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# Figure 12.1 Circuit symbol for the comparator. If v1 > v2, then vo is high; if v1 < v2, then vo is low.

## 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.2 Transfer characteristics of ideal comparators. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.3 Transfer characteristic of a real comparator. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.4 The LM111 has an open-collector output. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.5 The input voltage vin is compared to the reference voltage Vr. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.6 Noise added to the input signal can cause undesired transitions in the output signal. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.7 A Schmitt trigger is formed by using positive feedback with a comparator. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

## Figure 12.8 Noninverting Schmitt trigger. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.9 Schmitt triggers that can be designed to have specified thresholds. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.10 Schmitt trigger designed in Example 12.1. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.11 Input voltage and output voltage versus time for the circuit of Figure 12.10. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.12 Transfer characteristic for the Schmitt trigger of Example12.1. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

## Figure 12.13 Answer for Exercise12.1. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.14

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Figure 12.15 Answer for Exercise 12.3. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

## Figure 12.16b Astable multivibrator. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.17 Waveforms of Figure 12.16b with t = 0 at the start of a positive half-cycle of vo(t). 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.18 Astable multivibrator designed in Example 12.3. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.19 Simulated voltages for the circuit of Figure 12.18. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.20 Circuit for Exercise 12.5. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.21 Answer for Exercise 12.5b. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.22 Circuit for Exercise 12.6. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.23 Answer for Exercise 12.6b. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.24 Simplified functional block diagram of 555 timer IC. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

## Figure 12.26 Astable oscillator. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.27 Circuit for Exercises 12.7 and 12.8. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.28 Simple rectifier circuits such as this are not suitable for precision rectification of small-amplitude ac signals. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

## Figure 12.34 Precision peak detector. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.35 Answers for Exercise 12.13. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

## Figure 12.37b Precision clamp circuit. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.38a Answers for Exercise 12.14. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.38b Answers for Exercise 12.14. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

## Figure 12.39 Analog-to-digital conversion. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.40 The DAC output is a staircase approximation to the original signal. Filtering removes the sharp corners. (Note: In addition to smoothing, the filter delays the signal. The delay is not shown.) 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.41 Circuit symbol for a digital-to-analog converter. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.42 DACs can be implemented using a weighted-resistance network. (Note: If di = 1, the corresponding switch is to the right-hand side. For di = 0, the i th switch is to the left-hand side.) 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.43 An R -- 2R ladder network. The resistance seen looking into each section is 2R. Thus, the reference current splits in half at each node. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.44 An n-bit DAC based on the R2R ladder network. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.45 A practical n-bit DAC based on BJT technology that uses emitter-coupled pairs as current switches. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

## Figure 12.46b Switched-capacitance DACs. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.47 Conceptual block diagram of an analog-to-digital converter. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

## Figure 12.48 A flash converter. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.

Figure 12.49 Output versus input for a 3-bit ADC. 2000 Prentice Hall Inc.