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Basics
RNE
RNE (Radio Network Engineering) B11 Fundamentals
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First edition Hille, Helmut 2010-01-07 01
Remarks Author Date Edition
Document History
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Objectives
By the end of the course, participants will be able to:
- Plan a standard GSM (single band and single layer)
network in urban, suburban and rural areas fulfilling
defined coverage probability;
- Choose suitable BTS site configurations for different clutter types:
- Omni sites/sectorized sites,
- Number of TRX,
- Antenna height and antenna type,
- Feeder cable.
- Plan site locations:
- To achieve planned coverage probability
- Inter site distance
Antenna azimuth and tilt.
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Table of Contents
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1 Int roduct i on Standardisation & Documentation 15
1.1.1 www.3GPP.org organizational partners 16
1.1.2 TSG Organisation 17
1.1.3 Specifications and Releases 18
1.1.4 Specifications out of Release 1999 19
1.2 Radio Network Architecture 20
1.2.1GSM Network Architecture with out GPRS 21
1.2.2 GSM Network Architecture with GPRS 22
1.2.3 OMC-R 23
1.2.4 GSM Network Elements 24
1.2.5 RF Spectrum 25
1.3 Mobile Phone Systems 26
1.3.1 Access Methods 27
1.3.2 FDMA 28
1.3.3 TDMA 29
1.3.4 CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) 30
1.3.5 Analogue Cellular Mobile Systems 31
1.3.6 AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) 32
1.3.7 AMPS - Technical objectives 33
1.3.8 AMPS Frequency Range 34
1.3.9 TACS Total Access Communications System 35
1.3.10 TACS - Technical objectives 36
1.3.11 Different TACS-Systems 37
1.3.12 TACS (Total Access Communications System) 38
1.3.13 Why digital mobile communication ? 39
1.3.14 GSM - Technical objectives 40
1.3.15 DECT (Digital European Cordless Telephone) 41
1.3.16 DECT - Technical objectives 42
1.3.17 CDMA - Technical objectives 43
1.3.18 CDMA - Special Features 44
1.3.19 CDMA - Technical objectives 45
1.3.20 TETRA - Features 46
1.3.21 TETRA - Typical Users 47
1.3.22 TETRA - Technical objectives 48
1.3.23 Universal Mobile Telecommunication System 49
1.4 RNP Process Overview 50
1.4.1 Definition of RN Requirements 51
1.4.2 Preliminary Network Design 52
1.4.3 Project Setup and Management 53
1.4.4 Initial Radio Network Design 54
1.4.5 Site Acquisition Procedure 55
1.4.6 Technical Site Survey 56
1.4.7 Basic Parameter Definition 57
1.4.8 Cell Design CAE Data Exchange over COF 58
1.4.9 Turn On Cycle 59
1.4.10 Site Verification and Drive Test 60
1.4.11 HW / SW Problem Detection 61
1.4.12 Basic Network Optimization 62
1.4.13 Network Acceptance 63
1.4.14 Further Optimization 64
2 Coverage Pl anni ng 65
2.1 Geo databases 66
2.1.1 Geographical data needed for Radio Network Planning ? 67
2.1.2 Maps are flat 68
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2.1.3 Mapping the earth 69
2.1.4 Map Projection 70
2.1.5 Geodetic Ellipsoid 71
2.1.6 Global & Regional Ellipsoids 72
2.1.7 Geodetic Datum 73
2.1.8 Different Map Projections 74
2.1.9 Geo-Coordinate System 75
2.1.10 WGS 84 (World Geodetic System 1984) 76
2.1.11 Transverse Mercator Projection 77
2.1 Geo databases
2.1.12 Transverse Mercator Projection (e.g. UTM ) 78
2.1.13 Universal Transverse Mercator System 79
2.1.14 UTM - Definitions 80
2.1.15 UTM Zones (e.g. Europe) 81
2.1.16 UTM-System 82
2.1.17 UTM Zone Numbers 83
2.1.18 UTM-System: Example "Stuttgart" 84
2.1.19 Lambert Conformal Conic Projection 85
2.1.20 Geospatial data for Network Planning 86
2.1.21Creation of geospatial databases 87
2.1.22 Parameters of a Map 88
2.1.23 Raster- and Vectordata 89
2.1.24 Rasterdata / Grid data 90
2.1.25 Vectordata 91
2.1.26 Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 92
2.1 Geo databases
2.1.27 Morphostructure / Land usage / Clutter (1) 93
2.1.28 Morphostructure (2) 94
2.1.29 Morphoclasses 95
2.1.30 Morphoclasses (2) 96
2.1.31Background data (streets, borders etc.) 97
2.1.32 Orthophoto 98
2.1.33 Scanned Maps 99
2.1.34 Buildings 100
2.1.35 Buildings (2) 101
2.1.36 Traffic density 102
2.1.37 Converting one single point (1a) 103
2.1.38 Converting one single point (1b) 104
2.1.39 Converting one single point (2a) 105
2.1.40 Converting one single point (2b) 106
2.1.41 Converting a list of points (3a) 107
2.1.42 Converting a list of points (3b) 108
2.1.43 Converting a list of points (3c) 109
2.1.44 Provider for Geospatial data 110
2.1.45 Links for more detailed infos 111
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2.2 Antennas and Cables 112
2.2.1.1 The Antenna System 113
2.2.1.2 Antenna Theory 114
2.2.1.3 Antenna Data 115
2.2.1.4 Antenna Pattern and HPBW 116
2.2.1.5 EIRP 117
2.2.1.6 Linear Antennas 118
2.2.1.7 Monopole Antenna Pattern 119
2.2.1.8 Panel Antenna with Dipole Array 120
2.2.1.9 Dipole Arrangement 121
2.2.1.10 Omni Antenna 122
2.2.2 Antenna Parameters 123
2.2.2.1 X 65 T6 900MHz 2.5m 124
2.2.2.2 X 65 T6 900MHz 1.9m 125
2.2.2.3 X 90 T2 900MHz 2.5m 126
2.2.2.4 V 65 T0 900MHz 2.0m 127
2.2.2.5 V 90 T0 900MHz 2.0m 128
2.2.2.4 X 65 T6 1800MHz 1.3m 129
2.2.2.5 X 65 T2 1800MHz 1.3m 130
2.2.2.6 X 65 T2 1800MHz 1.9m 131
2.2.2.7 V 65 T2 1800MHz 1.3m 132
2.2.2.8 V 90 T2 1800MHz 1.9m 133
2.2.3 Cable Parameters 134
2.2.3.1 7/8" CELLFLEX Low-Loss Coaxial Cable 135
2.2.3.2 1-1/4" CELLFLEX Coaxial Cable 136
2.2.3.3 1-5/8" CELLFLEX Coaxial Cable 137
2.2.3.4 1/2" CELLFLEX Jumper Cable 138
2.3 Radio Propagation 139
2.3.1 Propagation effects 140
2.3.1.1 Reflection 141
2.3.1.2 Refraction 142
2.3.1.3 Diffraction 143
2.3.1.4 Fading 144
2.3.1.5 Fading types 145
2.3.1.6 Signal Variation due to Fading 146
2.3.1.7 Lognormal Fading 147
2.4 Path Loss Prediction 148
2.4.1 Free Space Loss 149
2.4.2 Fresnel Ellipsoid 150
2.4.3 Fresnel Ellipsoid 151
2.4.4 Knife Edge Diffraction 152
2.4.5 Knife Edge Diffraction Function 153
2.4.6 "Final Solution" for Wave Propagation Calculations? 154
2.4.7 CCIR Recommendation 155
2.4.8 Mobile Radio Propagation 156
2.4.9 Terrain Modeling 157
2.4.10 Effect of Morphostructure on Propagation Loss 158
2.4.11 Okumura-Hata for GSM 900 159
2.4.12 CORRECTIONS TO THE HATA FORMULA 160
2.4.13 Hata-Okumura for GSM 900 161
2.4.14 COST 231 Hata-Okumura GSM 1800 162
2.4.15 Alcatel Propagation Model (Standard Propagation Model) 163
2.4.16 Alcatel Propagation Model 164
2.4.17 Exercise Path Loss 165
2.5 Link Budget Calculation 166
2.5.1 Maximum Propagation Loss (Downlink) 167
2.5.2 Maximum Propagation Loss (Uplink) 168
2.5.3 GSM900/1800 Link Budget 169
2.5.3 GSM900/1800 Link Budget 171
2.5.4 GSM1800 Link Budget 172
2.5.5 Additional Losses Overview 173
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2.6 Coverage Probability 174
2.6.1 Indoor propagation aspects 175
2.6.2 Indoor propagation: empirical model 176
2.6.3 Indoor Penetration 177
2.6.4 Body Loss (1) 178
2.6.5 Body Loss (2) 179
2.6.6 Body Loss (3) 180
2.6.7 Interference Margin 181
2.6.8 Degradation (no FH) 182
2.6.9 Diversity Gain 183
2.6.10 Lognormal margin 184
2.6.11 Consideration of Signal Statistics (1) 185
2.6.12 Consideration of Signal Statistics (2) 186
2.7 Cell Range Calculation 187
2.7.1 Calculation of Coverage Radius R 188
2.7.2 Coverage Probability 189
2.7.3 Coverage Ranges and Hata Correction Factors 190
2.7.4 Conventional BTS Configuration 191
2.7.5 Coverage Improvement by Antenna Diversity 192
2.7.6 Radiation Patterns and Range 193
2.7.7 Improvement by Antenna Diversity and Sectorization 194
2.7.8 Improvement by Antenna Preamplifier 195
2.8 Antenna Engineering 196
2.8.1 Omni Antennas 197
2.8.2 Sector Antenna 198
2.8.3 Typical Applications 199
2.8.4 Antenna Tilt 200
2.8.5 Mechanical Downtilt 201
2.8.6 Electrical Downtilt 202
2.8.7 Combined Downtilt 203
2.8.8 Assessment of Required Tilts 204
2.8.9 Inter Site Distance in Urban Area 205
2.8.10 Downtilt in Urban Area 206
2.8.11 Downtilt in Urban Area 207
2.8.12 Downtilt in Suburban and Rural Area 208
2.8.13 Antenna configurations 209
2.8.14 Antenna Configurations for Omni and Sector Sites 210
2.8.15 Three Sector Antenna Configuration with AD 211
2.8.16 Antenna Engineering Rules 212
2.8.17 Distortion of antenna pattern 213
2.8.18 Tx-Rx Decoupling (1) 214
2.8.19 TX-RX Decoupling (2) 215
2.8.20 TX-RX Decoupling (3) 216
2.8.21 Space Diversity 217
2.8.22 Power Divider 218
2.8.23 Power Divider 219
2.8.24 Panel Configurations (1) 220
2.8.25 Panel Configurations (2) 221
2.8.26 Panel Configurations (3) 222
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.27 Feeders 223
2.8.28 Feeder Installation Set and Connectors 224
2.8.29 Feeder Parameters 225
2.8.30 Feeder attenuation (1) 226
2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.31 Radiating Cables 227
2.8.32 Components of a radiating cable system 228
2.8.33 Comparison of field strength: Radiating cable and standard antenna 229
2.8.34 Example of a radiating cable in a tunnel 230
2.8.35 Microwave antennas, feeders and accessories 231
2.8.36 Parabolic antenna 232
2.8.37 High performance antenna 233
2.8.38 Horn antennas 234
2.8.39 Specific Microwave Antenna Parameters (1) 235
2.8.40 Specific Microwave Antenna Parameters (2) 236
2.8.41 Data sheet 15 GHz 237
2.8.42 Radiation pattern envelope 238
2.8.43 Feeders (1) 239
2.8.44 Feeders (2) 240
2.8.45 Feeders (3) 241
2.8.46 Feeders (4) 242
2.8.47 Feeders (5) 243
2.8.48 Antenna feeder systems (1) 244
2.8.49 Antenna feeder systems (2) 245
2.8.50 Antenna feeder systems (3) 246
2.9 Alcatel BSS 247
2.9.1 Architecture of BTS - Evolium Evolution A9100 248
2.9.2 EVOLIUMTM A9100 Base Station (1) 249
2.9.3 EVOLIUMTM A9100 Base Station (2) 250
2.9.4 EVOLIUMTM A9100 Base Station (3) 251
2.9.5 EVOLIUMTM BTS Features 252
2.9.7 Generic Configurations for A9100 G4/5 BTS 258
2.9.8 Non multi-band configurations 259
2.9.9 Multi-band configurations 260
2.9.10 Extended cell configurations 261
2.9.11 Standard configurations 262
2.9.12 TRX Types 263
2.9.12 TRX Types 264
2.9.13 BTS Output Power 265
2.9.14 Feature Power Balancing 266
2.9.15 Cell Split Feature 267
2.9.19 Cell Split Example: High Power Configuration 268
2.9.22 Indoor BTS Rack Layout 269
2.9.23 Outdoor MBO1 Evolution and MBO2 Evolution cabinets 270
2.9.24 Micro BTS types 271
2.9.25 Technical Data 272
2.9.26 BSC capacities in terms of boards 273
2.9.27 Capacity and dimensioning for E1 links 274
2.9.28 Abis and atermux allocation on LIU boards 275
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2.10 Coveradge Improvement 276
2.10.1 Antenna Diversity 277
2.10.1.1 Diversity 278
2.10.1.2 Selection Diversity (1) 279
2.10.1.3 Selection Diversity (2) 280
2.10.1.4 Selection Diversity (3) 281
2.10.1.5 Equal Gain Combining (1) 282
2.10.1.6 Equal Gain Combining (2) 283
2.10.1.7 Maximum Ratio Combining (1) 284
2.10.1.8 Maximum Ratio Combining (2) 285
2.10.1.9 Comparison of combining methods 286
2.10.1.10 Enhanced Diversity Combining (1) 287
2.10.1.11 Enhanced Diversity Combining (2) 288
2.10.1.12 Tx Diversity 289
2.10.1.12 Tx Diversity 290
2.10.1.12 Tx Diversity 291
2.10.1.12 Tx Diversity 292
2.10.1.12 Diversity systems in Mobile Radio Networks 293
2.10.1.13 Space Diversity Systems 294
2.10.1.14 Space Diversity - General Rules 295
2.10.1.15 Achievable Diversity Gain 296
2.10.1.16 Polarization Diversity 297
2.10.1.17 Principle of Polarization Diversity 298
2.10.1.18 Air Combining 299
2.10.1.19 Air Combining with Polarization Diversity 300
2.10.1.20 Air Combining with Space Diversity 301
2.10.1.21 Decoupling of Signal Branches 302
2.10.1.22 Cross Polarized or Hor/Ver Antenna? (1) 303
2.10.1.23 Cross Polarized or Hor/Ver Antenna? (2) 304
2.10.1.24 Conclusion on Antenna Diversity 305
2.10.2 Repeater Systems 306
2.10.2.1 Repeater Application 307
2.10.2.2 Repeater Block Diagram 308
2.10.2.3 Repeater Applications (2) 309
2.10.2.4 Repeater Types 310
2.10.2.5 Repeater for Tunnel Coverage 311
2.10.2.4 Repeater for Indoor coverage 312
2.10.2.5 Planning Aspects 313
2.10.2.6 Repeater Gain Limitation (1) 314
2.10.2.7 Repeater Gain Limitation (2) 315
2.10.2.8 Intermodulation Products 316
2.10.2.9 Repeater Link Budget 317
2.10.2.10 High Power TRXs 318
2.10.2.13 3x6 TRXs High Power Configuration 319
2.10.2.14 Mixed TRX Configuration 320
3 Traf f i c & Frequency Pl anni ng 321
3.1 Traffic Caspacity 322
3.1.1 Telephone System 323
3.1.2 Offered Traffic and Traffic Capacity 324
3.1.3 Definition of Erlang 325
3.1.4 Call Mix and Erlang Calculation 326
3.1.5 ERLANG B LAW (2) 328
3.1.6 Erlangs Formula 329
3.1.7 Blocking Probability (Erlang B) 330
3.1.8 BTS Traffic Capacity (Full Rate) 331
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3.2 Network Evolution 332
3.2.1 Network Evolution - Capacity Approach (1) 333
3.2.2 Network Evolution - Capacity Approach (2) 334
3.2.3 Network Evolution - Capacity Approach (3) 335
3.2.4 Network Evolution - Capacity Approach (4) 336
3.3 Cell Structures 337
3.3.1 Cell Structures and Quality 338
3.3.2 Cell Re-use Cluster (Omni Sites) (1) 339
3.3.2 Cell Re-use Cluster (Omni Sites)(2) 340
3.3.4 Cell Re-use Cluster (Sector Site) (1) 341
3.3.5 4x3 Cell Re-use Cluster (Sector Site) (2) 342
3.3.6 Irregular (Real) Cell Shapes 343
3.4 Frequency Reuse 344
3.4.1 GSM Frequency Spectrum 345
3.4.2 Impact of limited Frequency Spectrum 346
3.4.3 What is frequency reuse? 347
3.4.4 RCS and ARCS (1) 348
3.4.5 RCS and ARCS (2) 349
3.4.6 Reuse Cluster Size (1) 350
3.4.7 Reuse Cluster Size (2) 351
3.4.8 Reuse Distance 352
3.4.9 Frequency Reuse Distance 353
3.4.10 Frequency Reuse: Example 354
3.5 Cell Planning 355
3.5.1 Cell Planning - Frequency Planning (1) 356
3.5.2 Cell Planning - Frequency Planning (2) 357
3.5.3 Influencing Factors on Frequency Reuse Distance 358
3.5.4 Conclusion 359
3.5.5 Examples for different frequency reuses 360
3.6 Interference Probability 361
3.6.1 Interference Theory (1) 362
3.6.2 Interference Theory (2) 363
3.6.3 CPDF - Cumulative Probability Density Function 364
3.6.4 Interference Probability dependent on Average Reuse 365
3.7 Carrier Types 366
3.7.1 Carrier Types - BCCH carrier 367
3.7.2 Carrier Types - TCH carrier 368
3.8 Multiple Reuse Pattern MRP 369
3.8.1 Meaning of multiple reuse pattern (1) 370
3.8.2 Meaning of multiple reuse pattern (2) 371
3.8.3 GSM restrictions 372
3.9 Intermodulation 373
3.9.1 Intermodulation problems (1) 374
3.9.2 Intermodulation problems (2) 375
3.9.3 Intermodulation problems (3) - Summary 376
3.9.4 Treating neighbor cells 377
3.9.5 Where can I find neighbor cells? 378
3.10 Manual Frequency Planning 379
3.10.1 Frequency planning (1) 380
3.10.2 Frequency planning (2) 381
3.10.3 Exercise: Manual frequency planning (1) 382
3.10.4 Exercise: Manual frequency planning (2) 383
3.10.5 Discussion: Subdivide Frequency Band? 384
3.10.6 Hint for creating a future proofed frequency plan 385
3.10.7 Implementing a frequency plan 386
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3.11 BSCI Planning 387
3.11.1 BSCI allocation 388
3.11.2 BSIC Planning Rules 389
3.11.3 Spurious RACH 390
3.11.4 Summary 391
3.12 Capacity Enhancement Techniques 392
3.12.1 Capacity enhancement by planning 393
3.12.2 Capacity enhancement by adding feature 394
3.12.3 Capacity enhancement by adding TRX 395
3.12.4 Capacity enhancement by adding cells 396
3.12.5 Capacity enhancement by adding sites 397
4 Radi o Int erf ace 398
4.1 GSM Air Interface 399
4.1.1 Radio Resources 400
4.1.2 GSM Transmission Principles (1) 401
4.1.3 GSM Transmission Principles (2) 402
4.1.4 Advantages of Signal Processing 403
4.1.5 Signal Processing Chain 404
4.2 Channel Coding 405
4.2.1 Speech Coding 406
4.2.2 Error Protection 407
4.2.3 Interleaving and TDMA Frame Mapping 408
4.2.4 Encryption 409
4.2.5 Burst Structure 410
4.2.4 Synchronisation 411
4.2.5 Modulation 412
4.2.6 Propagation Environment 413
4.2.7 Equalizing 414
4.2.8 Definition of Bit Error Rates 415
4.2.9 Speech Quality 416
4.2.10 Dependence of BER on Noise and Interference 417
4.2.13 Frequency Hopping (1) 418
4.2.14 Frequency Hopping (2) 419
4.2.15 The OSI Reference Model 420
4.2.16 GSM Burst Types (1) 421
4.2.17 GSM Burst Types (2) 422
4.2.18 Logical Channels 423
4.2.19 Possible Channel Combinations 424
4.2.20 Channel Mapping (1) 425
4.2.21 Channel Mapping (2) 426
4.2.22 TDMA Frame Structure for TCHs 427
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Standardisation & Documentation
1 Introduction
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1.1 Standardisation & Documentation
1.1 www.3GPP.org organizational partners
Project supported by
ARIB Association of Radio Industries
and Businesses (Japan)
CWTS China Wireless
Telecommunication Standard group
ETSI European Telecommunications
Standards Institut
T1 Standards Committee T1
Telecommunication (US)
TTA Telecommunications
Technology Association (Korea)
TTC Telecommunication
Technology Committee (Japan)
The Organizational Partners shall
determine the general policy and
strategy of 3GPP and perform the
following tasks:
Approval and maintenance of the
3GPP scope
Maintenance the Partnership
Project Description
Taking decisions on the creation or
cessation of Technical Specification
Groups, and approving their scope
and terms of reference
Approval of Organizational Partner
funding requirements
Allocation of human and financial
resources provided by the
Organizational Partners to the
Project Co-ordination Group
www. 3GPP. org organi zat i onal part ners:
Source: www. 3gpp. org
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TSG ORGANIZATION
Project Co-ordination Group
(PCG)
TSG RAN
Radio Access Networks
RAN WG1
Radio Layer 1 specification
RAN WG2
Radio Layer2 &3 spec
RAN WG3
UTRAN O&M requirements
RAN WG4
Radio &Protocol Aspects
RAN WG5 (ex T1)
Mobile TerminalTesting
TSG SA
Services & System Aspects
SA WG1
Services
SA WG2
Architecture
SA WG3
Security
SA WG4
Codec
SA WG5
Telecom Management
TSG CT
Core Network & Terminals
CT WG1 (ex CN1)
MM/CC/SM (lu)
CT WG3 (ex CN3)
Networks Interworking
CT WG4 (ex CN4)
MAP/GTP/BCH/SS
CT WG5 (ex CN5)
Open Service Access
CT WG6 (ex T3)
Card Application Aspects
TSG GERAN
GSM EDGE
Radio Access Network
GERAN WG1
Radio Aspects
GERAN WG2
Protocol Aspects
GERAN WG3
Terminal Testing
GERAN WG3
Terminal Testing
1.1 Standardisation & Documentation
1.2 TSG Organisation
Source: www. 3gpp. org
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1.1 Standardisation & Documentation
1.3 Specifications and Releases
GSM/Edge Releases: http://www.3gpp.org/specs/releases.htm
TR 41.103 GSM Phase 2+ Release 5
Freeze date: March - June 2002
TR 41.102 GSM Phase 2+ Release 4
Freeze date: March 2001
TR 01.01 Phase 2+ Release 1999
Freeze date: March 2000
For the latest specification status information please go to the 3GPP
Specifications database:
http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Information/Databases/Spec_Status/
The latest versions of specifications can be found on
ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/specs/latest/
TS Technical Specification
TR Technical Report
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1.1 Standardisation & Documentation
1.4 Specifications out of Release 1999
TR 01.04 Abbreviations and acronyms
TS 03.22 Functions related to Mobile Station (MS) in idle mode and group
receive mode
TR 03.30 Radio Network Planning Aspects
TS 04.04 Layer 1 - General Requirements
TS 04.06 Mobile Station - Base Stations System (MS - BSS) Interface Data
Link (DL) Layer Specification
TS 04.08 Mobile radio interface layer 3 specification
TS 05.05 Radio Transmission and Reception
TS 05.08 Radio Subsystem Link Control
TS 08.06 Signalling Transport Mechanism Specification for the Base Station
System - Mobile Services Switching Centre (BSS-MSC) Interface
TS 08.08 Mobile-services Switching Centre - Base Station system (MSC-BSS)
Interface Layer 3 Specification
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1 Intruduction
1.2 Radio Network Architecture
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1.2 Radio Network Architecture
1.2.1GSM Network Architecture with out GPRS
HLR GCR AuC
E
B C
D
F
G
H
I
Abis
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
PSTN
ISDN
BTS - BSC
MSC-VLR
(SM-G)MSC-HLR
HLR-VLR
(SM-G)MSC-MSC
(SS7 basic) +
MAP MSC-EIR
VLR-VLR
HLR-AuC
MSC-GCR
MSC-PSTN
(SS7 basic) + TUP or
ISUP
MSC-ISDN
LapD
(ISDN type)
GSM Circuit-switching:
(BSSAP = BSSMAP +
DTAP)
A BSC - MSC (SS7 basic) +
BSSAP
BTS
LapDm
(GSM specific)
Um MS - BTS
BSC BSC
MSC MSC
BTS
PSTN /
ISDN
MS
VLR VLR EIR
AuC
AuC Authentication Center
BTS Base Transceiver Station
BSC Base Station Controller
BSS Base Station System
EIR Equipment Identity Register
HLR Home Location Register
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
MS Mobile Station
OMC-R Operation and Maintenance Centre Radio
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
VLR Visitor Location Register
GCR Group Call Register -The general architecture of GSM is maintained. In addition, a network function is
required which is used for registration of the broadcast call attributes, the Group Call Register.
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Gc GGSN-HLR IP/SS7
LAPDm
(GSM specific)
Gs
Gb
Um (Radio)
Gi GGSN-Data Network IP
MS
BSS - SGSN
Gr SS7 SGSN-HLR
Gf SS7 SGSN-EIR
SGSN-MSC/VLR
Gn
SGSN-GGSN IP
IP SGSN-SGSN
MS - BTS
Gs
Gf Gr
Gn
Gn
Gc
SS7
GSM Packet-switching (GPRS/EDGE):
BSSGP
BSS
with
PCU
BSS
with
PCU
HLR
EIR
Data
Network
SGSN
GGSN
SGSN
MSC
1.2 Radio Network Architecture
1.2.2 GSM Network Architecture with GPRS
Note: according to GSM 03.60, the PCU function (Packet Control Unit) may be implemented on the BTS, the
BSC or the SGSN site.
MFSMulti BSS Fast Packet Server A935
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
VLR Visitor Location Register
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1.2 Radio Network Architecture
1.2.3 OMC-R
BSS
BTS
BTS
Alcatel
9135
MFS
SSP
+ RCP
BSC
SGSN
OMC-R
MS
A bis A ter
TC
Gb
A
GGSN
Gn
OMC-G
NSS
GPRS CN
GPRS Core Network (CN): Alcatel 1000 GPRS
Packet Control Unit (PCU) function for several BSS: Alcatel 9135 MFS
TC Transcoder
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1.2 Radio Network Architecture
1.2.4 GSM Network Elements
Base Station System BSS
Base Transceiver Station BTS
Base Station Controller BSC
Terminal Equipment
Mobile Station MS
Operation and Maintenance Center-
Radio OMC-R
Network Subsystem NSS
Mobile Services Switching Center
MSC
Visitor Location Register VLR
Home Location Register HLR
Authentication Center AuC
Equipment Identity Register EIR
Operation and Maintenance Center
OMC
Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server (GPRS)
MFS
Serving GPRS Support Node SGSN
Gateway GPRS Support Node GGSN
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1.2 Radio Network Architecture
1.2.5 RF Spectrum
System Total Bandwidth Uplink
frequency
band /MHz
Downlink
frequency band
/MHz
Carrier
Spacing
GSM 450 2x7.5MHz 450.4-457.6 460.4-467.6 200 kHz
GSM 480 2x7.2MHz 478.8-486 488.8-496 200 kHz
GSM 850 2x25MHz 824-849 869-894 200 kHz
GSM 900 2x25MHz 890-915 935-960 200 kHz
E-GSM 2x35MHz 880-915 925-960 200 kHz
DCS 1800
(GSM)
2x75MHz 1710-1785 1805-1880 200 kHz
PCS 1900
(GSM)
2x60MHz 1850-1910 1930-1990 200 kHz
AMPS : UK
TACS : UK
DECT: Cordless
CDMA: System of next Generation
TETRA: Digital communication System for Commercial use
Frequency Ranges depends on country.
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1 Intruduction
1.3 Mobile Phone Systems
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.1 Access Methods
FDMA
TDMA
CDMA
t
i
m
e
t
i
m
e
t
i
m
e
p
o
w
e
r
p
o
w
e
r
p
o
w
e
r
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
f
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.2 FDMA
Used for standard analog cellular mobile systems
(AMPS, TACS, NMT etc.)
Each user is assigned a discrete slice of the RF spectrum
Permits only one user per channel since it allows the user to use the
channel 100% of the time.
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.3 TDMA
Multiple users share RF carrier on a time slot basis
Carriers are sub-divided into timeslots
Information flow is not continuous for an user, it is sent and received in
"bursts"
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.4 CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
Multiple access spread spectrum technique
Each user is assigned a sequence code during a call
No time division; all users use the entire carrier
What is CDMA ?
One of the most important concepts to any cellular telephone system is that of "multiple access", meaning
that multiple,
simultaneous users can be supported. In other words, a large number of users share a common pool of radio
channels and
any user can gain access to any channel (each user is not always assigned to the same channel). A channel can
be thought
of as merely a portion of the limited radio resource which is temporary allocated for a specific purpose, such
as
someone's phone call. A multiple access method is a definition of how the radio spectrum is divided into
channels and
how channels are allocated to the many users of the system.
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.5 Analogue Cellular Mobile Systems
Analogue transmission of speech
One TCH/Channel
Only FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access)
Different Systems
AMPS (Countries: USA)
TACS (UK, I, A, E, ...)
NMT (SF, S, DK, N, ...)
...
NMT: Nordic Mobile Telephone System. Allianz von Nordischen Systembetreibern.
AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System
TACS: Total Access Communications System
UK United Kingdom
I Italy
A Austria
E Spain
SF Finnland
S Schweden
DK Denmark
N Norwegen
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.6 AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System)
Analogue cellular mobile telephone system
Predominant cellular system operating in the US
Original system: 666 channels (624 voice and 42 control channels)
EAMPS - Extended AMPS
Current system: 832 channels (790 voice, 42 control); has replaced
AMPS as the US standard
NAMPS - Narrowband AMPS
New system that has three times more voice channels than EAMPS with
no loss of signal quality
Backward compatible: if the infrastructure is designed properly, older
phones work on the newer systems
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.7 AMPS - Technical objectives
Technology FDMA
RF frequency band 825 - 890 MHz
Channel Spacing 30 kHz
Carriers 666 (832)
Timeslots 1
Mobile Power 0.6 - 4 W
Transmission Voice, (data)
HO possible
Roaming possible
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.8 AMPS Frequency Range
991 1023 1 666 667 799
Extended AMPS
AMPS Uplink
Channel number
Frequency of Channel
(MHz)
824.040 825.030 844.980
845.010
845.010
Duplex distance
45 MHz
Downlink
Channel number
Frequency of Channel
(MHz)
991 1023 1 666 667 799
Extended AMPS
AMPS
869.040 870.030 889.980 893.980
890.010
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.9 TACS Total Access Communications System
Analogue cellular mobile telephone system
The UK TACS system was based on the US AMPS system
TACS - Original UK system that has either 600 or 1000 channels (558 or
958 voice channels, 42 control channels)
RF frequency band: 890 - 960
Uplink: 890-915 Downlink: 935-960
Channel spacing: 25 KHz
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.10 TACS - Technical objectives
Technology FDMA
RF frequency band 890 - 960 MHz
Channel Spacing 25 kHz
Carriers 1000
Timeslots 1
Mobile Power 0.6 - 10 W
Transmission Voice , (data)
HO possible
Roaming possible
Tacs disturb GSM because the same frequency- range!
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.11 Different TACS-Systems
ETACS - Extended TACS
Current UK system that has 1320 channels (1278 voice, 42 control)
and has replaced TACS as the UK standard
ITACS and IETACS - International (E)TACS
Minor variation of TACS to allow operation outside of the UK by allowing flexibility
in assigning the control channels
JTACS - Japanese TACS
A version of TACS designed for operation in Japan
NTACS - Narrowband TACS
New system that has three times as many voice channels as ETACS with no loss of
signal quality
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.12 TACS (Total Access Communications System)
1329 2047 0 23 44 32
3
34
4
60
0
1000 11
890.0125
(935.0125
)
905
(950
)
915
(960
)
1st Assignment in the UK
(600 channels)
Organisatio
n B
Organisatio
n A
Original concept (1000 channels)
890
935
889.9875
(934.9875
)
889.9625
(934.9625
)
872.0125
(917.0125
)
872
917
Frequency
of channel
[Mhz]
Number of
Channel
E-TACS - 1320 Channels
Borders of
channels
[Mhz]
Mobile Station
TX
(Base Station TX)
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.13 Why digital mobile communication ?
Easy adaptation to digital networks
Digital signaling serves for flexible adaptation to operational needs
Possibility to realize a wide spectrum of non-voice services
Digital transmission allows for high cellular implementation flexibility
Digital signal processing gain results in high interference immunity
Privacy of radio transmission ensured by digital voice coding and
encryption
Cost and performance trends of modern microelectronics are
in favour of a digital solution
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.14 GSM - Technical objectives
Technology TDMA/FDMA
RF frequency band 890 - 960 MHz
Channel Spacing 200 kHz
Carriers 124
Timeslots 8
Mobile Power (average/max) 2 W/ 8 W
BTS Power class 10 ... 40 W
MS sensitivity - 102 dBm
BTS sensitivity - 104 dBm
Transmission Voice, data
HO possible
Roaming possible
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.15 DECT (Digital European Cordless Telephone)
European Standard for Cordless Communication
Using TDMA-System
Traditional Applications
Domestic use ("Cordless telephone")
Cordless office applications
Combination possible with
ISDN
GSM
High flexibility for different applications
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.16 DECT - Technical objectives
Technology TDMA/FDMA
RF frequency band 1880 - 1900 MHz
Channel Spacing 1.728 MHz
Carriers 10
Timeslots 12 (duplex)
Mobile Power (average/max) 10 mW/250 mW
BTS Power class 250 mW
MS sensitivity -83 dBm
BTS sensitivity -83 dBm
Transmission Voice, data
HO possible
Frequency Range with 10 carriers, 1728 KHz channel spacing
10 carrier 24 timeslots
120 Duplex channels
cell radius 200-300 meter
no Equalizer
HO und Macro Diversity Optional
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.17 CDMA - Technical objectives
Spread spectrum technology
(Code Division Multiple Access)
Several users occupy continuously one CDMA channel
(bandwidth: 1.25 MHz)
The CDMA channel can be re-used in every cell
Each user is addressed by
A specific code and
Selected by correlation processing
Orthogonal codes provides optimum
isolation between users
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Vocoder:
8Kbps oder 13 Kbps.
Mul t i pl e Forms of di versi t y:
4 Frequency diversity (Spektrum 1.25 MHz)
4 Spatial diversity (2 different receiving Antennas)
4 Path diversity (Usage of Multi-path propagation)
4 Time diversity (Interleaving, error correction codes.)
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.18 CDMA - Special Features
Vocoder allows variable data rates
Soft handover
Open and closed loop power control
Multiple forms of diversity
Data, fax and short message services possible
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.19 CDMA - Technical objectives
Technology CDMA
RF frequency band 869-894 / 824-849
or 1900 MHz
Channel Spacing 1250 kHz
Channels per 1250 kHz 64
Mobile Power (average/max) 1-6.3 W / 6.3 W
Transmission Voice, data
HO ("Soft handoff") possible
Roaming possible
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.20 TETRA - Features
Standard for a frequency efficient european digital trunked radio
communication system (defined in 1990)
Possibility of connections with simultaneous transmission of voice and
data
Encryption at two levels:
Basic level which uses the air interface encryption
End-to-end encryption (specifically intended for public safety users)
Open channel operation
"Direct Mode" possible
Communication between two MS without connecting via a BTS
MS can be used as a repeater
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.21 TETRA - Typical Users
Public safety
Police (State, Custom, Military, Traffic)
Fire brigades
Ambulance service
...
Railway, transport and distribution companies
For use i n:
4 Police, ambulance and fire Services
4 Security Services
4 Military
4 Transport Services
4 Closed User Groups (CUGs)
4 Factory site services
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.22 TETRA - Technical objectives
Technology TDMA/FDMA
RF frequency band 380 - 400 MHz
Channel Spacing 25 or 12.5 KHz
Carriers not yet specified
Timeslots 4
Mobile Power (3 Classes) 1, 3, 10 W
BTS Power class 0.6 - 25 W
MS sensitivity -103 dBm
BTS sensitivity -106 dBm
Transmission Voice, data, images,
short message
HO possible
Roaming possible
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1.3 Mobile Phone Systems Access Methods
1.3.23 Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
Third generation mobile communication system
Combining existing mobile services (GSM, CDMA etc.) and fixed
telecommunications services
More capacity and bandwidth
More services (Speech, Video, Audio, Multimedia etc.)
Worldwide roaming
"High" subscriber capacity
http://www.vtt.fi/
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1 Intruduction
1.4 RNP Process Overview
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1.4 RNP Process Overview
1.4.1 Definition of RN Requirements
The Request for Quotation (RfQ) from the customer prescribes the
requirements mainly
Coverage
Definition of coverage probability
Percentage of measurements above level threshold
Definition of covered area
Traffic
Definition of Erlang per square kilometer
Definition of number of TRX in a cell
Mixture of circuit switched and packed switched traffic
QoS
Call success rate
RxQual, voice quality, throughput rates, ping time
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1.4 RNP Process Overview
1.4.2 Preliminary Network Design
The preliminary design lays the
foundation to create the Bill of
Quantity (BoQ)
List of needed network elements
Geo data procurement
Digital Elevation Model
DEM/Topographic map
Clutter map
Definition of standard equipment
configurations dependent on
clutter type
traffic density
Coverage Plots
Expected receiving level
Definition of roll out phases
Areas to be covered
Number of sites to be installed
Date, when the roll out takes place.
Network architecture design
Planning of BSC and MSC locations and
their links
Frequency spectrum from license
conditions
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1.4 RNP Process Overview
1.4.3 Project Setup and Management
This phase includes all tasks to be performed before the on site part of
the RNP process takes place.
This ramp up phase includes:
Geo data procurement if required
Setting up general rules of the project
Define and agree on reporting scheme to be used
Coordination of information exchange between the different teams which are
involved in the project
Each department/team has to prepare its part of the project
Definition of required manpower and budget
Selection of project database (MatrixX)
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1.4 RNP Process Overview
1.4.4 Initial Radio Network Design
Area surveys
As well check of correctness of geo data
Frequency spectrum partitioning design
RNP tool calibration
For the different morpho classes:
Performing of drive measurements
Calibration of correction factor and standard deviation by comparison of
measurements to predicted received power values of the tool
Definition of search areas (SAM Search Area Map)
A team searches for site locations in the defined areas
The search team should be able to speak the national language
Selection of number of sectors/TRX per site together with project
management and customer
Get real design acceptance from customer based on coverage
prediction and predefined design level thresholds
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1.4 RNP Process Overview
1.4.5 Site Acquisition Procedure
Delivery of site candidates
Several site candidates shall be the result
out of the site location search
Find alternative sites
If no site candidate or no satisfactory
candidate can be found in the search area
Definition of new SAM (Search Area Map)
Possibly adaptation of radio network design
Check and correct SAR (Site Acquisition
Report)
Location information
Land usage
Object (roof top, pylon, grassland)
information
Site plan
Site candidate acceptance and
ranking
If the reported site is accepted as
candidate, then it is ranked
according to its quality in terms of
Radio transmission
OHigh visibility on covered area
ONo obstacles in the near field of the
antennas
ONo interference from other
systems/antennas
Installation costs
OInstallation possibilities
OPower supply
OWind and heat
Maintenance costs
OAccessibility
ORental rates for object
ODurability of object
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1.4 RNP Process Overview
1.4.6 Technical Site Survey
Agree on an equipment installation
solution satisfying the needs of
RNE Radio Network Engineer
Transmission planner
Site engineer
Site owner
The Technical Site Survey Report
(TSSR) defines
Antenna type, position,
bearing/orientation and tilt
Mast/pole or wall mounting
position of antennas
EMC rules are taken into account
Radio network engineer and
transmission planner check electro
magnetic compatibility (EMC) with
other installed devices
BTS/Node B location
Power and feeder cable mount
Transmission equipment
installation
Final Line Of Site (LOS)
confirmation for microwave link
planning
E.g. red balloon of around half a
meter diameter marks target
location
If the site is not acceptable or the
owner disagrees with all suggested
solutions
The site will be rejected
Site acquisition team has to
organize a new date with the next
site from the ranking list
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1.4 RNP Process Overview
1.4.7 Basic Parameter Definition
After installation of equipment the
basic parameter settings are used for
Commissioning
Functional test of BTS and VSWR check
Call tests
RNEs define cell design data
Operations field service generates the
basic software using the cell design
CAE data
Cell design CAE data to be defined for
all cells are for example:
CI/LAC/BSIC
Frequencies
Neighborhood/cell handover
relationship
Transmit power
Cell type (macro, micro, umbrella, )
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1.4 RNP Process Overview
1.4.8 Cell Design CAE Data Exchange over COF
A9156 RNO
OMC 1
COF
ACIE
ACIE
POLO
BSS Software offline production
3rd Party RNP
or Database
A9155 V6
RNP
A9155
PRC Generator
Module
Conversion
OMC 2
ACIE = PRC file
ACIE ASCII Configuration Import Export
PRC Provisioning Radio Configuration
SC Supervised Configuration
COF CMA Offsite
CMA Customer Management Application
CAE Customer Application Engineering
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1.4 RNP Process Overview
1.4.9 Turn On Cycle
The network is launched step by step during the TOC
A single step takes typically two or three weeks
Not to mix up with rollout phases, which take months or even years
For each step the RNE has to define TOC Parameter
Cells to go on air
Determination of frequency plan
Cell design CAE parameter
Each step is finished with the Turn On Cycle Activation
Upload PRC/ACIE files into OMC-R
Unlock sites
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1.4 RNP Process Overview
1.4.10 Site Verification and Drive Test
RNE performs drive measurement to compare the real coverage with
the predicted coverage of the cells.
If coverage holes or areas of high interference are detected
Adjust the antenna tilt and orientation
Verification of cell design CAE data
To fulfill heavy acceptance test requirements, it is absolutely essential
to perform such a drive measurement.
Basic site and area optimization reduces the probability to have
unforeseen mysterious network behavior afterwards.
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1.4 RNP Process Overview
1.4.11 HW / SW Problem Detection
Problems can be detected due to drive tests or equipment monitoring
Defective equipment
will trigger replacement by operation field service
Software bugs
Incorrect parameter settings
are corrected by using the OMC or in the next TOC
Faulty antenna installation
Wrong coverage footprints of the site will trigger antenna re-alignments
If the problem is serious
Lock BTS
Detailed error detection
Get rid of the fault
Eventually adjusting antenna tilt and orientation
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1.4 RNP Process Overview
1.4.12 Basic Network Optimization
Network wide drive measurements
It is highly recommended to perform network wide drive tests before
doing the commercial opening of the network
Key performance indicators (KPI) are determined
The results out of the drive tests are used for basic optimization of the
network
Basic optimization
All optimization tasks are still site related
Alignment of antenna system
Adding new sites in case of too large coverage holes
Parameter optimization
No traffic yet -> not all parameters can be optimized
Basic optimization during commercial service
If only a small number of new sites are going on air the basic optimization
will be included in the site verification procedure
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1.4 RNP Process Overview
1.4.13 Network Acceptance
Acceptance drive test
Calculation of KPI according to acceptance requirements in contract
Presentation of KPI to the customer
Comparison of key performance indicators with the acceptance targets
in the contract
The customer accepts
the whole network
only parts of it step by step
Now the network is ready for commercial launch
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1.4 RNP Process Overview
1.4.14 Further Optimization
Network is in commercial operation
Network optimization can be performed
Significant traffic allows to use OMC based statistics by using A9156
RNO and A9185 NPA
End of optimization depends on contract and mutual agreement
between Alcatel and customer
Usually, Alcatel is only involved during the first optimization activities
directly after opening the network commercially
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2 Coverage Planning
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2 Coverage Planning
2.1 Geo databases
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.1 Geographical data needed for Radio Network Planning ?
Propagation models depend
on geographical data
Geographical information for site acquisition
Latitude (East/West) / Longitude (North/South)
Rectangular coordinates
(e.g. UTM coordinates)
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.2 Maps are flat
Longitude
Latitude
x, y
Problem: Earth is 3D, the maps are 2D
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.3 Mapping the earth
The Earth is a very complex shape
To map the geography of the earth,
a r ef er ence model (-> Geodet i c Dat um) is needed
The model needs to be simple so that it is easy to use
It needs to include a Coor di nat e syst em which allows the
positions of objects to be uniquely identified
It needs to be readily associated with the physical world so
that its use is intuitive
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.4 Map Projection
Geodetic Datum
e.g. WGS84, ED50
Ellipsoid
e.g. WGS84,
International 1924
Geocoordinate
System
e.g. UTM
Map Projection
e.g. Transverse Mercator (UTM),
Lambert Conformal Conic
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.5 Geodetic Ellipsoid
Definition:
A mathematical surface (an ellipse
rotated around the earth's polar axis)
which provides a convenient model of
the size and shape of the earth. The
ellipsoid is chosen to best meet the
needs of a particular map datum system
design.
Reference ellipsoids are usually defined
by semi-major (equatorial radius) and
flattening (the relationship between
equatorial and polar radii).
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.6 Global & Regional Ellipsoids
Gl obal el l i psoi ds
e.g. WGS84, GRS80
Center of ellipsoid is
Center of gravity
Worldwide consistence of
all maps around the world
Regi onal el l i psoi ds
e.g. Bessel, Clarke, Hayford, Krassovsky
Best fitting ellipsoid for a part of the world
(local optimized)
Less local deviation
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.7 Geodetic Datum
A Geodetic Datum is a Reference
System which includes:
A local or global El l i psoi d
One Fi xpoi nt
Attention: Referencing
geodetic coordinates to the
wrong map datum can result
in position
errors of
hundreds of meters
Info:
In most cases the shift, rotation
and scale factor of a Map
Datum is relative to the
satellite map datum WGS84.
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.8 Different Map Projections
Cylindrical
e.g. UTM,
Gauss-Krueger
Conical
e.g.Lambert Conformal
Conic
Planar/Azimuthal
Info: In 90% of the cases
we will have a cylindrical
projection in 10% of the
cases a conical projection
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.9 Geo-Coordinate System
To simplify the use of maps a
Cart esi an Coordi nat es is used
To avoid negative values a
Fal se East i ng value and a
Fal se Nort hi ng value
is added
Also a scal i ng f act or is used to
minimize the projection error
over the whole area
X = Easting
Y = Northing
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.10 WGS 84 (World Geodetic System 1984)
Most needed Geodet i c Dat um
in the world today (Satellite Datum)
It is the reference frame used
by the U.S. Department of Defense
is defined by the National Imagery
and Mapping Agency (NIMA)
The Global Positioning System (GPS)
system is based on the World Geodetic
System 1984 (WGS-84).
Optimal adaption to the surface of the earth
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.11 Transverse Mercator Projection
Projection cylinder is
rotated 90 degrees from
the polar axis
(transverse)
Geometric basis
for the UTM
and the
Gauss-Krueger
Map Projection
Conformal
Map projection
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.12 Transverse Mercator Projection (e.g. UTM )
Middle-Meridian
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.13 Universal Transverse Mercator System
60 zones, each 6
o
(60 6
o
= 360
o
)
3
o
around each center meridian
Beginning at 180
o
longitude
(measured eastward from
Greenwich)
Zone number = (center meridian + 183
o
) / 6
o
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.14 UTM - Definitions
False Easting: 500 000 m
(Middle-meridian x = 500 000 m)
False Northing:
Northern Hemisphere: 0 m
Southern Hemisphere: 10 000 000 m
Scaling Factor: 0,9996
(used to minimize the
projection error over the whole area)
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.15 UTM Zones (e.g. Europe)
UTM-Zones
9 15 21 27 33 39 3 -3 -6 Middle-Meridian
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UTM-System
False origin on the central
meridian of the zone has an
easting of 500,000 meters.
All eastings have a positive values
for the zone
Eastings range from 100,000 to
900,000 meters
The 6 Degree zone ranges from
166,667 to 833,333 m, leaving
about a 0.5 overlap at each end
of the zone
(valid only at the equator)
This allows for overlaps and
matching between zones
2.1 Geo databases
2.1.16 UTM-System
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.17 UTM Zone Numbers
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UTM-Zone: 32
Middle meridian: 9
o
(9
o
= 500 000 m
False Easting)
2.1 Geo databases
2.1.18 UTM-System: Example "Stuttgart"
Transformation: latitude / longitude UTM system
North 48
o
45' 13.5''
East 9
o
11' 7.5''
y = 5 400 099 m
x = 513 629 m
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.19 Lambert Conformal Conic Projection
Maps an ellipsoid onto a cone whose central axis coincides with the
polar axis
Cone touches the ellipsoid
=> One standard parallel (1SP)
(e.g. NTF-System in France)
Cutting edges of cone and ellipsoid
=> Two standard parallels (2SP)
(e.g. Lambert-Projection in Austria)
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.20 Geospatial data for Network Planning
DEM (Digital Elevation Model)/ Topography
Morphostructure / Land usage / Clutter
Satellite Photos /
Orthoimages
Scanned Maps
Background data
(streets, borders,
coastlines, etc. )
Buildings
Traffic data
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.21Creation of geospatial databases
Satellite imagery Digitizing maps Aerial photography
Geospatial
data
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.22 Parameters of a Map
Coordinate system
Map Projection
(incl. Geodetic Datum)
Location of the map (Area )
Scale:
macrocell planning
1:50000 - 1:100000
microcell planning
1:500 -1:5000
Thematic
Source
Date of Production
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Raster data
DEM /Topography
Morphostructure /
Land usage / Clutter
Traffic density
Vector data
Background data
(streets, borders, coastlines, etc. )
Buildings
2.1 Geo databases
2.1.23 Raster- and Vectordata
x
y
(x
1
,y
1
)
(x
n
,y
n
)
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.24 Rasterdata / Grid data
Pixel-oriented data
Stored as row and column
Each Pixel stored in one or two
byte
Each Pixel contents information
(e.g. morphoclass,
colour of a scanned map,
elevation of a DEM)
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.25 Vectordata
Vector mainly used are: airport, coastline,
highway, main roads, secondary roads, railway,
rivers/lakes
Each vector contents
Info about kind of vector
(e.g. street, coastline)
A series of several points
Each point has a corresponded x / y -value
(e.g. in UTM System or as Long/Lat)
Info about Map proj ect i on and used
Geodet i c Dat um
(x
1
,y
1
)
(x
n
,y
n
)
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.26 Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
Raster dataset that shows
terrain features such as hills
and valleys
Each element (or pixel) in
the DEM image represents the
terrain elevation at that location
Resolution in most cases:
20 m for urban areas
50-100 m for other areas
DEM are typically generated
from topographic maps,
stereo satellite images,
or stereo aerial photographs
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.27 Morphostructure / Land usage / Clutter (1)
Land usage classification
according to the impact
on wave propagation
In most cases:
7...14 morpho classes
Resolution in most cases:
20 m f or ci t i es
50100m ot her areas
for radio network
planning
The clutter files describe the land cover (dense urban, buildings, residential, forest, open, villages....).
Ground is
represented by a grid map where each bin is characterised by a code corresponding to a main type of cover (a
clutter
class). The clutter maps are 8 bits/pixel (256 classes)-raster maps, they show an image with a colour assigned
to each
clutter class (by default, grey shading).
Clutter file provides clutter code per bin. Bin size is defined by pixel size (P stated in metre). Pixel size must
be the same
in both directions. Abscissa and ordinate axes are respectively oriented in right and down directions. First
point given in
the file corresponds to the upper-left corner of the image. This point refers to the northwest point geo-
referenced by A9155
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.28 Morphostructure (2)
Besides the topo database the basic
input for radio network planning
Each propagation area has different
obstacles like buildings, forest etc.
Obstacles which have similar effects
on propagation conditions are
classified in morphocl asses
Each morphoclass has a
corresponding value for the
correction gain
The resolution of the morpho
databases should be adapted
to the propagation model
Morpho correction factor for
predictions:
0 dB (skyscapers") 30 dB (water")
Morphodatabases (Landuse/Clutter) are a special kind of geodatabases. The morphodatabase is beside the
topodatabase the basic input for radio network planning. Each morphoclass has a corresponding value of
propagation loss. Together with a topographical database it is possible to predict the radio wave
propagation.
Each propagation area has different obstacles like buildings, forest etc. Those obstacles, which have similar
effects on propagation conditions are classified in morphoclasses.
This resolution of the morphodatabases should be adapted to the empirical propagation model for
macrocellular radio network planning and the necessary planning resolution. In most cases the resolution of
the rasterdatabases for morphostructure is around 50 ...100 m. With those values an optimum between
calculation time and the necessary resolution of the prediction is reached in most radio network planning
projects.
For microcellular radio network planning a buildingdatabase is needed with a higher resolution.
Each morphoclass is corresponding with a morpho-correction factor. The propagation loss is between 30 dB
("skyscrapers") ... and around 0 dB ("open area") The morphocorrection factors are achieved by calibration
measurements
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.29 Morphoclasses

Code Morpho-
structure
Description
0 not classified e.g. edge of a database

1 skyscrapers /
buildings
very high buildings ( >40m), very high density of buildings,
no vegetation on ground level
e.g. cities like NewYork, Tokio etc.
2 dense urban 4 or more storeys, areas within urban perimeters, inner city,
very little vegetation, high density of buildings, most
buildings are standing c lose together, small pedestrian
zones and streets incl.
3 medium
urban / mean
urban
3 or 4 storeys, areas within urban perimeters, most buildings
are standing c lose together, less vegetation, middle density
of buildings, small pedestrian zones and streets included
4 lower urban /
suburban
2 or 3 storeys, middle density of buildings,
some vegetation, terraced houses with gardens

5 residential 1-2 storeys, low density of buildings with gardens
e.g. farmhouses, detached houses

6 industrial zone
/ industrial
factory, warehouse, garage, shipyards

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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.30 Morphoclasses (2)

Code Morpho-
structure
Description
7 forest all kinds of forest, parks, with high tree density


8 agriculture /
rural
high vegetation, plants: 1... 3 m,
high density of plants, e.g. crop fields, fruit plantation

9 low tree
density / parks
low vegetation, low height of plants,
low density of plants, some kinds of parks, botanical
garden

10 water sea, rivers, all kind of fresh- and saltwater


11 open area no buildings, no vegetation
e.g. desert, beach, part of an airport, big streets etc .
huge parking areas, large
12 (optional)

defined by networkplanner if necessary
13 (optional)

defined by networkplanner if necessary
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.31Background data (streets, borders etc.)
All kinds of information data like
streets,
borders, coastlines etc.
Necessary for orientation
in plots of calculation results
The background data are
not needed for the calculation
of the fieldstrength, power etc.
These data represent either polygons (regions...), or lines (roads, coastlines...) or points (towns...).
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.32 Orthophoto
Georeferenced Satellite Image
Resolution:
most 10 or 20 m
Satellite: e.g. SPOT, Landsat
These geographic data regroup the road maps and the satellite images ; they are only used for display and
provide information about the geographic environment. A9155 supports scanned image files with TIFF (1, 4,
8, 24-bits/pixel), BIL (1, 4, 8, 24-bits/pixel), PlaNET (1, 4, 8, 24-bits/pixel), BMP (1-24-bits/pixel) and
Erdas Imagine (1, 4, 8, 24-bits/pixel) formats.
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.33 Scanned Maps
Mainly used as
background data
Not used for calculation
but for localisation
Has to be geocoded
to put it into a GIS (Geographic
Information System) e.g. a Radio
Network Planning Tool
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.34 Buildings
Vectordata
Outlines of
single buildings
building blocks
Building heights
Material code
not: roof shape
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.35 Buildings (2)
Microcell radio network planning
is mainly used in urban environment
The prediction of mircowave
propagation is calculated with
a ray-tracing/launching model
A lot of calculation
steps are needed
Optimum building database
required (data reduction) to
minimize the pre-calculation time
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.36 Traffic density
Advantageous in the
interference calculation,
thus for frequency
assignment and
in the calculation
of average figures in
network analysis
Raster database of
traffic density
values (in Erlangs) of the
whole planning area
Resolution: 20...100 m
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.37 Converting one single point (1a)
Example Stuttgart (Example 1)
Long/Lat (WGS84) => UTM (WGS84)
Input:
Longitude: 9 deg 11 min 7.5 sec
Latitude: 48 deg 45 min 13.5 sec
Datum WGE: World Geodetic System 1984; Projection: Geodetic
Exercise: Convert following example with the program Geotrans:
Output:
Easting: 513629 m
Northing: 5400099 m
Datum WGE: World Geodetic System 1984
Projection: Universersal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
Zone: 32 ; Hemisphere: N (North)
Preset of this
values necessary
Values, which will
calculated by program
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.38 Converting one single point (1b)
GEOTRANS
(Geographic Translator)
is an application program
which allows you to convert
geographic coordinates easily
among a wide variety of
coordinate systems, map
projections, and datums.
Example Stuttgart (Example 1)
Long/Lat (WGS84) => UTM (WGS84)
Source: http://164.214.2.59/GandG/geotrans/
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.39 Converting one single point (2a)
Input:
Longitude: 9 deg 11 min 7.5 sec
Latitude: 48 deg 45 min 13.5 sec
Datum WGE: World Geodetic System 1984; Projection: Geodetic
Exercise: Convert following example with the program Geotrans:
Output:
Easting: 513549 m
Northing: 5403685 m
Datum EUR-A: EUROPEAN 1950, Western Europe
Projection: Universersal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
Zone: 32 ; Hemisphere: N (North)
Example Stuttgart (Example 2)
Long/Lat (WGS84) => UTM (ED50)
(ED50 = EUR-A = European Datum 1950)
Preset of this
values necessary
Values, which will
calculated by program
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.40 Converting one single point (2b)
Example Stuttgart (Example 2)
Long/Lat (WGS84) => UTM (ED50)
(ED50 = EUR-A = European Datum 1950)
Attention:
For flat coordinates (e.g. UTM)
as well as for geographic coordinates
(Long/Lat) a reference called
Geodetic Datum is necessary.
Diff. X (Ex.2 - Ex.1): 69 m
Diff. Y (Ex.2 - Ex.1): 200 m
Difference because of different Geodetic Datums
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.41 Converting a list of points (3a)
Example Stuttgart (Example 3 )
Long/Lat (WGS84) => UTM (WGS84)
Input:
text-file with the values (list) of the longitude
and latitude of different points
(How to create the inputfile see on page 3c)
Output:
Datum: WGE: World Geodetic System 1984
Projection: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)
Zone: 32
Preset of this
values necessary
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.42 Converting a list of points (3b)
Example Stuttgart (Example 3 )
Long/Lat (WGS84)
=> UTM (WGS84)
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.43 Converting a list of points (3c)
Example Stuttgart (Example 3)
Long/Lat (WGS84)=> UTM (WGS84)
Latitude Longitude U
T
M
-
Z
o
n
e
H
e
m
i
s
p
h
e
r
e
E
a
s
t
i
n
g

(
x
)
N
o
r
t
h
i
n
g

(
y
)
Optional: different error-infos,
depending on the input-data
default: Unk=unknown
Geotrans V2.2.3 Geotrans V2.2.3
deg min sec deg min sec
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.44 Provider for Geospatial data
Geodatasupplier Internet
BKS www.bks.co.uk
ComputaMaps www.computamaps.com
Geoimage www.geoimage.fr
Infoterra www.infoterra-global.com
Istar www.istar.fr
RMSI www.rmsi.com
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2.1 Geo databases
2.1.45 Links for more detailed infos
Maps Projection Overview
http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/mapproj/mapproj.html
http://www.ecu.edu/geog/
http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Map_projection
Coordinate Transformation (online)
http://jeeep.com/details/coord/
http://www.cellspark.com/UTM.html
Map Collection
http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/index.html
Finding out Latitude/Longitude of cities etc.
http://www.maporama.com
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2 Coverage Planning
2.2 Antennas and Cables
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2.2 Antennas and Cables
2.2.1.1 The Antenna System
Antennas
Power divider
Cables (jumper)
Feeder cables
Connectors
Clamps
Lightning protection
Wall glands
Planning
Rx
div
Tx
Rx
Feeder
cable
Earthing
kit
Wall
gland
Jumper cables
Feeder
installation
clamps
Plugs
7/16
Sockets
7/16
Mounting
clamp
Grounding
Lightning
rod
Antennas
Earthing kit
Jumper
cable
Jumper
cable
Mechanical
antenna
support
structure
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2.2 Antennas and Cables
2.2.1.2 Antenna Theory
50 is the impedance of the cable
377 is the impedance of the air
Antennas adapt the different impedances
They convert guided waves, into free-space waves (Hertzian waves)
and/or vice versa
Z =377
Z =50
It happens that the coulomb field and the induction field fall off much more rapidly than the radiation field
with increasing distance from the antenna. At distances greater than a few wavelengths from the antenna,
in what is called the antenna's f ar f i el d, the electric field is essentially pure radiation. Closer to the
antenna, we have the near f i el d, which is a mixture of the radiation, induction and coulomb fields.
The coulomb field at an instant in time around a half-wave resonant dipole A half-cycle later, the polarity,
and all the arrows, will be reversed. The spacing between the field lines indicates field strength.
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2.2 Antennas and Cables
2.2.1.3 Antenna Data
The antenna parameters which are of interest for the radio network
engineering are the following:
4 Antenna directivity, efficiency, gain
4 Polarization, near field and far field
Specification due to certain wave polarization (linear/elliptic, cross-polarization)
4 Half power beam width (HPBW)
Related to polarization of electrical field
Vertical and Horizontal HPBW
4 Antenna pattern, side lobes, null directions
Yields the spatial radiation characteristics of the antenna
4 Front-to-back ratio
Important for interference considerations
4 Vol t age st andi ng wave rat i o (VSWR)
4 Bandwi dt h
In electrodynamics, polarization (also spelled polarisation) is the property of electromagnetic waves, such as
light, that describes the direction of their transverse electric field. More generally, the polarization of a
transverse wave describes the direction of oscillation in the plane perpendicular to the direction of travel.
Longitudinal waves such as sound waves do not exhibit polarization, because for these waves the direction
of oscillation is along the direction of travel.
Linear
Circular Elliptical
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2.2 Antennas and Cables
2.2.1.4 Antenna Pattern and HPBW
0 dB
-3 dB
-10 dB
0 dB
-3 dB
-10 dB
vertical
horizontal
sidelobe
null direction
main beam
H
P
B
W
The ant enna radi at i on pat t ern also named ant enna di agram, describes the relative strength of the radiated
field in various directions from the antenna, at a constant distance. The radiation pattern is a reception
pattern as well, since it also describes the receiving properties of the antenna. The radiation pattern is
three-dimensional, but usually as shown in Figure 4, the measured radiation patterns are a two dimensional
slice of the three-dimensional pattern, in the horizontal or vertical planes.
This pattern depends on the antenna geometry and the current distribution in its elements. It is possible to
compose, with a certain degree of freedom, arbitrary antenna diagrams by arranging antenna elements, e.g.
dipoles, in groups, e.g. in a grid arrangement.
As shown in Figure, each antenna pattern consists of a couple of beams or lobes. One distinguishes the mai n
beam, pointing in the direction where the maximum power is radiated, and the si de l obes, which are local
maxima in the antenna diagram. The side lobes must sometimes be treated with special care, as they could
radiate too much power towards unplanned directions of the cell. This may lead to unexpected interference
with other cells! The antenna has directions where it isn't nearly radiating. These directions are called nul l
di rect i ons. They may cause coverage problems.
Based on the radiation pattern, the radio mobiles antennas are categorized in the following types:
Omni -di rect i onal antennas that provides a 360 degree horizontal radiation pattern. Omni antennas are
typically used when continuous coverage around the site is needed and the offered traffic is low.
Di rect i onal antennas that provide a stronger radiation pattern in a specific direction by focusing the
radiation energy. For instance the radiation pattern shown in Figure, belongs to a directive antenna.
The sect or or panel antennas are directional antennas and they are built based on the array ant ennas
principle. Array antennas consist of a number of dipole antennas arranged in a geometrical manner to
create a directional receiving or transmission pattern.
The panel antennas are used on sectorized sites in order to focus the coverage on special area of interest.
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2.2 Antennas and Cables
2.2.1.5 EIRP
Pt = 45 dBm
Gain =
11dBi
Isotropic radiated Power Pt
Effective isotropic
radiated power:
EIRP = Pt+Gain
= 56 dBm
V1
V2 = V1
radiated
power
Known the antenna gain and the power fed into antenna, an important link budget parameter, the
Ef f ect i ve Isot ropi c Radi at ed (EIRP) can be calculated. The EIRP represents the total power radiated by
the antenna
Effective Isotropic Radiated Power
EIRP: Ef f ect i ve Isot ropi c Radi at ed Power (in main beam direction) in [dBm];
P
in
: power fed into the antenna, [dBm];
G: antenna gain, [dBi];
G P EIRP
in
+ =
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For the link between base station and mobile station, mostly linear
antennas are used:
Monopole antennas
MS antennas, car roof antennas
Dipole antennas
Used for array antennas at base stations for increasing the directivity of RX and TX
antennas
2.2 Antennas and Cables
2.2.1.6 Linear Antennas
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2.2 Antennas and Cables
2.2.1.7 Monopole Antenna Pattern
Influence of antenna length on the antenna pattern
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2.2 Antennas and Cables
2.2.1.8 Panel Antenna with Dipole Array
Many dipoles are arranged in a grid layout
Nearly arbitrary antenna patterns may be designed
Feeding of the dipoles with weighted and phase-shifted signals
Coupling of all dipole elements
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2.2 Antennas and Cables
2.2.1.9 Dipole Arrangement
4Dipole arrangement
Typical flat panel
antenna
Dipole
element
Weighted
and
phase
shifted
signals
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2.2 Antennas and Cables
2.2.1.10 Omni Antenna
Antenna with vertical HPBW for omni sites
Large area coverage
Advantages
Continuous coverage around the site
Simple antenna mounting
Ideal for homogeneous terrain
Drawbacks
No mechanical tilt possible
Clearance of antenna required
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2 Coverage Planning
2.2.2 Antenna Parameters
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2.2.2 Antennas Parameters
2.2.2.1 X 65 T6 900MHz 2.5m
Rural road coverage with
mechanical uptilt
Antenna
RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna
872-960 MHz
APX906516-T6 Series
Electrical specification
Gain in dBi: 17.1
Polarization: +/-45
HBW: 65
VBW: 6.5
Electrical downtilt: 6
Mechanical specification
Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 2475 x
306 x 120
Weight in kg: 16.6
Horizontal Pattern
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2.2.2 Antennas Parameters
2.2.2.2 X 65 T6 900MHz 1.9m
Dense urban area
Antenna
RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna
872-960 MHz
APX906515-T6 Series
Electrical specification
Gain in dBi: 16.5
Polarization: +/-45
HBW: 65
VBW: 9
Electrical downtilt: 6
Mechanical specification
Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1890 x
306 x 120
Weight in kg: 16.6
Vertical Pattern
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2.2.2 Antennas Parameters
2.2.2.3 X 90 T2 900MHz 2.5m
Rural area with mechanical uptilt
Antenna
RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna
872-960 MHz
APX909014-T6 Series
Electrical specification
Gain in dBi: 15.9
Polarization: +/-45
HPBW: 90
VBW: 7
Electrical downtilt: 6
Mechanical specification
Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 2475 x
306 x 120
Weight in kg: 15.5
Vertical Pattern
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2.2.2 Antennas Parameters
2.2.2.4 V 65 T0 900MHz 2.0m
Highway
Antenna
RFS CELLite Panel Vertical
Polarized Antenna 872-960 MHz
AP906516-T0 Series
Electrical specification
Gain in dBi: 17.5
Polarization: Vertical
HBW: 65
VBW: 8.5
Electrical downtilt: 0
Mechanical specification
Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1977 x
265 x 130
Weight in kg: 10.9
Vertical Pattern
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2.2.2 Antennas Parameters
2.2.2.5 V 90 T0 900MHz 2.0m
Rural Area
Antenna
RFS CELLite Panel Vertical
Polarized Antenna 872-960 MHz
AP909014-T0 Series
Electrical specification
Gain in dBi: 16.0
Polarization: Vertical
HBW: 65
VBW: 8.5
Electrical downtilt: 0
Mechanical specification
Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1977 x
265 x 130
Weight in kg: 9.5
Vertical Pattern
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2.2.2 Antennas Parameters
2.2.2.4 X 65 T6 1800MHz 1.3m
Dense urban area
Antenna
RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna
1710-1880 MHz
APX186515-T6 Series
Electrical specification
Gain in dBi: 17.5
Polarization: +/-45
HBW: 65
VBW: 7
Electrical downtilt: 6
Mechanical specification
Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1310 x
198 x 50
Weight in kg: 5.6
Vertical Pattern
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2.2.2 Antennas Parameters
2.2.2.5 X 65 T2 1800MHz 1.3m
Dense urban area
Antenna
RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna
1710-1880 MHz
APX186515-T2 Series
Electrical specification
Gain in dBi: 17.5
Polarization: +/-45
HBW: 65
VBW: 7
Electrical downtilt: 2
Mechanical specification
Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1310 x
198 x 50
Weight in kg: 5.6
Vertical Pattern
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2.2.2 Antennas Parameters
2.2.2.6 X 65 T2 1800MHz 1.9m
Highway
Antenna
RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna
1710-1880 MHz
APX186516-T2 Series
Electrical specification
Gain in dBi: 18.3
Polarization: +/-45
HBW: 65
VBW: 4.5
Electrical downtilt: 2
Mechanical specification
Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1855 x
198 x 50
Weight in kg: 8.6
Vertical Pattern
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2.2.2 Antennas Parameters
2.2.2.7 V 65 T2 1800MHz 1.3m
Highway
Antenna
RFS CELLite Panel Vertical
Polarized Antenna 1710-1880 MHz
AP186516-T2 Series
Electrical specification
Gain in dBi: 17.0
Polarization: Vertical
HBW: 65
VBW: 7.5
Electrical downtilt: 2
Mechanical specification
Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1310 x
198 x 50
Weight in kg: 4.7
Horizontal Pattern
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2.2.2 Antennas Parameters
2.2.2.8 V 90 T2 1800MHz 1.9m
Highway
Antenna
RFS CELLite Panel Vertical
Polarized Antenna 1710-1880 MHz
AP189016-T2 Series
Electrical specification
Gain in dBi: 17.0
Polarization: Vertical
HBW: 90
VBW: 5.5
Electrical downtilt: 2
Mechanical specification
Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1855 x
198 x 50
Weight in kg: 6.0
Vertical Pattern
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2 Coverage Planning
2.2.3 Cable Parameters
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2.2.3 Cable Parameters
2.2.3.1 7/8" CELLFLEX Low-Loss Coaxial Cable
Feeder Cable
7/8" CELLFLEX Low-Loss Foam-
Dielectric Coaxial Cable
LCF78-50J Standard
LCF78-50JFN Flame Retardant
Installation temperature >-25C
Electrical specification 900MHz
Attenuation: 3.87dB/100m
Average power in kW: 2.45
Electrical specification 1800MHz
Attenuation: 5.73dB/100m
Average power in kW: 1.79
Mechanical specification
Cable weight kg\m: 0.53
Minimum bending radius
Single bend in mm: 120
Repeated bends in mm: 250
Bending moment in Nm: 13.0
Recommended clamp spacing: 0.8m
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2.2.3 Cable Parameters
2.2.3.2 1-1/4" CELLFLEX Coaxial Cable
Feeder Cable
1-1/4" CELLFLEX Low-Loss Foam-
Dielectric Coaxial Cable
LCF114-50J Standard
LCF114-50JFN Flame Retardant
Installation temperature >-25C
Electrical specification 900MHz
Attenuation: 3.06dB/100m
Average power in kW: 3.56
Electrical specification 1800MHz
Attenuation: 4.61dB/100m
Average power in kW: 2.36
Mechanical specification
Cable weight kg\m: 0.86
Minimum bending radius
Single bend in mm: 200
Repeated bends in mm: 380
Bending moment in Nm: 38.0
Recommended clamp spacing: 1.0m
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2.2.3 Cable Parameters
2.2.3.3 1-5/8" CELLFLEX Coaxial Cable
Feeder Cable
1-5/8" CELLFLEX Low-Loss Foam-
Dielectric Coaxial Cable
LCF158-50J Standard
LCF158-50JFN Flame Retardant
Installation temperature >-25C
Electrical specification 900MHz
Attenuation: 2.34dB/100m
Average power in kW: 4.97
Electrical specification 1800MHz
Attenuation: 3.57dB/100m
Average power in kW: 3.26
Mechanical specification
Cable weight kg\m: 1.26
Minimum bending radius
Single bend in mm: 200
Repeated bends in mm: 508
Bending moment in Nm: 46.0
Recommended clamp spacing: 1.2m
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2.2.3 Cable Parameters
2.2.3.4 1/2" CELLFLEX Jumper Cable
CELLFLEX LCF12-50J Jumpers
Feeder Cable
LCF12-50J CELLFLEX Low-Loss Foam-
Dielectric Coaxial Cable
Connectors
7/16 DIN male/female
N male/female
Right angle
Molded version available in 1m, 2m,
3m
Mechanical specification
Minimum bending radius
Repeated bends in mm: 125
Electrical specification 900MHz
Attenuation: 0.068db/m
Total losses with connectors are
0.108dB, 0.176dB and 0.244dB
Electrical specification 1800MHz
Attenuation: 0.099dB/m
Total losses with connectors are
0.139dB, 0.238dB and 0.337dB
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2 Coverage Planning
2.3 Radio Propagation
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2.3 Radio Propagation
2.3.1 Propagation effects
Free space loss
Fresnel ellipsoid
Reflection, Refraction, Scattering
in the atmosphere
at a boundary to another material
Diffraction
at small obstacles
over round earth
Attenuation
Rain attenuation
Gas absorption
Fading
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P
0
h
2.3.1 Propagation effects
2.3.1.1 Reflection
P
r
= R
h/v
P
0
R
h/v
= f(, , , h)
horizontal reflection
factor
vertical reflection factor
angle of incidence
permittivity
conductivity
surface roughness
R
h
R
v

h
P
r
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2.3.1 Propagation effects
2.3.1.2 Refraction
k = 4/3
k = 1 k = 2/3
k =
true earth
Ray paths with different k over true

Considered via an effective earth


radius factor k
Radio path plotted as a straight line by
changing the earth's radius
k = 4/3
k = 1
k = 2/3
k =
radio path

earth
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2.3.1 Propagation effects
2.3.1.3 Diffraction
Occurs at objects which sizes are in the order of the wavelength
Radio waves are bent or curved around objects
Bending angle increases if object thickness is smaller compared to
Influence of the object causes an attenuation: diffraction loss
diffracted
radio
shadow
zone
obstacle
radio
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2.3.1 Propagation effects
2.3.1.4 Fading
Caused by delay spread of original signal
Multi path propagation
Time-dependent variations in heterogeneity of environment
Movement of receiver
Short-term fading, fast fading
This fading is characterised by phase summation and cancellation of signal
components, which travel on multiple paths. The variation is in the order
of the considered wavelength.
Their statistical behaviour is described by the Rayleigh distribution (for
non-LOS signals) and the Rice distribution (for LOS signals), respectively.
In GSM, it is already considered by the sensitivity values, which take the
error correction capability into account.
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2.3.1 Propagation effects
2.3.1.5 Fading types
Mid-term fading, lognormal fading
Mid-term field strength variations caused by objects in the size of 10...100m
(cars, trees, buildings). These variations are lognormal distributed.
Long-term fading, slow fading
Long-term variations caused by large objects like large buildings, forests,
hills, earth curvature (> 100m). Like the mid-term field strength variations,
these variations are lognormal distributed.
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2.3.1 Propagation effects
2.3.1.6 Signal Variation due to Fading
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
0
.
1
2
.
8
5
.
4
8
.
0
1
0
.
6
1
3
.
2
1
5
.
9
1
8
.
5
2
1
.
1
2
3
.
7
2
6
.
3
2
9
.
0
3
1
.
6
3
4
.
2
3
6
.
8
3
9
.
4
4
2
.
1
4
4
.
7
4
7
.
3
4
9
.
9
Distance [m]
R
e
c
e
i
v
e
d

P
o
w
e
r

[
d
B
m
]
Lognormal fading
Raleygh fading
Fading hole
Rayl ai ght / Ri ci an Fadi ng: Fast Fadi ng.
Rayl ei ght : Statistical behaviour of Fast Fading signals for NON LOS-Signals.
Lognormal Fadi ng
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2.3.1 Propagation effects
2.3.1.7 Lognormal Fading

Lognormal fading (typical 20 dB
loss by entering a village)
Fading hole
Lognormal fading (entering
a tunnel)
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2 Coverage Planning
2.4 Path Loss Prediction
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2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.1 Free Space Loss
The simplest form of wave propagation is the free-space propagation
The according path loss can be calculated with the following formula
Path Loss in Free Space Propagation
L free space loss
d distance between transmitter and receiver antenna
f operating frequency
L
d
km
f
MHz
freespace
= + + 324 20 20 . log log
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2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.2 Fresnel Ellipsoid
The free space loss formula can only be applied if the direct line-of-sight (LOS)
between transmitter and receiver is not obstructed
This is the case, if a specific region around the LOS is cleared from any obstacles
The region is called Fresnel ellipsoid
Transmitter
Receiver
LOS
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2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.3 Fresnel Ellipsoid
2 1
2 1
d d
d d
r
+

=

The Fresnel ellipsoid is the set of all


points around the LOS where the total
length of the connecting lines to the
transmitter and the receiver is longer
than the LOS length by exactly half a
wavelength
It can be shown that this region is
carrying the main power flow from
transmitter to receiver
Transmitter Receiver
LOS
LOS + /2
Fresnel zone
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2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.4 Knife Edge Diffraction
1st Fresnel zone
r
BTS
MS
d
1
d
2
h
0
line of
sight
path of
diffracted wave
d
1
d
2
h
0
replaced obstacle (knife
edge)
h
0
= height of obstacle over line of
sight
d
1
, d
2
= distance of obstacle from
BTS and MS
Kni f e edge di f f ract i on
In case of an obstruction of the LOS path, the free-space formula with an additional correction term can be
used if the obstacle is small compared to the distance from transmitter to receiver. Based on the
assumption that this obstacle can be replaced by an ideal conducting half-plane which extends to infinity in
the direction perpendicular to the propagation path and which is of infinitesimal thickness (knife-edge),
this situation refers to a field theory problem which can be solved in a deterministic way.
In the case that this knife-edge obstacle type enters the Fresnel region, diffraction occurs (similar to the
diffraction known from optics) and introduces some additional di f f ract i on l oss compared to the free-space
propagation.
The diffraction loss can be described by
with h
0
the height of the obstacle above the LOS. v is a parameter which represents the number of cleared
Fresnel ellipsoids. The function F(v) is shown in . One can see that the diffraction loss is 6dB if the obstacle
is just touching the LOS.

2
where ) (
2 1
2 1
0
0

+
= = =
d d
d d
h
r
h
v v F L
diff
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2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.5 Knife Edge Diffraction Function
Knife-edge diffraction function
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
-9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
Clearance of Fresnel ellipsoid (v)
F
(
v
)

[
d
B
]
Additional diffraction loss F(v)
v: clearance parameter, v=-h
0
/r
Note: h
0
= 0 v =0 L = 6 dB
V=0:1=0
The function F(v) is shown on the top . One can see that the diffraction loss is 6dB if the obstacle is just
touching the LOS. For v>1, some oscillation is noted, which appears due to the fact that the obstacle moves
over several Fresnel regions where the phase of the transmitted signal is alternating between +180 and -
180 phase shift.
In reality, the conductivity of the obstacles material is not ideal, and the oscillations appears smoothed to
an average value.
h
0
r
d
1
d
2
LOS
h
0
LOS
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2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.6 "Final Solution" for Wave Propagation Calculations?
Exact field solution requires too much computer resources!
Too much details required for input
Exact calculation too time-consuming
Field strength predi ct i on rather than cal cul at i on
Requirements for field strength prediction models
Reasonable amount of input data
Fast (it is very important to see the impact of changes in the network layout
immediately)
Accur at e (results influence the hardware cost directly)
Tradeoff required (accurate results within a suitable time)
Parameter tuning according to real measurements should be possible
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2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.7 CCIR Recommendation
The CCIR Recommendations provide various
propagation curves
Based on Okumura (1968)
Example (CCIR Report 567-3):
Medi an f i el d st rengt h i n urban area
Frequency = 900 MHz
h
MS
= 1.5 m
Dashed line: free space
How to use this experience in field strength
prediction models?
Model which fits the curves in certain ranges
Hat a' s model
was modified later by the European
Cooperation in Science and Technology
(COST): COST 231 Hata/Okumura
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2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.8 Mobile Radio Propagation
Free-space propagation (Fresnel zone not obstructed) L ~ d
2
Fresnel zone heavily obstructed near the mobile station L ~ d
3.7
d
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2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.9 Terrain Modeling
Topography
Effective antenna height
Knife edge diffraction
single obstacles
multiple obstacles
Surface shape/Morpho-structure
Correction factors for Hata-Okumura
formula
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2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.10 Effect of Morphostructure on Propagation Loss
Open area Open area Urban area
Distance
F
i
e
l
d
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
urban area
open area
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Path loss (Lu) is calculated (in dB) as follows:
Lu= A1 + A2 log(f) + A3 log(hBTS) + (B1 + B2log(hBTS)) log d
The parameters A1, A2, A3, B1 and B2 can be user-defined.
Default values are proposed in the table below:
2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.11 Okumura-Hata for GSM 900
-6.55 -6.55 B2
44.90 44.90 B1
-13.82 -13.82 A3
33.90 26.16 A2
46.30 69.55 A1
Cost-Hata
F>1500 MHz
Okumura-Hata
f< 1500 MHz
Parameters
Hata formula empirically describes the path loss as a function of frequency, receiver-transmitter distance and
antenna heights for an urban environment. This formula is valid for flat, urban environments and 1.5 metre
mobile antenna height.
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2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.12 CORRECTIONS TO THE HATA FORMULA
As described above, the Hata formula is valid for urban environment and a receiver
antenna height of 1.5m. For other environments and mobile antenna heights,
corrective formulas must be applied.
Lmodel1=Lu-a(hMS) for large city and urban environments
Lmodel1=Lu-a(hMS) -2log (f/28) -5.4 for suburban area
Lmodel1=Lu -a(hMS) - 4.78log (f)+ 18.33 log(f) 40.94 for rural area
a(hMS) is a correction factor to take into account a receiver antenna height different from 1.5m.
3.2log (11.75hMS) 4.97 Large city
(1.1log(f) 0.7)hMS (1.56log(f) -0.8) Rural/Small city
A(hMS) Environments
Note: When receiver antenna height equals 1.5m, a(hMS) is close to 0 dB regardless of frequency.
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2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.13 Hata-Okumura for GSM 900
Formula valid for frequency range: 1501000 MHz
L
morpho
[dB] Morpho/surface shape-Correction factor
0 dB: Skyscrapers->27 dB: open area
f [MHz] Frequency (150 - 1000 MHz)
h
BTS
[m] Height of BTS (30 - 200 m)
h
MS
[m] Height of Mobile (1 - 10m)
d [km] Distance between BTS and MS (1 - 20 km)
Power law exponent shown colored
Loss
Hata
= 69.55 + 26.16 log (f) - 13.82 log (h
BTS
)
- a(h
MS
) +(44.9 - 6.55 log (h
BTS
)) log (d) - L
morpho
a (h
MS
) = (1.1 log (f) - 0.7) h
MS
- (1.56 log (f) - 0.8)
2.4 Path Loss Prediction 2.4 Path Loss Prediction
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2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.14 COST 231 Hata-Okumura GSM 1800
Formula is valid for frequency range: 1500...2000 MHz
Hatas model is extended for GSM 1800
Modification of original formula to the new frequency range
For cells with small ranges the COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami model is more
precisely
Loss
Hata
= 46. 3 + 33. 9 log (f) - 13.82 log (h
BTS
)
- a(h
MS
) +(44.9 - 6.55 log (h
BTS
)) log (d) - L
morpho
a (h
MS
) = (1.1 log (f) - 0.7) h
MS
- (1.56 log (f) -0.8)
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With:
K1: constant offset (dB).
K2: multiplying factor for log(d).
d: distance between the receiver and the transmitter (m).
K3: multiplying factor for log(HTxef f ).
HTxeff: effective height of the transmitter antenna (m).
K4: multiplying factor for diffraction calculation. K4 has to be a positive number.
Diffraction loss: loss due to diffraction over an obstructed path (dB).
K5: multiplying factor for log(HTxef f )log(d).
K6: multiplying factor for .
: effective mobile antenna height (m).
Kcl ut t er: multiplying factor for f(clutter).
f(clutter): average of weighted losses due to clutter.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) clutter f K H K H d K loss n Diffractio K H K d K K
L
clutter Rxeff Txeff Txeff el
+ + + + + + =
6 5 4 3 2 1 mod
log log log log
2.4.15 Alcatel Propagation Model (Standard Propagation
Model)
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2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.16 Alcatel Propagation Model
Using of effective antenna height in the Hata-Okumura formula:

h
Rx eff
= f(, d, h
BTS
, h
MS
)
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2.4 Path Loss Prediction
2.4.17 Exercise Path Loss
Scenario
Height BTS = 40m
Height MS = 1.5m
D (BTS to MS) = 2000m
1. Calculate free space loss for
A.) f=900MHz
B.) f=1800MHz
2. Calculate the path loss for f = 900MHz
A.) Morpho class skyscraper
B.) Morpho class open area
3. Calculate the path loss for f = 1800MHz
A.) Morpho class skyscraper
B.) Morpho class open area
Morpho correction factors:
-Skyscraper: 0dB;
-Open area: 27dB
1. Calculate free space loss for
A.) f=900MHz: 97.6dB
B.) f=1800MHz: 103.6dB
2. Calculate the path loss for f = 900MHz
A.) Morpho class skyscraper: 135dB
B.) Morpho class open area: 108dB
3. Calculate the path loss for f = 1800MHz
A.) Morpho class skyscraper: 144.8dB
B.) Morpho class open area: 117.8dB
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2 Coverage Planning
2.5 Link Budget Calculation
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2.5 Link Budget Calculation
2.5.1 Maximum Propagation Loss (Downlink)
Feeder Cable Loss
L
cable
= 3 dB
BTS Antenna Gain
G
antBS
= 16.5 dBi
Effective Isotropic Radiated Power
EIRP
BTS
= 59.5 dBm
MS Antenna Gain
G
antMS
= 2 dBi
Internal Losses
L
int
= 2 dB
ALCATEL Evolium
TM
Propagation Loss
L
prop
Minimum Received Power
P
RX,min,MS
= -102 dBm
Maximum allowed downlink propagation loss: L
MAPL
= EIRP
BTS
- P
RX,min,MS
= 161.5 dB
MS RX
Sensitivity
-102 dBm
Output Power
at antenna
connector
46.0 dBm
Exerci ce:
Calculate the MAPL for this Example:
MAPL=
Add. Losses:
Anx = 1.8 dB
Anc = 5.1 dB
ANy = 3.5 dB
----------
Give the result for different using :
1. With Combiner
2. Without combiner
Pathloss without ANy = 153.6 dB
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Max. allowed uplink propagation loss: L
prop,max
= EIRP
MS
- P
RX,min,BTS
= 157.5 dB
With antenna diversity gain of 3dB: L
prop,max,AD
= EIRP
MS
- P
RX,min,BTS
+ G
AD
= 160.5 dB
With TMA compensating cable loss: L
prop,max,AD,TMA
= EIRP
MS
- P
RX,min,BTS
+ G
AD
+ G
TMA
= 163.5 dB
2.5 Link Budget Calculation
2.5.2 Maximum Propagation Loss (Uplink)
Feeder Cable Loss
L
cable
= 3 dB
BTS Antenna Gain
G
antBS
= 16.5 dBi
Minimum Received Power
P
RX,min,BTS
= -124.5 dBm
MS Antenna Gain
G
antMS
= 2 dBi
Internal Losses
L
int
= 2 dB
ALCATEL Evolium
TM
Propagation Loss
L
prop
EIRP
MS
= 33 dBm
MS TX Power
33 dBm
Receiving
sensitivity at
ant. conn.
-111 dBm
AD = Antenna Diversity ~3dB Gain
TMA = Tower Mounted Amplifier ~3-4 dB Gain
Exerci ce:
Calculate the MAPL for these Examples:
MAPL(AD)=
MAPL(AD+TMA) =
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2.5 Link Budget Calculation
2.5.3 GSM900/1800 Link Budget
MAPL
DL
= EIRP
DL
- P
ISO_DL
- M MAPL
UL
= EIRP
UL
- P
ISO_UL
M Maxi mum Al l owabl e Pat h Loss
M = L
SFM
+ L
IF
+ L
BODY
+ L
PEN
M = L
SFM
+ L
IF
+ L
BODY
+ L
PEN
Tot al Margi ns
L
PEN
L
PEN
Penetration Margin (indoor/in-car)
L
BODY
L
BODY
Body Loss
L
IF
L
IF
Interference Margin
L
SFM
L
SFM
Slow Fading Margin
Margi ns
EIRP
DL
= P
TX_BTS
- L
EXT
- L
FEEDER
- L
JC
- L
TMA
+ G
ANT
- L
SLANT
EIRP
UL
= P
TX_MS
EIRP
L
SLANT
Slant Polarization Loss
G
ANT
Antenna Gain
L
TMA
TMA Insertion Loss
L
JC
Jumpers and Connectors Losses
L
FEEDER
Feeder Loss
L
EXT
External Device Losses
P
TX_BTS
P
TX_MS
TX Output Power
TX Paramet ers
P
ISO_DL
= P
RX_MS
P
ISO_UL
= P
RX_BTS
- G
AD
+ L
EXT
+ L
FEEDER
+L
JC
- G
TMA
- G
ANT
Isot ropi c Power
G
ANT
Antenna Gain
G
TMA
TMA Contribution
L
JC
Jumpers and Connectors Losses
L
FEEDER
Feeder Loss
L
EXT
External Device Losses
G
AD
Antenna Diversity Gain
P
RX_MS
P
RX_BTS
RX Sensitivity
RX Paramet ers
Downl i nk Upl i nk
The GSM link budget components are described as follows:
UL/DL: measured in dBm, represent the BTS and the MS output power.
UL/DL: measured in dBm, express the BTS and MS receiver sensitivity.
DL only: the BTS antenna gain, measured in dBi. The MS antenna gain is
normally assumed to be 0dBi.
UL only: the gain measured in dB that is caused by the diversity reception of
the radio signal in uplink. Information concerning the antenna diversity gain
used for link budget calculation is given in;
UL only: the Tower Mounted Amplifiers contribution in UL. It is expressed in
dB.
DL only: the loss caused in DL path due to internal TMA filters and duplexers.
It is a TMA catalog parameter and it is expressed in dB.
UL/DL: the loss due to the usage of external components such external
diplexers, splitters, etc. It is measured in dB, and can be deduced from
respective data sheets.
UL/DL: the loss due to feeder cable, measured in dB.
UL/DL: the loss due to the usage of jumpers and connectors, measured in dB.

TX Output Power
RX Sensitivity
Antenna Gain
Antenna Diversity Gain
TMA Contribution
TMA Insertion Loss
External Device Loss
Feeder Loss
Jumper and Connector Loss
See also next page
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DL only: the polarization mismatch loss and represents a signal loss due to
different polarization at the transmitting and receiving end, e.g. the usage
of BTS cross polarized antenna at 45. It is not applicable for MS.
As a rule of thumb, 0 dB is considered for slant polarization loss in case of
cross-polar antenna usage within the urban and sub-urban areas.
Contrary, 1.5 to 3 dB is recommended in case of rural and open areas.
For deeper aspects please.
UL/DL: the Effective Isotropic Radiated Power, measured in dBm.
UL/DL: the minimum power, measured in dB, required to maintain a
certain level of service, at the receiver antenna. The calculation method
inside the link budget is described in page 169
UL/DL: Maximum allowable path loss. The weaker value is considered
within the network design process. Explanation on computation is shown in
page 169
UL/DL: called also log-normal margin, measured in dB, added to the path
loss calculation in order to increase the coverage probability at the cell
border to a certain value.
UL/DL: a margin measured in dB, added to the link budget in order to
compensate the signal degradation due to interference. A value of 3 dB is
typical considered. More information on interference margin can be found
in GSM rec. 03.30.
UL/DL: a margin measured in dB, included to reflect the loss especially
experienced if handheld mobiles are used. It is occurring due to partial
field absorption in the human body. Typical values are 3 dB and 4 dB.
Further details are specified in GSM rec. 03.30.
UL/DL: the penetration margin is measured in dB and is given on the
service class basis. Consequently, the penetration margin can be an in-car
or an indoor margin:
In-car margin measured in dB, added due to MS usage in a car.
Typically a loss of 6 to 8 dB is assumed.
Indoor margin measured in dB, added due to MS usage in indoor
environment at ground floor level. Usually, indoor is referred to the
first wall and no statement is given for deep indoor coverage. Its
range varies from 10 to 18 dB.
Deep indoor margin measured in dB, included due to MS usage
deep inside the buildings. Its range varies from 13 to 28 dB.

Slant Polarization Loss
EIRP
Isotropic Power
MAPL
Slow Fading Margin
Interference Margin
Body Loss Margin
Penetration Margin
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2.5 Link Budget Calculation
2.5.3 GSM900/1800 Link Budget
dB 133,0 dB 133,0 Max. Pathloss
dBm -87,0 dBm -104,0 Isotr. Rec. Power:
dB 0,0 Antenna Pre-Ampl.
dB 0,0 dB 0,0 Degradation (no FH)
90,9%
dB 8,0 dB 8,0 Lognormal Margin 50%
dB 3,0 dB 3,0 Interferer Margin
dB 3,0 Diversity Gain
dBi 2,0 dBi 11,0 Antenna Gain
dB 2,0 dB 3,0 Cables, Connectors Loss
dB 4,0 Body/Indoor Loss
dBm -102,0 dBm -104,0 Rec. Sensitivity
Downlink Uplink RX
dBm 46,0 dBm 29,0 EIRP
dBi 11,0 dBi 2,0 Antenna Gain
dB 4,0 Body/Indoor Loss
dB 3,0 dB 2,0 Cable,Connectors Loss
dBm 38,0 dBm 33,0 Output Power
dB 3,0 dB 0,0 Comb+Filter Loss, Tol.
dBm 41,0 dBm 33,0 Internal Power
Downlink Uplink TX
BS to MS MS to BS
GSM900 Link Budget
(Example)
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2.5 Link Budget Calculation
2.5.4 GSM1800 Link Budget
TX Uplink Downlink
Internal Power 33 dBm 45.4 dBm
Comb+Filter Loss - 0 dBm - 5.3 dBm
Output Power 33 dBm 40.1 dBm
Cable+Conn Loss - 2 dB - 3 dBm
Body/Indoor Loss - 4 dB
Antenna Gain + 2 dBi + 11 dBi
EIRP 29.0 dBm 48.1 dBm
RX Uplink Downlink
Rec. Sensitivity - 109 dBm - 102 dBm
Body/Indoor Loss + 4 dB
Cables, Con. Loss + 3 dB + 2 dB
Antenna Gain - 11 dBi - 2 dBi
Diversity Gain - 3 dBi
Interferer Margin + 3 dB + 3 dB
Lognormal Margin + 8 dB + 8 dB
Isotr. Rec. Power - 109 dB - 87 dBm
Max. Pathloss 138 dB 135.1 dB
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2.5 Link Budget Calculation
2.5.5 Additional Losses Overview
Loss type Reason Value
Indoor loss Electrical properties of wall material 20dB (3...30dB)
Incar loss Brass influencing radio waves 7dB (4...10dB)
Body loss Absorption of radio waves by the
human body
3dB (0...8dB)
Interferer margin Both signal-to-noise ratio and C/I low 3 dB
Lognormal margin Receiving the minimum field strength
with a higher probability
According to
probability
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2 Coverage Planning
2.6 Coverage Probability
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2.6 Coverage Probability
2.6.1 Indoor propagation aspects
Penetration Loss
Multiple Refraction
Multiple Reflection
Exact modeling of
indoor environment
not possible
Practical solution:
empirical model!
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2.6 Coverage Probability
2.6.2 Indoor propagation: empirical model
d
Additional Loss in [dB] relative to loss at
vertical incidence
Power relative to power at
d=0

d
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0 6
1
2
1
8
2
4
3
0
3
6
4
2
4
8
5
4
6
0
6
6
7
2
7
8
8
4
9
0
Angle of incidence in degree
A
d
d
i
t
i
o
n
a
l

a
t
t
e
n
u
a
t
i
o
n


i
n

d
B
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2.6 Coverage Probability
2.6.3 Indoor Penetration
Incident wave
Incident wave
L
indoor
= 3 ... 15 dB
L
indoor
= 13 ... 25 dB
L
indoor
= dB (deep basement)
L
indoor
= 17 ... 28 dB
-2.7 dB / floor
(1st ... 10th floor)
-0.3 dB / floor
(11th ... 100th floor)
L
indoor
= 7 ... 18 dB
(ground floor)
Depending on
environment
Line-of-sight to antenna?
Interior unknown
general assumptions
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2.6 Coverage Probability
2.6.4 Body Loss (1)
Measured
attenuation versus
time for a test person
walking
around in an
anechoic chamber
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2.6 Coverage Probability
2.6.5 Body Loss (2)
Head modeled as sphere
Calculation model
Near field of MS antenna
without head
with head
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2.6 Coverage Probability
2.6.6 Body Loss (3)
Indirect measured field
strength penetrated into the
head (horizontal cut)
Test equipment for indirect
field strength measurements
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2.6 Coverage Probability
2.6.7 Interference Margin
In GSM, the defined minimum carrier-to-interferer ration (C/I)
threshold of 9 dB is only valid if the received server signal is not too
weak.
In the case that e.g. the defined system threshold for the BTS of -
111dBm is approached, a higher value of C/I is required in order to
maintain the speech quality.
According to GSM, this is done by taking into account a correction of 3
dB.
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2.6 Coverage Probability
2.6.8 Degradation (no FH)
GSM uses a frame correction system, which works with checksum coding
and convolutional codes.
Under defined conditions, this frame correction works successfully and
copes even with fast fading types as Rayleigh or Rician fading.
For lower mobile speed or stationary use, the fading has a bigger
influence on the bit error rate and hence the speech quality is reduced.
In such a case, a degradation margin must be applied. The margin
depends on the mobile speed and the usage of slow frequency hopping,
which can improve the situation for slow mobiles again.
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2.6 Coverage Probability
2.6.9 Diversity Gain
This designates the optional usage of a second receiver antenna.
The second antenna is placed in a way, which provides some
decorrelation of the received signals.
In a suitable combiner, the signals are processed in order to achieve a
sum signal with a smaller fading variation range.
Depending on the receiver type, the signal correlation, and the antenna
orientation, a diversity gain from 26 dB is possible.
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2.6 Coverage Probability
2.6.10 Lognormal margin
Lognormal margin is also called fading margin
Due to fading effects, the minimum isotropic power is only received with a certain
probability
Signal statistics, lognormal distribution with median power value F
med
and standard deviation
(sigma)
Without any margin, the probability is 50%, which is not a sufficient value in order to
provide a good call success rate.
A typical design goal should be a coverage probability of 90...95%. The following
normalised table can be applied to find fading margins for different values of . The
fading margin is calculated by multiplying the value of k (in the table) with the standard
deviation:
Lognormal / Fadi ng Margi n = k.
k - -0.5 0 1 1.3 1.65 2 2.33 +
Coverage
Probability
0% 30% 50% 84% 90% 95% 97.7
%
99% 100
%
k - -0.5 0 1 1.3 1.65 2 2.33 +
Coverage
Probability
0% 30% 50% 84% 90% 95% 97.7
%
99% 100
%
kk - - -0.5 -0.5 00 11 1.3 1.3 1.65 1.65 22 2.33 2.33 + +
Coverage
Probability
Coverage
Probability
0% 0% 30% 30% 50% 50% 84% 84% 90% 90% 95% 95% 97.7
%
97.7
%
99% 99% 100
%
100
%
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2.6 Coverage Probability
2.6.11 Consideration of Signal Statistics (1)
100 m
1
0
0

m
BS
x
Field strength at location x
lognormally distributed
arround F
median
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2.6 Coverage Probability
2.6.12 Consideration of Signal Statistics (2)
0
0,05
0,1
0,15
0,2
0,25
0,3
received signal level F [dBm]
PDF
Local coverage probability: P
cov
= P [ F > F
threshold
]

F
median
F
threshold
Area representing the
coverage probability
probability density function (pdf)
Fol i e l arge Scal e (sl ow) Fadi ng:
The lognormal distribution, described by a mean fieldstrength F
med
and a standard deviation s, is shown in the
diagram. A coverage probabi l i t y P
cov
can be calculated, which defines the chance that a certain
fieldstrength threshold F
thr
is reached or exceeded by the calculated (or predicted) mean fieldstrength level
F
med
.
The variation of the probability in dependence on F
med
is shown in the diagram. The required difference
between F
med
and F
thr
in order to achieve a required probability is called the f adi ng margi n.
Without any margin, the probability is 50% (Fmedi an), which is not a sufficient value in order to provide a
good call success rate. A typical design goal should be a coverage probability of 90...95%. This can be
reached by applying a factor s (Ft hreshol d). (Additional System margin). -> Next Chapter
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2 Coverage Planning
2.7 Cell Range Calculation
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For what Radius R is the average coverage probability in the cell area
95% ?
2.7 Cell Range Calculation
2.7.1 Calculation of Coverage Radius R
r = distance between BTS and MS
F
rec
= received power
= Standard deviation
F
rec, thr
F
rec
F
rec,med
(r)
0 r

R
R
<P
cov
(R)> =
= 0.95

2
0

R
P
cov
(r) dr !
F
rec,med
(r) = EIRP - Loss
Hata
(r)
Loss
Hata
= f(h
BS
, h
MS
, f, r) + K
mor
P
cov
(r)= P(F
rec
(r) > F
rec,thr
)
R = f (h
BS
, h
MS
, f, K
mor
, EIRP, F
rec,thr
)
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2.7 Cell Range Calculation
2.7.2 Coverage Probability
0
0,5
0,95
1
P
cov
(r)
R
r
P
cov
= P ( F
rec
> F
rec, thr
)
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2.7 Cell Range Calculation
2.7.3 Coverage Ranges and Hata Correction Factors
Area Coverage Probability
70%
75%
80%
85%
90%
95%
100%
0,0 1,5 3,0 4,5 6,0 7,5 9,0 10,5
d [km]
P
c
o
v
155
150
145
140
135
130
125
120
115
110
Ref erence
Pat hloss [ dB]
Calculation conditions:
Correction = 3; Sigma = 7
h
BS
= 30 m; h
MS
= 1.7m; f = 900 Mhz
Clutter type Cor [dB] [dB]
Skyscrapers 0 6
Dense urban 2 6
Medium urban 4 7
Lower urban 6 7
Residential 8 6
Industrial zone 10 10
Forest 8 8
Agricultural 20 6
Low tree density 15 8
Water 27 5
Open area 27 6
The lognormal distribution, described by a mean fieldstrength F
med
and a standard deviation s, is shown in in
the left diagram. A coverage probabi l i t y P
cov
can be calculated, which defines the chance that a certain
fieldstrength threshold F
thr
is reached or exceeded by the calculated (or predicted) mean fieldstrength level
F
med
. This probability is represented by the area enclosed by the graph of the probability density function
and the vertical line at F=F
thr
in the left diagram. The variation of the probability in dependence on F
med
is
shown in the right diagram. The required difference between F
med
and F
thr
in order to achieve a required
probability is called the f adi ng margi n.
Without any margin, the probability is 50%, which is not a sufficient value in order to provide a good call
success rate. A typical design goal should be a coverage probability of 90...95%. The following normalized
table can be applied to find fading margins for different values of s. The fading margin is calculated by
multiplying the value of k (in the table) with the standard deviation (Fading Margin = k s).
k - -0.5 0 1 1.3 1.65 2 2.33 +
Coverage
Probability
0% 30% 50% 84% 90% 95% 97.7% 99% 100%
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2.7 Cell Range Calculation
2.7.4 Conventional BTS Configuration
ALCATEL Evolium
TM
TX 45.4 dBm
RX -109dBm
T
X
T
X

a
n
d

R
X
1 BTS
Omnidirectional antenna for both TX and RX
Coverage Range R
0
Coverage Area A
0
R
0
A
0
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2.7 Cell Range Calculation
2.7.5 Coverage Improvement by Antenna Diversity
ALCATEL Evolium
TM
TX 45.4 dBm
RX -109dBm
T
X
R
X
D
I
V
R
X

a
n
d

T
X
1 BTS
Omnidirectional antennas
one for both RX and TX
one for RX
DIV
Antenna diversity gain (2...6 dB)
Example: 3 dB
Coverage range
R
Div
= 1.23 R
0
Coverage area
A
Div
= 1.5 A
0
R
0
R
Div
A
0
A
Div
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2.7 Cell Range Calculation
2.7.6 Radiation Patterns and Range
3 antennas at sector site,
Gain: 18 dBi, HPBW: 65
Resulting antenna footprint ("cloverleaf")
compared to an 11 dBi omni antenna
omni
sector
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2.7 Cell Range Calculation
2.7.7 Improvement by Antenna Diversity and Sectorization
T
X
R
X
D
I
V
3 BTS
Directional antennas (18 dBi)
Antenna diversity (3 dB)
Max. coverage range
R
sec,div
= 1.95 R
0
Coverage area
A
sec,div
= 3 A
0
ALCATEL
Evolium
TM
ALCATEL
Evolium
TM
ALCATEL
Evolium
TM
R
0
R
sec,div
A
sec,div
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2.7 Cell Range Calculation
2.7.8 Improvement by Antenna Preamplifier
T
X
R
X
D
I
V
3 BTS
Directional antennas (18 dBi)
Antenna diversity (3 dB)
Antenna preamplifier (3dB)
Max. coverage range
R
sec,div,pre
= 2.22 R
0
Coverage area
A
sec,div,pre
= 3.9 A
0
General:
A
sec
= g A
0
g: Area gain factor
R
0
R
sec,div,pre
A
sec,div,pre
ALCATEL
Evolium
TM
ALCATEL
Evolium
TM
ALCATEL
Evolium
TM
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2 Coverage Planning
2.8 Antenna Engineering
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.1 Omni Antennas
Application
Large area coverage
Umbrella cell for micro cell layer
Advantages
Continuous coverage around the site
Simple antenna mounting
Ideal for homogeneous terrain
Drawbacks
No mechanical tilt possible
Clearance of antenna required
Densification of network difficult
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.2 Sector Antenna
Antenna with horizontal HPBW of e.g. 90 or 65
Advantages
Coverage can be focussed on special areas
Low coverage of areas of no interest (e.g. forest)
Allows high traffic load
Additional mechanical downtilt possible
Wall mounting possible
Drawbacks
More frequencies needed per site compared to omni sites
More hardware needed
Lower coverage area per sector
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.3 Typical Applications
Wide horizontal beam width (e.g. 90)
For areas with few reflecting and scattering objects (rural area)
Area coverage for 3-sector sites
Sufficient cell overlap to allow successful handovers
Small horizontal beam width (e.g. 65)
For areas with high scattering (city areas)
Coverage between sectors by scattering and by adjacent sites (mostly
site densification in urban areas)
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.4 Antenna Tilt
Downtilting of the Antenna main beam related to the
horizontal line
Goals:
Reduction of overshoot
Removal of insular coverage
Lowering the interference
Coverage improvement of the near area (indoor coverage)
Adjustment of cell borders (handover zones)
Mechanical / Electrical or Combined downtilt
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.5 Mechanical Downtilt
Advantages
Later adjustment of vertical tilt possible
Antenna diagram is not changed, i.e. nulls and side lobes remain in
their position relative to the main beam
Cost effective (single antenna type may be used)
Fast adjustments possible
Drawbacks
Side lobes are less tilted
Accurate adjustment is difficult
Problems for sites with difficult access
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.6 Electrical Downtilt
Advantages
Same tilt for bot h
main and side lobes
Antenna mounting is more simple no
adjustment errors
Drawbacks
Introduction of additional antenna types necessary
New antenna installation at the site if downtilting is introduced
Long antenna optimization phase
Adjustment of electrical tilt mostly not possible
= 0
= t
= 2 t
= 3 t
= delay time
downtilt angle
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.7 Combined Downtilt
Combination of both mechanical and electrical downtilt
High electrical downtilt: Distinct range reduction in sidelobe direction
(interference reduction)
Less mechanical uptilt in main beam direction
Choose sector antennas with high electrical downtilt (6...8) and
apply mechanical uptilt installation for optimum coverage range in
main beam direction
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.8 Assessment of Required Tilts
Required tilt is estimated using Geomet ri cal Opt i cs
Consideration of
Vertical HPBW of the antenna
Antenna height above ground
Height difference antenna/location to be covered
Morpho-structure in the vicinity of the antenna
Topography between transmitter and receiver location
Tilt must be applied for both TX and RX antennas!
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.9 Inter Site Distance in Urban Area
Using sectorized sites with antennas
of 65 horizontal half power beam
width
The sidelobe is approximately reduced
by 10dB.
This is a reduction of cell range to 50%.
The inter site distance calculation
factor depends on
Type of antenna
Type of morpho class
Multi path propagation
Scattering
Sigma (fading variations)
X
X
A B
0.5* R2
R2
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.10 Downtilt in Urban Area
Cell range R2
M
a
i
n

b
e
a
m
0.5* R2
S
i
d
e

l
o
b
e
Tilt 2 Tilt 2
Site A Site B
Inter Site Distance A-B = 1.5* R2
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.11 Downtilt in Urban Area
The upper limit of the vertical half power beam width
is directed towards the ground at maximum cell range
Upper 3dB point of the vertical antenna pattern
To be used in areas with
Multi path propagation condition
Good scattering of the beam
Aim
Reduction of interference
Optimization
Coverage Optimization in isolated cases using less downtilt
Interference Reduction in isolated cases using more downtilt
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.12 Downtilt in Suburban and Rural Area
Downtilt planning for
Suburban
Rural
Highway Coverage
The main beam is directed towards the ground at maximum cell range
M
a
in
b
e
a
m
M
a
in
b
e
a
m
Cell range R1 Cell range R1
Tilt 1 Tilt 1
Inter Site Distance C-D = 2* R1
Site C Site D
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.13 Antenna configurations
Application of Duplexer
Consists of a TX/RX Filter and a combiner
one antenna can be saved
Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA)
Increase Uplink Sensitivity
TMA needs to have TX bypass
=> in case of duplexer usage
Diversity
Space diversity
Polarization diversity
Rx/Tx
Rx Tx
Duplex
Filter
To BTS
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.14 Antenna Configurations for Omni and Sector Sites
Antenna Configurations for Omni and Sector Sites
Rx Rx
div
Tx
Rx
Tx
Rx
div
Bracons
Sector
antenna
Pole
Sector
Antenna
Pole
Tower mounting for omni antennas
Tower mounting for
directional antennas
Pole mounting for
roof-top mounting
Pole mounting for wall
or parapet mounting
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.15 Three Sector Antenna Configuration with AD
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.16 Antenna Engineering Rules
Distortion of antenna pattern: No obstacles within
Antenna near field range
HPBW Rule plus security margin of 20
First fresnel ellipsoid range (additional losses!)
TX-RX Decoupling to avoid blocking and intermodulation
Required minimum separation of TX - RX antennas dependent on antenna
configuration (e.g. duplexer or not)
Diversity gain
Required antenna separation for space diversity
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.17 Distortion of antenna pattern
Antenna Near Field Range: Rmin = 2D/
D = Aperture of antenna (e.g. 3m)
=> R
min
= 60 / 120m for GSM / DCS
HPBW Rule with securtiy margin of 20 and tilt
Roof Top = Obstacle

= HPBW/2 + 20 +
D
H
D[m] 1 5 10
H[m] 0.5 2.5 5
HPBW = 8, = 2
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.18 Tx-Rx Decoupling (1)
TX
RX
fuse
fint
f[MHz]
P [dBm]
fuse fint
-101
-13
n*200kHz
Pout
Pin
Receiver
Characteristic
Pblock
P1dB
Out of Band Blocking Requirement (GSM Rec. 11.21)
GSM 900 = +8 dBm
GSM 1800 = 0 dBm
Required Decoupling (n = number of transmitters)
TX-TX = 20 dB
TX-RX GSM = 30 + 10 log (n) dB
TX-RX DCS = 40 + 10 log (n) dB
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.19 TX-RX Decoupling (2)
Horizontal separation (Approximation)
I
H
=22+20log(d
H
/)-(G
T
+G
R
) [dB]
d
H
Isolation for Horizontal Separation - omni 11dBi
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
1
,
7
2
,
7
3
,
7
4
,
7
5
,
7
6
,
7
7
,
7
8
,
7
9
,
7
1
0
,
4
1
0
,
8
1
1
,
2
1
1
,
6
1
2
1
2
,
4
1
2
,
8
1
3
,
2
1
3
,
6
1
4
1
4
,
4
1
4
,
8
1
5
,
2
Separation [m]
I
s
o
l
a
t
i
o
n

[
d
B
]
GSM1800
GSM900
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.20 TX-RX Decoupling (3)
Vertical separation (Approximation)
I
V
=28+40log(d
V
/) [dB]
d
v
d
m
Mast
Isolation for Vertical Separation
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1
Separation [m]
I
s
o
l
a
t
i
o
n

[
d
B
]
GSM1800
GSM900
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Required separation for max. diversity gain = F()
2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.21 Space Diversity
d
H
RXA RXB
d
V
RXA
RXB
For a sufficient low correlation coefficient < 0.7:
d
H
= 20 => GSM 900: 6m / GSM1800: 3m
d
V
= 15 => GSM 900: 4.5m / GSM1800: 2.25m
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.22 Power Divider
Power dividers connect several
antennas to one feeder cable
For combination of individual
antenna patterns for a
requested configuration
Quasi-omni configuration
Bidirectional configuration
(road coverage)
4-to-1 Power splitter
(6 dB loss)
To BTS:
Receiver input
To BTS: Duplexer output
(TX plus RX diversity)
Quasi-Omni
Configuration
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4 Power divider
Also called "power splitter" or "junction box"
Passive device (works in both (transmit and receive)
direction)
3 dB
P
in
P
in
2
P
in
2
P
in
3
4.5 dB
P
in
P
in
3
P
in
3
6 dB
P
in
P
in
4
P
in
4
P
in
4
P
in
4
2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.23 Power Divider
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.24 Panel Configurations (1)
Radial Arrangement
of 6 Panel Antennas with horizontal beamwidth = 105
gain = 16.5 dBi, mast radius = 0.425 m, mounting radius =
0.575 m
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.25 Panel Configurations (2)
Example 2: Quasi Omni Arrangement
of 3 antennas with horizontal beamwidth = 105 , gain =13.5
dBi,
mounting radius = 4 m
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.26 Panel Configurations (3)
Example 3: Skrew Arrangement
of 4 Panel Antennas with horizontal beamwidth =
65 ,
gain = 12.5 dBi, mast radius = 1 m,
mounting radius = 1.615 m
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.27 Feeders
Technical summary
Inner conductor: Copper wire
Dielectric: Low density
foam PE
Outer conductor: Corrugated
copper tube
Jacket: Polyethylene (PE)
black
Inner conductor Outer conductor
Dielectric Jacket
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.28 Feeder Installation Set and Connectors
1 Cable Clamps
2 Antenna Cable
3 Double Bearing
4 Counterpart
5 Anchor tape
7/16 Connector:
Coaxial Connector
Robust
Good RF-Performance
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Type Minimum bending radius Jacket
(outer diameter)
Weight (m) Recommended
clamp spacing
Single bending Repeated bending
LCF 1/2 70 mm 210 mm 16 mm 0.35 kg 0.6 m
LCF 7/8 120 mm 360 mm 28 mm 0.62 kg 0.8 m
LCF 1 5/8 300 mm 900 mm 49.7 mm 1.5 kg 1.2 m
These values are based on feeder types with an impedance of 50 ohms
GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900
Type Attenuation
/100 m [dB]
Recommended
max length [m]
Attenuation
/100 m [dB]
Recommended
max length [m]
Attenuation
/100 m [dB]
Recommended
max length [m]
LCF 1/2 6.6 45 10.3 30 10.6 28
LCF 7/8 4.0 75 6.0 50 6.3 47
LCF 1_5/8 2.6 115 4.0 75 4.2 71
2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.29 Feeder Parameters
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.30 Feeder attenuation (1)
Main contribution is given by feeder loss
Feeder Cable 4dB/100m => length 50m Loss =2.0dB
Jumper Cable 0.066dB/1m => 5m Loss =0.33dB
Insertion Loss of connector and power splitter < 0.1dB
Total Loss 2.0dB+2x0.33dB+5x0.1dB+0.1dB =3.26dB
Cable type is trade off between
Handling flexibility
Cost
Attenuation
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.31 Radiating Cables
4 Provide coverage in Tunnels, buildings, along side tracks or lines
4 Principle: Radiate a weak but constant electromagnetic wave
4 Suitable for coverage over longer distances (Repeater)
4 Fieldstrength distribution more constant as with antennas
F
FThr
Repeater
F
FThr
Terminat-
ing Load
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4 Components are shown with black lines
BTS
Tx
Rx
Radiating cable
Termination load
Earthing kit
Mounting clips
with 50 mm wall standoff
N-connections
Jumper cabel
1-leg radiating cable
system
2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.32 Components of a radiating cable system
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-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
-110
[dBm]
Cable attenuation
between the antennas
Radiating cable field
strength
Antenna field strength
Distance
2.8.33 Comparison of field strength: Radiating cable and
standard antenna
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4 Example of a
radiating cable
in a tunnel
2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.34 Example of a radiating cable in a tunnel
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.35 Microwave antennas, feeders and accessories
Microwave point to point systems use highly directional antennas
Gain
with G = gain over isotropic, in dBi
A = area of antenna aperture
e = antenna efficiency
4 Used antenna types
parabolic antenna
high performance antenna
horn lens antenna
horn antenna
G
A e
= 10
4
2
lg

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Parabolic dish, illuminated by a feed horn at its focus.
Available in a wide variety of sizes [1 (0.3 m), 2 (0.6 m), 4 (1.2 m), 6 (1.8 m), 8 (2.4 m), 10 (3.0 m)
and sometimes up to 16 (4.8 m) in most frequency bands.
Sizes over 4 are seldom used due to the installation restrictions on private buildings
Mostly with single plane polarised feed, which can be either vertical (V) or horizontal (H)
Dual polarized feeds (DP), with separate V and H connections possible
DP`s usually have lower gain than single polarized antennas
Front-to-back ratios of about 45 dB are not high enough to use these antennas back-to-back on the same
frequency (interference calculations)
Antenna patterns are absolutely necessary for interference calculations
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.36 Parabolic antenna
Parabolic dish, illuminated by a feed
horn at its focus
Available sizes: 1 (0.3 m) up to 16
(4.8 m)
Sizes over 4 seldom used due to
installation restrictions
Single plane polarized feed vertical (V)
or horizontal (H)
Also: dual polarized feeder (DP), with
separate V and H connections (lower
gain)
Front-to-back ratios of 45 dB not high
enough for back-to-back configuration
on the same frequency
Antenna patterns are absolutely
necessary for interference calculations
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Similar to the common parabolic antenna, except for an attached cylindrical shield
Improvement of the front-to-back ratio, and wide angle radiation discrimination
Available in the same sizes as parabolic ones, either single or double polarised
Substantially bigger, heavier, and more expensive than the ordinary parabolics
Allow back-to-back transmision at the same frequency in both directions (refer to interference
calculation)
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.37 High performance antenna
Similar to common parabolic antenna,
except for attached cylindrical shield
Improvement of front-to-back ratio and
wide angle radiation discrimination
Available in same sizes as parabolic,
single or dual polarized
Substantially bigger, heavier, and more
expensive than parabolic antennas
Allow back-to-back transmission at the
same frequency in both directions
(refer to interference calculation)
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Horn l ens ant enna
Only available for very high frequencies (above 25 Ghz)
Replacement for small parabolic antennas (1)
Electrical data nearly the same, but easier to install due to their size and weight
Horn ref l ect or ant enna
Consists of a very large parabola, mounted at such an angle that the energy from the feed horn is
reflected at right angle (90)
Gain in the region of a 10 parabolic antenna (60 dBi), but it has much higher front-to-back ratios ( 70 dB
or more)
Very big, heavy and requires a complex installation procedure
Only used on high capacity microwave backbones (example: MSC-MSC interconnections).
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.38 Horn antennas
Horn lens antenna
For very high frequencies > 25 GHz
Replacement for small parabolic
antennas (1)
Same electrical data, but easier to
install due to size and weight
Horn reflector antenna
Large parabola, energy from the feed
horn is reflected at right angle (90)
Gain like 10 parabolic antenna (60
dBi), but higher front-to-back ratios >
70 dB
Big and heavy, requires a complex installation procedure
Only used on high capacity microwave backbones (e.g. MSC-MSC interconnections)
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.39 Specific Microwave Antenna Parameters (1)
Cross polarization discrimination (XPD)
highest level of cross polarisation radiation relative to the main
beam; should be > 30 dB for parabolic antennas
Inter-port isolation
isolation between the two ports of dual polarised antennas;
typical value: better than 35 dB
Return loss (VSWR)
Quality value for the adaption of antenna impedance to the
impedance of the connection cable
Return loss is the ratio of the reflected power to the power fed at
the antenna input (typical> 20 dB)
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Radiation pattern envelope (RPE)
Tolerance specification for antenna pattern (specification of antenna
pattern itself not suitable due to manufacturing problems)
Usually available from manufacturer in vertical and horizontal
polarisation (worst values of several measurements)
Weight
Wind load
2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.40 Specific Microwave Antenna Parameters (2)
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.41 Data sheet 15 GHz
Parabolic antenna 15 GHz High performance antenna 15 GHz
Bandwidth (GHz) 14.4 - 15.35 14.4 - 15.35 14.4 - 15.35
Model number PA2 - 144 PA4 - 144 PA6 - 144
Nominal diameter (m) 0.6 1.2 1.8
(ft) 2 4 6
Half-power beamwidth (deg) 2.3 1.2 0.8
Gain low band (dBi) 36.2 42.3 45.8
Gain mid band (dBi) 36.5 42.5 46.0
Gain high band (dBi) 36.7 42.8 46.3
Front-to-back ratio (dB) 42 48 52
Cross polar discrimination (dB) 28 30 30
Return loss (dB) 26 26 28
Weight (kg) 19 43 73
Windload
Elevation adjustment (deg) +/- 5 +/- 5 +/- 5
Bandwidth (GHz) 14.4- 15.35 14.4- 15.35 14.4- 15.35
Model number DA2- 144 DA4- 144 DA6- 144
Nominal diameter (m) 0.6 1.2 1.8
(ft) 2 4 6
Half-power beamwidth (deg) 2.3 1.2 0.8
Gain low band (dBi) 36.2 42.3 45.8
Gain mid band (dBi) 36.5 42.5 46.0
Gain highband (dBi) 36.7 42.8 46.3
Front-to-backratio (dB) 65 68 68
Cross polar discrimination (dB) 28 30 30
Returnloss (dB) 26 26 26
Weight (kg) 28 55 130
Windload
Elevationadjustment (deg) +/- 12 +/- 12 +/- 12
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.42 Radiation pattern envelope
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Depending on the frequency coaxial cables and waveguides are used for the transmission of RF energy
between radio systems and antennas. The most important characteristic of feeders is their loss, but also
their impedance (return loss).
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.43 Feeders (1)
Coaxial cables or waveguides (according to frequency)
Most important characteristic: loss and return loss
Coaxial cables
Used between 10 MHz and 3 GHz
Dielectric material: foam or air
Parameters of common coaxial cables:
type dielectric diameter
(mm)
loss
(dB/100m)
power
rating (kW)
bending
radius (mm)
LCF 1/2 CU2Y foam 16.0 10,9 / 2 GHz 0.47 200
13.8 / 3 GHz
LCF 7/8 CU2Y foam 28.0 6.5 / 2 GHz 0.95 360
8.5 / 3 GHz
LCF 1 5/8 CU2Y foam 49.7 4.4 / 2 GHz 1.7 380
5.6 / 3 GHz
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.44 Feeders (2)
Waveguides
Used for frequency bands above 2.5 GHz
Three basic types available: circular, elliptical and rectangular
Rigid circular waveguide
Very low loss
Supports two orthogonal polarisations
Capable to carry more than one frequency band
Usually, short components of this type are used
Disadvantages: cost, handling and moding problems
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.45 Feeders (3)
Elliptical semiflexible waveguides
Acceptable loss, good VSWR performance
Low cost and easy to install
Various types optimised for many frequency bands up to 23 GHz
Used for longer distances (easy and flexible installation)
Can be installed as a "single run" (no intermediate flanges)
type loss /100 m Frequency
EW 34 2.0 4 GHz
EW 52 4.0 6GHz
EW 77 5.8 8GHz
EW 90 10.0 11 GHz
EW 220 28.0 23 GHz
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.46 Feeders (4)
Solid and flexible rectangular waveguides
Solid rectangular waveguides
Combination of low VSWR and low loss
High cost and difficult to install
Used for realising couplers, combiners, filters
type loss /100 m Frequency
WR 229 2.8 4 GHz
WR159 4.5 6GHz
WR112 8.5 8GHz
WR 90 11.7 11 GHz
WR 75 15.0 13 GHz
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.47 Feeders (5)
Flexible rectangular waveguides
Worse VSWR and losses than for solid waveguides
Often used in short lengths (<1 m), where position between connection
points depends on actual installation place
Common applications: connection of microwave system to antenna
(close together on rooftops or towers) for frequencies >13 Ghz
type loss / m Frequency
PDR140 0.5 15GHz
PDR180 1 18 GHz
PDR220 2 23 GHz
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.48 Antenna feeder systems (1)
Direct radiating system
Most commonly used for frequencies up
to 13 Ghz
Depending on accepted feeder
loss/length, higher frequencies may be
possible
Excessive attenuation and costs in long
runs of wave guide
Occurence of echo distortion due to
mismatch in long runs of waveguide
possible
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.49 Antenna feeder systems (2)
Periscope antenna system
Used for
considerable antenna heights
waveguide installation problems
Negligible wave guide cost and easy
installation
System gain is a function of antenna and
reflector size, distance and frequency
Used above 4 GHz , because reflector size
is prohibitive for lower frequencies
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2.8 Antenna Engineering
2.8.50 Antenna feeder systems (3)
Combined antenna with transceiver
Antenna and transceiver are combined as a
single unit to cut out wave guide loss (higher
frequencies)
Units are mounted on top of a mast and
connected to multiplex equipment via cable
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2 Coverage Planning
2.9 Alcatel BSS
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.1 Architecture of BTS - Evolium Evolution A9100
3 levels

Antenna
coupling level
TRX level
BCF level
Station unit module
Abis interface
Abbreviations
BCF Base station Control Function
TRX Transceiver
Antenna network stage
ANC
Air interface
Combiner stage (ANY) Combiner stage (ANY)
TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX
TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX
Antenna network stage
ANC or ANB (note)

Note 1 : ANB module is limited to 2 TRX in No TX Div mode and to 1 TRX in TX Div mode.
Ant enna coupl i ng l evel
The general functions performed at this level are:
- Duplexing transmit and receive paths onto common antennas;
- Feeding the received signals from the antenna to the receiver front end, where the signals are amplified and
distributed to the different receivers (Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) and power splitter functions);
- Providing filtering for the transmit and the receive paths;
- Combining, if necessary, output signals of different transmitters and connecting them to the antenna(s);
- Supervising antennas VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio).
-Powering and supervising TMA through the feeder.
The Ant enna Net work Combi ner (ANC) modul e
- one duplexer allowing a single antenna to be used for the transmission and reception of both downlink and
uplink channels- hence minimizing the number of antenna
- a frequency selective VSWR meter to monitor antenna feeder and antenna
- one LNA amplifying the receive RF signal, and giving good VSWR values, noise compression and good
reliability
- two splitter levels distributing the received signal to four separate outputs so that each output receives the
signal from its dedicated antenna and from the second one (diversity)
- one Wide Band Combiner (WBC), concentrating two transmitter outputs into one, only for configurations
with more than two TRX
- insertion of 12V DC current in the feeder in order to provide power to TMAs when TMAs are used; there is
thus no need for separate Power Distribution Unit (PDU) nor Bias-Tee (Feeder Lightning protections, that come
with the ANC in case of outdoor BTSs, are themselves of a new type, compatible with this DC power feeding)
(This function is only available with the new Evolution version of this module; it can be disabled, even if TMAs
are used, in case those TMAs have their own PDUs).
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.2 EVOLIUM
TM
A9100 Base Station (1)
The Antenna network Combiner (ANc)- no-combining mode

Antenna A
TXA - RXA - RXdivB
Splitter WBC
TRX 1
TX RXn RXd
TRX 2
TX RXn RXd
Splitter
Splitter
LNA
Duplexer
Filter Filter
Splitter Splitter WBC
Antenna B
TXB- RXB - RXdivA
Duplexer
Filter Filter
Splitter
LNA
By-pass function
By-pass function
No-combining mode & No TX Div mode
The No-combi ni ng mode for configuration up to 2 TRX if TX Diversity is not used, or up to one TRX if TX
Diversity is used (two TRX ports must then be connected to the two Antenna Connector ports
of a same Twin TRX module); in these cases, the Wide Band Combiner is not needed, and therefore
bypassed
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.3 EVOLIUM
TM
A9100 Base Station (2)
The Antenna network Combiner (ANc)- Combining mode & No TX Div
mode

Antenna A
TXA - RXA - RXdivB
Splitter WBC
TRX 1
TX RXn RXd
TRX 4
TX RXn RXd
Splitter
Splitter
LNA
Duplexer
Filter Filter
Splitter Splitter WBC
Antenna B
TXB- RXB - RXdivA
Duplexer
Filter Filter
Splitter
LNA
TRX 2
TX RXn RXd
TRX 3
TX RXn RXd
The Combi ni ng mode for configuration from 3 up to 4 TRX if TX Diversity is not used, or up to 2 TRX if TX
Diversity is used (two TRX ports must then be connected to the two Antenna Connector ports
of a same Twin TRX module); in these cases, the Wide Band combiner is not bypassed, as shown in
the figure
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.4 EVOLIUM
TM
A9100 Base Station (3)
ANy: Twin Wide Band Combiner Stage
Splitter Splitter WBC Splitter Splitter WBC
TX
A
RX
A
RX
Adiv
TX RX RX
div
TRX 1
TX RX RX
div
TRX 2
Rx
div
RX TX
TRX 4
Rx
div
RX TX
TRX 3
RX
Bdiv
RX
B
TX
B
4The Twin Wide Band Combiner stage (ANY) combines up to four transmitters into two
outputs, and distributes the two received signals up to four receivers. This module includes
twice the same structure, each structure containing:
one wide band combiner (WBC), concentrating two transmitter outputs into one
two splitters, each one distributing the received signal to two separate outputs
providing diversity and non-diversity path
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.5 EVOLIUM
TM
BTS Features
Standard Features according to GSM
DR (Dual Rate), EFR (Enhanced Full Rate coder), AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate) requires
that the BSS software release and the other network elements also support these
codecs
HW supports GSM 850, E-GSM, GSM 900, GSM 1800 and GSM 1900 bands
Multi Band Capabilities (supporting of 850/1800 TRX, 850/1900TRX, and, 900 /1800
can be located in the same cabinet)
All known A5 algorithms to be supported; HW provisions done
Standard Features due to new Architecture and new SW Releases
SUS (Station Unit Sharing)
Only one central control unit (SUM) for all BTS per cabinet
Multiband BTS (GSM 900/1800) in one cabinet
Static (Release 4) and statistical (Release 6) submultiplexing on Abis
O Better use of Abis-interface capacity: More BTS/TRX to be supported in a multidrop loop
Introduction of GPRS and HSCSD without HW changes
EDGE compatible TRX
The BTS range supports A5/1 and A5/2 ciphering algorithms;
A5/0 = no ciphering is always supported.
The TRX are hardware ready for A5/3.
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.6 EVOLIUM
TM
BTS Features [cont.]
Feat ures speci f i c t o Radi o Perf ormance
TX Out put Power (at TRX output)
RX Sensi t i vi t y: -111 dBm certified
(GSM|ETSI| request: -104 dBm)
Synt hesi zed Frequency Hoppi ng as general sol ut i on
Standard RF hopping mode
Pseudo baseband RF hopping mode
Ant enna Di versi t y i n general
Two or four antennas (RX) per sector
TX Diversity feature is possible with Twin TRX module in coverage mode only.
Dupl exer (TX and RX on one ant enna) as general solution
Mul t i band capabi l i t i es
Thanks to the high flexibility of the EVOLIUM A9100 Base Station, GSM 850 and GSM 1800 TRXs or
GSM 850 and GSM 1900 TRXs or GSM 900 and GSM 1800 TRXs or GSM 900 and GSM 1900 TRXs can be
located in the same cabinet with a single Station Unit Module (SUM).
25 W = 44.0 dBm 45 W = 46.5 dBm GSM 1900
30 W = 44.8 dBm 60 W = 47.8 dBm GSM 1800 HP
30 W = 44.8 dBm 35 W = 45.4 dBm GSM 1800 MP (*)
30 W = 44.8 dBm 60 W = 47.8 dBm GSM 900 HP
30 W = 44.8 dBm 45 W = 46.5 dBm GSM 900 MP (*)
15 W = 41.8 dBm 45 W = 46.5 dBm GSM 850
TX output power, 8-PSK (EDGE) TX output power, GMSK Frequency band
(*) Note that for the Twin TRX, the TX output powers above are in capacity mode, i.e. each of the functional
TRX achieves these output powers. In coverage mode, i.e. with Tx Diversity, a significant extra gain has to
be considered (see "TX Diversity" chapter) thanks to on-air combining and diversity.
The diagram below shows that 4RX Diversity requires two Antenna Network modules per sector, thereby
needing either 4 vertical-polarized or 2 cross-polarized antennas.

Antenna Network Antenna Network
TX1
RX1
TX2
RX3

RX2
0

RX4
TWIN
TRX
Figure : Twin TRX module in TX Div & 4 RX div
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.6 EVOLIUM
TM
BTS Features [cont.]
4 Capacity Mode Principle
1 TWIN module = 2 functional TRX
1 Housing = 2 functional TRX = 16 radio timeslots
Same Radio Performances as EDGE + TRX Medium
Power
Reduced Power Consumption
Tx : GSM 900 : 45 W GMSK / 30 W 8PSK
GSM 1800 : 35 W GMSK / 30 W 8PSK
Rx : Sensitivity < -114 dBm
(-114 to -117 dBm with 2 Rx diversity environment dependent)
Tx : GSM 900 : 45 W GMSK / 30 W 8PSK
GSM 1800 : 35 W GMSK / 30 W 8PSK
Rx : Sensitivity < -114 dBm
(-114 to -117 dBm with 2 Rx diversity environment dependent)
Saving per TRX (vs. TRX EDGE+):
- 17 % in GSM 900
- 35 % in GSM 1800
Saving per TRX (vs. TRX EDGE+):
- 17 % in GSM 900
- 35 % in GSM 1800
2 TRXs can belong
to different sectors
TRX
1
TRX
2
T
R
X
TRX
TRX
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Rx : Equ. sensitivity = -117.4 to - 121 dBm (*) (4RX div)
(*) environment dependent)
Rx : Equ. sensitivity = -117.4 to - 121 dBm (*) (4RX div)
(*) environment dependent)
4 Coverage Mode Principle
1 TWIN module = 1 functional TRX = 8 radio TS
2 RX & 4 RX diversity possible
TX diversity used ( very high coverage)
Gain in sites (less sites needed)
This mode is also called TX div mode
Up to 12 TRX in MBI5/MBO2 cabinets
Tx : GSM 900 : 113 to 175 W (*) GMSK
GSM 1800 : 88 to 136 W (*) GMSK
Tx : GSM 900 : 113 to 175 W (*) GMSK
GSM 1800 : 88 to 136 W (*) GMSK
Higher Output Power
Higher Sensitivity
2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.6 EVOLIUM
TM
BTS Features [cont.]
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.6 EVOLIUM
TM
BTS Features [cont.]
4 2 RX Di versi t y
The TRX module supports enhanced diversity combining in all frequency
bands, which is based on several algorithms:
A beam-f ormi ng algorithm to improve the received signal by steering a beam
in the direction of the mobile. This is one way of doing smart antennas,
An algorithm to reduce i nt erf erence: this mitigates the influence of
interferers by steering a null beam in the direction of the main interferer
(the phase difference between the two antennas for the strongest interfering
signal is estimated and then this interfering signal is strongly attenuated by
summing the signals with an inversed phase).
-114.5dBm 3.5 dB Rural (RA100)
-116dBm 5 dB Sub Urban (TU50)
-117dBm 6 dB Dense Urban (TU3)
Equivalent RX sensitivity (without TMA) Total 2RX
diversity gain
Environment
User
strong
interferer
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.6 EVOLIUM
TM
BTS Features [cont.]
4 4 RX Di versi t y
4 RX diversity is supported by the Twin TRX module in coverage mode only. It uses exactly the same
algorithms as for 2Rx diversity, i.e. beam-forming techniques are implemented. The table below
provides the typical gains achieved thanks to 4RX enhanced Diversity and the equivalent Rx
sensitivity that can be considered for link budget calculations.
4 RX diversity also provides significant benefits for GPRS/EDGE since it allows achieving higher
throughputs for given radio conditions.
-117.4dBm 6.4 dB Rural (RA100)
-119.6dBm 8.6 dB Sub Urban (TU50)
-121dBm 10 dB Dense Urban (TU3)
Equivalent RX sensitivity (without TMA) Total 4RX
diversity gain
Environment
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.7 Generic Configurations for A9100 G4/5 BTS
The configurations for indoor (MBI) and outdoor (MBO) cabinet are
presented in the next slides
larger configurations with more than one cabinet can be derived from
the tables
configurations are valid for EDGE capable TRX (Evolution step 2)
availability of multiband configurations other than GSM 900 / GSM 1800
must be checked with product management (authorization required)
Notation:
BBU - Battery Backup Unit
BATS - Small Battery Backup
LBBU - Large Battery Backup Unit

TWIN
TRX
TWIN
TRX
A
N
Y
TWIN
TRX
TWIN
TRX
A
N
Y
TWIN
TRX
TWIN
TRX
A
N
Y
TWIN
TRX
TWIN
TRX
A
N
Y
A
N
C
TWIN
TRX
TWIN
TRX
A
N
Y
A
N
C
TWIN
TRX
TWIN
TRX
A
N
Y
A
N
C
S
U
M
Mounting Frame
for 19" equipment (3U)
A//DC conversion
A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e

s
p
a
c
e

f
o
r

e
i
t
h
e
r
:


M
o
u
n
t
i
n
g

F
r
a
m
e











f
o
r

1
9
"

e
q
u
i
p
m
e
n
t

(
6
U
)


B
a
t
t
e
r
y

A
v
a
i
l
a
b
l
e

s
p
a
c
e

f
o
r

e
i
t
h
e
r
:


M
o
u
n
t
i
n
g

F
r
a
m
e











f
o
r

1
9
"

e
q
u
i
p
m
e
n
t

(
6
U
)


B
a
t
t
e
r
y


Stand
TWIN
TRX
TWIN
TRX
TWIN
TRX
TWIN
TRX
TWIN
TRX
TWIN
TRX
TWIN
TRX
TWIN
TRX
A
N
C
TWIN
TRX
TWIN
TRX
A
N
Y
A
N
Y
A
N
C
TWIN
TRX
TWIN
TRX
A
N
Y
A
N
Y
A
N
C
A
N
Y
A
N
Y
S
U
M
Indoor MBI5 3x8
Outdoor MBO2 3x8
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.8 Non multi-band configurations
900/1800
(2)
2 2 2 2 2 1 3 Low loss TX div & 4 RX div
900/1800
(2)
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 Low loss TX div & 4 RX div
900/1800
(2)
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 Low loss TX div & 4 RX div
900/1800
(2)
2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 Standard TX div & 2 RX div
900/1800
(2)
4 2 1 1 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 1 2 Standard TX div & 2 RX div
900/1800
(2)
4 4 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 Standard TX div & 2 RX div
900/1800
(2)
8 8 6 6 4 3 3 Low-loss no TX div
900/1800
(2)
12 6 12 10 10 8 6 4 3 3 2 Low-loss no TX div
900/1800
(2)
16 12 6 4 16 16 16 16 12 10 8 3 1 Low-loss no TX div
900/1800
(2)
* No BU5
** MBO1 Evo. only
6 2** 6 4 4 4 2 2 1 4 Standard
(3)
no TX div
900/1800
(2)
* No BU5 8 4 2 1* 8 6 4 4 4 2 2 1 3 Standard
(3)
no TX div
900/1800
(2)
8 6 3 2 8 8 8 8 6 4 4 1 2 Standard
(3)
no TX div
900/1800
(2)
8 8 6 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 1 1 Standard
(3)
no TX div
Other BU5 BU90 other BU5
DC AC DC AC AC AC DC AC AC
bands MBO2
Evolut
ion
MBO1
Evolut
ion
CBO MBI5 (Note 4) MBI3 per sect.
Frequency Notes Max TRX per sector Min TRX Sectors
Note 1: "AC other" is referring to the Indoor AC configurations without integrated battery, i.e. either with no battery, or with batteries in an external cabinet.
Note 2: Frequency bands: new modules are available initially in GSM 900 and GSM 1800 frequency band; they will be available in a second step in GSM 850 and GSM 1900, on
market request.
Note 3: As described in chapter "Standard configurations" above, "Standard" is referring to configurations with 1 Antenna Network per sector, and are thus limited to 8 TRXs per
sector. Configurations with more than 8 TRXs per sector need two Antenna Networks per sector; such configurations are called "Low-loss" and described in a separate section of the
table.
Note 4: With MBI5, more than 18 TRX per cabinet is only possible with DC cabinets (and using TWIN modules) and more precisely with functional variant 3BK 25965 ABxx of these
cabinets, that has become since end 2006 the standard delivery; MBI5 with functional variant 3BK 25965 AAxx, are limited to 18 TRX (using TWIN modules); functional variant of a
cabinet can be checked either on site (on printed Barcode label, or available through Line Maintenance Terminal), or from the OMC-R where it is part of the Remote Inventory data.
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.9 Multi-band configurations
900/1800
(2)
4/4 4/4 2/2 2/2 2/2 1/1 3 Standard no TX div
900/1800
(2)
6/6 2/2 6/6 4/4 4/4 4/4 1/1 2 Standard no TX div
900/1800
(2)
12/12 6/6 4/2 2/2 12/12 8/8 8/8 8/8 6/6 2/2 2/2 1/1 1 Standard no TX div
Other BU5 BU90
othe
r
BU5
DC AC DC AC AC AC DC AC AC
bands
MBO2
Evolution
MBO1
Evolution
CBO MBI5 (Note 4) MBI3
per sect.
band1/
band2
(3)
Frequency Notes Max TRX per sector (band 1/ band 2) Min TRX Sectors
Note 1: "AC other" is referring to the Indoor AC configurations without integrated battery, i.e. either with no battery, or with batteries in an external cabinet.
Note 2: Frequency bands: new modules are available initially in GSM 900 and GSM 1800 frequency band; they will be available in a second step in GSM 850 and
GSM 1900, on market request.
Note 3: Count of sectors is made with hypothese of multiband cell, i.e. that each sector contains one cell in band1 and one cell in band2, these two cells being paired
as a single "multiband cell", counted as one sector.
In multiband "without multiband cell", a same configurations would be counted as having twice the number of sectors.
The table above thus describes at the same time
- possible configurations for multiband "with multiband cell"
- those configurations for multiband "without multiband cell" that have the same number of sectors in each band
Note 4: With MBI5, more than 18 TRX per cabinet is only possible with DC cabinets (and using Twin TRX modules) and more precisely with functional variant 3BK
25965 ABxx of these cabinets, that has become since end 2006 the standard delivery; MBI5 with functional variant 3BK 25965 AAxx, are limited to 18 TRX (using Twin
TRX modules); functional variant of a cabinet can be checked either on site (on printed Barcode label, or available through Line Maintenance Terminal), or from the OMC-R
where it is part of the Remote Inventory data.
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.10 Extended cell configurations
900 MBI3; MBO1 Evolution 4 4 1 1
900 MBI5; MBO2 evolution 8 8 1 1
Outer Inner Outer Inner
Frequency
band
Type of cabinet of TRX Max. number of TRX Min.
Number
Extended Cell configurations
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.11 Standard configurations

1 up to2TRX/ sector
No-combining
ANC or ANB
Antenna Antenna
TRX 1 TRX 2
3 up to 4TRX/ sector
Antenna Antenna
TRX 1 TRX 4
Combining
ANC
5 up to 6TRX/ sector 5 up to 8RX/sector
TRX 1TRX 2
Combining
ANC
Antenna Antenna
TRX 3 TRX 6
Combiner (ANY)
TRX 1 TRX 4
Combining
ANC
Antenna Antenna
TRX 5 TRX 8
Combiner (ANY) Combiner (ANY)
4 The interface with the antenna system is through one single Antenna network
combining (ANC) module in each sector (and then through 2 feeders and two
antennas or one dual-polarized antenna).
Standard configurations with Twin TRX in No TX Div
4 The number of sectors and TRXs depends on the cabinet type, with a maximum of 6
sectors and 24 TRXs in a Indoor MBI5 ("AB" functional variant) or an Outdoor
MBO2 evolution cabinet.
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.12 TRX Types
44,8 30W 45,4 35W 1800 TGT18
44,8 30W 46,5 45W 900 TGT09
44,8 30W 46,8 60W HP 1800 TADHE
44,0 25W 47,7 60W HP 1800 TADH
47,7 60W HP 1800 TRDH
40,0 25W 46,5 45W MP 1900 TRAP
44,8 30W 45,4 35W MP 1800 TRADE
40,8 12W 45,4 35W MP 1800 TRAD
41,8 30W 47,8 60W HP 900 TAGHE
44,0 25W 47,7 60W HP 900 TAGH
44,8 30W 46,5 45W MP 900 TRAGE
41,8 15W 46,5 45W MP 900 TRAG
41,8 15W 46,5 45W MP 850 TRAL
dBm W dBm W
8PSK GMSK POWER BAND NAME
Example of TRE boards with their frequency band and power characteristics
GMSK Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
8PSK 8 phase shift keying
TGT Twin GSM Tranceiver
Different Transceivers are used depending on the band : 900, 1800, 1900 (in America) and 850MHz (this new
band has been introduced in the Release 1999 of the 3GPP Standard).
The list above is not exhaustive.
A new Tx Rx hardware module gives the possibility to have per Hardware module transmission receiption
function. In this case the module is called Twi n TRX
For exampl e
In the MBI5 rack, the number of hardware module is 12 maximum, but if all are Twin TRX the maximum
number of Transmi t t er f unct i ons wi l l be 24. (TRE G5)
The new Twin TRX (TGT) gives also the possibility to provide TX di versi t y
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.12 TRX Types
The losses between TRE connector and the Antenna connector
Configuration Transmission loss (dB)
1 ANC without bridges 1.8
1 ANC 5.1
1 ANC + 1 ANY 8.6
1 ANX 1.8
1 ANX / 1 ANY 5.3
1 ANX + 2 ANY 8.8
delta ANY 3.5

Module Transmission loss (dB)
ANC 4.4
ANC no bridge 1
ANX 1
ANY 3.3
Radio cables
TRE-AN
AN-AN
AN-Antenna

0.3
0.2
0.5

Losses due to the Antenna Network (AN)
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.13 BTS Output Power
What is monitored during validation is the BTS output power at antenna
connector
The individual losses for duplexer, combiner and internal cabling are
not systematically measured
for detailed info consult the BTS product description
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.14 Feature Power Balancing
From G4 (now G5) BTS it is allowed to use TRXs of different power
within the same sector, or to use of different combining path for TRX
belonging to the same sector.
Reason: the G4 BTS is able to detect unbalanced losses/powers within a
sector and automatically compensate it for GMSK modulation.
Consequence: All TRX connected to one ANc are automatically adjusted
to the GMSK output power of the weakest TRX (required for BCCH
recovery)
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.15 Cell Split Feature
Principle
Cell Split allows to provide one logical cell with one common BCCH over
several BTS cabinets. The cabinets must be synchronized
Benefits
Same number of TRX in fewer racks
No need to touch/modify the configuration of existing BTS (cabling)
Take full benefit of 24 TRX per cabinet
Drawback: more complex antenna system
Applications
Multi-band cells
Configuration extension of sites by adding TRX
Large configurations
Condition: BTS must be synchronized
Conf i gurat i on bui l t wi t h several cabi net s and t he cel l spl i t over t wo BTSs f eat ure
It is possible to optimize the number of cabinets needed for a site configuration (indoor or outdoor, single
band or multi-band) built with more than one cabinet, thanks to a feature called cell split over two
BTSs.
In that case, the TRXs of one sector can be split over two A9100 BTS cabinets. Various configurations are
possible, the only constraint being that following conditions are fulfilled:
Maximal number of TRX per cell is 16.
Maximal number of cabinets between which a given cell is shared is 2.
Cabinets between which a cell is shared are clock synchronised in a master / slave configuration
Not e : when used in mono band configurations, cell split feature may allow to reduce the number of cabinets
with regards to the solution with one cabinet per sector; but at the expense of a more complex antenna
system (two ANC, hence 4 feeders per sector instead of 2 feeders, as for "low-loss" configurations); this has
to be considered before selecting such a solution.
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.19 Cell Split Example: High Power Configuration

Cabinet1
(Standard 8,8,8TRX)
Cabinet2
(Standard 8,8,8TRX)
Sector3: 1x16 TRX Sector2: 1x16 TRX Sector1: 1x16 TRX
TRX 1 TRX 4
ANC
TRX 5 TRX 8
ANY ANY
TRX 1 TRX 4
ANC
TRX 5 TRX 8
ANY ANY
TRX 1 TRX 4
ANC
TRX 5 TRX 8
ANY ANY
TRX 1 TRX 4
ANC
TRX 5 TRX 8
ANY ANY
TRX 1 TRX 4
ANC
TRX 5 TRX 8
ANY ANY
TRX 1 TRX 4
ANC
TRX 5 TRX 8
ANY ANY
The following figure gives an example of standard multi-band with multi-band cell
3x8/3x8 in 2 MBI5 cabinets :
For a MBI5, in a 3 sector configuration, max. 3 HP TRX /sector are allowed (thermal reasons).
The only wayto have 3x6 in MBI5 is with the cell split feature.
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.22 Indoor BTS Rack Layout
IND mi ni : 4carrier, 1 Duplexer (Anx), 1 Combiner (Any), SUM (CPU, Link to BSC)
IND Medi : 12carrier, 3 Duplexer (Anx), 3 Combiner (Any), SUM (CPU, Link to BSC)
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.23 Outdoor MBO1 Evolution and MBO2 Evolution cabinets

Mounting Frame
for 19" equipment (3U)
A//DC conversion
A
v
a
ila
b
le
s
p
a
c
e
fo
r
e
it
h
e
r
:

M
o
u
n
tin
g
F
r
a
m
e



f
o
r
1
9
"

e
q
u
ip
m
e
n
t (
6
U
)

B
a
tte
r
y

A
v
a
ila
b
le

s
p
a
c
e
f
o
r
e
ith
e
r
:

M
o
u
n
tin
g

F
r
a
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e



fo
r

1
9
"
e
q
u
ip
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6
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)

B
a
tte
r
y


Radio subrack

Radio subrack

Radio subrack

Radio subrack

Radio subrack

Radio subrack
156 cm 94 cm Width
161 cm 161 cm Height with plinth
146 cm 146 cm Height without
plintht
80 cm 80 cm Depth (roof level)
74 cm 74 cm Depth (floor level)
MBO2
Evol ut i on
MBO1
Evol ut i on
Ext ernal Di mensi ons
4The Multi-standard Outdoor BaseStation cabinets MBO1 Evolution and MBO2 Evolution
offer operators important flexibility with:
An easy extension on-site from the Outdoor MBO1 Evolution BTS (up to 12 TRXs
capacity) to the Outdoor MBO2 Evolution BTS (up to 24 TRXs capacity)
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.24 Micro BTS types
M5M EVOLIUM A9110 Micro-BTS (M5M)
Introduced in Q3 2003
up to 12 TRX-es
site configurations can mix older A910 with newer A9110-E
support for GPRS and EDGE (release dependent)
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.25 Technical Data
A910
(2 TRX)
A9110
(2 TRX)
Frequency band GSM 850, E-GSM,
GSM900, GSM 1800, GSM
1900
GSM 850, E-GSM,
GSM900, GSM 1800, GSM
1900
Tx output power
(at antenna connector)
Up to 4.5 W 7 W
Rx sensitivity -107 dBm -110 dBm
Radio FH Yes yes
Temperature range (max.) 55 C 55 C
Max. power consumption 130 W 145 W
Size (volume) 54 litres 54 litres
Weight 39.6 kg (incl. connection
box)
32.5
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.26 BSC capacities in terms of boards
Three BSC capacities are defined depending on the number of TRXs
200 TRX 400 TRX 600 TRX
BSC Capacity
ATCA shelf
CCP
Spare CCP
TPGSM
OMCP
SSW
LIU shelf
MUX
LIU
1 2 3
1
1
2
2
2
1
2
8 16
Equipment
The quantity of TPGSM, OMCP, SSW and MUX boards have to be considered as 1 activ + 1 stand-by for
redundancy function in the shelf.
LIU Line Interface Unit 16x 2Mbit/Board
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.27 Capacity and dimensioning for E1 links
The BSC Evolution is able to process up to 2600 erlangs
200 TRX 400 TRX 600 TRX
BSC Capacity
Max number of BTS
Max number of cells
Total number of E1
Number of Abis
Number of Atermux CS
Number of Erlangs
Traffic Ater PS (Mb/s) Max
255
Equipment
Number of Atermux PS
264
224
176
30
18
2600
36
255
264
128
96
20
12
1800
24
150
200
112
96
10
6
900
12
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2.9 Alcatel BSS
2.9.28 Abis and atermux allocation on LIU boards
Abis and atermux allocation on LIU boards versus BSC capacity
200 TRX
LIU 1 LIU 2 LIU 3 LIU 4 LIU 5 LIU 6 LIU 7 LIU 8 LIU 9 LIU 10 LIU 11 LIU 12 LIU 13 LIU 14 LIU 15 LIU 16
1 1 17 33 49 65 81 97 113 129 145 161 41 31 21 2 1
2 2 18 34 50 66 82 98 114 130 145 162 42 32 22 4 3
3 3 19 35 51 67 83 99 115 131 147 163 43 33 23 6 5
4 4 20 36 52 68 84 100 116 132 148 164 44 34 24 8 7
5 5 21 37 53 69 85 101 117 133 149 165 45 35 25 10 9
6 6 22 38 54 70 86 102 118 134 150 166 46 36 26 12 11
7 7 23 39 55 71 87 103 119 135 151 167 47 37 27 14 13
8 8 24 40 56 72 88 104 120 136 152 168 48 38 28 16 15
9 9 25 41 57 73 89 105 121 137 153 169 x 39 29 18 17
10 10 26 42 58 74 90 106 122 138 154 170 x 40 30 20 19
11 11 27 43 59 75 91 107 123 139 155 171 x 24 18 12 11
12 12 28 44 60 76 92 108 124 140 156 172 x 23 17 10 9
13 13 29 45 61 77 93 109 125 141 157 173 28 22 16 8 7
14 14 30 46 62 78 94 110 126 142 158 174 27 21 15 6 5
15 15 31 47 63 79 95 111 127 143 159 175 26 20 14 4 3
16 16 32 48 64 80 96 112 128 144 160 176 25 19 13 2 1
Abis ports (max 176)
Atermux CS (max 48)
Ater mux PS (max 28)
200 TRX
400 TRX 400 TRX
600 TRX 600 TRX
2
0
0
4
0
0
4
0
0
2
0
0
Abis ports
Ater Ports
One ater LIU board
for 200 TRX
Maximum flexibility
on abis LIU board
LIU boards are fitted in the LIU shelf depending on the BSC configuration (Capacity + connectivity), but
only 2 HW configurations for the LIU shelf are considered: one with 8 LIU boards, one with 16 LIU
boards,
Assignment to each LIU boards either to Abis or Ater,
On the Ater LIU, 10 TP are generi c (can be assigned either to PS, full CS or a mixed of the 2), and the
6 ot hers are dedi cat ed t o PS.
In case of 200 TRX configuration, Alcatel decided to split the traffic up to 2 LIU boards (even if one LIU
board should be efficient) in order to not impact all the traffic in case of one LIU board failure.
The maximum of available LIU boards are used for Abis, to offer maximum flexibility to the clients.
The port numbered 9, 10, 11 and 12 on the LIU 12 are not used.
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2 Coverage Planning
2.10 Coveradge Improvement
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2.10 Coveradge Improvement
2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.1 Diversity
Purpose
Improvement in fading probability
statistics
leads to a better total signal level
or better total S/N ratio
Principle
Combining signals with same
information from different signal
branches
Demands
correlation between different signal
branches should be low
Combining methods
Selection Diversity
Maximum Ratio Combining
Equal Gain Combining
Purpose
The purpose of using di versi t y is to reduce short-term fading effects, such that an acceptable level of
performance (receiver sensitivity) can be achieved, without having to increase the transmitted power or the
bandwidth.
Pri nci pl e
The principle relies on the combination of two or more signals, containing the same information, which are at
least partially de-correlated. If two signals of the same level are completely de-correlated, the probability
that both signals experience the same depth of fade is very low. Therefore the signal reliability is increased.
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Time [sec]
F
i
e
l
d
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
[
d
B
m
]
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
-80
-90
-100
Antenna 1 Antenna 2
2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.2 Selection Diversity (1)
Principle
selection of the highest baseband
signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) or of the
strongest signal (S+N)
Correlation of signal levels
a lower correlation between signal
levels of different branches improves
the total signal level
Correlation of signal levels should
be low
The algorithm for the sel ect i ve di versi t y combi ni ng technique is based on the principle of selecting the best
signal among all of the signals received from different branches, at the receiving end.
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Time [sec]
F
i
e
l
d
s
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
[
d
B
m
]
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
-80
-90
-100
Antenna 1
Antenna 2
2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.3 Selection Diversity (2)
Difference in signal level
a high difference in signal levels of two
branches doesnt improve the total
signal level
Difference in signal levels should
be low
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.4 Selection Diversity (3)
Theoretical diversity gain
10dB for two-branch diversity at the
99% reliability level
16dB for four branches at the 99%
reliability level
The theoretical diversity gain
doesnt improve linear with the
number of branches
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In comparison with MRC, in this technique the branch weights are all set to unity but the signal from each
branch are co-phased to provide equal gai n combi ni ng di versi t y.
The possibility of producing an acceptable signal from a number of unacceptable inputs is still retained,
and performance is only marginally inferior to maximal ratio combining an superior to selection
diversity.
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.5 Equal Gain Combining (1)
Principle
cophase signal branches
sum up signals
Coherent addition of signals and
incoherent addition of noises
Theoretical diversity gain
11dB for two-branch diversity at the
99% reliability level
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.6 Equal Gain Combining (2)
Difference in signal level
Assuming equal noise in the branches,
the higher the difference in signal
levels is, the higher is the loss of S/N
ratio of the better signal branch after
summation
Difference in signal levels should
be low
Correlation of signal levels
a lower correlation between signal
levels of different branches improves
the total S/N ratio
Correlation of signal levels should
be low
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.7 Maximum Ratio Combining (1)
Principle
weight signals proportionally to their
S/N ratios
cophase signal branches
sum up the weighted signals
Coherent addition of signals and
incoherent addition of noises
Improved S/N
In this method the signals from all the branches are weighted according to their individual S/N and then
summed. Here the individual signals must be co-phased before being summed ( unlike selection diversity )
which generally requires an individual receiver and phasing circuit for each antenna .
Maximal ratio combining produces an output SNR equal to the sum of the individual SNRs. Thus, it has the
advantage of producing an output with an acceptable SNR even when none of the individual signals are
themselves acceptable.
This technique gives the best statistical reduction of fading of any known diversity combiner. Modern DSPs and
digital receivers are now making this optimal form of diversity practical.
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Correlation of signal levels
a lower correlation between signal
levels of different branches improves
the total S/N ratio
Correlation of signal levels should
be low
2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.8 Maximum Ratio Combining (2)
Difference in signal level
Assuming equal noise in the branches, the
higher the difference in signal levels is,
the higher is the loss of S/N ratio of the
better signal branch after summation
comparing to equal ratio combining, this
combining reduces influence of worse
signal branches
Difference in signal levels should be
low
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.9 Comparison of combining methods
Improvement of average SNR from a
diversity combiner compared to one
branch
(a) Maximum Ratio Combining
(b) Equal Gain Combining
(c) Selection Diversity
The maximum ratio combining,
which is used in the ALCATEL BTS,
gives the best statistical reduction of
any known linear diversity combiner.
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.10 Enhanced Diversity Combining (1)
Principle:
2 algorithms
Beam forming algorithm (available also for MRC)
Interference reduction algorithm (new)
best efficiency when the useful signal and the interfering signals come from
different directions.
Requirements to benefit from this feature:
Hardware: G4 (onwards) TRE (Edge capable TRX) installed in Evolium
Evolution BTS step1 resp. step 2 (internal name: G3 resp. G4)
Software release: from B6.2 onwards
For a maximum gain: antenna engineering rules respected
Correct antenna choice for the considered environment
Correct antenna spacings and orientations (in case of space diversity)
The TRX module supports enhanced diversity combining in all frequency bands, which is based on several
algorithms:
A beam-f ormi ng algorithm to improve the received signal by steering a beam in the direction of the
mobile. This is one way of doing smart antennas,
An algorithm to reduce i nt erf erence: this mitigates the influence of interferers by steering a null beam
in the direction of the main interferer (the phase difference between the two antennas for the
strongest interfering signal is estimated and then this interfering signal is strongly attenuated by
summing the signals with an inversed phase).
Maximum efficiency of enhanced diversity combining is achieved when the useful/desired signal and the
interfering signals emanate from different directions. In interference-limited environments, beam-forming
algorithms will provide a much greater diversity gain compared to traditional maximum ratio combining.
The above mentioned algorithms are working together in a way to combat spatial interferer signals
while keeping optimal sensitivity perfomance for undisturbed but week reception.
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.11 Enhanced Diversity Combining (2)
-114.5dBm 3.5 dB Rural (RA100)
-116dBm 5 dB Sub Urban (TU50)
-117dBm 6 dB Dense Urban (TU3)
Equivalent RX sensitivity (without TMA) Total 2RX diversity
gain
Environment
4Diversity gain coming from the fact that the signals received on both antennas are de-
correlated (this requires using Xpol antennas or largely spaced antennas)
4Array-Gain or Beamforming gain : coming from the fact, that co-phased signals are
added (stronger combined signal power) for this direction
4Null Steering / Interference Reduction (with a spatial interferer) coming from a
algorithm which reduces the interference (the figures below assume a standard
interference margin is considered for the link budget)
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.12 Tx Diversity
GSM900: 50.5dBm (113W)
GSM1800: 49.4dBm (88W)
4 dB Rural (RA100)
GSM900: 51.1dBm (129W)
GSM1800: 50dBm (100W)
4.6 dB Sub Urban
(TU50)
GSM900: 52.4dBm (175W)
GSM1800: 51.3dBm (136W)
5.9 dB Dense Urban
(TU3)
Equivalent TX output power (GMSK) Total TX
diversity gain
Environment
Basic Idea:
Transmit twice the same signal from two
antennas
No combining losses (on air combining)
3dB gain
Possible Issue:
Coherence between signal can lead to
destructive effects
This effect depends on the environment
a short delay is introduced between
two antennas (2 symbols)

BTS
MS
0011000101001
0011000101001
short delay
TX Diversity works with all types of Mobile stations since it is fully transparent to the receiver; this feature
takes advantage of the MS equalizer which can already handle multiple paths with different times of
arrival.
Consequently, the equivalent TX output power is very high, up to 6dB above the nominal TX output power,
which improves the coverage and reduces the number of sites needed to cover a given area,
provided the link budget remains balanced or downlink-limited
The table provides the typical gains achieved thanks to TX Diversity and the equivalent TX output power
that can be considered for link budget calculations. Note that such gains are environment-dependent
since they are highly related to the level of de-correlation between paths.
In 8-PSK, the TX diversity gain is highly dependent on the coding scheme, the environment and the level of
Carrier to Interference+Noise Ratio. No significant gains are expected.
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.12 Tx Diversity
Diversity Gain:
On top of the output power increase
TxDiv artificially increases the number of multi-paths
The higher the de-correlation between paths, the higher the gain
Other features: a) high power TRX or b) Transmit Coherent Combining do
not benefit from this effect

First channel
Second channel
Time
Attenuation
Fading hole
Example:
2 paths (blue and red)
They show independent amplitude
(fast) fading
Probability to fall in a hole is
reduced
Fading holes of a channel are often
compensated by the other channel
Additional gain
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.12 Tx Diversity
Delay Trade-Off
Higher delay between antennas implies
Less destructive effect, more de-correlated paths and
so higher diversity gain: Hi gher Gai ns
Higher channel delay spread: More Sel f -i nt erf erence
Alcatel found the optimal trade-off
For all environments
Based on extensive simulations and lab measurements
0011000101001
0011000101001
short delay
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.12 Tx Diversity
Summary of the Transmit Diversity effects
3dB increase of the signal strength
Additional up to 2.9dB diversity gain for un-correlated fast fading:
Diversity gains are maximum in dense urban because there are a lot of scatterers
Diversity gains are reduced in rural because we have Line of Sight propagation
Self-interference due to the artificial increase of the delay spread
Environment Fading
Profile
Power
increase
Diversity
gain
Total TxDiv
gain
Dense Urban
TU3 3dB 2.9dB
5.9dB
Sub-Urban
TU50 3dB 1.6dB
4.6dB
Rural
RA100 3dB 1dB
4dB
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.12 Diversity systems in Mobile Radio Networks
Two diversity systems are used in Mobile Radio Networks :
Space Diversity Space Diversity
horizontal
vertical
Polarization Polarization Diversity Diversity
d
H
RXA RXB
+45 -45
RXA RXB
d
H
TXA TXB
+45 -45
TXA TXB
T
X
A
T
X
B
d
v
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.13 Space Diversity Systems
Diversity gain depends on spatial separation of antennas
d
H
RXA RXB
d
V
RXA
RXB
Horizontal separation
(e.g. Roof Top)
Vertical
separation
(e.g. Mast)
For Optimum Diversity Gain
d
H
= 20 d
V
=
15
GSM900 = 6m GSM900 = 4.5m
GSM1800 = 3m GSM1800 = 2.25m
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The larger the separation the higher the diversity gain
Prefer horizontal separation (more effective)
The higher the antenna the higher the required
separation, rule: d > h/10
Highest diversity gain from the "broadside
Select orientation of diversity setup according to orientation of cell
/ traffic
h
d
Optimum
diversity
Gain
2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.14 Space Diversity - General Rules
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.15 Achievable Diversity Gain
Depends on fading conditions
Varies in between 2.5 - 6dB
Higher diversity gain in areas with multipath propagation (urban and
suburban areas)
General rule: consider diversity gain with 3dB in the link budget
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Horizontal / vertical polarization:
Hor/Ver Antenna
Polarization of +/- 45:
cross polarized antenna
or Slant antenna
Big Advantage: Only one panel antenna is required to profit
from diversity gain using this configuration
V H
+45 -
45
RXA RXB
RXA RXB
2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.16 Polarization Diversity
Diversity gain in using orthogonal orientated antennas
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Diversity
Gain
multipath-
propagation
reflection,
diffraction
reception with
reception with
a hor / ver
polarised
antenna
a X-polarised
antenna
E
V
E
H
E
X2
E
X1
G = f( , )
Time [sec]
Ex1 or Ev
Ex2 or Eh
2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.17 Principle of Polarization Diversity
correlation coeficient (0.7)
difference in signal level
---> diversity gain with dual polarized antennas depends on :
, and the orientation of the sending and receiving antenna
To achieve low correlation and low differences in signal level, reflection and diffraction under multipath
condition is necessary. ---->
In rural areas negl ect i bl e di versi t y gai n can be expect ed f rom pol ari zat i on di versi t y.
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.18 Air Combining
Features
only one TX per antenna
combining signals "on air" and not in a
combiner
3dB combiner loss can be saved to
increase coverage
Can be realized with
two vertical polarized antennas
one cross polarized panel antenna
TX1 TX2
TX1 TX2
The idea of air combining is to combine transmitted signals in the air and not with an internal combiner, in order to
save combining losses. Thus the maximum achievable coverage range will be increased.
Air combining can be realized with
two sector or omni antennas
one cross polar antenna transmitting different carriers on +/-45.
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.19 Air Combining with Polarization Diversity
One antenna system
cross polarized antennas recommended
for urban/suburban area (less space
req.)
No Air combining
Bandfilter if De-
coupling too low
Air combining
Recommended for
Evolium BTS
V H
DUPL BF
TX RXA RXB
DUPL
TX1 RX1 TX2 RX2
RX2D RX1D
DUPL
or
1 TRX 2 TRX
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.20 Air Combining with Space Diversity
Two antenna system
Vertical or horizontal spacing
(recommended for rural area)
RXA RXB TX
or
or
RXA
RXB
TX
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.21 Decoupling of Signal Branches
One antenna system: TX / RX decoupling cannot be achieved by
spatial separation
Decoupling between both polarization branches needs to be
sufficiently high to avoid
blocking problems
intermodulation problems
Required decoupling values
G2 BTS: 30 dB
Evolium A9100 BTS: 25dB (Integrated duplexer Anx)
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.22 Cross Polarized or Hor/Ver Antenna? (1)
Receiving Application
same diversity gain for cross polarized and hor/ver antennas
in urban and suburban area polarization diversity gain polarization diversity gain equal to space space
diversity gain diversity gain (2.5 - 6dB)
negligible polarization diversity gain polarization diversity gain in rural areas (not recommended)
accordingly consider polarization diversity gain polarization diversity gain with 3dB in the link budget
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.23 Cross Polarized or Hor/Ver Antenna? (2)
Transmission Application: Air
combining
3dB loss when transmitting
horizontal/vertical polarized (use of
combiner)
1-2dB losses when transmitting at 45
(optimum antenna is straighten
vertically)
Air combining only recommended with
cross polarized antenna
3dB
2dB
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2.10.1 Antenna Diversity
2.10.1.24 Conclusion on Antenna Diversity
Rural Areas
installation space not limited
apply Space Diversity (higher gain)
Urban and Suburban Area
apply space or polarization diversity
use cross polarized antennas for air combining
Diversity Gain
consider diversity gain in link budget with 3dB
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2.10. Coveradge Improvement
2.10.2 Repeater Systems
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2.10.2 Repeater Systems
2.10.2.1 Repeater Application
BTS (donor cell) repeater
original service area area covered by repeater
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2.10.2 Repeater Systems
2.10.2.2 Repeater Block Diagram
Required Isolation > 7090 dB
A repeater is a bi-directional amplifier. It receives the downlink signal from the BTS, amplifies it and transmits
the signal to the mobile. In the uplink direction, the signal of the mobile is received, amplified and
transmitted to the BTS.
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2.10.2 Repeater Systems
2.10.2.3 Repeater Applications (2)
Coverage Improvement of Cells (Cell Enhancer)
removal of coverage holes caused by
topography (hills, ravines, ...)
man made obstacles
Provision of tunnel coverage
street, railway tunnels
underground stations
Provision of indoor coverage at places of low additional traffic
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2.10.2 Repeater Systems
2.10.2.4 Repeater Types
Channel selective repeaters
high selectivity of certain channels
high traffic areas, small cell sizes
Band selective repeaters
adjustment to operators frequency
band
no (accidental) usage by competitors
Broad band repeaters
low cost solution for low traffic areas
(rural environment)
medium to high repeater gain
Personal repeaters
low gain
broad band
indoor coverage improvement for
certain rooms
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Antenna
to
donor cell
Repeater
Radiating
cable
Tunnel
2.10.2 Repeater Systems
2.10.2.5 Repeater for Tunnel Coverage
Choice of repeater type due to
tunnel dimensions
wall materials
feeding by
directional antennas
leaky feeder cables
long tunnels
chains of several repeaters
fiber optic backbone for repeater
feeding
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Personal repeater
Antenna
to
donor cell
Fiber optic
distribution
Remote
units
Master unit
Radiating
cable
2.10.2 Repeater Systems
2.10.2.4 Repeater for Indoor coverage
For smaller buildings
Compensation for wall losses, window
losses (heat insulated windows)
Low cost personal repeaters installed in
certain rooms
For larger buildings (shopping malls,
convention centers, sport centers)
multispot transmission using
co-axial distribution network
fiber-optic distribution network
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2.10.2 Repeater Systems
2.10.2.5 Planning Aspects
Repeater does not provide additional traffic capacity
risk of blocking if additional coverage area catches more traffic
possible carrier upgrading required
Repeater causes additional signal delay
delay: 4..8s max. cell range of 35 km reduced by 1 to 2km
special care needed for total delay of repeater chain!
delayed signal and original signal could cause outage in urban environment if
total delay exceeds 16 ... 22s
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2.10.2 Repeater Systems
2.10.2.6 Repeater Gain Limitation (1)
Intermodulation products should be low
when amplifier reaches saturation point, intermodulation products go up
Signal to noise ratio should be high
when amplifier reaches saturation point, signal to noise ratio is getting worse
Antenna isolation between transmission and receiving antenna should
be high
if signal feedback from transmission antenna to receiving antenna is too high,
amplifier goes into saturation
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2.10.2 Repeater Systems
2.10.2.7 Repeater Gain Limitation (2)
Pin Pout
gain
78 dB
isolation
90 dB
Pback =
Pin - 12 dB
Repeater gain limited by antenna isolation:
G
Repeater
< I
Donor, Repeater
- M M (Margin) ~ 12 dB
Measure isolation after installation
in M Amplifier
G I
arg
+ =
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2.10.2 Repeater Systems
2.10.2.8 Intermodulation Products
A Non-linear system
produces higher-order intermodulation
products as soon as output power reaches
the saturation point
Parameter
1 dB compression point
3rd order intercept point (ICP3)
Intermodulation reduction (IMR)
Amplifier back-off
GSM900/GSM1800 requirements
IM products -36 dBm or
IM distance > 70 dBc whichever is higher
Each amplifier has a limited linear operation range.
In the linear range the input power is amplified by the amplification factor v. But this is only valid until a
certain maximum input power. As soon as you feed the amplifier with too high input power the input signal
will less and less amplified. The point were the degradation from the specified amplification is 1dB is called
the one dB compressi on poi nt .
Lower amplification is one effect when you operate an amplifier in the non linear region, another effect
which can cause even worse problems is the intermodulation. Especially the 3rd order intermodulation
product (2f1+-f2) is very significant. The amplifier produces interfering signals based on available frequencies
(f1 and f2).
dbc = is the power of one signal referenced to a carrier signal
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Uplink Loss = Downlink Loss Uplink Gain = Downlink Gain
!
2.10.2 Repeater Systems
2.10.2.9 Repeater Link Budget
Different gains may be needed in Up- and Downlink if the
sensitivity of the repeater is worse than the sensitivity of the BTS
!
Downlink Path Unit Value
Received power at repeater dBm -65
Link antenna gain dBi +19
Cable loss dB -2
Repeater input power dBm -48
Repeater gain dB +78
Repeater output power dBm 30
Cable loss dB -2
Repeater antenna gain dBi +18
EIRP dBm 46
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2.10.2 Repeater Systems
2.10.2.10 High Power TRXs
High Power TRXs: solution for coverage improvement
HP must be used together with TMA: due to unbalanced Link Budget
A9100 BTS supports
High Power TRX
Medium Power
TRX type is chosen by:
environment conditions
required data throughput (GPRS/EDGE)
TX power of EVOLIUM Evolution step 2 TRX :
Frequency band TX output power, GMSK TX output power, 8-PSK (EDGE)
GSM 900 HP 60 W = 47.8 dBm 25 W = 44.0 dBm
GSM 1800 HP 60 W = 47.8 dBm 25 W = 44.0 dBm
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2.10.2 Repeater Systems
2.10.2.13 3x6 TRXs High Power Configuration
Configuration made with EVOLIUM A9100 Base Station
Obs:
All TRX are HP
The configuration is using cell split feature
Cabinet1
(High power 3x3TRX)
Sector3: 1x6 TRX Sector2: 1x6 TRX Sector1: 1x6 TRX
Cabinet2
(High power 3x3TRX)
No-com-
bining
ANc
HPTRX1 HPTRX 2
Combi-
ning
MPTRX 3
No-com-
bining
ANc
HPTRX1 HPTRX 2
Combi-
ning
MPTRX 3
No-com-
bining
ANc
HPTRX1 HPTRX 2
Combi-
ning
MPTRX 3
No-com-
bining
ANc
HPTRX1 HPTRX 2
Combi-
ning
MPTRX 3
No-com-
bining
ANc
HPTRX1 HPTRX 2
Combi-
ning
MPTRX 3
No-com-
bining
ANc
HPTRX1 HPTRX 2
Combi-
ning
MPTRX 3
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2.10.2 Repeater Systems
2.10.2.14 Mixed TRX Configuration
BTS EVOLIUM supports a mix of:
EVOLIUM TRX (TRE) - supports GSM/GPRS and EDGE
EVOLIUM Evolution step 2 TRX (TRA) with Medium Power
EVOLIUM Evolution step 2 TRX (TRA) with High Power
T
R
E
T
R
E
T
R
A
MP
T
R
A
HP
Hardware configuration
Logical cell
TRX1 (BCCH)
TRX2 (1 SDCCH)
TRX3
TRX4
Packet Voice
Allocation
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3 Traffic & Frequency Planning
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3 Fraffic & Frequency Planning
3.1 Traffic Caspacity
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3.1 Traffic Capacity
3.1.1 Telephone System
subscriber
1
2
3
4
line to PSTN
sub 1
sub 2
sub 3
sub 4
time
observation period, e.g.
main busy hour (MBH)
blocked call
attempts
Parameters:
: arrival rate [1/h]
: release rate [1/h]
1/: mean holding time [sec]
"offered" traffic = # of calls arriving in MBH mean
holding time
= 1/ [Erlang]
automatic
switch
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3.1 Traffic Capacity
3.1.2 Offered Traffic and Traffic Capacity
Handled Traffic, Traffic Capacity: T
Blocking Probability, Grade of Service (GoS): p
bl ock
= R /
System load: = T / n, i.e. T < n
Loss System
(n slots)
Handled
Traffic (T)
Offered
Traffic ()
Rejected Traffic (R)
T = - R
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3.1 Traffic Capacity
3.1.3 Definition of Erlang
4ERLANG : Unit used to quantify traffic
T =
(resource usage duration)
/
(total observation duration)
[ERLANG]
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3.1 Traffic Capacity
3.1.4 Call Mix and Erlang Calculation
4CALL MIX EXAMPLE
350 call/hour
3 LU/call
TCH duration : 85 sec
SDCCH duration : 4,5 sec
4ERLANG COMPUTATION
TCH = (350 * 85)/3600 = 8,26 ERLANG
SDCCH = [ (350 + 350*3) * 4,5 ] / 3600 = 1.75 ERLANG
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3.1 Traffic Capacity
3.1.5 ERLANG B LAW
ERLANG B LAW
4Relationship between
Offered traffic
Number of resources
Blocking rate
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3.1 Traffic Capacity
3.1.5 ERLANG B LAW (2)
call request arrival rate (and leaving) is not stable
number of resources = average number of requests mean duration
is sometime not sufficent => probability of blocking
=> Erlang B law
Pblock : blocking probability
N : number of resources
E : offered traffic [Erlang]
Calculated with Excel - Makro or Table
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3.1 Traffic Capacity
3.1.6 Erlangs Formula
How to calculate the traffic capacity T?
Basics: Markov Chain (queue statistics)
Calculation of the blocking probability using Erlangs
formula (Erlang B statistics):
Varation of until p
block
reached: T
p
n i
block
n i
i
n
=
=

! !
0
p0 p1
2

pi

pn
n
p2
3
no call
establishe
d
i channels
occupied
all
channels
occupied
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3.1 Traffic Capacity
3.1.7 Blocking Probability (Erlang B)
Nr. of Blocking Probability Erlang B
channels 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 10% 15% 20% 50%
1 0.001 0.002 0.005 0.010 0.020 0.031 0.042 0.053 0.111 0.176 0.250 1.000
2 0.046 0.065 0.105 0.153 0.223 0.282 0.333 0.381 0.595 0.796 1.000 2.732
3 0.194 0.249 0.349 0.455 0.602 0.715 0.812 0.899 1.271 1.602 1.930 4.591
4 0.439 0.535 0.701 0.869 1.092 1.259 1.399 1.525 2.045 2.501 2.945 6.501
5 0.762 0.900 1.132 1.361 1.657 1.875 2.057 2.218 2.881 3.454 4.010 8.437
6 1.146 1.325 1.622 1.909 2.276 2.543 2.765 2.960 3.758 4.445 5.109 10.389
7 1.579 1.798 2.157 2.501 2.935 3.250 3.509 3.738 4.666 5.461 6.230 12.351
8 2.051 2.311 2.730 3.128 3.627 3.987 4.283 4.543 5.597 6.498 7.369 14.320
9 2.557 2.855 3.333 3.783 4.345 4.748 5.080 5.370 6.546 7.551 8.522 16.294
10 3.092 3.427 3.961 4.461 5.084 5.529 5.895 6.216 7.511 8.616 9.685 18.273
11 3.651 4.022 4.610 5.160 5.842 6.328 6.727 7.076 8.487 9.691 10.857 20.254
12 4.231 4.637 5.279 5.876 6.615 7.141 7.573 7.950 9.474 10.776 12.036 22.238
13 4.831 5.270 5.964 6.607 7.402 7.967 8.430 8.835 10.470 11.867 13.222 24.224
14 5.446 5.919 6.663 7.352 8.200 8.803 9.298 9.730 11.473 12.965 14.413 26.212
15 6.077 6.582 7.376 8.108 9.010 9.650 10.174 10.633 12.484 14.068 15.608 28.201
16 6.721 7.258 8.099 8.875 9.828 10.505 11.059 11.544 13.500 15.176 16.807 30.191
17 7.378 7.946 8.834 9.652 10.656 11.368 11.952 12.461 14.522 16.289 18.010 32.182
18 8.046 8.644 9.578 10.437 11.491 12.238 12.850 13.385 15.548 17.405 19.216 34.173
19 8.724 9.351 10.331 11.230 12.333 13.115 13.755 14.315 16.579 18.525 20.424 36.166
20 9.411 10.068 11.092 12.031 13.182 13.997 14.665 15.249 17.613 19.647 21.635 38.159
21 10.108 10.793 11.860 12.838 14.036 14.885 15.581 16.189 18.651 20.773 22.848 40.153
22 10.812 11.525 12.635 13.651 14.896 15.778 16.500 17.132 19.692 21.901 24.064 42.147
23 11.524 12.265 13.416 14.470 15.761 16.675 17.425 18.080 20.737 23.031 25.281 44.142
24 12.243 13.011 14.204 15.295 16.631 17.577 18.353 19.031 21.784 24.164 26.499 46.137
25 12.969 13.763 14.997 16.125 17.505 18.483 19.284 19.985 22.833 25.298 27.720 48.132
30 16.684 17.606 19.034 20.337 21.932 23.062 23.990 24.802 28.113 30.995 33.840 58.113
35 20.517 21.559 23.169 24.638 26.435 27.711 28.758 29.677 33.434 36.723 39.985 68.099
40 24.444 25.599 27.382 29.007 30.997 32.412 33.575 34.596 38.787 42.475 46.147 78.088
45 28.447 29.708 31.656 33.432 35.607 37.155 38.430 39.550 44.165 48.245 52.322 88.079
50 32.512 33.876 35.982 37.901 40.255 41.933 43.316 44.533 49.562 54.029 58.508 98.072
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3.1 Traffic Capacity
3.1.8 BTS Traffic Capacity (Full Rate)
Number of Speech Traffic (Erlang B) Signalling Traffic (Erlang B)
TRX SDCCH TCH 1% 2% 5% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5%
1 4 7 2.501 2.935 3.738 0.439 0.535 0.701
2 8 14 7.352 8.2 9.73 2.051 2.311 2.73
3 8 22 13.651 14.896 17.132 2.051 2.311 2.73
4 16 29 19.487 21.039 23.833 6.721 7.258 8.099
5 16 37 26.379 28.254 31.64 6.721 7.258 8.099
6 24 44 32.543 34.682 38.557 12.243 13.011 14.204
7 24 52 39.7 42.124 46.533 12.243 13.011 14.204
8 32 59 46.039 48.7 53.559 18.205 19.176 20.678
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3 Fraffic & Frequency Planning
3.2 Network Evolution
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3.2 Network Evolution
3.2.1 Network Evolution - Capacity Approach (1)
The roll out of a network is dedicated to provide coverage
Network design changes rapidly
Planning method must be flexible and fast (group method)
Manual frequency planning possible
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3.2 Network Evolution
3.2.2 Network Evolution - Capacity Approach (2)
With the growing amount of subscribers, the need for more installed
capacity is rising
Possible Solutions:
Installing more TRXs on the existing BTS
Implementing additional sites
Discussion!
Also new services like GPRS are demanding more capacity
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3.2 Network Evolution
3.2.3 Network Evolution - Capacity Approach (3)
Installing more TRXs - Advantages
No site search/acquisition process
No additional sites to rent (saves cost)
Trunking efficiency q Higher capacity per cell
Installing more TRXs - Disadvantages
More antennas on roof top (Air combining)
Additional losses if WBC has to be used
Less (indoor) coverage
More frequencies per site needed
Tighter reuse necessary q decreasing quality
Trunking efficiency
1TRX 2.7 Erl. +2.7 Erl
2TRX 8.2 Erl +5.3 Erl (+1 Signalling TS)
3TRX 14.9 Erl +6.7 Erl
4TRX 21.0 Erl +6.1 Erl (+1 Signalling TS)
5TRX 28.3 Erl +7.3 Erl
6TRX 34.7 Erl +6.4 Erl (+1 Signalling TS)
7TRX 42.1 Erl +7.4 Erl
.
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3.2 Network Evolution
3.2.4 Network Evolution - Capacity Approach (4)
Implementing additional sites - Advantages
Reuse can remain the same (smaller cell sizes)
Needs less frequency spectrum
higher spectrum efficiency
Implementing additional sites - Disadvantages
Additional site cost (rent)
Re-design of old cells necessary (often not done)
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3 Fraffic & Frequency Planning
3.3 Cell Structures
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3.3 Cell Structures
3.3.1 Cell Structures and Quality
Frequency re-use in cellular radio networks
allow efficient usage of the frequency spectrum
but causes interference
Interdependence of
Cell size
Cluster size
Re-use distance
Interference level
Network Quality
interferer
region
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3.3 Cell Structures
3.3.2 Cell Re-use Cluster (Omni Sites) (1)
1
2 3
4 7
6 5 1
2 3
4 7
6 5
R
D
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3.3 Cell Structures
3.3.2 Cell Re-use Cluster (Omni Sites)(2)
5 6 4
1 2 3
7
8 9
10 11 12
D
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3.3 Cell Structures
3.3.4 Cell Re-use Cluster (Sector Site) (1)
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3.3 Cell Structures
3.3.5 4x3 Cell Re-use Cluster (Sector Site) (2)
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3.3 Cell Structures
3.3.6 Irregular (Real) Cell Shapes
1
2 3
4
5
6
5
7
Network Border
Coverage
Hole
Island
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3 Fraffic & Frequency Planning
3.4 Frequency Reuse
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3.4 Frequency Reuse
3.4.1 GSM Frequency Spectrum
GSM 900
DL: 935-960 MHz UL: 890-915 MHz
200 kHz channel spacing R 124 channels
ARFCN 1 - 124
E-GSM
DL: 925-935 MHz UL: 880-890 MHz
200 kHz channel spacing R Additional 50 channels
ARFCN 0, 975 - 1023
200 kHz channel spacing R 124 channels
GSM 850
DL: 869-894 MHz UL: 824-849 MHz
ARFCN: 128 - 251
GSM 1800
DL: 1805-1880 MHz UL: 1710-1785 MHz
200 kHz channel spacing R 374 channels
ARFCN 512 - 885
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3.4 Frequency Reuse
3.4.2 Impact of limited Frequency Spectrum
Bandwidth is an expensive resource
Best usage necessary
Efficient planning necessary to contain good QoS when the traffic in
the network is increasing
smaller reuse
Multiple reuse pattern (MRP) usage
implementation of concentric cells / microcells/dual band
implementation of Frequency Hopping
Baseband
Synthezised
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3.4 Frequency Reuse
3.4.3 What is frequency reuse?
As the GSM spectrum is limited, frequencies have to be reused to
provide enough capacity
The more often a frequency is reused within a certain amount of cells,
the smaller the frequency reuse
Aim:
Minimizing the frequency reuse for providing more capacity
REUSE CLUSTER:
Area including cells which do not reuse the same frequency (or
frequency group)
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3.4 Frequency Reuse
3.4.4 RCS and ARCS (1)
Reuse Cluster Size - RCS
If all cells within the reuse cluster have the same amount of TRXs, the reuse
per TRX layer can be calculated:
cell TRX
B
RCS
/ #
=
cell TRX
B
ARCS
/ #
=
Average Reuse Cluster Size - ARCS
If the cells are different equiped, the average number of TRXs has to
be used for calculating the average reuse cluster size:
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3.4 Frequency Reuse
3.4.5 RCS and ARCS (2)
The ARCS is giving the average reuse of the network when using the
whole bandwidth and all TRXs per cell
E.g: if we want to have the reuse of all non hopping TCH TRXs, we have
to use the dedicated bandwidth and the average number of non hopping
TCH TRXs per cell to get the ARCS of this layer type.
Each cell has only one BCCH. Therefore the BCCH reuse is an RCS and
not an ARCS!
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3.4 Frequency Reuse
3.4.6 Reuse Cluster Size (1)
Sectorized sites
4 sites per reuse cluster
3 cells per site
REUSE Cluster Size:
4X3 =12
1 2
3
4 5
6
7 8
9
10 11
12
1 2
3
4 5
6
7 8
9
10 11
12
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3.4 Frequency Reuse
3.4.7 Reuse Cluster Size (2)
Sectorized sites
3 sites per reuse cluster
3 cells per site
REUSE Cluster Size
3X3 = 9
1 2
3
4 5
6
7 8
9
1 2
3
4 5
6
7 8
9
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3.4 Frequency Reuse
3.4.8 Reuse Distance
RCS R f D = 3

=
cells sectorized - three
3
2
cells ional omnidirect 1
f
r
e
-
u
s
e

d
is
t
a
n
c
e
cell A
cell B
interferer
region
In theory reuse distance and reuse shouldnt be dependent.
In reality, when the cells are not well designed: bigger cell overlapp =>higher frequency reuse, smaller reuse
distance
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3.4 Frequency Reuse
3.4.9 Frequency Reuse Distance
site A site B
distance D R
D = distance between cell sites with the same frequencies
R = service radius of a cell
B = number of frequencies in total bandwidth
RCS = reuse cluster size, i.e. one cell uses B/RCS frequencies
In hexagonal cell geometry: D/R = f 3 RCS
omni cells: f=1; sector cells: f=2/3
Examples (omni):
RCS = 7: D/R = 4.6
RCS = 9: D/R = 5.2
RCS =12: D/R = 6.0
Received Power
F
rec

C/I
F
rec, A
F
rec, B
0
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3.4 Frequency Reuse
3.4.10 Frequency Reuse: Example
No sectorization
7 cells per cluster
BCCH RCS = 7
TCH Reuse: Depending on BW
and Number of installed TRXs
per cell
Example:
B= 26
4TRXs per cell
interferer
region
6
3
1 7 26
=

=
Guard BCCH
RCS TCH
RCS TCH
RCS BCCH
BCCH reuse is always RCS, because we dont need to use an average (always one BCCH per cell).
Omni cells
To calculate the TCH reuse in the example, the BCCH RCS is subtracted from the bandwidth B and the average
number of TCH TRX per cell is
4 minus 1 BCCH = 3
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3 Fraffic & Frequency Planning
3.5 Cell Planning
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3.5 Cell Planning
3.5.1 Cell Planning - Frequency Planning (1)
Can frequency planning be seen independently from cell planning?
Discussion
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3.5 Cell Planning
3.5.2 Cell Planning - Frequency Planning (2)
Bad cell planning
Island coverage q disturbing the reuse pattern
Big overlap areas q bigger reuse necessary
Good cell planning
Sharp cell borders q good containment of frequency
Small overlap areas q tighter reuse possible
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3.5 Cell Planning
3.5.3 Influencing Factors on Frequency Reuse Distance
Topography
Hilly terrain q Usage of natural obstacles to define sharp cell borders q
tighter frequency reuse possible
Flat terrain q Achieveable reuse much more dependent on the accurate cell
design
Morphology
Water q low attenuation q high reuse distance
City q high attenuation q low reuse distance
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3.5 Cell Planning
3.5.4 Conclusion
In cellular mobile networks, the frequency reuse pattern has a direct
influence on the interference and hence the network quality
Regular hexagonal patterns allow the deduction of engineering formulas
In real networks, cell sizes and shapes are irregular due to
Variation in traffic density
Topography
Land usage
Engineering formulas allow the assessment of the network quality and worst-
case considerations, but the real situation must be proved!
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3.5 Cell Planning
3.5.5 Examples for different frequency reuses
Big city in the south of Africa:
BCCH reuse 26
Irregular cell design
Mixed morphology
Lots of water
Flat terrain plus some high sites
Big city in eastern Europe
BCCH reuse 12
Regular cell design
Flat area
Only urban environment
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3 Fraffic & Frequency Planning
3.6 Interference Probability
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3.6 Interference Probability
3.6.1 Interference Theory (1)
C/I restrictions
9dB for co-channel interference
-9 dB for adjacent channel interference
distance D R
Received Power
P
rec

C/ I
P
rec, A
P
rec, B
0
C/I is the difference between the two received power lines
when shifting the two transmitters towards each other, the area where the C/I is > 9dB shrinks
At a certain distance of the two transmitters, the C/I can never fulfil the GSM criteria -> minimum site
distance.
It has to be kept in mind, that of course other cells will be inbetween two cells transmitting at the same
frequency!
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3.6 Interference Probability
3.6.2 Interference Theory (2)
Probability density function [%]
0,0%
1,0%
2,0%
3,0%
4,0%
5,0%
C/I [dB]

C/I
med
C/I
thr
Margin
Interferer probability [%]
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
C/I - C/I
thr
[dB]
Interference probability
C/I
med
is the calculated carrier to
interference ratio at a certain location (pixel)
ARCS Pint[%]
6.5..9.0 10
7.0..9.5 7.5
8.5..11.0 5.0
12.0..16.0 2.5
3.6 Interference Probability
The marked area left of C/Ithr is the area of interference. Although the received level is above the threshold,
there is a certain probability to get interference because of the standard deviation of the received signal.
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3.6 Interference Probability
3.6.3 CPDF - Cumulative Probability Density Function
P
int
= P ( C/I < C/I
thr
)
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
1
P
int
Distance from serving cell D R
CPDF - Cumulative Probability Density Function
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3.6 Interference Probability
3.6.4 Interference Probability dependent on Average Reuse
ARCS =
# of frequencies in used bandwidth
average # of carriers per cell
P
int
[%]
ARCS
0
3
6
9
12
5 10 15 20 25
Examples:
P
int
[%] ARCS
10 6.5...9
7.5 7...9.5
5
8.5...11
2.5
12...16
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3 Fraffic & Frequency Planning
3.7 Carrier Types
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3.7 Carrier Types
3.7.1 Carrier Types - BCCH carrier
BCCH frequency is on air all the time
If there is no traffic/signaling on TS 1 to 7
q dummy bursts are transmitted
PC (Power Control) and DTX (Discontinuous Transmission) are not
allowed
Important for measurements of the mobile
The BCCH frequency must be transmitted with full power all the time!
Otherwise the measurements of the neighborcell levels would be useless.
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3.7 Carrier Types
3.7.2 Carrier Types - TCH carrier
PC allowed and recommended for UL and DL
Reduction of transmit power according to the actual path loss
Careful parameter tuning for DL necessary
DTX allowed and recommended for UL and DL
Discontinuous Transmission
If there is no speech, nothing is transmitted
Generation of comfort noise at receiving mobile
TCH not in use q no signal is transmitted
Special case: Concentric cells
Different re-uses for inner and outer zone are possible
PC and DTX are reducing the overall interference in the network.
As a TCH is not transmitting anything when not in use, the interference level is strongly related to the traffic
on the interfereing cells.
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3 Fraffic & Frequency Planning
3.8 Multiple Reuse Pattern MRP
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3.8 Multiple reuse pattern
3.8.1 Meaning of multiple reuse pattern (1)
For different types of carriers, different interference potential is
expected
As the BCCH carrier has the highest interferer potential because of
being on air all the time and the BCCH channel itself is accepting only
low interference, the REUSE on the BCCH layer is higher then on other
layers
TCH layers can be planned with a smaller REUSE
Inner zones of concentric cells are able to deal with the smallest reuse
in non hopping networks
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3.8 Multiple reuse pattern
3.8.2 Meaning of multiple reuse pattern (2)
REUSE clusters for
INNER ZONE layer
TCH layer
BCCH layer
When applying different reuses in the different cell layers, of course separated bands are necessary!
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3.8 Multiple reuse pattern
3.8.3 GSM restrictions
Intra site minimum channel spacing q 2
Intra cell minimum channel spacing q 2 (ETSI recommends 3,
but with Alcatel EVOLIUM capabilities this value can be set to 2)
constrains:
Uplink power control enabled
Intra cell interference handover enabled
f
A
1
,
f
A
2
,
f
A
3
,
.
.
.
f
B
1 ,
f
B
2 ,
f
B
3 ,
.
.
.
f C
1
,
f C
2
,
f C
3
,
.
.
.
Frequencies fAx,fBx,fCx,must have at
least 2 channels spacing
Frequencies fx1,fx2,fx3,must have at
least 3 channels spacing
The Intra cell minimum channel spacing of 3 is given by the combiner in the BTS, to avaoid IM problems
Important remark: the whole training is compliant to the co-cell constraint of 3 channels ; this is more
restrictive than the BTS capability of filtering the channels on frequency n*200 kHz
Acc to A.Krause: for Evolium BTS standard equipped with WBC the co-cell constraint can be only 2 channels.
(A channel spacing of 2 was tested @Vodacom in 1999 but the result was not better than with channel spacing
of 3.)
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3 Fraffic & Frequency Planning
3.9 Intermodulation
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3.9 Intermodulation
3.9.1 Intermodulation problems (1)
IM Products GSM900
In a GSM 900 system intermodulation products of 3rd and 5th order can
cause interference
2 * f
1,t
f
2,t
= f
2,r
/ 2 * f
2,t
f
1,t
= f
1,r
3 * f
1,t
2 * f
2,t
= f
2,r
/ 3 * f
2,t
2 * f
1,t
= f
1,r
Frequency planning must avoid fulfilling these equations
Both frequencies must be on the same duplexer
To avoid intra band IM inside GSM900 the following frequency
separations shall be avoided:
75/112/113 channels
IM5 IM3
Info from techn. dept: If a WBC has to be used because of the number of TRXs, the output power is not high
enough to cause problems. -> No intermodulation problems .
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3.9 Intermodulation
3.9.2 Intermodulation problems (2)
IM Products GSM1800
In a GSM 1800 system, only intermodulation products of 3rd order can
cause measurable interference
2 * f
1,t
f
2,t
= f
2,r
/ 2 * f
2,t
f
1,t
= f
1,r
Frequency separations to be avoided
237/238 channels
IM Products Dual Band (GSM900/GSM1800)
f
1800,t
f
900,t
= f
900,r
Decoupling between the GSM 1800 TX path and the GSM 900 RX path is
less than 30 dB (e.g. same antenna used!)
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3.9 Intermodulation
3.9.3 Intermodulation problems (3) - Summary
carrier/antenna restriction
G3 900 1 no
G3 900 2 ore more 112/113 (IM3) and 75 (IM5)
G3 1800 1 no
G3 1800 2 or more 237/238 (IM3) no IM5 quality degradation measurable
carrier/antenna
G2 900 w/o dupl 1 no
2 or more no
G2 900 with dupl 1 no
2 or more 112/113 (IM3) and 75 (IM5)
G2 1800 w/o dupl 1 no
2 or more no
G2 1800 with dupl 1 no
2
2
G3 900 G2/G3 1800 f(1800,t) - f(900,t) = f(900,r)
G2 900 w/o dupl G2/G3 1800 no
G2 900 with dupl G2/G3 1800 f(1800,t) - f(900,t) = f(900,r)
Colocated BTSs
dud2(high Power) -> no
dupd -> 237/238
OUTSIDE Problem: Dual Band
INSIDE Problem: IM3 / IM5
Problem only for non hopping and BCCH carriers
Problem can be solved by hopping over more than 10 frequencies
Caution: SFH doesnt bring additional benefits when hopping over more than 4 frequencies
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3.9 Intermodulation
3.9.4 Treating neighbor cells
Cells, which are not declared as neighbor cells but are located in the
neighborhood may use adjacent frequencies if it is not avoidable, but
no co channel frequencies
Cells which are declared as neighbors, thus have HO relationships,
must not use co or adjacent frequencies
If an adjacent frequency is used, the HO will be risky and at least audible
by the user
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3.9 Intermodulation
3.9.5 Where can I find neighbor cells?
At the OMC-R for each cell a list of neighbor cells is defined
Maximum number of neighbors: 32
The list of neighbors and their frequencies is transmitted to the mobile
to be able to perform measurements on these frequencies
In case of a HO cause, the HO will be performed towards the best
neighbor
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3 Fraffic & Frequency Planning
3.10 Manual frequency planning
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3.10 Manual Frequency Planning
3.10.1 Frequency planning (1)
No fixed method
Free frequency assignment possible, but very time consuming for larger
networks
For easy and fast frequency planning: use group assignment
Example:
18 channels, 2TRX per cell ARCS 9
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3.10 Manual Frequency Planning
3.10.2 Frequency planning (2)
GSM restrictions are automatically fulfilled, if on one site only groups
A* or only B* are used
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
A1
B1
A2
B2
A3
B3
A4
B4
A5
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3.10 Manual Frequency Planning
3.10.3 Exercise: Manual frequency planning (1)
A1
A2
A3
A2
A4 A5
B4
B1
B2
B3
B1
B2
A1
A2
A3 A2
A4
A5
B4
B1
B2
A1
A2
A3
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3.10 Manual Frequency Planning
3.10.4 Exercise: Manual frequency planning (2)
A1
A2
A3
A2
A4 A5
B4
B1
B2
B3
B1
B2
A1
A2
A3
A2
A4
A5
B2
B4
B1
A3
A2
A1
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3.10 Manual Frequency Planning
3.10.5 Discussion: Subdivide frequency band?
Any subdivision of the frequency band is reducing the spectrum
efficiency!
Separations should be avoided if possible!
As the BCCH has to be very clean, it is nevertheless
recommended to use a separated band and select a bigger reuse
The focus in the discussion is not the fx band splitting by fx management authorities.
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3.10 Manual Frequency Planning
3.10.6 Hint for creating a future proofed frequency plan
If a frequency plan is implemented, using all available frequencies in
the most efficient way, it is very difficult to implement new sites in
the future!
New sites would make a complete re-planning of the surrounding
area or the whole frequency plan necessary
To avoid replanning every time when introducing new sites, it is
recommended to keep some Joker frequencies free
These Joker frequencies can be used for new sites (especially BCCH
TRXs) unless it is impossible to implement new sites without
changing a big part of the frequency plan
New frequency plan necessary!
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3.10 Manual Frequency Planning
3.10.7 Implementing a frequency plan
If only a few frequencies have to be changed, the changes can be
done at the OMC-R
Disadvantage: Every cell has to be modified separately
Downtime of the cell approx. 5 minutes
If lots of changes have to be done, it is of advantage to use
external tools
Since B6.2 the complete frequency plan can be uploaded from the OMC
the uploaded file can be modified by the tool (A9155 PRC Generator)
the the new plan is downloaded into the network and activated at once
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3 Fraffic & Frequency Planning
3.11 BSCI planning
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3.11 BSIC Planning
3.11.1 BSCI allocation
Together with the frequencies the Base Transceiver Station
Identity Code (BSIC) has to be planned
The BSIC is to distinguish between cells using the same BCCH
frequency
BSIC = NCC (3bits) + BCC (3bits)
NCC Network (PLMN) Colour Code BCC - Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Colour Code
BSIC planning is supported by the A9155 (Alcatel Radio Network
Planning Tool)
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3.11 BSIC Planning
3.11.2 BSIC planning rules
The same combination BCCH/BSIC must not be used on cell influencing on
each other (having a mutual interference <>0)
BSIC allocation rules:
Avoid using same BCCH/BSIC combination of:
neighbor cells
second order neighbor cells (the neighbors of neighbor cell (OMC limitation))
neighbor Cell
BCCH:24
BSIC:36
neighbor Cell
BCCH:24
BSIC: must NOT be
36
Serving Cell
BCCH:10
BSIC: any
A
B C
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3.11 BSIC Planning
3.11.3 Spurious RACH
Bad BSIC planning can cause SDCCH congestion cause by the
spurious RACH problem, also known as Ghost RACH
This problem occurs, when a mobile sends an HO access burst to a
TRX of cell A using the same frequency as a nearby cell B uses on
the BCCH
Both cells using the same BSIC and Training Sequence Code TSQC,
the HO access burst is understood by the cell B as a RACH for call
setup
Therefore on cell B SDCCHs are allocated everytime a HO access
burst is sent from the mobile to the cell A
If in cell B the BCCH and TRX 2 exchange their frequencies (BCCH gets the fx of TRX2 and TRX2 gets the fx of
BCCH): no problem with spurious RACH
Cell B
F1
F2
BSIC=1
Cell A
F5
F1
BSIC=1
Cell C
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3.11 BSIC Planning
3.11.4 Summary
For optimal usage of your frequency spectrum a good cell design is
essential
Use larger reuse for BCCH frequencies
Use spectrum splitting only when necessary
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3 Fraffic & Frequency Planning
3.12 Capacity Enhancement Techniques
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3.12 Capacity Enhancement Techniques
3.12.1 Capacity enhancement by planning
Interference reduction of cells
Check of antenna type, direction and down tilt
This is a check of cell size, border and orientation
Check of proper cabling
Is TX and RX path on the same sector antenna?
Check of the frequency plan
Introduction of a better frequency plan
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3.12 Capacity Enhancement Techniques
3.12.2 Capacity enhancement by adding feature
Frequency hopping
Base band hopping
Synthesized frequency hopping
Concentric cells
Half rate
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3.12 Capacity Enhancement Techniques
3.12.3 Capacity enhancement by adding TRX
Adding TRX to existing cells
Multi band cells
Concentric cells
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3.12 Capacity Enhancement Techniques
3.12.4 Capacity enhancement by adding cells
Adding of cells at existing site locations
Adding new cell = adding new BCCH
Dual band
Adding cells using another frequency band
Cell splitting
Reduction of cell size
Change of one omni cell into several cells/sector cells
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3.12 Capacity Enhancement Techniques
3.12.5 Capacity enhancement by adding sites
Dual band/multi band network
Adding of new sites in new frequency band
Multi layer network
Adding of new sites in another layer
E.g. adding micro cells for outdoor coverage
Indoor coverage
Adding micro cells indoor coverage
Adding macro cells indoor coverage
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Blank Page
This page is left blank intentionally
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4.1 GSM Air Interface
4 Radio Interface
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4.1 GSM Air Interface
4.1.1 Radio Resources
Radio Spectrum Allocation
Frequency
(FDMA)
Time
(TDMA)
Timeslot
0<TN<7
TDMA Frames
0<FN<FN_MAX
Carrier Frequencies (ARFCN)
Cell
Allocation
(CA)
Mobile Allocation
(MA)
FDMA Frequency division multiple access
TDMA Time division multiple access
ARFCN Absolute radio frequency channel number
TN Timeslot number
FN Frame number
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FDMA and TDMA with 8 time slots per carrier
RF frequency band
(E)GSM: (880) 890 ... 915 MHz Uplink (MS BS)
(925) 935 ... 960 MHz Downlink (BS MS)
GSM1800: 1710 ... 1785 MHz Uplink
1805 ... 1880 MHz Downlink
200 kHz bandwidth
Number of carriers: 124 (GSM); 374 (DCS); 49 (E-GSM)
4.1 GSM Air Interface
4.1.2 GSM Transmission Principles (1)
GSM: F
lower
(n) = 890 + 0.2 n MHz with 1 n 124
E-GSM: F
lower
(n) = 890 + 0.2 n MHz with 0 n 124
F
lower
(n) = 890 + 0.2 (n -1024) MHz with 975 n 1023
DCS : F
lower
(n) = 1710.2 + 0.2 (n - 512) MHz with 512 n 885
(E)GSM: F
upper
(n) = F
lower
(n) + 45 MHz
DCS: F
upper
(n) = F
lower
(n) + 95 MHz
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4.1 GSM Air Interface
4.1.3 GSM Transmission Principles (2)
Channel t ypes
Traffic Channels (TCH)
Full rate
Half rate
Control Channels (CCH)
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
Common Control Channel (CCCH)
Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
TDMA f rame cycl es
26 cycle for traffic channels
51 cycle for control channels
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4.1 GSM Air Interface
4.1.4 Advantages of Signal Processing
Spectrum limitations
Bad propagation
conditions
P
t
Good spectrum efficiency Good transmission quality
Operator
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4.1 GSM Air Interface
4.1.5 Signal Processing Chain
stealing bit and FACCH
speech
coding
error
protection
interleaving encryption modulation
radio
channel
stealing bit and FACCH
speech
input
speech
decoding
error
correction
de-interleaving decryption demodulation
speech
output
Loss
Noise
Interference
Fading
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4 Radio Interface
4.2 Channel Coding
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.1 Speech Coding
260 bits speech block
182 class 1 bits
20 ms of coded speech
78 class 2 bits
sensitive to bit errors
must be protected
robust to bit errors
Coding algorithm: RPE-LTP
Pre-computation
RPE = Regular Pulse Excitation
Model of human voice generation
LTP = Long Term Prediction
Reduction of bit rate
Bit rate: 13 kBit/s
Coding at fixed network: PCM A-law
Bit rate: 64 kBit/s
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.2 Error Protection
Messages (signalling data)
Fire Code
184
bits
184 4
0
4
Convolutional Code
r = 1/2, K = 5
456 = 24 x
19
456 bits in 20 ms = 22.6
kbit/s
Convolutional Code
r = 1/2, K = 5
Tail bits
Parity
check
Cyclic
code
Speech (full rate)
Tail bits
Class 1a
50 bits
Class 1b
132 bits
Class 2
78 bits
= 456
= 8 x 57
37
8
78
5
0
3 132 4
260 bits
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.3 Interleaving and TDMA Frame Mapping
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
Mapping
onto
bursts
....
.
....
.
Addition of
stealing
flags
....
.
Interleaving
....
.
....
.
....
.
2 x 57
bits
Block n-1 (456
bits)
57 bits
Block n (456 bits) Block n+1 (456
bits)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
1 time
slot
114 bits 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits
116 bits 116 bits 116 bits 116 bits 116 bits 116 bits 116 bits 116 bits
burst n-3 burst n-2 burst n-1 burst n burst n+1 burst n+2 burst n+3 burst n+4
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.4 Encryption
Algorithm
A3
Random
number
generator
Algorithm
A8
IMSI
K
i
K
i
RAND (128 bit)
+
Authenticatio
n
yes/no
Algorithm
A3
Algorithm
A8
RAND
SRES (32 bit)
SIM
Card
K
i
Algorithm
A5
Algorithm
A5
+
K
c
(64 bit)
+
RAND
K
c
original
data
original
data
encrypte
d
data
encrypte
d
data
Network Mobile station
AuC
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.5 Burst Structure
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
TDMA frame = 4.615 ms
Data
Training
Sequence
Data
57 bits 3 26 bits 1 3 1 57 bits
tail bits tail bits
stealing flags
156.25 bit periods = 0.577 ms
GP GP
A burst contains one data
"portion" of one timeslot
TDMA frame: time between
two bursts with same
timeslot number
The burst also consists of:
Guard period (GP): allows for
transition and settling times
Tail bits: allow for small shifts in
time delay (synchronisation)
Stealing flags: to indicate FACCH
(control channel) data
Training sequence: for
equalization purposes
Normal Burst
0
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.4 Synchronisation
received at MS
(downlink)
transmitted from MS
(uplink)
transmitted from BTS
(downlink)
received at BTS
(uplink)
Transmitted bursts need a travelling time (TT) to the receiver
For network access, the MS sends a (non-synchronized) shortened RACH burst
The BSS measures the TT and generates a timing advance value TA which is
transmitted to the MS
0 1 2 3
1 2
0 1 2
1 2
TT TT
non-synchronized
3 TS
delay
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1
TT
TT
synchronized
RACH
MS delay line setting
1
4
2
3
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.5 Modulation
Gaussian minimum shift keying
Based on phase shift keying
Reduction of required bandwidth
Maximum phase change during one bit duration
Baseband filtering to achieve continuous phase changes

cos
sin
+
x
x

90
to RF modulator Data

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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.6 Propagation Environment
Radio propagation is characterised by dispersive multi-
path caused by reflection and scattering
Moving MS causes Doppler spectrum
Definition of propagation models in the time
domain to allow channel simulations
TUxx (Typical Urban)
RAxx (Rural Area)
HTxx (Hilly Terrain)
xx = speed in km/h
see also GSM 05.05, 11.20,
11.21
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.7 Equalizing
Purpose: equalize distortions in transmission spectrum
Adaptive filtering required
Filter parameters determined out of the training sequence
Filter parameters change from burst to burst
Equalizer takes advantage from multipath propagation (path diversity)
0.001
0.01
0.1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Delay of second path [chips]
B
E
R
none
Alcatel
MLSE
Equalizer
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.8 Definition of Bit Error Rates
FER = Frame Erasure Rate
Ratio of corrupted frames, indicated by a wrong CRC (cyclic redundancy
checksum) and BFI (bad frame indicator)
RBER = Residual Bit Error Rate
considering corrupted frames not recognized as bad frames
BER = total bit error rate
Consideration of class 1 or 2 bits e.g. RBER1b, RBER2
see also GSM 05.05, 11.20,
11.21
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BER Quality
>0.01 no communication
<0.005 bad
<0.0025 marginal
<0.0003 good
<0.0001 excellent
Thresholds:
C/I: 9 dB
E
c
/N
o
: 8 dB
BTS (GSM900): -104 dBm
HH (GSM900): -102 dBm
BTS (GSM1800): -104 dBm
HH (GSM1800): -100 dBm
4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.9 Speech Quality
HH - handheld
RXQUAL_0 BER <0,2%
RXQUAL_1 0,2%<BER<0,4%
RXQUAL_2 0,4%<BER<0,8%
RXQUAL_3 0,8%<BER<1,6%
RXQUAL_4 1,6%<BER<3,2%
RXQUAL_5 3,2%<BER<6,4%
RXQUAL_6 6,4%<BER<12,8%
RXQUAL_7 12,8%<BER
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.10 Dependence of BER on Noise and Interference
Variation of BER1 over C/I
Parameter: E
c
/N
0
How to find a quality figure?
BER1 for marginal speech quality: 0.25%
required C/I 9 dB for TU50 environment
but: signal must not be close to noise
floor!
C/I [dB]
TU50 B
E
R
1

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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.13 Frequency Hopping (1)
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
0
.
1
2
.
8
5
.
4
8
.
0
1
0
.
6
1
3
.
2
1
5
.
9
1
8
.
5
2
1
.
1
2
3
.
7
2
6
.
3
2
9
.
0
3
1
.
6
3
4
.
2
3
6
.
8
3
9
.
4
4
2
.
1
4
4
.
7
4
7
.
3
4
9
.
9
Distance [m]
R
e
c
e
i
v
e
d

P
o
w
e
r

[
d
B
m
]
Lognormal fading
Raleygh fading
Problem: specific fading
pattern for each used
frequency
Fast MS cope with the situation
(due to signal processing)
Slow MS suffer from fading
holes
Solution: change the fading
pattern by frequency hopping
Fading holes
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.14 Frequency Hopping (2)
Variation of BER1 over Ec/N0
TU environment, flat fading, v = 0
km/h (worst case)
Parameter: number of hopping
frequencies
Compensation with 4 hopping
frequencies possible
E
c
/N
0
[dB]
B
E
R

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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.15 The OSI Reference Model
Definition in GSM recommendations: layers 1 to 3
Notion of "Physical" channels and "Logical" channels
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Application layer
Presentation layer
Session layer
Transport layer
Network layer
Data link layer
Physical layer
End system End system Transportation system
04.04
08.54
04.05/06
08.56
04.07/08
08.58/4.0
8
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.16 GSM Burst Types (1)
Normal Burst
For regular transmission
Frequency Correction Burst
Contains 142 zeros (0) pure sine wave
Allows synchronisation of the mobile's local oscillator
Synchronisation Burst
Consists of an enlarged unique training sequence code (TSC)
Contains the actual FN time synchronisation
Access Burst
Shortened burst (unique TSC and enlarged guard period)
Timeslot overlapping avoided at BTS when MS accesses network
Dummy Burst
"Filler" for unused BCCH timeslots BCCH permanently on air
Similar to normal burst (defined mixed bits for data, no stealing flag)
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.17 GSM Burst Types (2)
TB
3
57 data bits 1
26 bit training
sequence
1 57 data bits
TB
3
Normal burst
GP
8.25
TB
3
142 fixed bits (pure sine wave)
TB
3
Frequency correction burst
GP
8.25
TB
3
39 data bits
64 bit training
sequence
39 data bits
TB
3
Synchronisation burst
GP
8.25
TB
8
36 data bits
41 bit synchronisation
sequence
Access burst
enlarged GP
68.25 bit
TB
3
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.18 Logical Channels
Traffic
channel
Control
channel
Speech Data
TCH/FS
TCH/HS
TCH/F9.6
TCH/F4.8
TCH/F2.4
TCH/H4.8
TCH/H2.4
CCCH
Broadcast
channel
Associated
channel
Dedicated
channel
FCCH
SCH
BCCH
RACH
PCH
AGCH
FACCH
SACCH
SDCCH
CBCH
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.19 Possible Channel Combinations
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF
TCH/H(0.1)+FACCH/H(0.1)+SACCH/TH(0.1)
TCH/H(0.0)+FACCH/H(0.1)+SACCH/TH(0.1)+TCH/H(1.1)
FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH
FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH+SDCCH/4(0..3)+SACCH/C4(0..3)
BCCH+CCCH
SDCCH/8(0..7)+SACCH/C8(0..7)
CCCH = PCH+RACH+AGCH
Combination 4 and 5 is only possible on TS0 of the first (BCCH)
carrier
Combination 6 is possible on TS2, TS4, or TS6 of the BCCH carrier
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.20 Channel Mapping (1)
time
.......
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7
one TDMA
frame = 4.616 ms
Information packages are always
related to the same timeslot number!
Bursts are transmitted and received
every TDMA frame duration (4.616 ms)
Presentation of consecutive
TDMA frames on the vertical
axis
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.21 Channel Mapping (2)
SCH
FCCH RACH
SCH
FCCH
SCH
FCCH
SCH
FCCH
SCH
FCCH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
SCH
FCCH
SCH
FCCH
SCH
FCCH
SCH
FCCH
SCH
FCCH
SCH
FCCH
SCH
FCCH
SCH
FCCH
SCH
FCCH
SCH
FCCH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
RACH
BCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
BCCH BCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
CCCH
SDCCH0
SDCCH1
SDCCH2
SDCCH3
SDCCH0
SDCCH1
SDCCH2
SDCCH3
SDCCH0
SDCCH1
SDCCH0
SDCCH1
SDCCH2
SDCCH3
SDCCH2
SDCCH3
SACCH0
SACCH1
SACCH2
SACCH3
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
SACCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
SACCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
TCH
SDCCH0
SDCCH1
SDCCH2
SDCCH3
SDCCH4
SDCCH5
SDCCH6
SDCCH7
SACCH0
SACCH1
SACCH2
SACCH3
SACCH0
SACCH1
SACCH2
SACCH3
SDCCH0
SDCCH1
SDCCH2
SDCCH3
SDCCH4
SDCCH5
SDCCH6
SDCCH7
SACCH4
SACCH5
SACCH6
SACCH7
SDCCH0
SDCCH1
SDCCH2
SDCCH3
SDCCH4
SDCCH5
SDCCH6
SDCCH7
SACCH0
SDCCH0
SDCCH1
SDCCH2
SDCCH3
SDCCH4
SDCCH5
SDCCH6
SDCCH7
SACCH1
SACCH2
SACCH3
SACCH4
SACCH5
SACCH6
SACCH7
0
10
20
30
40
50
0
10
20
30
40
50
0
12
25
0
12
25
not combined BCCH
downlink uplink downlink uplink downlink uplink
combined BCCH TCH SDCCH
up/ downlink
Control channels
Follows a 51-cycle
Duration: 235.4 msec
Consists mostly of four
consecutive blocks
Synchronisation with FCCH and
SCH
Traffic channels
Follows a 26-cycle
Duration: 120 msec
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4.2 Channel Coding
4.2.22 TDMA Frame Structure for TCHs
TB
3
57 data bits 1
26 bit training
sequence
1 57 data bits
TB
3
GP
8.2
5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Time slot
Frame
Multiframe
Superframe
Hyperframe
51 multiframes of 120 ms duration
2048 superframes of 6.12 s duration
0.577 ms
4.615 ms
120 ms
6.12 s
3 h 28 m 53 s
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Abbreviations and Acronyms
AMR Advanced Multi Rate (TC)
AMSS Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services
AN Antenna Network (BTS)
ARCS Average Reuse Cluster Size
ARFCN Absolute Radio Frequency Channel
AS Access Switch (BSC)
AS Alarm Surveillance (O&M)
ASMA A-ter Submultiplexer A
ASMB A-ter Submultiplexer B
AuC Authentication Center
BC Broadcast
BCU Broadcast Unit
BCLA BSC Clock A
BCR Broadcast Register
BCU Broadcast Unit
BCCH Broadcast Common Control Channel
(GSM TS)
BCF Base station Control Function (BTS)
BG Border Gate (GPRS)
BIE Base Station Interface Equipment
BIEC Base Station Interface Equipment (BSC)
BIUA Base Station Interface Unit A
BPA Back Panel Assembly
BSC Base Station Controller
BSIC Base Transceiver Station Identity Code
BSS Base Station (sub)System
BSSGP Base Station System GPRS Protocol
(GPRS)
BTS Base Transceiver Station
CAE Customer Application Engineering
CAL Current Alarm List (O&M)
CBC Cell Broadcast Center
CBCH Cell Broadcast Channel (GSM TS)
CBE Cell Broadcast Entity
CCCH Common Control Channel (GSM TS)
CCU Channel Coding Unit
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Abbreviations and Acronyms [cont.]
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CE Control Element (BSC)
CEK Control Element Kernel
C/I Carrier to Interferer ratio
CLK Clock
CLSI Custom Large Scale Integrated circuit
CMA Configuration Management Application (O&M)
CMDA Common Memory Disk A
CMFA Common Memory Flash A
CPR Common Processor (Type: CPRA, CPRC)
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check
CS Circuit Switching (Telecom)
CS Coding Scheme (GPRS):
CS-1, CS-2, CS-3, CS-4
CU Carrier Unit (BTS)
DCE Data Circuit Terminating Equipment
DCN Data Communication Network
DL DownLink
DLS Data Load Segment
DMA Direct Memory Access
DRFU Dual Rate Frame Unit
DRX Discontinuous Reception (GSM TS)
DSE Digital Switching Element
DSN Digital Switching Network
DTX Discontinuous Transmission (GSM TS)
DTC Digital Trunk Controller
(Type: DTCA, DTCC)
DTE Data Terminal Equipment
EDGE Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
EDA Extended Dynamic Allocation
EI Extension interface
EML Element Management Level
EPROM Erasable Programmable Read Only
Memory
ETSI European Telecom Standard Institute
FPE Functional and Protective Earth
FR Full Rate (GSM TS)
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Abbreviations and Acronyms [cont.]
FR Frame Relay (Telecom)
FRDN Frame Relay Data Network (Telecom)
FU Frame Unit (BTS)
FW Firmware
GCR Group Call Register
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node (GPRS)
GMLC Gateway Mobile Location Center
GMM GPRS Mobility Management (GPRS)
GMSC Gateway Mobile Switching Center
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GPU GPRS Packet Unit
GS-1 Group Switch of stage 1 (BSC)
GS-2 Group Switch of stage 2 (BSC)
GSL GPRS Signalling Link
GSM Global System for Mobile Communications
GSM TS GSM Technical Specification
HAL Historical Alarm List (O&M)
HDSL High rate Digital Subscriber Line
HDLC High Level Datalink Control
HLR Home Location Register
HMI Human Machine Interface
HO HandOver
HR Half Rate
HW Hardware
IDR Internal Directed Retry
ILCS ISDN Link Controller
IMT Installation and Maintenance Terminal
(MFS)
IND Indoor (BTS)
IP Internet Protocol
ISDN Integrated Services Data Network
IT Intelligent Terminal
LA Location Area (GSM TS)
LAC Location Area Code (GSM TS)
LAN Local Area Network
LED Light Emitting Diode
LEO Low Earth Orbit (Satellite)
LCS Location Services
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Abbreviations and Acronyms [cont.]
PCH Paging CHannel (GSM TS)
PCM Pulse Coded Modulation
PCU Packet Control Unit (GPRS)
PDCH Packet Data CHannel
PDN Packet Data Network (Telecom)
PDU Protocol Data Unit (generic terminology)
PLL Phase Locked Loop
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
PMA Prompt Maintenance Alarm (O&M)
PMC Permanent Measurement Campaign
(O&M)
PPCH Packet Paging CHannel (GPRS)
PRACH Packet Random Access CHannel (GPRS)
Prec Received Power
PRC Provisioning Radio Configuration (O&M)
PSDN Packet Switching Data Network
(Telecom)
PSTN Public Switching Telephone Network
(Telecom)
PTP-CNLS Point To Point CoNnectionLeSs data
transfer (GPRS)
QoS Quality of Service
RA Radio Access
RACH Random Access CHannel (GSM TS)
RAM Random Access Memory
RCP Radio Control Point
RLC Radio Link Control (GPRS)
RLP Radio Link Protocol (GSM TS)
RML Radio Management Level
RNO Radio Network Optimisation
RNP Radio Network Planning
RSL Radio Signalling Link
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Abbreviations and Acronyms [cont.]
RTS Radio Time Slot
RxLev Received Level
RxQual Received Quality
SACCH Slow Associated Control Channel
(GSM TS)
SAU Subrack assembly unit (BSC)
SC Supervised Configuration (O&M)
SCC Serial Communication Controller
SCP Service Control Point
SCCP Signalling Connection Control Part
SCSI Small Computer Systems Interface
SDCCH Standalone Dedicated Control Channel
(GSM TS)
SDU Service Data Unit (generic terminology)
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node (GPRS)
SIEA SCSI Interface Extension A
SM Submultiplexer
SMLC Serving Mobile Location Center
SMP Service Management Point
SMS Short Message Service
SMS-CB Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast
SM-GMSC Short Message Gateway Mobile Switching
Center
SRAM Static RAM
SRS SubRate Switch
SS7 Signalling System ITU-T N7 (ex CCITT)
SSD Solid State Disk
SSP Service Switching Point
SW Software
SWEL Switch Element
TBF Temporary Block Flow (GPRS)
TAF Terminal Adaptor Function
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Abbreviations and Acronyms [cont.]
TC Transcoder
TC Terminating Call
TCC Trunk Controller Chip
TCH Traffic CHannel (GSM TS)
TCIL TransCoder Internal Link
TCSM TransCoder / SubMultiplexer equipment
TCU TRX Control Unit (Type: TCUA, TCUC)
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TFO Tandem Free Operation (TC)
TFTS Terrestrial Flight Telecom Systems
TLD Top Level Design
TMN Telecommunication Management
Network
TRAC Trunk Access Circuit
TRAU Transcoder and Rate Adapter Unit
TRCU Transcoder Unit
TRE Transceiver Equipment
TRS Technical Requirement Specification
TRU Top Rack Unit
TRX Transceiver
TS Time Slot
TS Technical Specification (GSM TS)
TSS Time Space Switch
TSCA Transmission Sub-System Controller A
(BSC)
TSU Terminal Sub Unit (BSC)
TU Terminal Unit (BSC)
UL UpLink
UMTS Universal Mobile Transmission System
USSD Unstructured Supplementary Services Data
VBS Voice Broadcast Service
VGCS Voice Group Code Service
VLR Visitor Location Register
VPLMN Visited PLMN
VSWR Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (BTS)
WAN Wide Area Network
WAP Wireless Application Protocol
WBC Wide Band Combiner

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End of Module
Basics