mk
i xy
= =t t
h
dx
m
h
dx
m dx
h
mk
d
y 0
0
3
2 2
o
o
o
'
= = =
C
h
x
m
y
+
'
=
0
o o
After integration
Putting the boundary condition at x=a,
0
o o
'
=
y
( )

+
'
= x a
h
m
y
1
0
o o
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forging Load: Sticking friction
For Sticking friction m = 1


+
'
=
h
x a
y
1
0
o o
Under this condition mean pressure
|
.
|

\
|
+
'
=
h
a
p
2
1
0
o
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Transition from Slipping to Sticking Friction
( )


'
= x a
h
y
u
o o
2
exp
0
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Cost-per-piece in Forging
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Cost Comparison
Relative unit costs of a small connecting rod made by various forging and casting processes. Note
that, for large quantities, forging is more economical. Sand casting is the most economical
process for fewer then about 20,000 pieces.
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
A pierced round billet showing grain-flow pattern
Grain Flow in Forging
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Effect of forging on microstructure
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forming Texture
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forming Texture
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Forming: Residual stress
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Defects in Forged Parts
Laps formed by web buckling during forging; web thickness should be increased to
avoid this problem.
Internal defects caused by an oversized billet. Die cavities are filled prematurely, and
the material at the center flows past the filled regions as the die closes.
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Defects in Forged Parts
Dr. D. Das, MME, BESU-Shibpur, 2012
Typical Forging Defects