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TOP 2 President Manuel L.

Manuel Quezon, in full Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina. The first Filipino president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines under American rule. He was president of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. For advocating Filipinolanguage amendments to the 1935 Constitution, he is known as the "Father of the National Language." In 1909 Quezon was appointed resident commissioner for the Philippines, entitled to speak, but not vote, in the U.S. House of Representatives; during his years in Washington, D.C., he fought vigorously for a speedy grant of independence by the United States. Quezon played a major role in obtaining Congress passage in 1916 of the Jones Act, which pledged independence for the Philippines without giving a specific date when it would take effect. The act gave the Philippines greater autonomy and provided for the creation of a bicameral national legislature modeled after the U.S. Congress. Quezon resigned as commissioner and returned to Manila to be elected to the newly formed Philippine Senate in 1916; he subsequently served as its president until 1935. In 1922 he gained control of the Nacionalista Party, which had previously been led by his rival Sergio Osmea. Quezon fought for passage of the TydingsMcDuffie Act (1934), which provided for full independence for the Philippines 10 years after the creation of a constitution and the establishment of a Commonwealth government that would be the forerunner of an independent republic. Quezon was elected president of the newly formulated Commonwealth on Sept. 17, 1935. His Works As A President He reorganized the islands military defense (aided by Gen. Douglas MacArthur as his special adviser) . Tackled the huge problem of landless peasants in the countryside who still worked as tenants on large estates. Promoted the settlement and development of the large southern island of Mindanao. Fought graft and corruption in the government. A new national capital, later known as Quezon City, was built in a suburb of Manila.

TOP 3 President Fidel V. Ramos

Fidel Ramos, in full Fidel Valdez Ramos, by name Eddie Ramos . President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1997. As head of the Constabulary under President Marcos, he was instrumental in helping to design and implement martial law. Together with General Ponce Enrile and the RAM, he defected from the government in 1986 and joined the Peoples Power revolution that ousted Marcos from power. His presidency is remembered for better integrating the national economy in the global scheme. Ramos was educated at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., and at the University of Illinois, U.S. He then entered the Philippine army, serving in Korea and Vietnam. In 1972 President Ferdinand Marcos (who was Ramos second cousin) appointed him chief of the Philippine Constabulary, and when Marcos imposed martial law later that year Ramos was responsible for enforcing it; the Constabulary arrested thousands of political dissidents. In 1981 Ramos became deputy chief of staff of the armed forces. Ramos was elected to succeed Aquino in May 1992. His Works As A President He purged the national police force of corrupt officers. Encouraged family-planning practices to curb the growth of the countrys population. Liberalized the Philippines heavily protected economy in order to spur economic growth.

Ramos governing coalition won a decisive victory in congressional elections held in 1995, midway through his six-year term as president. His administration reached peace agreements with two long-active guerrilla insurgencies, the communist New Peoples Army and the Muslim separatists of the Moro National Liberation Front. He meanwhile continued his efforts to deregulate major industries that were dominated by a handful of large companies and to improve the governments inefficient tax-collection system. These reforms helped revitalize the Philippines economy, which emerged from years of stagnation to grow at a rapid rate in 199497. The country was thus able to weather a severe business downturn that crippled national economies across Southeast Asia in 1998. Ramos was constitutionally restricted to one term as president, which ended in June 1998.

TOP 4 President Ramon Magsaysay

President of the Philippines from 1953 to 1957. He had been President Quirinos secretary of defense who was instrumental is suppressing the HUK rebellion. As president. President Elpidio Quirino appointed Magsaysay secretary of defense to deal with the threat of the Huks, whose leader, Luis Taruc, in February 1950 established a Peoples Liberation Army and called for the overthrow of the government. Magsaysay then carried out until 1953 one of the most successful antiguerrilla campaigns in modern history. Realizing that the Huks could not survive without popular support, he strove to win the trust of the peasants by offering land and tools to those who came over to the government side and by insisting that army units treat the people with respect. Reforming the army, he dismissed corrupt and incompetent officers and emphasized mobility and flexibility in combat operations against the guerrillas. By 1953 the Huks were no longer a serious threat, but Magsaysays radical measures had made many enemies for him within the government, compelling him to resign on February 28, when he charged the Quirino administration with corruption and incompetence. Magsaysay promised reform in every segment of Philippine life, but he was frustrated in his efforts by a conservative congress that represented the interests of the wealthy. Despite initial support of Congress in July 1955, Magsaysay was unable to pass effective land-reform legislation; government indifference to the plight of the peasants then undid most of his good work in gaining the support of the people against the Huks. Nevertheless, he remained extremely popular and had a well-deserved reputation for incorruptibility. In foreign policy, Magsaysay remained a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman against communism during the Cold War. He made the Philippines a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, which was established in Manila on Sept. 8, 1954. Before the expiration of his term as president, Magsaysay was killed in an airplane crash; he was succeeded by the vice president, Carlos P. Garcia.

TOP 5 President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo

Arroyo was a university professor when Pres. Corazon Aquino appointed her undersecretary of

trade and industry in 1986. She won a seat in the Senate in 1992 and was reelected in 1995 by a record 16 million votes. She was elected vice president in 1998, garnering more votes than the winner of the presidency, Joseph Estrada, who named Arroyo secretary of social welfare and development. In 2000, however, a corruption scandal enveloped Estrada, and on October 12 Arroyo resigned from the cabinet post to rally opposition against him. Angry protesters drove Estrada from the presidential residence on January 20, 2001, and Arroyo assumed power. Arroyo brought an unprecedented academic and administrative background to the Philippines presidency, but her tenure was plagued by political unrest. Just months after she took office, some 20,000 supporters of Estrada stormed the gates of the presidential palace. Several people were killed, and Arroyo declared a state of rebellion that lasted five days. In 2003 disaffected soldiers seized a Manila apartment building and demanded Arroyos resignation; the attempted coup was suppressed peacefully. Promising to reduce corruption and improve the economy, Arroyo was reelected president in 2004. However, accusations that she rigged the election emerged the following year and resulted in a failed attempt at impeachment. In 2006 Arroyo declared a countrywide state of emergency after a military coup was blocked; the state of emergency was lifted after about one week. Terrorism was also a concern for Arroyos administration. Abu Sayyaf, a terrorist group that sought a separate Islamic state in the southern Philippines, was responsible for a number of attacks, including the 2004 bombing of a ferry that killed more than 100 people. In late 2009, after members of a politically powerful clan in Mindanao were implicated in the massacre of a political opponent and his entourage there, Arroyo briefly declared martial law in the region. She also renounced ties with the clan, which until then had been a political ally. Constitutionally barred from seeking another six-year presidential term, she ran for and won a seat in the House of Representatives in the May 2010 presidential and parliamentary elections.

TOP 6 President Elpidio Quirino

Elpidio Quirino, political leader and second president of the independent Republic of the Philippines. In 1934 he was a member of the Philippine independence mission to Washington, D.C., headed by Manuel Quezon, which secured the passage in Congress of the TydingsMcDuffie Act, setting the date for Philippine independence as July 4, 1946. He was also elected to the convention that drafted a constitution for the new Philippine Commonwealth. Subsequently he served as secretary of finance and secretary of the interior in the Commonwealth government. After World War II, Quirino served as secretary of state and vice president under the first president of the independent Philippines, Manuel Roxas. When Roxas died on April 15, 1948, Quirino succeeded to the presidency. The following year, he was elected president for a fouryear term on the Liberal Party ticket, defeating the Nacionalista candidate. President Quirinos administration faced a serious threat in the form of the Communist-led Hukbalahap (Huk) movement. Though the Huks originally had been an anti-Japanese guerrilla army in Luzon, the Communists steadily gained control over the leadership, and, when Quirinos negotiations with Huk commander Luis Taruc broke down in 1948, Taruc openly declared himself a Communist and called for the overthrow of the government. By 1950 the Huks had gained control over a considerable portion of Luzon, and Quirino appointed the able Ramon Magsaysay as secretary of national defense to suppress the insurrection. His Works As A President Notable postwar reconstruction General economic gains Increased economic aid from the United States.

Basic social problems, however, particularly in the rural areas, remained unsolved; Quirinos administration was tainted by widespread graft and corruption. The 1949 elections, which he had won, were among the most dishonest in the countrys history. Magsaysay, who had been largely successful in eliminating the threat of the Huk insurgents, broke with Quirino on the issue of corruption, campaigning for clean elections and defeating Quirino as the Nacionalista candidate in the presidential election of 1953. Subsequently, Quirino retired to private life.

TOP 7 President Diosdado Macapagal

Diosdado Macapagal, President of the Republic of the Philippines from 1961 to 1965, reformist president of the Philippines from 1961 to 1965. After receiving his law degree, Macapagal was admitted to the bar in 1936. During World War II he practiced law in Manila and aided the anti-Japanese resistance. After the war he worked in a law firm and in 1948 served as second secretary to the Philippine Embassy in Washington, D.C. The following year he was elected to a seat in the Philippine House of Representatives, serving until 1956. During this time he was Philippine representative to the United Nations General Assembly three times. From 1957 to 1961 Macapagal was a member of the Liberal Party and vice president under Nacionalista president Carlos Garcia. In the 1961 elections, however, he ran against Garcia, forging a coalition of the Liberal and Progressive parties and making a crusade against political corruption a principal element of his platform. He was elected by a wide margin. While president, Macapagal worked to suppress graft and corruption and to stimulate the Philippine economy. His Works As A President He placed the peso on the free currency-exchange market Encouraged exports Passed the countrys first land-reform legislation Sought to curb income tax evasion, particularly by the wealthiest families, which cost the treasury millions of pesos yearly.

His reforms, however, were crippled by a House of Representatives and Senate dominated by the Nacionalistas, and he was defeated in the 1965 presidential elections by Ferdinand Marcos. In 1972 he chaired the convention that drafted the 1973 constitution, but in 1981 he questioned the validity of its ratification. In 1979 he organized the National Union for Liberation as an opposition party to the Marcos regime.

TOP 8 President Manuel Roxas

Manuel Roxas, (born Jan. 1, 1892, Capiz, Phil.died April 15, 1948, Clark Field, Pampanga), political
leader and first president (194648) of the independent Republic of the Philippines. After studying law at the University of the Philippines, near Manila, Roxas began his political career in 1917 as a member of the municipal council of Capiz (renamed Roxas in 1949). He was governor of the province of Capiz in 191921 and was then elected to the Philippine House of Representatives, subsequently serving as Speaker of the House and a member of the Council of State. In 1923 he and Manuel Quezon, the president of the Senate, resigned in protest from the Council of State when the U.S. governor-general (Leonard Wood) began vetoing bills passed by the Philippine legislature. In 1932 Roxas and Sergio Osmea, the Nacionalista Party leader, led the Philippine Independence Mission to Washington, D.C., where they influenced the passage of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act. Roxas was later opposed by Quezon, who held that the act compromised future Philippine independence; the Nacionalista Party was split between them on this issue. In 1934, however, Roxas was a member of the convention that drew up a constitution under the revised Philippine Independence and Commonwealth Act (Tydings-McDuffie Act). Roxas also served as secretary of finance in the Commonwealth government (193840). During World War II Roxas served in the pro-Japanese government of Jos Laurel by acquiring supplies of rice for the Japanese army. Although a court was established after the war to try collaborators, Roxas was defended by his friend General Douglas MacArthur. Roxas was elected president of the Commonwealth in 1946 as the nominee of the liberal wing of the Nacionalista Party (which became the Liberal Party), and, when independence was declared on July 4, he became the first president of the new republic. Although Roxas was successful in getting rehabilitation funds from the United States after independence, he was forced to concede military bases (23 of which were leased for 99 years), trade restrictions for Philippine citizens, and special privileges for U.S. property owners and investors. His administration was marred by graft and corruption; moreover, the abuses of the provincial military police contributed to the rise of the left-wing Hukbalahap (Huk) movement in the countryside. His heavy-handed attempts to crush the Huks led to widespread peasant disaffection. Roxas died in office in 1948 and was succeeded by his vice president, Elpidio Quirino.

TOP 11 President Emilio Aguinaldo

The insurgent First Philippine Republic was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 21, 1899 in Malolos, Bulacan and endured until the capture of Emilio Aguinaldo by the American forces on March 23, 1901 in Palanan, Isabela, which effectively dissolved the First Republic. Filippino historians are ambiguous about Aguinaldos role in the history of the Philippines. Some scholars view him as an example of the leading role taken by members of the landowning elite in the revolution. Emilio Aguinaldos Presidency A. He ordered the execution of Andress Bonifacio, the founder and leader of the Katipunan, and his brother Procopio. They were executed by a firing squad on May 10, 1897 at Mount Hulog. On December 1897, he signed the Pact of Biak na Bato agreeing to the Spanish government that he would end the hostilities and end his government in exchange of the amnesty and the money. But while in exile in Hongkong along with other Katipunan officials, he used this money in buying more guns for his fighters and then organized another government for the Philippines. And with the help of American general, Dewey, Aguinaldo and companions returned to Manila on May 1898. He led his governments army in assisting the Americans in defeating the Spaniards. On June 1898, he declared the Philippine Independence. But his declaration was not recognized by the American and Spanish government. He is the first to order the opening of schools for Filipinos making Elementary school free and compulsory. He ordered the reorganizing of the municipal and provincial governments. He led the Filipinos in fighting against Americans during the Filipino-American war. He was believed the mastermind behind the killing of General Antonio Luna in 1899 because the assailants were his men, and they were not investigated and not punished. He escaped while 60 Filipino soldier led by General Gregorio del Pilar fought and died during the battle at Tirad Pass in November 1899 against the American soldiers. In 1901, he took aught of allegiance to the United States. He organized the Association of Veterans of the Revolution which helped its members in securing pension. During the Japanese Occupation, he made appeals to General Douglas McArthur to surrender to the Japanese government to spare the lives of the Filipinos.


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TOP 12 President Benigno Aquino III

Benigno Aquino III, in full Benigno Cojuangco Aquino III, also called PNoy. Simeon

He was the son of Corazon Aquino, who served as president of the Philippines (198692), and political leader Benigno Simeon Aquino, Jr.themselves the children of politically connected families. The elder Benigno, an opposition figure to Pres. Ferdinand Marcos who was imprisoned when the younger Benigno was a child, was released and allowed to go to the United States in 1980. The following year the younger Benigno, after graduating from Ateneo de Manila University with a bachelors degree in economics, followed his family to Boston. His father returned to the Philippines in 1983 intending to challenge Marcos for the presidency but was assassinated immediately on arrival. The family nevertheless returned to the country soon afterward, and there the young Aquino worked for companies including Philippine Business for Social Progress and Nike Philippines. He became vice president of his familys Best Security Agency Corporation in 1986, the same year that his mother was named president of the Philippines after her opposition party successfully charged incumbent President Marcos with voting fraud. Aquino left the company in 1993 to work for another family-owned business, a sugar refinery. Finally, in 1998, he made the move to politics as a member of the Liberal Party, serving the constitutional maximum of three consecutive terms as a representative of the 2nd district of Tarlac province. During this time he also served as deputy speaker of the House of Representatives (200406), but he resigned from the post in advance of joining other Liberal Party leaders in making a call for the resignation of Pres. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (200110), who was accused of corrupt dealings including the rigging of the 2004 presidential election. From 2006 Aquino served as vice-chairman of the Liberal Party, and in 2007, at the end of his final term in the House of Representatives, he made a successful bid for a Senate seat. In September 2009 Aquino announced his candidacy in the 2010 presidential race. His mother, to many a symbol of democratic rule in the Philippines, had died the previous month, an event that heightened Aquinos profile and served as a catalyst for his seeking higher office. Though his opponents for the presidency included such seasoned politicians as Joseph Estrada, who had previously served as president of the Philippines (19982001), Aquino was considered the front-runner from the time that he entered the race. In the elections held on May 10, Aquino won the presidency by a wide margin.

TOP 13 President Joseph Ejercito Estrada

Joseph Estrada, original name Joseph Ejercito (born April 19, 1937, Manila, Phil.), Filipino actor and politician who served as president of the Philippines (19982001). In 1968 Estrada entered politics, successfully running for the mayorship of the Manila suburb of San Juan, a post he retained until 1986. In 1969 he was elected to the Senate. In 1992 he ran for vice president on the National Peoples Coalition ticket. Although the partys presidential candidate, Eduardo Cojuangco, Jr., lost the election to Fidel Ramos, Estrada won the vice presidential contest. In 1998 Estrada ran for president, though his candidacy faced significant opposition. Ramos, who was constitutionally barred from running for a second term, endorsed House Speaker Jos de Venecia, and many of the countrys powerful businessmen opposed Estradas populist proposals. The Roman Catholic Church denied Estrada its support because he had admitted to having fathered four children by women other than his wife. However, he did have the support of Imelda Marcos, the widow of former president Ferdinand Marcos and then a member of Congress, and he enjoyed a devoted following among the countrys poor. Estrada managed to capture nearly 40 percent of the vote, handily defeating his nearest rival, de Venecia, who garnered only 15.9 percent. The margin of victory was the largest in a free election in the history of the Philippines, and Estrada was officially declared president by Congress on May 29, 1998. Estradas tenure as president was short-lived, however, as a corruption scandal erupted in October 2000 when a fellow politician claimed that Estrada had accepted millions of dollars worth of bribes. In November the Philippine Senate began an impeachment trial, but it was abandoned after some senators blocked the admission of evidence. On Jan. 20, 2001, Estrada was ousted amid mass protests, and his vice president, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, ascended to the presidency. Later that year Estrada was brought to trial on charges of plunder (large-scale corruption) and accused of having procured more than $80 million through bribes and corrupt dealings. Estrada denied the accusations, calling them politically motivated, and he remained relatively popular in the Philippines despite the charges. In September 2007 he was convicted of plundering and sentenced to a maximum of 40 years in prison.

TOP 14 President Corazon C. Aquino

President of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. With Salvador Laurel as running mate, she led the opposition that overthrew the authoritarian government of Marcos, who went into exile after the successful Peoples Power revolution of 1986. She first established a revolutionary government under the Freedom Constitution, later replaced by the Constitution of 1987, which served as the basis for reestablishing democracy Corazon Cojuangco was born into a wealthy, politically prominent family based in Tarlac province, north of Manila. She graduated from Mount St. Vincent College in New York City in 1954 but abandoned further studies in 1955 to marry Benigno Simeon Aquino, Jr., who was then a promising young politician. Corazon remained in the background during her husbands subsequent career, rearing their five children at home. Her husband, who had become a prominent opposition politician, was jailed by Marcos for eight years (197280), and Corazon accompanied him into exile in the United States in 1980. Benigno was assassinated upon his return to the Philippines in August 1983. This event galvanized opposition to the Marcos government. When Ferdinand E. Marcos unexpectedly called for presidential elections in February 1986, Corazon Aquino became the unified oppositions presidential candidate. Though she was officially reported to have lost the election to Marcos, Aquino and her supporters challenged the results, charging widespread voting fraud. High officials in the Philippine military soon publicly renounced Marcos continued rule and proclaimed Aquino the Philippines rightful president. On Feb. 25, 1986, both Aquino and Marcos were inaugurated as president by their respective supporters. In March 1986 Aquino proclaimed a provisional constitution and soon thereafter appointed a commission to write a new constitution. The resulting document, which restored the bicameral Congress abolished by Marcos in 1973, was ratified by a landslide popular vote in February 1987. Aquino held elections to the new Congress and broke up the monopolies held by Marcos allies over the economy, which experienced steady growth for several years. But she failed to undertake fundamental economic or social reforms, and her popularity steadily declined as she faced continual outcries over economic injustice and political corruption. These problems were exacerbated by persistent warfare between the communist insurgency and a military whose loyalties to Aquino were uncertain. In general, her economic policies were criticized for being mixed or faltering in the face of mass poverty. Aquino was succeeded in office by her former defense secretary, Fidel Ramos.

TOP 15 - Worst President Jose P. Laurel

Jos Paciano Laurel, president of the Philippines (194345), during the Japanese occupation of World War II. After receiving law degrees from the University of the Philippines (1915) and from Yale University (1920), he was elected to the Philippine Senate in 1925 and appointed associate justice of the Supreme Court in 1936. After the Pearl Harbor attack, Laurel stayed in Manila after President Manuel Quezon escaped first to Bataan and then to the United States. He offered his services to the Japanese; and because of his criticism of U.S. rule of the Philippines he held a series of high posts in 194243, climaxing in his selection as president in 1943. Twice in that year he was shot by Philippine guerrillas but recovered. In July 1946 he was charged with 132 counts of treason but was never brought to trial; he shared in the general amnesty in April 1948. As the Nationalist Partys nominee for the presidency of the Republic of the Philippines in 1949, he was narrowly defeated by the incumbent president, Elpidio Quirino, nominee of the Liberal Party. Elected to the Senate in 1951, Laurel helped to persuade Ramn Magsaysay, then secretary of defense, to desert the Liberals and join the Nationalists. When Magsaysay became president, Laurel headed an economic mission that in 1955 negotiated an agreement to improve economic relations with the United States. He retired from public life in 1957.

TOP 9 President Sergio Osmea

The first Filipino national leader under the American regime as speaker of the Philippine assembly and the second president of the Philippines (1944-1946). Osmea received a law degree from the University of Santo Toms, Manila, in 1903. He was also editor of a Spanish newspaper, El Nuevo Da, in Cebu City. In 1904 the U.S. colonial administration appointed him governor of the province of Cebu and fiscal (district attorney) for the provinces of Cebu and Negros Oriental. Two years later he was elected governor of Cebu. In 1907 he was elected delegate to the Philippine National Assembly and founded the Nationalist Party, which came to dominate Philippine political life.Osmea remained leader of the Nationalists until 1921, when he was succeeded by Manuel Quezon, who had joined him in a coalition. Made speaker of the House of Representatives in 1916, he served until his election to the Senate in 1923. In 1933 he went to Washington, D.C., to secure passage of the HareHawes Cutting independence bill, but Quezon differed with Osmea over the bills provision to retain U.S. military bases after independence. The bill, vetoed by the Philippine Assembly, was superseded by the TydingsMcDuffie Act of March 1934, making the Philippines a commonwealth with a large measure of independence. The following year Osmea became vice president, with Quezon as president. He remained vice president during the Japanese occupation, when the government was in exile in Washington, D.C. On the death of Quezon in August 1944, Osmea became president.

TOP 10 President Carlos P. Garcia

Carlos Polestico Garcia, (born Nov. 4, 1896, Talibon, Phil.died June 14, 1971, Quezon City), fourth president of the Republic of the Philippines. After graduating from law school in 1923, he became, successively, a schoolteacher, representative in the Philippine Congress, governor of his province (Bohol), and then (194153) senator. During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in World War II, Garcia was active in the resistance movement. He was elected vice president on the ticket of the Nacionalista Party in 1953 and was also minister of foreign affairs (195357). He became president of the Philippines in March 1957, upon the death of Pres. Ramon Magsaysay, and was elected to a full four-year term the same year. He maintained the strong traditional ties with the United States and sought closer relations with non-Communist Asian countries. In the election of November 1961 he was defeated by Vice Pres. Diosdado Macapagal.

TOP 1 - Best President Ferdinand E. Marcos

Ferdinand E. Marcos, in full Ferdinand Edralin Marcos , philippine lawyer and politician who, as head of state from 1966 to 1986, established an authoritarian regime in the Philippines that came under criticism for corruption and for its suppression of democratic processes. I believe as a student that Ferdinand Marcos is the best president of our country. He may had bad or wrong acts as a president yet his accomplishment is great and that no one could do better than him.

Ferdinand Marcos Achievements Its undeniable Marcos had achievements in his lifetime. Here are some inscribed into the roll Awarded 33 medals as combat intelligence officer in WWII the most decorated soldier in Philippine history.

Elected thrice as Congressman; elected as Senator with the highest number of votes; became Senate President in spite of being in the minority party. Caused the most conclusive development of the countrys physical economy, more than any Filipino leader, past and present. Caused the Philippines to experience, even shortly so, self-sufficiency in rice and corn production resulting to the first ever Philippine rice exportation in the 70s. Declared Martial Law Philippines style civilian authority remained supreme over the military. First to pushed land reform on a national scale abolishing tenancy and emancipating the tenants from the bondage of the soil by transferring to them the ownership of the land they till in 1972. Initiated the formation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to combat the communist threat in the region. Created the Department of Tourism in 1973 to intensify the tourism industry in the country. He wrote too many laws still used by succeeding administrations, and very few were repealed

Reforms and Projects he made for New Society: I. Peace and Order Martial law to restore peace and order Criminals were either captured and detained or killed II. Land Reforms Exploitation of the poor and landless peasants by their landlords Presidential Decree No. 2 - proclaiming the whole country as a reform area Presidential Decree No. 27 abolishes tenancy By the end of martial law in 1981, 532, 153 tenant-farmers had become owners of rice and corn lands in 45 provinces. III. Educational Reforms Marcos believed that education was a very important role towards the goal of the New Society. President Marcos vowed that his administration shall educate our children, our men and women, and ourselves. Education Development Decree of 1972 defines a more responsive role for the education system IV. Labor Reforms First Labor Day Presidential Decree No. 21 fast and just settlements of disputes through the National Labor Relations Commission Presidential Decree 99 minimum wages for household helpers Presidential Decree No. 143 Blue Sunday Law (mandatory rest for every worker once a week) Presidential Decree No. 148 eliminates anti-employment provisions of the Woman and Child Labor Law Presidential Decree No. 197 More effective apprenticeship program V. Govt Reorganization Presidential Decree No. 1 Integrated Reorganization Plan (dismiss corrupt officials) (a total of 6, 655 employees were dismissed VI. Social Services The Marcos Administration extended social services to the people, focusing on poors Aim to make the people self-reliant and productive 1. Health and Nutrition 2. Family Planning 3. Housing and Human Settlements Masagana 99 We became the top exporters of rice Liberal credit and extension work was the secret of Masagana 99 Educated agricultural technicians Provided farmers with full credit support After 3 years, the Philippines experienced its highest productivity increase in rice production (1976-1985)

Masagana 99 uplifted the lives of the farmers Mobilized government resources to help the farmers in rural areas (helicopters, etc..) Encourages economical growth Farmers were given technical and financial aid as well as other incentives Good Effects: Economic growth rate increases from 5% to 6-7% (1970-1980) The GNP increases from P55 billion (1972) to P193 billion (1980)

Development of Infrastructures Buildings: Hospitals Specialty Hospitals Philippine Heart Center, Lung Center, Kidney Institute, Philippine Children Hospital Schools Power Plants geothermal plants, hydroelectric plants An International Airport Housing Projects Restorations Intramuros, Luneta Park, etc Philippine International Convention Center Makiling Center for the Arts (National Arts Center) Malacaang ti Amianan (Laoag) Nayong Pilipino Museum for Native Art (Tacloban) Palace In the Sky (Tagaytay) Government Buildings These achievements gave the Philippines a taste of economic prosperity throughout the 1970s Bridges: San Juanico Bridge (Samar and Leyte) Toll-Ways: Manila North Diversion Road Roads and Highways: Marcos Highway (Baguio) Open-Door Policy Built up relationships with countries who were enemies with the United States Being the Iron Butterfly, Imelda Marcos, with her charm, went on foreign trips to open trade relationships, exchange culture and get financial assistance. It was an open-door policy mainly on trade and cultural relations Started trading with countries with Russia and China and other socialist countries It was a cautious open-door policy Political Achievements 1973 Constitution Republic Act No. 6132 1970 Constitutional Convention Act Presidential Decree No. 73 date of the plebiscite General Order No. 20 postponing the plebiscite Proclamation No. 1102 Constitution was ratified (organized by Marcos through Presidential Decree No. 86) Batasang Bayan and the IBP (Interim Batasang Pambansa Presidential Decree No. 995 created the Batasang Bayan

1980 and 1981 Amendments 1973 Constitution Retirement age = 70 Modified parliamentary system 1984 Amendments 1973 Constitution Abolished Executive Committee Vice President constitutional authoritarianism as understood and practiced in the New Society Economic Achievements Economic Prosperity during the 1970s and the early 1980s Farmers had price support and financial support Self-sufficient in rice exports Kilusang Kabuhayan at Kaunlaran Overseas Filipino Workers

Social Achievements New Society Educational Reforms, Labor Reforms, Land Reforms Social Services Housing Projects

Conclusion Although Marcos was branded as dictator, corrupt, human rights violator by fictional tales passed on from generation to generation and his achievements were expunged subtly by the manipulation of mass media and vindictiveness of the administration that succeeded him, the impacts of his interventions remained and are undeniably germane part of our countrys system.

Ranking of Philippine Presidents

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Ferdinand E. Marcos Manuel L. Quezon Fidel V. Ramos Ramon Magsaysay Gloria Macapagal Arroyo Elpidio Quirino Disdoda Macapagal Manuel Roxas Sergio Osmena Crlos P. Garcia Emilio Aguinaldo Benigno Aquino III Joseph Ejercito Estrada Corazon C. Aquino Jose P. Laurel