In today’s competitive world with fast depleting material resource, and with all its limitations, it has become imperative to develop human resources and its effectiveness. The continued effectiveness and efficiency of an organization to some extent depend on the ability of its employees to produce at high levels of efficiency, and to keep abreast with role, which the job demands. Training should be a long terms investment in human resources.

1.1About The Escorts Ltd.
Escorts Limited is all set to face the future by drawing on its 50 years of experience, its inherent strengths and a strong presence in the core sector providing complementary product line and a vast marketing network combining them with India’s intrinsic cost advantages to become a global source point for high value engineering products. In order to meet the challenges in the future and to leave an indelible mark on the industrial scenario, Escorts has restructured the group along six business lines, each headed by an independent CEO. The business groups are as follows:1. 2. 3. 4. Agri- Machinery Group Construction-Equipment Automotive Ancillaries Financial Services

1.2 Mission
“Escorts Endeavour’s to transform lives in rural and urban India by leading the revolution in agricultural mechanization, modernization of automotive and railway technology, as well as transformation of Indian construction industry”

1.3 Quality Policy


We shall strive to continuously improve to meet the ever – rising expectation of our customers at the lower cost. Each one of us must fulfill the need of our customer, both internal and external with the highest degree of commitment thereby creating a quality organization geared to ensure total customer satisfaction and the sustained health and prosperity of our business.

1.4 Company History
The genesis of Escorts goes back to 1944 when two brothers, Mr. H. P. Nanda and Mr. Yudi Nanda, launched a small agency house, Escorts Agents Ltd. in Lahore. Over the years, Escorts has surged ahead and evolved into one of India's largest conglomerates. In this journey of six decades, Escorts has had the privilege of being associated with some of the world leaders in the engineering manufacturing space like Minneapolis Moline, Massey Ferguson, Goetze, Mahle, URSUS, CEKOP, Ford Motor Company, J C Bamford Excavators, Yamaha, Claas, Carraro, Lucky Goldstar, First Pacific Company, Hughes Communications, Jeumont Schneider, Dynapac .These valued relationships be it technological or marketing, are our highly cherished experiences treasures, which have helped us inculcate best in class manufacturing practices and to emerge as a technologically independent world class engineering organization. 1944 - Launch of Escorts (Agents) Ltd. 1948 - Pioneered farm mechanization in the country by launching Escorts Agricultural Machines Limited, with a franchise from the U.S. based Minneapolis Moline, for marketing tractors, implements, engines & other farm equipment. Launch of Escorts (Agriculture and Machines) Ltd.1949 - Franchise of Massey Ferguson tractors for northern India. 1951 - Escorts established India's first private Institute of Farm Mechanization at Delhi. 1953 - Escorts (Agents) Ltd. and Escorts (Agriculture and Machines) Ltd. merged to form Escorts Agents Pvt. Ltd. 1954 - 1st industrial venture of Escorts to manufacture piston rings in collaboration with Goetze of Germany, in an era when joint ventures of Indian firms with foreign companies were virtually unheard of. 1958 - Started importing Massey Ferguson tractors from Yugoslavia for marketing the same in India.


1959 - Collaboration with Mahle of Germany to manufacture pistons. Soon, Escorts became the largest producer of piston assemblies in India. 1960 - Set up of Escorts Limited 1961 - Setting up of manufacturing base at Faridabad for manufacture of tractors in collaboration with URSUS of Poland and 50% indigenous components. Launch of Escort brand of tractors collaboration with CEKOP of Poland for manufacture of motorcycles and scooters. Escorts moves into high gear by nurturing the two wheeler culture. The first Rajdoot motorcycle rolls off the assembly line. 1969 - Escorts Tractors Limited was born a technical and financial joint venture with the global giant Ford Motor Company, USA, to manufacture Ford tractors in India. The years ahead saw Escorts grow as the largest tractor manufacturer in India. Escorts Institute of Farm Mechanization (EIFM) established at Bangalore. Escorts Employees Ancillaries Ltd. (EEAL), a unique venture in industrial democracy comes into being. 1971- 1st February, the first tractor FORD 3000 rolled out of the factory. Escorts diversifies and starts manufacturing construction equipment. 1974 - Crossing national boundaries, Escorts exports for the first time. After winning a global tender, 400 tractors were exported to Afghanistan, which was perhaps the world's largest ever airlift of tractors. 1977 - Escorts enters the world of self-developed technology by setting up its first independent R&D Center. Escorts Scientific Research Centre marked its beginning at Faridabad by developing its own Engines for E-27 and E-37. Due to constant technology absorption, indigenization level touched 72% for FORD tractors. 2nd plant at Bangalore for manufacturing piston assemblies was set up. 1979 - Collaboration with JCB Excavators Ltd., UK for manufacture of excavators. 1980 - Foray into healthcare, Escorts Hospital and Research Center set up in Faridabad. 1983 - Escorts Tractors Limited (ETL) established a state-of-the-art research and development centre to spearhead newer breakthroughs in Farm Mechanisation and to maintain industry leadership. Line concept introduced for engine block machining. 11,000 ton floating dry-dock Escorts I launched. 1984 - JV Escorts - Yamaha to manufacture motorcycles.


1984 - Signing of agreement with the Japanese bike giant Yamaha to manufacture motorcycles with Yamaha technology. Collaboration with Jeumont Schneider of France to manufacture EPABX systems Collaboration with Dynapac of Sweden to manufacture vibratory road compactors. 1988 - Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre (EHIRC), a world class cardiac care facility launched in New Delhi. 1989 - Joint Venture with Claas of Germany to manufacture harvester combines. 1990-91 - First Public Issue in February 1991, over-subscribed four times. Shares listed on Delhi and Bombay Stock Exchanges. 1993 - FORD 3620 tractor launched. 1996 - Disengagement of joint venture collaboration with New Holland and launch of FARMTRAC Tractor. 1997 - Joint Venture with Carraro of Italy for manufacturing and marketing of transmission and axles. Joint Venture with First Pacific Company of Hong Kong Escotel Mobile Communications. 1998 - POWERTRAC series of tractors launched. MoU was signed with Long Manufacturing Company, USA for setting up a Joint Venture in USA. 1999 - MoU for Joint Venture with a Polish Company POL-MOT was signed for assembly, manufacturing and marketing of Farm Machinery. 2004 - Divested Escotel Mobile Telecommunications TS16949 certification for Agri Machinery Group. to Idea Cellular

2005 – Divested Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre (EHIRC) to Fortis Healthcare. 2006 - Divested in Carraro India Ltd. 2008 - ECEL launches Fully Hydraulic Crawler Cranes 2009 - ECEL has recently commissioned its state-of-art manufacturing plantrolling out pick-n-carry cranes and vibratory compactors.

1.5 Company Logo


A hexagonal nut (in red) representing a geometric perfection. The nut has been a functional device that has stayed at the core of mankind’s engineering adventures. In spite of modern technologies coming in, it still remains unarguably a symbol of technology and all that holds it together. Locked into the nut is a spanner (in white), the turning force for the symbol of technology. The two pictorial elements are configured together to form an 'E', a pneumonic for Escorts.

1.6 Key Persons
Name Rajan Nanda G B Mathur Hardeep Singh M G K Menon Nikhil Nanda O K Balraj P S Pritam Rajan Nanda S A Dave S C Bhargava S Sridhar Designation CEO Secretary Director Director Joint Managing Director Exe. VP & Group Chief Financial Officer Director Chairman and Managing director Director Director Chief Executive Officer

1.7 Subsidiaries


                  

Escorts Asset Management Ltd. Escorts Automotive Ltd. Escorts Agri Machinery Escorts Class Ltd. Escorts Construction Equipment Ltd. Escorts Heart Institute and Research Centre Ltd Escorts Hospital and Research Centre Ltd. Escorts Securities Ltd. Escorts Telecommunication Ltd. Esconet Services ltd. Cellnext Solutions Pvt. Ltd. I Serv India Solutions Pvt. Ltd. Escosoft Technologies Ltd. Escosoft Technologies (USA) Ltd. Escosoft Technologies (UK) Pvt. Ltd. Escosoft Singapore Pvt. Ltd. E-Soft (Mauritius) Holdings Ltd. Escotel Mobile Communication Ltd. Escotel Telecommunication Ltd.


Chapter -2

Agri machinery group
Agri machinery group is the part of Escorts Ltd. In 1960, parent company, Escorts, set up the strategic Agri Machinery Group (AMG) to venture into tractors. Having pioneered farm mechanization in the country, Escorts has played a pivotal role in the agricultural growth of India for over five decades. One of the leading tractor manufacturers of the country, Escorts offers a comprehensive range of tractors, more than 45 variants starting from 25 to 80 HP. Escort, Farmtrac and Powertrac are the widely accepted and preferred brands of tractors from the house of Escorts.

1.1Features of AMG
Escorts - AMG has Tractor manufacturing capacity of 72000 / annum which is the highest in Asia at one location. Its manufacturing operations are divided in Four plants as    KMC Component Plant Tractor Assembly Plant Crankshaft & Hydraulic Plant

Component Plant consists of Machine shops in which all major castings such as Engine blocks, Gear Box housings, Differential housings are being machined along with Gears & Shafts. Machine shop consists of State of the Art machines such as CNC Horizontal Machining Centers, CNC Turning Centers and variety of other precision machines, including Gear Hobbing and Shaving machines, etc. It is important to note that all critical components are machined in house. Tractor Assembly Plant is divided into two lines as Farmtrac Line and the Powertrac Line. Farmtrac Line is a composite line that has machining as well as assembly activities of Engine, Transmission & Tractor whereas on Powertrac line


only Assembly activities of Engine, Transnmission& Tractor are being carried out. Tractor Assembly Plant has State of the Art Paint Shop that has CED paint shop facilities. Engine Shop has State of the Art testing facilities that includes AVL make Eddy Current Dynamometers in Engine Test House. Crankshaft & Hydraulic Plant is divided into two parts as Crankshaft Line and Hydraulics Line. Crankshaft line consists of machine shop where crankshafts of all Tractor models are being machined. It has State of the Art machines such as Rotary Miller, Pin Grinder, Journal Grinder, etc. Hydraulic line consists of Machining as well as Assembly activities where critical parts of tractor hydraulics such as Distributor, Hydraulic Cylinder, etc are being machined and assembled. It has State of the Art Honing and other precision machines.

1.2 Turn Over
     Present Turn over US$ 30 million. Presently Production 72,000 tractors per annum. Production will rise to 100,000 tractors per annum in 2 years. Procurement value will rise to almost US$ 45 million in that period. Presently 387 suppliers of which over 95% are India domestic.

1.3 Product

Table 2.1 Product Product Brand E-325 Josh, E-335, MPT JAWAN Hero, Champion, FT-40, FT-45, FT-50, FT-60, FT70 PT 425, PT434, PT-439,

Escort Tractors Farmtrac



PT- 445, PT-4455

Crop solution

Rotavator Laser leveler MB Plough Combrine Harvester Escorts Farmtrac Gear oil, Transmission Oil, Engine oil

FT Hero, FT Champion Farmtrac 60 ,Farmtrac 65 FT 65, FT70 G15, G20, G25, G30 FT15W40

Egines Lubricants

1.4 Awards
a). Greentech Environment Excellence Award-2011-Knowledge
Management Centre (KMC) has bagged the Gold Category award in Engineering Sector instituted by Greentech Foundation, Delhi for outstanding performance in “Environment Management” b). Escorts Agri Machinery (EAM) wins accolades at INSSAN-Employees of EAM participated in various competitions organised by the Indian National Suggestion Scheme Association New Delhi (INSSAN) at ESSEX farms, Convention Centre, New Delhi on 3rd and 4th June 2011. INSSAN is a platform to recognise the value of employees for their intelligence, experience, attitude and feelings. c). Escorts won Flower Festival Awards 2011 -organised by Haryana Urban Development Authority. d). Recognition of Escorts R&D Centre renewed for next five years i.e. up to 31st March 2016 based on R&D Projects under taken during last three years. e). Company was the First Winner in Solid Model Contest 2011- this award is about the focus on 3D imaging and predictive analysis to reduce the number of physical prototype to save time, cost and energy consumption.




Escorts Knowledge Management Center unites professional expertise with long practical experience in Product Design, Computer Aided Engineering (Simulation & Virtual Testing), Product Evaluation & Testing. It is in about 10000 s.m area. Escorts expertise in this area has been developed from nearly six decades of knowledge & experience in designing and innovating products and machines for escorts group's own manufacturing companies. Knowledge management centre have many depart as Design, testing, metrology etc.

In this section there are design of engine, transmission, vehicle are being done. For this purpose they use  I-DEAS / NX 3-D Modeling & Assembly  Pro – Engineer  AUTOCAD (2-D)


Figure 3.1a Real axle and differential

Figure 3.1b

Figure 3.2 Engine

Design Simulation & Verification using FEA tools


a)b) c)d) e)f)  g)h) i) j)  k)l)  m)  n) o)p)

Pre processing (Meshing) Structural analysis Thermal analysis Non linear analysis Dynamic analysis Fatigue analysis Optimization of structure Multi-body dynamics including flexible body

3.2 Testing
In testing department testing of engine, transmission and tractor testing are done. It includes engine test lab, transmission lab and tractor lab.

3.2.1Engine - Rigorous testing at the state of art Engine Test Lab
includes  Friction Measurement- For friction measuring motoring dynamometer is used. In this test the engine is first run up to the desired speed by its own power and allowed to remain at the given speed and load conditions for some time so that oil, water, and engine component temperatures reach stable conditions. The fuel supply is then cut-off and dynamometer is converted to run as a motor to drive for the engine at the same speed at which it was previously running. The power supply to the motor is measured which is a measure of the friction of the engine. It is about 22kW for 34hp engine.  Governing Test-This test is performed at high idle speed, rated speed and an intermediate speed.RPM is decreased in steps of 20 and it is observed at what RPM maximum power is obtained. For a good engine, the difference between maximum power RPM and the RPM at which the test is being performed should not be more than 100-120 RPM.  Gaseous & Particulate Emission Evaluation- Flame Ionization Detector is used for HC emission. Bosch smoke meter is used for smoke


measurement.  Endurance Test - This test is done to estimate the life of the engine. This test is generally performed on a new engine or an engine with some part modified. The test procedure depends on type of modification done. A new engine is run continuously for 3000 hours. After every 40 hours engine oil is checked, every 100 hours FTP test is done and in every 500 hours engine oil is checked.  Oil Consumption Evaluation- This test is done for oil consumption evaluation. In this test power is measured by dynamometer and fuel consumption is measured.

3.2.2 Vehicle testing – For vehicle there are mainly fatigue test, hydraulic lift
testing, field test and noise test are done.  Track test- In this test tractor is runs on a track having cleats, or grousers.


Figure 3.3 Test Track  PTO performance-This is done by the help of power take off dynamometer which measure engine power at the power take-off. This dynamometer has range of power and torque. PTO is 540 rpm at 1710 erpm.  Power lift- This test is done by power lift set up. In this test lift is continuously lifting the weight of 1050 kg .  Noise testing- Sound meter are used for this purpose. This gives the 81 dB.  Vibration testing – Vibration testing is done using Vibration measurement instruments consists of
  B&K 3560 Pulse Multi Analyzer System   16 channel Data Acquisition   I-DEAS Test Data Analysis Software (TDAS)

This set up gives frequency in 1 to 100 Hz.

3.3 Metrology

Facilities for the measurement of component dimensions using the following equipment: 3D CMM with software-A coordinate measuring machine is a 3D device for measuring the physical geometrical characteristics of an object. This machine may be manually controlled by a computer control.


Figure 3.4 Trimos Height measuring system

Trimos Height measuring system- Trimos hight gauge is used for hight measurement. Profile Projector with optical eye & software- It employed for inspecting and comparing very small and complex parts. Portable Surface roughness measuring equipment Conventional instruments



Assembly Plant

The final processed parts from the various parts of production shop and Heat Treatment reach the assembly Shop. Escorts have two assembly shop different for each powertrac and farmtrac. In farmtrac assembly line assembled 120 tractor per day and powertrac capacity is 80 tractor per day. For lifting the component there are hydraulic lift are used and for small part the used roller. Conveyor is used for moving in forward direction. The various parts reaches the assembly shop only after being washed, cleansed and dried, which takes place when the different parts are on their way to assembly shop. The above washing process takes place automatically i.e. the machinist has to drop the final Part on the roller conveyor, and the parts reach the assembly shop after being automatically washed and dried. We were advised to walk within the yellow line boundary because of the safety measures. The assembly shop can be divided into various subparts being assembled. These groups are:       Rear Line Transmission Assembly Engine Assembly Line Front Line Paint Shop Wheel Assembly

4.1Assembly Layout


Engine sub assembly

Differenti al assembly

Rear axle sub assembly

Gearbox assembl y

Engine assembly

Front axle assembly

Gear box sub assembl y assembl y


Radiator and air filter

Rear hood fitment

Front wheel fitment

Rear wheel fitment

Accessorie s

Hydraulic lift test


Figure 4.1 Assembly layout

4.2 Real assembly
Real assembly line is starting of assembly shop. Before the various differential parts such as bp shaft, differential cage etc. are assembled, the various sub-assembly of parts listed above are performed in the sub units. In the first unit, both the bp shafts are fitted with various components such as circular clips, bearings etc. to be able to be assembled to the differential Cage. This constitutes the assembly of cross bar, planetary gear, planetary gear cover, and crown wheel etc. The various bolts required making the assembly of about parts and integral one are bolted using a pneumatic bolter gun.After this, the differential cage is collected from the conveyor firstly fitted with the necessary bearing races. Then the differential Cage unit and the bp shaft are assembled, making up a complete one unit. The Axles are assembled in a different sub assembly shop. First rear axle wash and dry and then fixed wheel side bearing and there on the whole unit along with the bull gears is assembled to the differential Cage. Differential cover assemble after these assemblies.

4.3 Transmission Assembly
The gear box assembly is the third stage of the assembly unit in which the gear box is assembled. Firstly, the gearbox cage is collected from the conveyor roller and successively parts such as the counter shafts, clutch shafts, main shaft along with the ball bearings are assembled to the unit. There is separate sub unit assembling the planetary cage and gears, which is then attached to the gear box output shaft.


First gear on main shaft with 38 teeth and reverse gear with 38 teeth, second gear with 35 and and third with 28 teeth. This is the constant mesh type transmission. After assembly of the transmission there is leakage testing is perform. In this test first gear box is full of oil and then sealed. After that the pressure is increase up to 10 bar. Then the by the motor power the clutch shaft is revolve at 2700 rpm. This test check meshing of gears. After that whole unit is assembled to the main line and make a complete one unit.

4.4Assembly of Engine and Clutch Mechanism
First there is clutch assembly. Single clutch organic coil type clutch are fitted. Before the engine assembly there is assembly of various other accessories such as Foot board, battery clamp and other links such as accelerator pedal link, clutch link, brake link etc. Engine from sub assembly are assembled to the main line. A four stoke 3 cylinder diesel engine first assembled at the engine sub assembly. The various links and mechanism between the engine and the gear box is fastened together and the whole integral unit is checked for its complete accessories etc. In all the above stages of assembly, the skilled workers are used to accomplish all the stages of assembly. But they are also held by the pneumatic bolt guns and the over head automatic conveyors and the alarm conveyor etc to make their job easy.


Figure 4.2 Clutch and brake pedal fitting

Figure 4.3 Engine and fuel tank

4.5 Front axle and accessories and paint
After engine fitting there is assembly of front axle. After front axle there are steering assembly of the steering and accessories. Then clutch pedal and break is fitted. Fuel tank is fitted after this. After the whole assembly goes the lift for painting in the paint shop. The painting purpose there is cap fitted on bolts of wheel hub to protecting from paint.


Figure 4.4 Front axle fitment

Paint shop is completely automatic. In the paint shop first there is degressing , water rinsing and demineralized water rinsing. After that air blowing is done. Paint Baking Oven removes the moisture from water-based coatings and adhesives. After that unsmasking and touch up and painted the body.


Figure 4.5 Painted body of tractor

4.6 Rear and Front wheel fitting
After painting there is fitting of rear wheel with tyre size of 12.4×28 and front wheel fitment with the tyre size of 6×16. After fitting the wheels there is following fitment.


Figure 4.6 Rear wheel fitting Fan and Motor Rear hood Radiator and coolant Steering wheel Mirror Air filter Front light


Seat Silensor

Figure 4.7 Fitment of radiator

4.7 Final Testing
Final testing of tractor is lift testing and the test of track. At there a hydraulic force of 1050 kg applied and testing is done.



Steady of Cylinder Block Machining

Cylinder block of four stroke four cylinder diesel engine is done after casting. A cast cylinder block is comes from vendor. Machining of cylinder block is done at 10 different machines. E4.286- It is the machining line of cylinder block In this line 4 stroke engine cylinder block is machined. The total displacement of the engine is 2860 cc.

5.1BSM 01- Block straight milling –This operation perform in duplex milling
machine. It has two rotating cutting rotor.

Figure 5.1


Cylinder block

Target- To have a rough cutting on sump phase and head face. Depth of cut is 1.5 mm on each face. So cutting about 3 mm

Procedure- Locate the component from party dowel. Party dowel is used to
clamping the job. Party dowel is given by the party (supplier) which gives casting to the company. It rest on TCS (Tappet cover side) and clamp on NPS (Name plate side). This will help in keeping job in correct position. Rotation of cutter was clockwise when view from back side of spindle. Separate motor for compressor, oil/water are used. Feeds are automatic. Operator need to place the job and remove it. Use the pully crain to lift the object. 6 buttons are provide in the lifter( Up, Down, North, South, East, west).Now roller are provide to tilting the objects. This is done by chain mechanism. Now in order to remove chips and other waste like dust, compressed air is used. Hight of the cylinder block (i.e. distance between sump and head face ) is = 411.5±0.2 mm Sump face width is equal to 121±0.2 mm. Time gear side to bell housing side is equal to 431.5±0.2 mm

Mazak horizontal centre –NEXUS 8800 II- In this machine mazatrol software is used. There is continuous supply of machine (oil and water) to work as coolant and cleaner.CNC machine here is used for Various operation on head and sump face and cap sheet (finishing, drilling, counter drill, and tapping). Procedure- Locate from party dowel and clamp. Party dowel – TCS (Tappet cover side)


Clamp-NPS (Name plate side)

Setup-1 Head face- On the head face there are 18 holes (with tapping) are produced for
tightening the cylinder head. After that there is 9 more hole produce for the water passage. These holes are drilled only. One more hole produce for oil passage. Dimensions For tightning of cylinder head 18 holes drilled of Φ 10.5 mm

And counter drilled of Φ 12.5 mm

For water passage
4 holes drilled of 5 holes drilled of Φ 10 mm Φ 6 mm

For oil passing
One through hole of Φ 7 mm

Sump Face-On the sump face there are two more dowel are created for further
machining process. Dimensions 13H7 On sump face there are 14 more holes are produce. Dimensions drill of Φ 8.5 mm

tappping of M10×1.5 And then two small dowels are created of Φ5 size.


One more hole produce of Φ18.5 and tapped of M20×1.5 One dowel of 16H8 produced.

Set up-2
With the help of manufactured dowel fixed sump face and perform on the NPS, TGS, BHS, TCS.

Time gear side-On this face there is 2 holes drilled and one dowel machined.

Table 5.1 Hole dimensions Side TGS Φ6.8 drill Φ18 drill 16H8 dowel 2 holes Φ8.5 drilled 3 bore Φ36 Φ16.5 Φ16.5 Φ16.5 Φ16.5 Φ9 Φ12.5 Φ10.2 Size M8×1.25 Tapping M20×2 Tapping


M10×1.6 Tapping


M18×1.5 Tapped M18×3/4 ″ Tapped M18×1/4 ″ Tapped M18×1/8 ″ Tapped M10×1 M14×1.5 M12×1.75




HMC-25 -This machine programmed with FANUC CODE. There are two types of fixtures .Here we use mechanical rather than hydraulic. To mechanically these fixtures we use close wise. Use crain to hold the job and place on fixture with dowel on sump face. Now put close wise and tighten the screw. We use brake (hydraulic) pedal in order to start /stop. After this rotation of fixture is done and now door were closed and change pallet and start the program. This is the special type of machine. On this machine we can perform all the operations that are done earlier And this machine check the tool life also. This gives OEE (Overall equipment efficiency) of the tool. On this machine we perform oil gallering. This is done from crank to cam at 29 degree and from crank to idler at 18 degree. Oil gallery from crank to cam is longer than crank to idler. For change the pallet we use this program.





Cycle start

Alternative of this machine are BD03 (block drill) and GBD01 (gear block drill-gear box department)- In this machine drilling is done with the help of radial drilling machine. These drilling machine two fixtures of 29 degree and 18 degree are made so that drill can be done in straight manner.



BSM12 (Block straight milling) - on this machine milling and notching is done at one of the side used as a stopper for bushes. On this machine cutter have 10 side mill and 5 end mill.

5.5Machine -5
BNR04 (Block Nut turner) -For main bearing cap bolt tightening first already finished caps are put on the web and mechanically tightened using BNR.

5.6Machine -6
Now block again comes on the HMC25 (horizontal milling centre) for crank, cam and idler boring. Here semi finishing is done. First rough boring is done and there after semi finished boring is done. And thereafter it goes to vertical milling centre.

5.7Machine -7
VMC26 (vertical milling centre milling centre) – At VMC26 tappet boring is done. Here it create 4 holes of dimensions Φ 25 mm

Also along these tappets are created 4 cams working. At this stage checking of all dimensions are done hare. For checking all dimension they use ring gauge, Bore dial gauge, Go not go plug are used.

5.8Machine -8
BSB14 – Block straight boring -2 way boring. Here boring of crank, cam and idler is being finished. Boring is done from both end since it is two way. In this machine boring of crank/cam is done from one side and boring of idler from another side.


BWT4 (Block washing machine) - This is a washing machine with both type of block air and block water cleaning. And final inspection is done over here.

BBP (block bush pressing) -For this purpose BEMCO hydraulic press is used. This is used to put bush inside the cam hole. Capacity -25 kW.



Bolt Selection and Failure

Bolts are defined as headed fasteners having external threads that meet an exacting. Bolt are manufactured in a wide range of materials from common steel to titanium, plastic and other exotic materials. Many materials are further separated into different grades to describe specific alloy mixtures, hardening processes, etc. In addition, some materials are available with a variety of coatings or plating to enhance the corrosion resistance, or appearance of the fastener. Selection of bolt depend on the torque requirement. When replacing bolt, it is generally best to match what you are replacing. Replacing a bolt with a stronger one is not always safe. Harder bolts tend to be more brittle and may fail in specific applications. Also some equipment is designed so that the bolts will fail before more expensive or critical items are damaged. In some environments such as salt water galvanic corrosion must also be considered if changing fastener materials.

6.1Bolt Grading
There are three grades of bolt in common used. Most bolts which you will come across will only deviate slightly from these three grades. The lowest grade is 4.6, commonly known as commercial grade. Next comes grade 8.8, known as structural grade, and finally, the highest grade is 12.9, known as high tensile bolts. In between these there are many grades are used such as 4.8, 5.6, 9.8 and 10.9 etc.



Ultimate Tensile strength 4*100MPa

Yield Strength is 60% of tensile Strength i.e. 0.6*4*100=240MPa

Table 6.1 Bolt grade and there material


Minimum Size Range Proof Head Marking (mm) Strength (106 Pa)

Tensile Yield Strength, (106 Pa)

Minimum Tensile Strength (106 Pa)



M5 - M36

225 240


Low or medium carbon steel



Size Range Head Marking (mm)

Minimum Proof Strength (106 Pa)

Tensile Yield Strength, (106 Pa)

Minimum Tensile Strength (106 Pa)



M1.6 M16



Low or medium carbon steel



M5 - M24



Low or medium carbon steel



M16 - M36



Medium carbon steel, Q & T



M1.6 M16



Medium carbon steel, Q & T



M5 - M36

830 940


Low carbon martensite steel, Q&T



Size Range Head Marking (mm)

Minimum Proof Strength (106 Pa)

Tensile Yield Strength, (106 Pa)

Minimum Tensile Strength (106 Pa)



M1.6 M36



Alloy steel, Q & T


6.2How do you tighten a bolt?
The general objective from a tightening process is to achieve a consistent bolt preload. Controlling the torque during tightening and completing subsequent inspection checks to ensure that the specified torque is being achieved are common ways that this objective is implemented. When applied torque and the resulting tension (preload) in the bolt are measured during tightening and plotted on a graph, there is a linear relationship between the torque and the tension. The bolt tension is directly dependent, and proportional to, the applied torque. This is illustrated by the graph, which is based upon experimental results, that is shown in the diagram above. From such test results it is possible to establish the appropriate torque for a required bolt preload that may be preload.


Figure 6.1 Torque distribution chart

It is known that approximately 50% of the tightening torque is dissipated in overcoming friction under the bolt head or the nut face (whichever is the face that is rotated). Typically only 10% to 15% of the overall torque is actually used to tighten the bolt, the rest is used to overcome friction in the threads and on the contact face that is being rotated (nut face or bolt head). This is illustrated in the pie chart shown above. Relatively small changes in the nut face friction can have a significant effect on the bolt preload. As more torque is perhaps needed to overcome friction, less remains for the bolt extension and hence as the effect of adversely reducing the preload. If the friction under the nut face is reduced , then, for a given torque, the bolt preload will be increased. Grade 12.9 bolts are tightened with a torque wrench, right up to their 90% proof load. There is no other effective way to tighten a grade 12.9 bolt. Automotive manuals will give the tightening torque required. Grade 12.9 bolts do not work


effectively with spring washers or shakeproof washers. These don't bite into the hardened surface of the bolt. There are only two ways of adding extra security to grade 12.9 bolts. Use Loctite on the threads or drill the heads and wire the bolts. It is possible to buy pre-drilled cap screws. Mating surfaces of a 12.9 bolted joint are not painted. For serious work, never re-use a fully tensioned 12.9 bolt. Grade 8.8 bolts are tightened by the part turn method, torque wrench, or by using load indicating washers. In the part turn method, the bolt is done up to snug tight, and then advanced one, two or three flats of the hexagon, depending on the size, length etc. The torque wrench method is used commonly, often in the form of an air operated rattle gun. Special load indicating washers, such as Coronet washers can be used. These have dimples which indent the mating surface. A feeler gauge is used to determine the pre-load. Grade 8.8 Bolts are used in High Strength Friction Grip applications. If this is the case, the mating surfaces must not be painted or galvanized. For added security of the joint , use any one of the plethora of systems such as spring washers, shake proof washers, Loctite, wired heads, split pins and castle nuts, locking tabs, lock nut or patented nut systems (Nyloc is common). For serious work, use castle nuts, either with split pins or wired together in groups. Also for serious work, do not re-use fully tensioned grade 8.8 bolts, Nylocs, split pins etc. Grade 4.6 bolts are not pre-tensioned in the joint. They are tightened to snug tight only. For all intents, this means a reasonable hand effort on a spanner. Use good springy chrome-moly spanners, and never put an extension bar on the spanner. All of the security systems available for 8.8 bolts are available on 4.6 bolts. If you need much more than a spring washer, question whether the joint really requires an 8.8 bolt. Mating surfaces of a grade 4.6 bolted joint are usually painted prior to assembly.

6.3 Torque Specifications
Recommended bolt torque values are listed in the following tables. For critical applications, as determined by Toro, either the recommended torque or a torque that is unique to the application is clearly identified and specified in the service manual .These torque specifications for the installation and tightening of bolt shall apply to all bolt which do not have a


specific requirement identified in the service manual. The following factors shall be considered when applying torque:

Cleanliness of the bolt, use of a thread sealant (Loctite), degree of lubrication on the bolt, presence of a prevailing torque feature, hardness of the surface underneath of the bolt head, or similar condition which affects the installation . As noted in the following tables, torque values should be reduced by 25% for lubricated bolts .To achieve the similar stress as a dry bolt. Torque values may also have to be reduced when the bolt is threaded into aluminum or brass. The specific torque value should be determined based on the aluminum or brass material strength, bolt size ,length of thread engagement, etc .The standard method of verifying torque shall be performed by marking a line on the bolt (head or nut) and mating part, then back off bolt 1/4 of a turn. Measure the torque required to tighten the bolt until the lines match up.

Table 6.2 Torque requirement

Size # 6 - 32 UNC # 6 - 40 UNF # 8 - 32 UNC # 8 - 36 UNF # 10 -24 UNC # 10- 32 UNF 1/4 - 20 UNC 1/4 - 28 UNF 5/16- 18 UNC 5/16- 24 UNF

Grade 8.8 (N-cm) 170±20 190±20 330±30 350±30 475±45 540±45 1125±100 1300±100 2250±280 2540±280 N-m

10.9 (N-cm) 260±20 280±20 460±45 482±45 674±70 765±70 1580±170 1800±170 3390±340 3670±340 N-m



3/8 - 16 UNC 3/8 - 24 UNF 7/16 - 14 UNC 7/16 - 20 UNF 1/2- 13 UNC 1/2- 20 UNF 5/8- 11 UNC 5/18- 11 UNF 3/4- 10 UNC 3/4- 16 UNF

41±4 47±4 68±7 75±7 102±11 115±11 203±20 230±20 359±34 407±34

58±5 68±5 68±9 104±9 142±14 163±14 285±27 325±27 508±47 569±47

6.4 ISO Standard of bolts

Nominal dia Pitch Length Grade of bolt


Figure – 6.2 Bolt View

k –Head Hight ds- Shank Diameter e- Across Corner s - Across flats c- Washer Face Thickness

da- Fillet Transition Diameter lf -Fillet Length r- Fillet Radius pa - Pitch dw - Washer Face Diameter


Table 6.3 Bolt ISO standard
Nominal pa b ref c da ds Bolt Diameter b c d max min max Nom.=maximum Product A min Grade B Product A min Grade B Product A min Grade B max Nom. product A max Grade min product B max Grade min Product A min Grade B min Nom.=maximum Product A min Grade B M1.6 0.35 9 15 28 0.25 0.10 2.0 1.6 1.46 1.35 2.27 2.3 3.41 3.28 0.6 1.1 1.225 0.975 1.3 0.9 0.68 0.63 0.1 3.20 3.02 2.90 M2 0.4 10 16 29 0.25 0.10 2.6 2.0 1.86 1.75 3.07 2.95 4.32 4.18 0.8 1.4 1.525 1.275 1.6 1.2 0.89 0.84 0.1 4.00 3.82 3.70 M2.6 0.45 11 17 30 0.25 0.10 3.1 2.5 2.36 2.25 4.07 3.95 5.45 5.31 1 1.7 1.825 1.575 1.9 1.5 1.10 1.05 0.1 5.00 4.82 4.70 M3 0.5 12 18 31 0.40 0.15 3.6 3.0 2.86 2.75 4.57 4.45 6.01 5.88 1 2 2.125 1.875 2.2 1.8 1.31 1.26 0.1 5.50 5.32 5.20 M4 0.7 14 20 33 0.40 0.15 4.7 4.0 3.82 3.70 5.88 5.74 7.66 7.50 1.2 2.8 2.925 2.675 3.0 2.6 1.87 1.82 0.2 7.00 6.78 6.64 M5 0.8 16 22 35 0.50 0.15 5.7 5.0 4.82 4.70 6.88 6.74 8.79 8.63 1.2 3.5 3.65 3.35 3.26 2.35 2.35 2.28 0.2 8.00 7.78 7.64 M6 1 18 24 37 0.50 0.15 6.8 6.0 5.82 5.70 8.88 8.74 11.05 10.89 1.4 4 4.15 3.85 4.24 3.76 2.70 2.63 0.25 10.00 9.78 9.64 M8 1.25 22 28 41 0.60 0.15 9.2 8.0 7.78 7.64 11.63 11.47 14.38 14.20 2 5.3 5.45 5.15 5.54 5.06 3.61 3.54 0.4 13.00 12.73 12.57 M10 1.5 26 32 45 0.60 0.15 11.2 10.0 9.78 9.64 14.63 14.47 17.77 17.59 2 6.4 6.58 6.22 6.69 6.11 4.35 4.28 0.4 16.00 15.73 15.57

dw e lf

k kwe r s

Nominal pa b ref c da ds

Bolt Diameter B c d max min max Nom.=maximum Product A min Grade B Product A min Grade B Product A min

dw e

M12 1.75 30 36 49 0.6 0.15 13.7 12 11.73 11.57 16.63 16.47 20.03

M16 2 38 44 57 0.8 0.2 17.7 16 15.73 15.57 22.49 22 26.75

M20 2.5 46 52 65 0.8 0.2 22.4 20 19.67 19.48 28.19 27.7 33.53

M24 3 54 60 73 0.8 0.2 26.4 24 23.67 23.48 33.61 33.25 39.98

M30 3.5 66 72 85 0.8 0.2 33.4 30 29.48 42.75 -

M36 4 84 97 0.8 0.2 39.4 36 35.38 51.11 -

M42 4.5 96 109 1.0 0.3 45.6 42 41.38 59.95 -

M48 5 108 121 1.0 0.3 52.6 48 47.38 69.45 -

M56 5.5 137 1.0 0.3 63 56 55.26 78.66 -


Grade B max Nom. product A max k Grade min product B max Grade min e kw Product A min Grade B r min Nom.=maximum s Product A min Grade B Nominal Bolt Diameter a p B b ref c d c max min da max ds Nom.=maximum Product A min Grade B dw Product A min lf

19.85 3 7.5 7.68 7.32 7.79 7.21 5.12 5.05 0.6 18 17.73 17.57 M12 1.75 30 36 49 0.6 0.15 13.7 12 11.73 11.57 16.63

26.17 3 10 10.18 9.82 10.29 9.71 6.87 6.8 0.6 24 23.67 23.16 M16 2 38 44 57 0.8 0.2 17.7 16 15.73 15.57 22.49

32.95 4 12.5 12.715 12.285 12.85 12.15 8.6 8.51 0.8 30 29.67 29.16 M20 2.5 46 52 65 0.8 0.2 22.4 20 19.67 19.48 28.19

39.55 4 15 15.215 14.785 15.35 14.65 10.35 10.26 0.8 36 35.38 35.00 M24 3 54 60 73 0.8 0.2 26.4 24 23.67 23.48 33.61

50.85 6 18.7 19.12 18.28 12.8 1 46 45 M30 3.5 66 72 85 0.8 0.2 33.4 30 29.48 -

60.79 6 22.5 22.92 22.08 15.46 1 55 53.8 M36 4 84 97 0.8 0.2 39.4 36 35.38 -

71.3 8 26 26.42 25.58 17.91 1.2 65 63.1 M42 4.5 96 109 1.0 0.3 45.6 42 41.38 -

82.6 10 30 30.42 29.58 20.71 1.6 75 73.1 M48 5 108 121 1.0 0.3 52.6 48 47.38 -

93.56 12 35 35.5 34.5 27.65 2 85 82.8 M56 5.5 137 1.0 0.3 63 56 55.26 -

6.5Bolt Failure
When a threaded fastener cannot sustain the expected loading and becomes detached, a significant loss may occur. Although rare, bolt failure has caused wheel detachment on vehicles, structural failure in buildings, and crashes of aircraft. This article presents several examples of bolt failures that have been involved in serious losses. The claims professional is usually involved early in the analysis of the accident and is influential in the early decisions as to the failure analysis of the threaded fastener involved. Through a review of these case studies, the claims professional can gain insight into how to handle future assignments involving bolt induced losses.


6.5.1Failure as a result of an overload
Many accidents can be characterized as an impact with a non-compliant object such as a truck impacting a concrete bridge support. In these cases, bolt failure due to overload can occur. Figure 6.3a is a view of a bolt that fractured in the threaded area. The 45 degree full-slant fracture surface indicates high tensile loads. The fine, gray appearance of the fracture surface is consistent with a sudden overload failure. In this case, other bolts on the mechanical part had failed, transferring the load to the remaining bolt shown in Figure 1, resulting in an overload. Figure 6.3b is a view of the fracture surface of a steering gear output shaft of a large truck. The truck was involved in an accident and a question arose as to the role of the steering unit as a possible cause. Microscopic examination of the fracture shows a full-slant fracture surface (about 45 degrees) and evidence of a shear-face tensile fracture, characteristic of an overload. It was concluded that the fracture of the output shaft was most likely a result of the accident and not a cause. Figure 6.3c is a view of a similar fracture surface at the threaded end of a wheel spindle with it’s characteristic 45 degree fracture surface and fine gray appearance. This is a typical overload during a vehicle rollover accident.


(b) Figure6.3 Failure as a result of an overload


6.5.2Failure due to lack of locking mechanism


In order to prevent bolts from loosening over time, various locking mechanisms are employed. They include lock washers, locking nuts, jam nuts, mechanical deformations, wire wrap, cotter pins, metal locks, expansion anchors, helical coils and polymer locking compounds. Machinery that is subject to vibratory environments usually is equipped with some sort of locking mechanism. If the locking mechanism is not applied to the machinery during manufacture, a catastrophic event may result. Figure 6.4a is a view of a hoist transmission used in a large crane. The bolt shown in Figure6.4b was found out of position after the crane transmission “jumped out of gear” dropping a heavy load. In Figure 6.4a, the arrow points to the location of the bolts. Specifications called for a polymer locking compound to be applied to the bolt threads to prevent backing out. No compound was found on the bolt threads or in the threaded hole. Consequently, over a period of time, the bolts loosened, resulting in the loss of control to the shift fork in the transmission.


Figure 6.4


Failure due to lack of locking mechanism

6.5.3Metal fatigueMetal fatigue is the phenomenon characterized by progressive crack growth during cyclic loading. A crack is often initiated at a flaw or stress riser (sharp notch) in a part. Cyclic forces such as vibrations or repeated impact cause the crack to increase in size until the part can no longer sustain the load, and a final fracture occurs. The arrows point to the initiation sites of the fatigue crack. The small lines or striations on the metal surface show the advance of the crack from the exterior to the inside of the bolt. The rutted gray area in the middle of the bolt is the area of final fracture where the bolt cross-section was reduced and the bolt could not carry the load.


6.5.3Failure from improper torque
When threaded fasteners are utilized, the amount of tightening or bolt torque is often important. Motor vehicle wheel studs require torques ranging from about 100 ft-lbs for smaller vehicles to over 400 ft-lbs for large trucks. The appropriate torque is required in order to prevent relative flexing of the two parts being fastened and to assure an acceptable mechanical connection. Bolt failures as a result of improper torque have occurred in automobile applications (See Claims Magazine, December 1995).Figure 6.5 shows a part of the stud that was bearing on the wheel rim causing severe wear of the thread, another indicator of insufficient bolt.

Figure6.5 Failure from improper torque

6.5.4Failure from improper design
It is generally considered poor design to allow significant alternating shear or bending forces in the vicinity of the threaded section of the bolt since the threads form a stress riser and tend to initiate fatigue cracks, as happened in this case. A better design would be to utilize a bolt with a shorter threaded section so that the unthreaded shank material is at the shear area of the bracket. This eliminates the stress riser from the threaded section and increases the effective bolt diameter.

6.5.5Failure from improper manufacture


Figure 6.6 is a view of a failed tie rod end bolt, a critical steering system component in an automobile. The vehicle suddenly pulled to the right after traveling over a bump in the road. The fracture surface revealed an area of progressive fracture that had been occurring over time. This was initiated by a heat treating related defect in the outer surface of the tapered shank. The crack grew by metal fatigue and finally failed when traveling over a modest road surface perturbation. The driver suddenly experienced extreme difficulty in steering the vehicle and lost control. With little evidence of an extreme force application at the right rear suspension, it appeared unusual that a bolt would fracture from an overload in such a manner. The bolt was removed and tested. The exterior surface hardness was found to vary considerably along the bolt length, resulting in a stress discontinuity at the fracture surface

Figure6.6 Failure from improper manufacture




Summer training in Escorts Ltd. really helped me to familiarize myself to the practical knowledge of industrial production and processes. T h e w h o l e training period was very interesting, instructive and challenging. Through this training I was able to gain new insights and more comprehensive understanding about the real industry working condition and practice. I got the idea of working of automatic CNC machines, Testing techniques of Diesel engine, tractors and different processes used in machining of cylinder block and Assembly plant. All of this valuable experience and knowledge that I have gained were not only acquired through the direct involvement in task given but also through other aspect of the training such as work observation, interaction with operators, supervisor and other peoples involved in the process. In assembly plant i saw how tractor are assembled. I get knowledge about differentdifferent sub assemblies of tractor assembly plant. Differential sub assembly, transmission sub assembly, transmission testing, paint of body and different sub stations. It was a good idea and good chance to expose to the work environment that we will have to face and practice after we graduate. As a result of the training now I am more confident to enter the employment world and build my future career.



1. http://euler9.tripod.com/bolt-database/22.html 2. http://www.escortsagri.com/ 3. http://www.standardsbis.in/Gemini/search/BasicSearch.action?sear chValue=hexagonhead bolts# 4. http://www.boltscience.com/pages/quality.htm 5. http://www.boltscience.com/pages/nutorbolttightening.htm 6. Introduction to Design Behavior of Bolted Joint by John H. Bickford. 7. http://www.scribd.com/doc/51438283/1364-1 8. Material given to me by the company

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