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Watering Street Trees in Santa Monica

Watering trees is extremely important to their growth, health and ability to produce the important environmental benefits that we as a community rely on. However, like anything else, too much of a good thing can be detrimental. By following some basic guidelines you can have healthy street trees and conserve water at the same time.

FUNDAMENTALS OF WATERING STREET TREES

The species, age of tree and type of soil have a bearing on how much to water. o Some types of soil hold water longer than other types. o Some types of soil dry out quicker than other types. o Watering young trees is different from watering mature trees. o Some species do not require as much water as others might regardless of age. See Attachment 1 for a list of watering needs of individual species. To find out what species your street tree is contact the Community Forester at community.forester@smgov.net. o The seasons and weather conditions influence when to water. Checking soil moisture content throughout the year will tell when a tree needs water. o Surface grade dictates how fast the soil can take the water. Apply too much at once or too often and you get surface runoff or puddles.

KNOW THE TYPE OF SOIL It is important that sprinkler systems are properly designed and maintained so they apply water at a rate low enough to allow all it to infiltrate into the soil without running off or creating puddles somewhere its not supposed to.

The rate at which soil can absorb or take in water is the infiltration rate. The rate at which a sprinkler system applies water is called the application rate. If the application rate is higher than the soil's infiltration rate surface runoff is achieved, resulting in water collecting on the surface and/or flowing away from where it was supposed to go. This wastes water as it doesnt provide the tree with the water it needs. This condition can be offset by applying repeating shorter water cycles that gives to sol time to absorb the moisture in between cycles.

The irrigation system shown in the photo at left shows a front yard landscape with a steep grade down to the sidewalk. The system has been running long enough to pass the point of runoff and the water applied from this point forward is

wasted.

To avoid this problem the system should be set with short cycles and long intervals in between each cycle. This allows the soil to absorb the water as it is applied.

In order to have an idea of the infiltration rate it helps to know the type of soil. A general rule to follow when applying irrigation is: sandy soil requires water on a more frequent basis and clay soils require less water on an infrequent basis.

An easy way to determine the type of soil:

Dig down about four inches and take a sample of moist soil about the size of a marble. o If it can be rolled up into a tube thinner than a pencil and hold its shape, then its clay soil. o If the soil breaks apart easily and has a consistent, gritty texture, it is sandy soil.

o If the soil contains a lot of organic matter of varying size and consistency, it is loam. Loamy soil can also vary from clay loam or sandy loam. Loamy soil that is easy to break apart into small particles is sandy loam. Loamy soil that breaks apart into large chunky particles is clay loam.

Soil with the right amount of water should be moist but not saturated. A simple test to check moisture content is to take a handful of soil and squeeze it tightly then release the pressure. If the soil retains its shape and is not sticky or oozing water, the moisture content is favorable.

Another consideration is the seasonal changes in weather. During spring and fall, the days are shorter and cooler and the soil temperature drops, and trees need less water. As the days get longer and warmer, trees need more water. As the seasons change, the

frequency of watering needs to be adjusted accordingly. This is usually done by reducing the number of days between each time you need to water and reducing the amount that is actually applied to the soil. If no adjustments are made throughout the seasons, overwatering or under-watering occurs, which in turns leads to poor tree health.

GUIDELINES FOR WATERING STREET TREES

Check the Community Foresters list of water requirements for street trees to get an idea of how much water your street tree needs. (Attachment 1)

Key factors to remember when watering street trees: o Species There are over 225 different species of trees in Santa Monica and many of them require different amounts of water at different times of the year. Santa Monicas forest is primarily made up of trees that flourish in a moderate climate with naturally dry conditions. Many species found in Santa Monica do not require regular water and actually thrive when they receive minimal amounts. Other species require no irrigation during the summer months as it is detrimental to their health. Mature or established trees usually can get by with infrequent

watering depending on the species of tree. Most of Santa Monicas street trees require a climate with long, hot summers and mild winters with a moderate amount of rainfall. They do best in sandy loam soil but can tolerate other types of soils. The most important area to water for deciduous trees is within the dripline (from the trunk to the outer edges of the trees branches). For evergreens, water 3-5 feet beyond the dripline on all sides of the tree.

o Current age and size Older trees are sensitive to increased amounts of water. Trees that have been thriving on a certain level of soil moisture and then subjected to increased amounts can respond in different ways. Increased shoot growth adds new foliage and weight to the limbs in the canopy and increases pruning requirements. In order to reduce the potential for limb failures pruning cycles need to be increased.

Too much water can also kill roots from lack of oxygen in the soil. Mature trees that suffer from too much water in the soil will respond with dead tips, dieback throughout the canopy and excessive leaf drop. In extreme cases, trees with dead roots can fall over.

The tree in the photo at right is a mature drought tolerant tree that has a sparse canopy and chlorotic foliage because of regular watering. evident by the dieback in the tips of the tree seen in the photo at left. The photo at right shows the trunk This is

base clear of turf. This helps prevent damage to the

trunk from water, lawn mowers or

line trimmers and maintains a strong healthy trunk base.

Water on the trunk can lead to decay if there are wounds at the base of the tree. This eventually weakens

the trunk and creates a potential for total tree failure.

Water on the trunk creates conditions for decay to progress when there are wounds at the base of the tree.

There are several fungal diseases known to afflict trees that thrive in of southern Californias climate. The diseases that infect these trees can cause considerable damage and even the demise of a street tree. These problems mainly arise due to conditions that are different from their native habitat. Conditions such as summer watering or excessive watering in the winter result in fungi, bacteria and viruses in the soil that trees cannot withstand or compete with. This condition can ultimately lead to the failure of a mature tree in spite of a healthy appearing canopy. The photo at right and below show the fruiting bodies of two fungi that are associated commonly with trees

that have been wounded and suffer from internal decay. excessive the base Improper watering of a or at tree for

creates

conditions

these fungi to grow and accelerate the decay process. When trees display these fruiting bodies it is an indication of extensive internal decay. Report a tree with fruiting bodies of fungi.
community.forester@smgov.net

The main thing that new trees need to become established is a source of moisture. Regular moisture allows a new tree to grow quickly by developing a consistent amount of foliage and shoot growth, while irregular watering forces the tree to only produce the foliage that it can sustain on minimal or infrequent amounts of moisture.

o Young trees that have been recently planted in the ground need approximately 10 gallons of water every two weeks. o A simple method to follow is to fill up the swale (shown in the photo below left) around the trunk base with water and let it percolate down into the root ball. After it has all drained into the soil, fill the swale up once more and allow it to drain.

Follow this method twice a week during warm months of May through October and once a week during the cool months of November through April.

When watering trees it helps to understand the following facts about roots. o A trees root mass is its foundation and provides the structural support it needs to remain standing upright. Over watering leads to damage to that foundation and can affect the stability of a street tree. o Most if not all of a street trees roots are found in the upper 2 feet of soil. o Most, if not all roots are found where water, nutrients and oxygen are readily absorbed. o The distances that roots can spread horizontally, and the spot where most of the moisture is absorbed, are directly related. o Trees need oxygen for their roots. Too much water in the soil interferes with the roots ability to exchange oxygen, leads to root rot and the eventual decline or failure of a tree. o The roots of a street tree can extend up to four times the diameter of its canopy which places much of the root mass in a front yard landscape. Watering a front yard landscape forces the tree to develop its network of roots under the sidewalk and in a front yard. o Deep and/or infrequent watering forces a tree to develop a root system that is far reaching and/or deep. o Regular water for a front yard landscape allows street trees to develop a shallow root system that does not extend any farther than it has to in order to reach a source of moisture.

LEVELS OF WATERING

None o Exactly what is says. Trees that do not need water will thrive in dry soil are healthier and have a stronger root base. The tree in the photo at right doesnt need watering as it gets all of its moisture from the adjacent

landscape on the opposite side of the sidewalk.

Minimal o Water applied by drip either through a designed drip system or a temporary watering bag in order to establish young trees. o The amount of water a tree needs also depends on the season as well: During the months of April - October: A short water cycle in the morning once or twice a week is the best. During the months of November - March: No need for supplemental water during the winter season

Occasional Flooding o Trees that need moderate amounts of moisture but are growing in poor draining soils perform better when the soil is flooded periodically, allowing a long period in between each water cycle to allow the moisture to drain through the soil. The tree in the photo at right requires occasional flooding in order to maintain moisture in the soil. However, it would not grow well if its trunk base was watered every day.

Regular o Street trees that need regular water such as the tree in the photo at right, can thrive on what is usually applied to the average landscape. This develops shallow roots that have the potential to disrupt surrounding hardscapes that are within a trees normal growth zone.

o Regular water can also be applied through a drip system, or manually.

o To learn best management practices for landscaping and irrigating

parkways read the Citys Parkway Policy (Attachment 2).

Moderate o Street trees that need a moderate amount of water need regular water in larger quantities. Trees that need

this much moisture are faster growing or develop large canopies.

Ample o Exactly what is says, ample amounts of water. Street trees that need ample amounts of water will

show signs of stress if they do not get the water they need. Trees that

need ample amounts of water can have large

canopies or come from a riparian habitat, the

tropics or the northern part of California.

Attachment 1: Water Requirements by Species


Botanical Name
Acacia baileyana Acacia decurrens Acacia melanoxylon Acacia spp. Acer palmatum Acer saccharinum Agonis flexuosa Albizia distachya Albizia julibrissin Alnus cordata Alnus rhombifolia Araucaria bidwillii Araucaria columnaris Araucaria heterophylla Arbutus unedo Archontophoenix alexandrae Archontophoenix cunninghamiana Bauhinia blakeana Bauhinia variegata Betula pendula Betula spp. Brachychiton populneus Brahea armata Brahea edulis Broussonetia papyrifera Butia capitata Calliandra tweedii Callistemon citrinus Callistemon citrinus 'Violaceus' Callistemon viminalis Calocedrus decurrens Calodendrum capense Casimiroa edulis Cassia excelsa Cassia leptophylla

Common Name
BAILEY ACACIA GREEN WATTLE BLACK ACACIA ACACIA JAPANESE MAPLE SILVER MAPLE PEPPERMINT TREE PLUME ALBIZIA SILK TREE ITALIAN ALDER WHITE ALDER BUNYA-BUNYA STAR PINE NORFOLK ISLAND PINE STRAWBERRY TREE ALEXANDRA PALM KING PALM HONG KONG ORCHID TREE PURPLE ORCHID TREE EUROPEAN WHITE BIRCH BIRCH BOTTLE TREE MEXICAN BLUE PALM GUADALUPE PALM PAPER MULBERRY PINDO PALM TRINIDAD FLAME BUSH LEMON BOTTLEBRUSH PINK BOTTLEBRUSH WEEPING BOTTLEBRUSH INCENSE CEDAR CAPE CHESTNUT WHITE SAPOTE CROWN OF GOLD TREE GOLD MEDALLION TREE

Supplemental Irrigation Requirements None None None None Occasional flooding Moderate Minimal Minimal - None Moderate Minimal Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Regular Regular Moderate Minimal Minimal Minimal Moderate Minimal Regular Minimal - None Minimal Moderate Moderate Minimal - None Regular Regular Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal

Summer Irrigation recommendation Young trees only Young trees only Young trees only Young trees only Moderate Minimal Minimal Minimal None Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Regular Regular Minimal Minimal Minimal Moderate Minimal Regular Minimal None Moderate Moderate Minimal Regular Regular Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal

Winter Irrigation recommendation None None None None None Moderate Low Minimal None Minimal Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Regular Regular Minimal Minimal Minimal None Regular None None Moderate Moderate None Regular Regular None None

Castanea spp. Casuarina cunninghamiana Casuarina stricta Cedrus atlantica Cedrus atlantica 'Pendula' Cedrus deodara Cedrus spp. Celtis spp. Ceratonia siliqua Cercis canadensis Cercis occidentalis Chamaerops humilis Chionanthus retusus Chorisia speciosa Cinnamomum camphora Citrus limon Citrus sinensis Cordyline australis Cotoneaster lacteus Cryptomeria japonica Cupaniopsis anacardioides Cupressocyparis leylandii Cupressus macrocarpa Cupressus sempervirens Cupressus spp. Diospyros virginiana Dodonaea viscosa Dracaena draco Duranta repens Eriobotrya deflexa Eriobotrya japonica Erythrina bidwillii Erythrina caffra Erythrina coralloides Erythrina crista-galli Erythrina spp. Eucalyptus camaldulensis

CHESTNUT RIVER SHE-OAK DROOPING SHE-OAK ATLAS CEDAR CEDAR WEEPING DEODAR CEDAR CEDAR HACKBERRY CAROB EASTERN REDBUD WESTERN REDBUD MEDITERRANEAN FAN PALM CHINESE FRINGE TREE SILK-FLOSS TREE CAMPHOR TREE LEMON ORANGE DRACAENA RED CLUSTERBERRY JAPANESE CEDAR CARROTWOOD LEYLAND CYPRESS MONTEREY CYPRESS ITALIAN CYPRESS CYPRESS AMERICAN PERSIMMON HOPSEED DRAGON TREE SKY FLOWER BRONZE LOQUAT EDIBLE LOQUAT BIDWILLS CORAL TREE KAFFIRBOOM CORAL TREE NAKED CORAL TREE COCKSPUR CORAL TREE CORAL TREE RED GUM

Moderate Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Moderate Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Moderate Regular Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Regular Regular Regular Moderate Minimal Regular Minimal Regular Moderate Minimal Minimal Minimal Regular Moderate Minimal Moderate Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Minimal

Moderate Minimal Young trees only Young trees only None Young trees only Young trees only Young trees only Moderate Minimal None None None Moderate Regular Moderate Minimal Young trees only Regular Regular Regular Moderate Minimal Regular None Regular None Minimal Minimal Regular None Moderate Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular None

Moderate Low None None None None None None None None None None None Regular Minimal None Regular Regular Regular Minimal Regular None Regular Minimal Minimal Minimal Regular Minimal Moderate Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Minimal

Eucalyptus cinerea Eucalyptus citriodora Eucalyptus cladocalyx Eucalyptus cornuta Eucalyptus ficifolia Eucalyptus globulus Eucalyptus grandis Eucalyptus leucoxylon Eucalyptus maculata Eucalyptus nicholii Eucalyptus polyanthemos Eucalyptus rudis Eucalyptus sideroxylon Eucalyptus spp. Eucalyptus torquata Eucalyptus viminalis Euphorbia cotinifolia Feijoa sellowiana Ficus 'Alii' Ficus benjamina Ficus carica Ficus elastica Ficus macrophylla Ficus microcarpa Ficus microcarpa 'Green Gem' Ficus microcarpa 'Nitida' Ficus rubiginosa Ficus spp. Ficus watkinsiana Fraxinus uhdei Fraxinus uhdei 'Tomlinson' Fraxinus velutina Fraxinus velutina 'Dr Pironne' Fraxinus velutina 'Modesto' Geijera parviflora Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba 'Autumn Gold'

ASH GUM LEMON-SCENTED GUM SUGAR GUM YATE RED FLOWERING GUM BLUE GUM FLOODED GUM WHITE IRONBARK SPOTTED GUM NICHOL'S WILLOW LEAFED PEPPERMINT SILVER DOLLAR GUM DESERT GUM RED IRONBARK EUCALYPTUS CORAL GUM MANNA GUM CARIBBEAN COPPER TREE PINEAPPLE GUAVA FICUS ALII WEEPING FIG EDIBLE FIG RUBBER TREE MORETON BAY FIG WEEPING INDIAN LAUREL FIG GREEN GEM INDIAN LAUREL FIG INDIAN LAUREL FIG RUSTY LEAF FIG FIG WATKINS FIG SHAMEL ASH TOMLINSON ASH ARIZONA ASH ASH ARIZONA MODESTO ASH AUSTRALIAN WILLOW MAIDENHAIR TREE GINKGO AUTUMN GOLD

Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal

None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular None None None None None None Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal

Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Moderate Low Moderate Low

Grevillea robusta Hakea laurina Harpephyllum caffrum Hymenosporum flavum Jacaranda mimosifolia Juglans hindsii Juniperus chinensis Juniperus chinensis 'Torulosa' Juniperus spp. Koelreuteria bipinnata Koelreuteria paniculata Lagerstroemia indica Lagerstroemia indica 'Muskogee' Lagerstroemia indica 'Tuscarora' Lagunaria patersonii Laurus nobilis Leptospermum laevigatum Leptospermum spp. Leucaena glauca Liquidambar orientalis Liquidambar styraciflua Liquidambar styraciflua 'Burgundy' Liquidambar styraciflua 'Rotundiloba' Liriodendron tulipifera Lophostemon confertus Lyonothamnus floribundus Macadamia tetraphylla Magnolia grandiflora Magnolia grandiflora 'Samuel Sommer' Malus sylvestris Maytenus boaria Melaleuca armillaris Melaleuca ericifolia Melaleuca nesophila Melaleuca quinquenervia Metrosideros excelsus Morus alba

SILK OAK PINCUSHION TREE KAFFIR PLUM SWEETSHADE JACARANDA CALIFORNIA BLACK WALNUT CHINESE JUNIPER HOLLYWOOD JUNIPER JUNIPER CHINESE FLAME TREE GOLDENRAIN TREE CRAPE MYRTLE CRAPE MYRTLE CRAPE MYRTLE TUSCARORA PRIMROSE TREE SWEET BAY AUSTRALIAN TEA TREE TEA TREE WHITE POPINAC ORIENTAL SWEETGUM AMERICAN SWEETGUM BURGUNDY SWEETGUM ROUND-LEAFED SWEETGUM TULIP TREE BRISBANE BOX FERN-LEAF CATALINA IRONWOOD ROUGH-SHELL MACADAMIA SOUTHERN MAGNOLIA MAGNOLIA SAMUEL SOMMER EDIBLE APPLE MAYTEN TREE DROOPING MELALEUCA HEATH MELALEUCA PINK MELALEUCA CAJEPUT TREE NEW ZEALAND CHRISTMAS TREE WHITE MULBERRY

Minimal None Moderate Minimal Moderate Moderate Minimal None Minimal Minimal Minimal Moderate Moderate Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Regular Minimal Moderate Minimal Regular Moderate Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Regular

None None Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal - None None Minimal Minimal Minimal Moderate Moderate Young trees only Young trees only Young trees only Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Minimal Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Regular None Moderate Minimal Regular Moderate Moderate -Regular Moderate -Regular Moderate - Regular None None None None Young trees only Regular

Minimal None Moderate Low Moderate Minimal None None None None Minimal Minimal None None None None None None None None Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Regular None Minimal Regular Minimal Moderate -Regular Moderate -Regular Moderate - Regular None None None None None Regular

Musa spp. Myoporum laetum Myrtus communis Neodypsis decaryi Nerium oleander Olea europaea Persea americana Persea borbonia Phoenix canariensis Phoenix dactylifera Phoenix loureri Phoenix reclinata Phoenix roebelenii Pinus brutia Pinus canariensis Pinus densiflora Pinus edulis Pinus halepensis Pinus pinaster Pinus pinea Pinus radiata Pinus thunbergiana Pinus torreyana Pistacia chinensis Pittosporum crassifolium Pittosporum phillyreoides Pittosporum rhombifolium Pittosporum spp. Pittosporum tobira Pittosporum undulatum Pittosporum viridiflorum Platanus acerifolia Platanus acerifolia 'Bloodgood' Platanus occidentalis Platanus racemosa Platycladus orientalis Podocarpus gracilior

BANANA MYOPORUM TRUE MYRTLE TRIANGLE PALM OLEANDER OLIVE AVOCADO RED BAY CANARY ISLAND DATE PALM DATE PALM DATE PALM SENEGAL PALM PYGMY DATE PALM CALABRIAN PINE CANARY ISLAND PINE JAPANESE RED PINE PINON PINE ALEPPO PINE CLUSTER PINE ITALIAN STONE PINE MONTEREY PINE JAPANESE BLACK PINE TORREY PINE CHINESE PISTACHE KARO WILLOW PITTOSPORUM QUEENSLAND PITTOSPORUM PITTOSPORUM MOCK ORANGE VICTORIAN BOX CAPE PITTOSPORUM LONDON PLANE LONDON PLANE BLOODGOOD AMERICAN SYCAMORE CALIFORNIA SYCAMORE ORIENTAL ARBORVITAE FERN PINE

Ample Minimal - None Moderate Minimal Regular Minimal Minimal Regular Regular Moderate Minimal Regular Regular Regular Regular Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal - None Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Regular

Ample Minimal - None Moderate Minimal Regular None None Regular Regular None Regular Regular Regular Regular Young trees only Young trees only Young trees only Young trees only Young trees only Young trees only Young trees only Young trees only Young trees only Young trees only Minimal - None Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Regular

Ample None Low Regular None None Regular Regular None Regular Regular Regular Regular None None None None None None None None None None None Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Minimal Regular

Podocarpus henkelii Podocarpus macrophyllus Podocarpus nagi Populus alba Populus nigra 'Italica' Prunus amygdalus Prunus armeniaca Prunus blireiana Prunus caroliniana Prunus cerasifera Prunus domestica Prunus lyonii Prunus 'Mt Fuji' Prunus persica Prunus serrulata Psidium cattleianum Pyrus calleryana Pyrus communis Pyrus kawakamii Quercus agrifolia Quercus ilex Quercus suber Quercus virginiana Radermachera sinica Ravenea rivularis Roystonea oleracea Roystonea regia Salix matsudana 'Tortuosa' Schefflera actinophylla Schinus molle Schinus terebinthifolius Sequoia sempervirens Sequoiadendron giganteum Stenocarpus sinuatus Strelitzia nicolai Syagrus romanzoffianum Syzygium paniculatum

LONG-LEAFED YELLOWWOOD YEW PINE PODOCARPUS NAGI WHITE POPLAR LOMBARDY POPLAR ALMOND APRICOT FLOWERING PLUM CAROLINA LAUREL CHERRY PURPLE-LEAF PLUM PLUM CATALINA CHERRY CHERRY MT FUJI PEACH JAPANESE FLOWERING CHERRY STRAWBERRY GUAVA ORNAMENTAL PEAR FRUITING PEAR EVERGREEN PEAR COAST LIVE OAK HOLLY OAK CORK OAK SOUTHERN LIVE OAK CHINA DOLL MAJESTY PALM SOUTH AMERICAN ROYAL PALM CUBAN ROYAL PALM CORKSCREW WILLOW QUEENSLAND UMBRELLA TREE CALIFORNIA PEPPER BRAZILIAN PEPPER COAST REDWOOD GIANT SEQUOIA FIREWHEEL TREE GIANT BIRD OF PARADISE QUEEN PALM BRUSH CHERRY

Regular Minimal Regular Regular Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Regular Moderate Moderate Moderate Minimal Minimal Minimal Minimal Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Minimal Minimal Ample Ample Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate

Regular Minimal Regular Regular Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Regular Moderate Moderate Moderate None None None None Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Minimal None Ample Ample Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate

Regular Minimal Regular Regular Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Moderate - Regular Regular Moderate Moderate Moderate Minimal - None Minimal - None Minimal - None Minimal - None Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular Regular None None Ample Ample Moderate Moderate Minimal Moderate

Tabebuia chrysotricha Taxodium mucronatum Thevetia peruviana Tipuana tipu Trachycarpus fortunei Tristaniopsis laurina Tupidanthus calyptratus Ulmus parvifolia Ulmus parvifolia 'Drake' Ulmus pumila Umbellularia californica Viburnum tinus Washingtonia filifera Washingtonia robusta Wodyetia bifurcata Xylosma congestum Yucca elephantipes Yucca gloriosa Yucca spp.

GOLDEN TRUMPET TREE MONTEZUMA CYPRESS YELLOW OLEANDER TIPU WINDMILL PALM WATER GUM TUPIDANTHUS CHINESE ELM DRAKE ELM SIBERIAN ELM CALIFORNIA BAY LAURUSTINUS CALIFORNIA FAN PALM MEXICAN FAN PALM FOXTAIL PALM XYLOSMA GIANT YUCCA SPANISH DAGGER YUCCA

Regular Minimal - None Minimal Regular Regular None Regular Regular Regular Regular Minimal - None Regular Minimal - None Minimal - None Moderate - Regular Moderate Minimal - None Minimal - None Minimal - None

Regular Minimal - None None Regular Regular None Regular Regular Regular Regular Minimal - None Regular Minimal - None Minimal - None Moderate - Regular Moderate Minimal - None Minimal - None Minimal - None

Regular None Minimal Regular Regular None Regular Regular Regular Regular None Regular None None Moderate - Regular Moderate None None None

Attachment 2: Parkway Policy

Department of Public Works 1685 Main Street Santa Monica CA 90401

Parkway Landscaping Policy for the City of Santa Monica Rev 6: 02/01/10
1. Background Parkways, the area between the outside edge of the sidewalk and the inside edge of the curb (if any), are a component of the Public Right of Way (PROW). The City is required to regulate activities within the PROW such as telephone equipment, street lighting, bus stops and parking meters. Adjacent property owners are required to maintain parkways in good order according to the Santa Monica Municipal Code and other City policies. Parkways present a number of challenges. There are issues of personal safety, vehicle safety, efficient access for pedestrians and vehicles and resource conservation. The purpose of this document is to establish a City policy on landscaping within parkways that takes into consideration these, sometimes competing, interests while allowing property owners to create attractive, useful frontages. 2. Applicability This policy applies to new construction of any type in all parkways of the City of Santa Monica. For the purposes of this Policy new construction is defined as modification or improvement of landscaping and/or irrigation, in 50% or more of the parkway area exclusive of tree roots and existing accessways (carriage walks). 3. Permits An Encroachment Permit from the Administrative Services Division of the Citys Environmental and Public Works Management Department is required for demolition and/or construction of any kind in parkways of the City with the exception of the installation of unirrigated, walkable plant materials such as those described in Appendix B. Permits and plan approvals issued by the Division of Building and Safety are not applicable to parkways. 4. Basic Recommended Approach Attractive landscaping using a mixture of permeable paving and climate-appropriate plants that provides vehicle operators safe access to and from off-street parking and pedestrians safe use of the sidewalk as well as access to and from vehicles parked at the curb. This landscaping should require little or no irrigation and produce no runoff. 5. Safety Parkway landscaping must not create visual obstructions for pedestrians or drivers of vehicles. See Santa Monica Municipal Code (SMMC) Section 9.04.10.02.090 for specific criteria.

Parkway Landscaping Policy

Revision 6: 02/01/10

6. Step-Out Strips A step-out strip (a uniform, firm walking surface from the curb edge inward) must be provided for passengers to enter and exit vehicles parked at the curb. Step-out strips must be at least 18 inches in width and at least 36" long, provide a firm, uniform walking surface in all weather conditions and extend the full length of the parkway. Exception: Step-out strips are not permitted adjacent to red curbs or where roots of existing street trees make construction of a step-out strip with the required dimensions impossible or impractical (See Section 11). Additional step-out strips may be provided adjacent to driveway aprons as desired. 7. Accessways (Carriage Walks) If desired, the landscape design of a parkway may include an accessway for the purpose of pedestrian access to vehicles parked at the curb. If included, accessways must be at least four feet in width and provide a firm, uniform walking surface in all weather conditions from the curb to the sidewalk. Exception: Accessways are not permitted adjacent to red curbs or where construction of the accessway would damage or negatively impact the roots of existing street trees. (See Section 11). 8. Areas of Limited Access All portions of the parkway other than step-out-strips and accessways are considered Areas of Limited Access (ALA). Landscaping in ALAs may be composed of plant material or other features except where construction of such features would damage or negatively impact the roots of existing street trees. (See Section 11).

Figure 1 - Parkway Components

Parkway Landscaping Policy


9. Construction Criteria

Revision 6: 02/01/10

A. Step-Out Strips and Accessways Step-out strips and accessways may be constructed of pavement, or plant material*. Permeable paving such as unstabilized decomposed granite (DG) is preferred. Stabilized DG, if used, will not be considered permeable in parkways governed by this policy. Any form of DG, if used, must be constructed according to Appendix A.

B. Areas of Limited Access ALAs may include trees** and other materials such permeable paving, boulders or constructed objects and plants; not to exceed 34 inches in height. Native and/or Mediterranean plants requiring little or no irrigation are preferred. See SMMC 9.04.10.02.090 for specific criteria on plant placement and dimensions. A 2" to 4" layer of organic mulch is recommended in planting beds and under trees. More than four inches may inhibit the growth of plants and street trees. To avoid harm to street trees, do not place mulch within 24 inches of tree trunks. See SMMC 9.04.10.02.090 for criteria on placement and dimensions of landscape features.

C. Grading and Drainage There must be no difference in grade where pavement within parkways meets adjacent surfaces such as the curb top, sidewalk or driveway apron. Grade changes on step-out strips are limited to per foot. Grade changes on accessways are limited to per foot or the difference in elevation between the sidewalk and the top of the curb. If impermeable surfaces are used within parkways, they must be constructed to drain to permeable areas. * See Appendix B for a list of suggested plants. Use of plants on this list is not required. NOTE: Irrigation restrictions may influence your plant choices. See Section 10 below. ** Trees in Santa Monica's parkways are under the supervision of the City's Community Forester. Before adding or modifying trees in the parkway, review the Citys Community Forest Management Plan at http://www.smgov.net/Trees/Mgmt Plan/Complete.pdf or call the Community Forester at 310/458-8974. 10. Irrigation Permanently installed irrigation of plant material in parkways is not required. Low-volume, non-spray irrigation systems or hand-watering is preferred where irrigation is needed. Irrigation systems in parkways must be designed and constructed in a manner to completely preclude overspray and runoff onto any impermeable surface, public or private, under any condition with no exception for the effects of wind. See SMMC 7.16.020 c3 & 7.10.040 a1and SMMC 8.108 Subpart B.

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No spray irrigation device of any type may be installed within 24 of any impermeable surface or trees. See Figure 2, below. The planned coverage area of spray irrigation systems in parkways may not include any area within 24 of any impermeable surface or trees. See Figure 2, below. All irrigation equipment in parkways including heads, valves, piping, tubing and control wire must be installed in accordance with SMMC 8.32 and SMMC 8.108 Subpart B. When installing an irrigation system, it is important not to damage the roots of any existing street trees. In some cases the roots of a street tree may occupy all or a large portion of the parkway making installation of an irrigation system impractical. See example below. 24 24

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Figure 2 Limits of Sprinkler Irrigation in Parkways 11. Street Trees Landscaping and irrigation in parkways must be designed in a manner that does not endanger the health of existing street trees. The layout of step-out strips and accessways in particular must be constructed in a manner that avoids interference with the existing trunk flare or roots of these trees. See examples in Figures 3 9 below. It is important to understand that, in some cases, surface roots of street trees may make landscaping, accessways, step-out strips and/or irrigation impractical or even impossible. When in doubt, review the Citys Community Forest Management Plan at http://www.smgov.net/Trees/Mgmt Plan/Complete.pdf or contact the Community Forester.

In some cases the roots of a street tree may occupy the entire parkway precluding the installation of an irrigation system. Landscaping or irrigation in the parkway shown at left would be detrimental to the tree.

Figure 3 Parkway width in relation to street trees

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Step-out strip does not interfere with tree.

Figure 4 Step-out strip in relation to tree


Exposed roots at the edge of parkway preclude installation of a Step-out strip or accessway.

Figure 5 Step-out strip in relation to tree roots

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The irregular root systems found above the soil surface in some parkways are crucial to tree stability and provide limited areas for step-out strips. An accessway would not be permitted here.

Figure 6 Above-grade roots

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Maintain a clear zone of at least 24 around the base of the trunk to avoid crown rot and damage from line trimmers Figure 7 Clearance from trees

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Figure 8 Do not plant shrubs and flowers around the base of trees. They rob newly planted trees of nutrients and moisture. Plants that surround the trunk flare of mature trees create conditions for crown rot which can ultimately lead to the decline and failure of the tree.

Figure 9 The photo above shows an effective use of mulch with no plants at the base of the trunk of the tree.

12. Maintenance Responsibility Maintenance of parkways is the responsibility of the adjacent property owner. See SMMC 9.04.10.04.100j. 13. For questions regarding: Plan review and permits for parkways: Contact Public Works Administrative Services at erika.bustamante@smgov.net or 310 / 458-8737 Landscaping and irrigation in parkways: Contact the Office of Sustainability and the Environment at russell.ackerman@smgov.net or 310 / 458-8972 Trees in parkways: Contact the Citys Community Forester at walter.warriner@smgov.net or 310 / 458-8974

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Appendix A Specification for Installation of Unstabilized Decomposed Granite (DG) Paving


MATERIALS Base Course Aggregate: ASTM C33, crushed stone or crushed gravel. Decomposed Granite: 1. Clean, hard, durable particles or fragments of minus fines, select brown/gray crushed granite, river rock or basalt. Fines shall be evenly mixed throughout the aggregate. When produced from gravel, 50 percent, by weight, of the material retained on a No. 4 sieve shall have one fractured face. Color to be California Gold, Brimstone or Architect approved equal. 2. The portion retained on the No. 4 sieve shall have a maximum percentage of wear of 50 at 500 revolutions as determined by AASHTO T96-77. 3. The portion passing a No. 4 sieve shall have a maximum liquid limit of 25 and a maximum plasticity index of 7, as determined by AASHTO T89-81, and AASHTO T90-81, respectively. 4. The crushed aggregate screenings shall be free from clay lumps, vegetable matter, and deleterious material. PREPARATION FOR INSTALLATION Surface Preparation: Do necessary final excavating and filling to prepare finished subgrade. Building up of subgrade under forms after they are in place will not be permitted. After forms are in place, test subgrade with template, reduce high spots to grade and raise low spots to grade with materials compacted in place by tamping. Decomposed Granite: 1. Subgrade preparation: Prior to placing the DG, shape, fill, grade, and compact the subgrade (crushed aggregate base). 2. Forms: Install adjacent paving in lieu of forms, the full depth of decomposed granite area, curving as required, and secure in place to hold firmly to and grade required. If stabilizer is to be used, modify these instructions according to the manufacturers specifications. If stabilizer is used, decomposed granite paving will be considered an impermeable surface in parkways governed by this policy.

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INSTALLATION

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Base Course 1. Construct a base course layer to a depth of 4 inches (compacted). Deposit aggregate directly on prepared subgrade or preceding layer of compacted aggregate. Keep placed material free from segregation. Compact each layer of material with tamping roller, with pneumatic tired roller, with vibration machine, or with combination of the three. 2. If subgrade material is worked into base course material during compacting or finishing operations, remove base course material within affected area and replace with new aggregate. Restrict hauling over completed or partially completed work when subgrade is soft or there is tendency for subgrade material to work into base course material. 3. Compact each layer with aid of water. Provide sufficient moisture to prevent segregation into pockets of fine and coarse material. Decomposed Granite (DG) 1. Place the DG on the prepared subgrade, in one layer of three inches minimum thickness and rake smooth using a steel tine rake to desired grade and cross section. Do not apply DG deeper than 3 inches. 2. Water to achieve full depth moisture penetration. Watering is best accomplished using a garden hose with spray nozzle set to a coarse spray; pressure should not disturb leveled surface. It is essential that the full depth of water penetration by random inspection of cores. After inspection, fill core holes with material removed, smooth and hand tamp to match adjoining trail surface grade. Let watered mix stand 6 to 24 hours until surface water is no longer present; the mix should then be moist but not wet. 3. While the mix is still thoroughly moist, roll with a heavy lawn roller (minimum 225 pounds and maximum 30-inch width), to achieve finish grade and initial compaction. Hand tamp edges around poles, and other objects. Use a heavy (1 ton minimum) small rider, after having initially used the lawn roller, to obtain the desired final dense, smooth, uniform texture. Do not use wackers or vibratory rollers; the mix will not harden for weeks after vibration. 4. Landscape header or curb is to remain in place, secured to hold firmly to approved line and grade. After finished compacted surface has been achieved, finish adjacent shoulders by backfilling required grade and cross section. INSPECTION 1. Finished surface shall be smooth and uniform with no evidence of chipping or cracking. Dried, compacted material shall be firm all the way through with no spongy areas. 2. Significant irregularities shall be smoothed out prior to final acceptance of work. Smoothing shall be accomplished by rewetting/saturating rough areas thoroughly, and then rolling the surface again with a heavy roller (1,000 to 1,500 lbs powered walkbehind or small rider). Wackers are not recommended.

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3. Final thickness of completed area shall not vary more than inch from dimension indicated. Measurements may be taken by means of test holes taken at random in the finished surface. Correct any variations in the thickness beyond the allowable inch by repeating the procedures listed above.

Appendix B Suggested Plants


Use of plants on this list is not required. Plants for Accessways and Step-Out Strips Dymondia margaretae Plants for Areas of Limited Access Carex spp. Also see http://www.bewaterwise.com/Gardensoft/browser01.aspx Also go to http://www.sustainablesm.org/landscape look under Plants and Soil See the Lawn Alternatives document