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BIOGRAPHIES

OF

PERSIAN POETS.

TRANSLATED BF

EDWARD

G.

BROWNE,

MA., M.R.A.s.

the

"JoUKNAI. OF THK

ItoYVI.

A^IATU

.1)1.

13

1146039

721

ART.

XXVI.
Ch. V,
6,

Biographies of Persian Poets containt / of the Tdrikh-i-Guzida, or "Select History,"

of Hamdu'lldh

EDWARD

Translated Miistawfi of Qazwin. G. BROWNE, M.A., M.R.A.S.

by

IN pursuance of the plan

set forth in my article on the Sources of Dairlntxhah (J.R.A.S. for Jan., 1899, pp. 37-69), I propose in this place to give a translation of that section

(the

sixth

of the

fifth

chapter) of

the

Turikh

- i -

Guz^/.t

treats of the Persian poets. On the importance of that excellent historical manual, which I hope to include

which
in

my

Persian Text Series, I have already insisted in the


article

and 53-54) and of was especially directed by the references made to it by Dawlatshah, I long These I was more ago prepared a text and translation. than once on the point of publishing, but certain difficulties
(pp. 39, 40,
;

above-mentioned

this particular section, to

which

my

attention

and I waited in the remained, on each revision, insoluble of obtaining further material or fuller light. Of these hope " Pahlavi " difficulties the chief were the so - called (i.e.
;

dialect) verses of Abu'l-Majid Rayagani, l/yanj or l/tanj, Julaha of Abhar, 'Izzu'd-Din Hamadani, Kafi-i-Karaji, and

other poets, who, not content with the classical language, chose to employ the dialects of their native places as the
vehicle
cases,

of their thoughts.

These dialects have, in most


Tdrikh

either

become

extinct, or

since
(A.H.

the

time when

the

undergone great changes, - i - Gnz'uia was written

1330) ; and since we possess but little of them, while such fragments as are preserved knowledge have generally been hopelessly mutilated and corrupted by

730

= A.D.

a succession of scribes, copying one from another, to they were as unintelligible as they are to us, there

whom
is

but

722
little

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS IN TiRIKH-I-GTJZfDA.


ever
arrive
at

hope that we shall understanding of them.

complete

is

Now it is always humiliating to publish texts which one unable to understand or explain, and of which one cannot
;

constitute

guarantee the correctness yet since these enigmatical verses but a small proportion of the section of the

Guzida which I wish to render accessible to other students


of Persian literature, and since the existence of so
dialect-poetry in Persia in the Middle
is

much

Ages and important fact, and one deserving further attention, I have finally decided to publish my work, hoping that others may be more fortunate than- myself in the explanation of these dark sayings. I have, of course, collated all the older manuscripts to which I had access in these portions, and I owe especial thanks to Baron Rosen, of St. Petersburg, who, with his usual kindness, has copied and transmitted
to

an interesting

me

of the

the texts of these verses as they occur in the MS. Guzida, dated A.H. 847, belonging to the Musee

and in that of the Institut des Langues Asiatique ; Orientales (No. 260 No. 6 of Baron Rosen's Manuscrits Persons de I' Institut, p. 52), dated A.H. 855.
:

My
this
it

original intention was to publish the entire text of section with a translation, but on maturer thought

appeared to

me

that

it

would be

sufficient to include

in my English rendering the text of the verses cited, the more so because, as I have said, I intend, if possible, to

print the text of the whole book in my Persian Text Series. Some few of the verses cited, apart from the unintelligible
dialect- verses of

which I have just spoken, are


the
text

so coarse

that

have
is

left

untranslated

otherwise

the

as complete as I could make it, and represents the fullest text that I have been able to reconstruct from

translation

the manuscripts at my disposal ; for in most manuscripts there are some lacunae, while in some the whole section is

At best, however, it bears evident unfortunately wanting. traces of having lacked a final revision by the author ; " his name was since the gaps after such expressions as
. .
. .

,"

"he was

a contemporary of

....,"

SOURCES AND PLAN OF TXRfKH-I-GUZfl>A.


and the
like,

723
save

are

common

to

ull

the

manuscripts,

where, for the sake of concealing these defects, the scribe has suppressed these and similar uncompleted sentences.

were also saints


of

I should add that some biographies of Persian poets, who (like San&'i of Ghazna and Awhadu'd-Din

Kirman) or men of science (like Avicenna and Abu'lFath of Bust), are given in the earlier sections of this fifth These chapter, which deals with biography in general.
are not included in

my

translation.

The

chief

sources

of
:

the
(t)

Guzida,

enumerated in the

Preface, are as
;

follows

Siyant' n-Nabi (presumably

Ibn Hisham) (2) Qisasu'l-Anbiyd (probably the work of that name by ath-Tha'alibi) (3) the Risdla of al-Qushayri (4) the TadhkiraMl-Awliyd (probably Faridu'd-Din 'Attar's); (5) the Tadicin (probably the work properly entitled Raipdu'rRiydhin) of al-Yafi'i (6) the Tajdribu* l-umam (probably the work of Ibn Miskawayh) (7) the Mashdribu't-Tajdrib (see
; ;
;

Haji Khalifa, No. 12,043); (8) Diicdnu'n-Nanab-, (9) Tabari; (10) Hamza of Isfahan; (11) Ibnu'l Athir ; (12) the
Zubdatu't-Tawdrikh of Jamalu'd-Din Abu'l-Qasim of Kashan; (14) the (13) the Nidhdmu't Tawdnkh of al Baydawi
;

'Uyunu't-Twcdrikh of Abu Talib 'All al-Khazin al-Baghdadi; (16) Juwayni's (15) Ibn Qutayba's Kitdbii'l Ha'drif Abu Sharaf Jarbadhaqani's translation Jahdn-Kushd (17)
;
;

of al-'Utbi's
(18)

the Nidhamu'l
:

monograph on Sultan Mahmud the Ghaznavid - Mulk's Siyaru'l- Muluk (that is, the
;

Siydsat-ndma
(19) the

see

J.R.A.S.

for Jan., 1899, p. 41, No. 24)


;

the Saljuq-ndnia of Dhahiri of Nishapiir ; (21) the Majma' -i -Arbdbu'l- Mulk of Qadi Ruknu'd-Din of Khuy (22) the latidh/tdru' l-akhbdr
(20)
;

Shdhndma of Firdawsi

of

Qadi

Ahmad
"

of

Damghan

(23) the Jdmi'u't-Taicdrikh of

the author's

martyred master

"

Rashidu'd-Din.

The arrangement and contents of the Guzida


as follows
:

are in brief

Introduction.

On

the

Creation

and

Disposition

of

the

Universe.

724

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS IN TlnfKH-1-GUZfDA.


I.

Chapter

On

Men who

the Prophets, Religious Leaders and Wise worked for the guidance of mankind before

the time of

Muhammad,

in

two sections
(ii)

ordinary and extraordinary;

(i) Prophets, Philosophers and Sages.


:

Chapter II. Pre-Islamic Kings, in four sections: (i) Pishdadi or (iii) Tribal Kings (Muluku't-Tawd'if) (ii) Kayani Parthians ; (iv) Sasanians.
; ;

Chapter III.

Muhammad and

his

Companions and Descen;

dants, in an introduction

and

six sections: (Introduction)


(i)

His genealogy, pedigree, and kin wives, relations, and descendants


Caliphs, including al-Hasan
;

his

life,

wars,

(ii)

the

orthodox

(iii)

the Twelve Imams,


;

from

of the

some (iv) Husayn " and " Followers " (v) the Companions Umayyad "Kings" (the Author refuses them the title
al
-

to

the

Imam Mahdi

"

of Khalifa

!)

(vi)

the 'Abbasid Caliphs.

Chapter IV.
(i)

The Muhammadan Dynasties, in twelve sections, The Saffaris (A.H. 253-287), 3 in number, The Samanis (A.H. 287-389), 9 in number, The Ghaznawis (A.H. 390-545), 14 in number, The Ghuris (A.H. 545-609), 5 in number, The Daylamis, or House of Buwayh (A.H. 321-448),
17 in number.

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

The Saljuqs (a) of Persia (A.H. 429-590), 14 in number; (b) of Kirman (A.H. 433-583), 11 in number; (c) of Asia Minor (A.H. 480-679), 14
in

number.

(vii) (viii)

The Khwarazmshahs (A.H. 491-628), 9 in number, The Atabeks (a) of Diyar Bakr and Syria (A.H. 481-601), 9 in number (b) of Fars (the Sal;

gharids), A.H. 543-663, 11 in number,


(ix)

The

Isma'llis (a) of

Egypt and North Africa


;

(the

Fatimid Caliphs, A.H. 296-556) (b} the Assassins of Persia (A.H. 483654), 8 in number,
(x)

The Qara-Khita'is
in

of

Kirman

(A.H. 621-706), 10

number.

CONTENTS AND M88. OF TA*RfKH-I-QUZfDA.


(xi)

725

The Atabeks

of Luristan (<i) of Lur-i-Buzurg (A.H. 10 in number; (b) of Lur-i-Kuchak 550-730), (A.H. 580-730), 11 in number.
(or

(xii)

The Monghols
730), 13 in

Mughals) of Persia

(A.H.

599-

number down to the time of the " let him who will write Author, who says,
hereafter the conclusion of their history."

Chapter V.
(i)

Imams and Mujtahids


Traditionists
;

Biographies of Eminent Men, in six sections " Readers " of the Qur'dn (ii)
;

(iii)

(v)
(b)

Shaykhs, Saints, and Holy Men Doctors and Divines (vi) Poets (a) of Arabia,
(iv)
; ;

of Persia. 1

Account of the town of Qazwin, the Author's Chapter VI. native place, in eight sections (i) Traditions concerning
:

it

(iv)

(v)
(vi)

its buildings ; etymology of the name (iii) its Conquest and Conversion by the Muhammadans; its aqueducts, rivers, mosques, tombs, and suburbs mention of the "Companions," "Followers," Imams,
(ii)
;

Caliphs, Shaykhs, Divines, Ministers, Kings, and who have visited it or resided in it. 2
Conclusion.

Amirs

Synoptical table of the Prophets, Kings, etc.

The following

are some of the oldest

MSS.

of the Guzida. 8

Cambridge University Library. *Do. 3. 23 (hereinafter called 2 C. ), dated A.H. 990; *Dn. 10. 13 (hereinafter called C. ),
1

dated A.H. 964.


British

Museum.
2
),
3

7,631 (L.

*ADD. 22,693 (L. ), dated A.H. 890 *ADD. dated A.H. 924 ADD. 7,630, dated A.H.
1 ;

1009
1

(L.

).

The old and complete is the section of which the translation follows. at Shirdz, which my friend Mr. Guy le Strange caused to be collated with another MS. in his possession, contains also biographies of Commentators, For the kindness Jurisconsults, Philosophers, Astronomers, Physicians, etc. with which Mr. le Strange freely placed at my "disposal all his materials, I desire here to express my deep gratitude. 2 French translation of this chapter of the Ouzida was published by
This

MS.

M.
3

Barbier de Meynard in the Journal Asiatique for 1857 (series v, vol. x). The MSS. which have been utilised for this article are marked with an asterisk.

726

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS IN TiEfKH-I-GUZIDA.

Oxford (Bodleian). No. 26 in Ethe's Catalogue (Clarke 8), dated A.H. 847; No. 27 of Ethe (Elliot, 354), dated A.H. 851 No. 28 of Ethe (Elliot, 355), dated A.H. 953 " a No. 29 of Ethe not old
;
;

(Eraser, 156),

good

copy,

dated."
St. Petersburg.

*No. 578 b of the Musee Asiatique (hereinP. 1 ), dated A.H. 847; *No. 260 of the Institut des Langues Orientales (P. 2 ), dated A.H. 855.
after

called

Munich.

No. 205 (Aumer's Catalogue), dated A.H. 823


A.H. 948.

No. 206, dated

King's College, Cambridge. (K.), not dated.

*No. 114 of the Pote Collection

*Le Strange

s materials, comprising a MS. collated throughout with the old Shiraz MS., and a transcript of all the additional matter contained in the aforesaid ancient and

complete codex.

This text

is

referred to as S.

1 2 chiefly used by me were C. , C. , K, and S. ; for the dialect-verses reference has also been made to L. 1 , L. 2 ,

The MSS.

P. 1 , and P. 2

With these preliminary remarks, I proceed to the translation of the section in question.

ACCOUNT OF PERSIAN POETS FROM CH. V,


TARIKH-I-GUZIDA.

6,

OF THE

The Persian

poets

who have composed

verses

in

the

Persian and Pahlavi languages are so numerous as to shall, however, mention the surpass computation. names of such as are most famous, citing in some cases

We

a few of their verses.

1.

Anwar'i.

Awhadu'd-Din al-Khdwardni was the contemporary and


panegyrist of Sultan Sanjar the Saljuq
[A.H.

511-552].

1.

ANWARf.

727
is

He had some knowledge shown by this fragment


l

of most branches of science, as


:

AM9\Xl t*Z^J*Jb

jL-J-

rt

^j>

"

Though I have simultaneously closed the doors of panegyric and ode, do not suppose that I am deficient in \_the potcer words and ideas. of~\ arranging Nay, in every science known to any of my contemporaries,
whether pure or applied,

I am

competent.

This poem

is

given in full on pp. 704-5 of the


1 .

Lakhn&w

ed. of

Anwari's

KiMiyydt (A.M. 1297, A.D. 1880). 2 K. jj *ij L. +tii>j)j'i


;

3 *

K. adds

S. reads jl
1

fory

6
*
'

For^jC. has,,;

lu j\ s K.j,. For Uu,* C. 1 , L. 1 , and K. read


;

C.'jl; S.^j; C.^j.


C. 2

8
*

j^ W 1j^

K.

j^ j\

ja*-.

C. 2 omits these two hemistichs.

728

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS IN THE


Music, and Astronomy I know something truly I have a goodly portion.
;

Of Logic,

to

speak

In Metaphysics, if thou wilt believe it, I can skilfully explain and develop that which noble Reason affirms.

Of Natural
(though

Science,
it

also,

can

reveal sundry enigmas

be not without diffidence), though the envious

Neither

man regard me not. am I a stranger


If thou come and prove
me~]
:

to the effects

and

influences of the

stars.

dost not believe me, take the trouble [to

I am

ready"

he repented, and ceased to frequent the Royal and when the King sent for him, he wrote this 1 fragment in reply
later life

In

Court;

This poem occurs on pp. 593-4 of the

Lakhnkw

ed. of

Anwari's Xulliyyat

(A.H. 1297, A.D. 1880).


2
3

K. om. [,] S. <_>U For^ K. hasjj*.


;

^^1. 3

ui,

ed. 4_>

4 5
6

C. 1 has _j< forks'.


C. 1 j|j^l

ed., K.,
;

L. 1
.

, 1^-1

Jy

S. has o^ for

K.
,;

^o

S.,

ed.J-.

10

L. 1 omits this couplet.

1.

ANWARf.

729

/
I

the cottage where, by night

and day,

is

(he place of

my

repose and food and

sleep

enjoy a state \of happiness*] whereby tormented with envy of me.

Heaven
is

is

actually

I am

that heaven where the sphere of heaven


in the light of

but

[*] a mote
is

my

sun,

And I am
by the

that world where the encircling Ocean

maddened
all in

gleam of my mirage.
exists in the audience-halls

Whatsoever

of Kings
is

my

ruined cottage.

The

locust's foot

14

and dry bread withal

the garniture of

my
1

board and

my
.

roast meat.

L. 1 transposes jy and ^jl ed. ^4*. UJ C. 2 ^U*!)


;

S. omits this couplet.

8
8
i

Ed.
l

fH
;

L. 4&1j.
S. yij ed.

8
9

Ed.
S.

uu-I^UJjl.
}
.

10

,JL,. Ed. adds


2 C., C.

&\. K. 5U. K. has <_>y. , J^jrf. For <_lj11 "The locust's foot" was the ant's offering to Solomon, and or poor possession. metaphorically for any humble present
12

^;

S.

C. 1 , C. 2 *,U-;

13

is

used

730

BIOGEAPHIES OP POETS.
ink-bottle

2.

AZRAQI.
is

My
My

(may

it

be ever full

/)

as

my

wine-bottle

1 before me.

stumpy pen with


the beating of

its

pleasant scratching stands to


rebecks.

me

for The dark blue Sufi cloak


a thousand satins.

drums and melody of


is

chosen by

me
to

in preference to

Whatever transcends

this

much

is

torment

me (God exempt

my

hearers

/).

That old lady


sits beside

the

World cannot

stir the

high resolve which


not to be

me.
/)
is

The

service

of the King (may he long endure wrought by my arm of earth and water?
is

He

who
this

my Goal and

Refuge hath prevented me from


it

returning so far?

And

way [of life'], though

be a great error on

my part,

what can

I do

? .

for in

this error is

my

health.

Although his spirit- quickening message ment of my disquietude,

is

a complete assuage-

your servant have no tongue


abode are

to consent

my

apparel and

my

ansicer."

2.

Azraqi.

His name was Afdalu'd-Din of Herat, and he was the He has contemporary of Sultan Ibrahim [A.H. 451-492]. 5 produced incomparable verses. The book Aljiyya Shalfiyya
is

one of his metrical compositions.

So Nasir-i-Khusraw (Divan,
<L]\.O

ed. Tabriz, A.H. 1280, p. 225)

&~j
"

.JJi

&L~9

-*s>-

ijj*)

\~+ <&

,^~

Jk->-

Quaff thou the cup of date -wine ; for me suffice The black ink and the pen as wine and goblet ."

I.e.

spiritual
3

and

"mj

material arm."

The

services

which the poet can render are

intellectual.

I.e., God hath prevented me from going back to the courtier's arts. 4 I.e., the dark blue Sufi cloak and the humble cottage, to which the poet alludes earlier in his poem, sufficiently indicate his renunciation of worldly aims. 5 Concerning this pornographical work, see Jami's Bahdristdn, Const, ed. of A.H. 1294, pp. 78-79 ; the Journal Asiatique for 1827, vol. x, p. 255 ; and my forthcoming edition of Dawlatshah, p. 72.

3.

ADfB SABIR.
3.

4.

ATIlfR

AWMANf.

Adib Sdlir.

the contemporary of Sultan Sanjar the Saljuq, at whose orders he went on an embassy to Khw&razm to Atsiz Khwarazmshah. Atsiz had him cast into the Oxus

He was

one night and drowned. 1


4.

He

has some fine verses.

Athiru'd-Din Aiomdni.
of

Awman is a village in the A'lam suburb He was the panegyrist of Sulaymdn Shah X\,

Hamaddn.

the governor of Kurdistdn, and has produced some fine verses. He died in the reign of Hulagii Khan. They relate that he composed some satirical verses about Qadi Majdu'd Din

Tauil ("the Long"), the Qadi of the following


:

Hamadan, amongst them

.\j

,j\

,.

because the messenger of his fate lacked insistence did

Destiny delay his death,

But he

in

so utterly lost in the Desert


to

cannot find the way

him

in a

of Error that 'Azrd'tl hundred years*'

recited the Suratit' l-an'dm (ch. vi of the Qur'an) forty times, and laid a curse upon him, by reason of which he shortly afterwards died.

The Qadi

5.

Athiru'd-Dm of Akhsikat.

Akhsikat
oxania.

is

one of the suburbs of Farghana in Trans:

He

has produced some incomparable verses, amongst

them the following


1

The circumstances
C. 1 , C. 2 have \u

of this

murder are detailed by Dawlatahfch

(p. 93).

f or

Ui

732

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.

5.

ATHIR AKHSIKATf.

I
!lfl I

lj\l

!!!*)

V^.

**^

<,

JJ

^.

*t^J

f-i

X^J^jj-J

*_ j\j jj t-jl j^
IxuJ

^wV'iJ *J

JU

._.} _?ri-

(jlj

r>.

pale-faced candle, with tear-filled eyes, thou art the chief of calamity-stricken lovers!

Thou art

the

Farhdd of thy time


thou
severed

then burn

and

melt,

for

why
Thou
If

hast

thyself

from

the

company of

Shzrin ?
hast lost a sweetheart, else wherefore, like me, art thou

pallid in hue, tear-stained, feeble, and bent ? thou art an object of love, why hast thou thy cheeks so

pale ?

And

if thou art a

lover,

why

dost thou

hold

thyself so erect ?

These three couplets occur

in S. only.

4
s

^^Jc. 1 , c. a v-

K. <_=-"

C.

C. 2

cJ.U

6.

IMA*Mf OF HERXT.

733

As

for that which thou deemest the Light of thine eyes, by reason of that Light of thine eyes thou art indeed ever
dixxolved in tears.
then,
is

What,

that sign creeping

not bitten the

down the arm if thou hant hand by reason of this disappointment ?


*

adjure thee by
kept

God

[to tell me'] whether, since thou haxt

company

icith

the

candle,

thou

hast toard

thy

description

from anyone

as thou hast

from Athir !"*

6.

Imdmi of Herat.
'Abdi'llah

His name was


b.

Abu

Muhammad

b.

Abu Bakr

panegyrist of the Kings and ministers of Kirman, and died in the time of Abaqa Khan He has some fine verses. [A.H. 663-680, A.D. 1265-1281].
the

'TJthman.

He was

Here

is

an acrostic on his own name, which he addressed,


:

as a test [of their skill], to the accountants

>~
i
.

C-i->

1..'

'

^"^'

'

*"}:'

C^*7^~'

jnu.3

L5

The allusion is to the Egyptian women, to each of whom Zulaykhft gave a knife and an orange just as Joseph was about to enter the room, and who, his beauty, inadvertently cut their hands instead of the fruit. confounded
1

by

here compared to the blood gushing down guttering down the candle is their arms. Biting the hand indicates remorse biting the finger, amazement.

The wax
2

The

curious idiom in this line

llu

appears to be copied from the

Arabic.

The full explanation of these difficult verses S. (_.-*. below has enabled me to reconstruct the text with considerable certainty, given so that I have not thought it necessary to note more than the principal variants.
3

L. 1 , K. Lj^a'

* 6

K.

u..rf.7
3\

S. has

for } j\

L. 1

U^fS

for

734

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS-

6.

IM^Mf OF HERAT.

(.t

*-_

" Halve the third of the fifth of that odd pair whereof the
fifth of the sixth
is,

beyond doubt, outside the pale of

numbers.

Once again multiply it as it stands by the third of the and when thou hast multiplied it, double it.

capital,

Again add
tico

the sixth

and

the tenth
:

of the third of

it

to these

[previous results]

nay, nay, [first] take

from

it

the half

and

the third.

If now thou wilt extract the cube root of Ghayn [f= 1000] and the square root of Dhd [ = 900], add this to it and five. [the previous result], and reduce to writing four I have communicated to the accountant a name by an acrostic
in his

own

science

Bid him acknowledge Imdmi's


"

skill

in his

own

science !

The term " odd pair " (O/ -jj) is applied to a number whereof, when it is halved, the two factors are equal and uneven. That which is "outside the pale of numbers" is
one,

for

one

results

numbers.

Now when

only from the subdivision of real one is taken as the fifth of the sixth

of an amount, that amount must be thirty, and a third of the fifth of thirty is two, which, when you halve it, gives one that is alif (^ )
:
.

When
thirty,

you multiply
is

this third of the fifth,

which

by the third
which
it,

of the "capital"
ten, it
;

(JU),

that

is

is two, the third of

double

The

gives forty sixth of that thirty


1

gives twenty, and this, that is mim (/*).


is

when you

five,

and the tenth of the

T 1 J_J.

IT J\

t^fcC
.

2
3

L. 1 \j&

In the text of S.

...< JjJ

*J Ac

7.

ABU'L-FARAJ OF BT?NA.
it

8.

IBN KHAT/B.
six.

735 you
:

third of

one.

cast out five-sixths of this

The two together are = [i.e. $ + ^


is

When

$], one remains

that

is alif (1).

When
they

any number

multiplied

by a number
(j*J>s*).

like itself,

call the first the

"square root" (jJ&r), and the result

of the multiplication

"the square"

When

the

again multiplied by the square root, that which was before called the square root is called the "cube root"
square
is

("*).
is to

Now
is

since the

number equivalent
it

to [the letter]

ghayn (^) say 10 x 10


it is

1000, the cube root of

must be 10; that


1000.

= 100
is to

and 100 x 10
(1?)

And
10,

since

the number equivalent to dhd


of
is

is

900, the square root

30

that

say,
(
:

30 x 30
d
),

900.

So
is

which

the cube root of ghayn

and
is

30,

which
(,*).

the square

root of

dhd

(k),

come
of

to

40

that

mim

The cypher
its

four
is

[i.e.

the letter which has four as

numerical value]
(>),

ddl (J) and the


in

cypher of

five is

hd

and ddl and hd


;

the form of writing are dah,

ten (*J)
to

the

and in the abjad computation 10 is equivalent letter yd ( if). In this way the name IMAM!

[1

40

40

10

alif,

mim,

alif,

mim, yd

= ^Ul]

results.

7.

Abu'l-Faraj of Riina.

Runa

is

a village in the district of

Khawaran

in

Khurasan.

[Abu'l-Faraj] has some good verses, and was the contemporary of Sultan Malikshah the Saljuq [A.H. 465-485,
A.D.

He

at first his pupil,

1072-1092] and his though

sons.

It

is

said that

finally far surpassing

Anwari was him in the

poetic art.
8.

Ibn

KJiatib of Gaty'a.

His name
of Sultan

is

Taju'd-Din Ahmad.
of

He was the contemporary


A.D.

Mahmud
1900.

Ghazna
;

[A.H. 388-421,

998-1030],
49

and has some


J.R.A.S.

fine

verses

his poetical contests with his

736

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.
1

8.

IBN

It is said that are especially piquant. Ibn Khatib of Ganja invited Mahsati before his marriage

mistress Mahsati

to a love- tryst,

but she refused, and wrote in answer


*AJki^J

*x*

tJ^'y^?

V c^

"

idol mine,

will not suffer abasement at thy hands, nor

even at the hands of one

who

is

superior to thee.
tresses

will not precipitately entangle

my

in

the noose

will

lie

at ease on the water

and yet not get wet !"

Ibn Kha^ib of Ganja beguiled her, and got possession of her under another name; and, after he had had his desire of her, said to her
:

Jj

^
9.

Awhadi.

He

has some fine verses, amongst them these

" So pointed in S. " Mah-sati

Huadn un , lithoentitled Khayrdt1 in the Biographies of Celebrated of graphed at Tihran in A.H. 1307 (vol. iii, pp. 103-104), where the etymology the name is given as Mih " great" and Siti " lady," though other derivations (Mah-asti, Mih-asti) are also discussed.
2

{^j}. A Women

similar pronunciation

is

indicated

K.

j\s il^j

which seems a better reading, though not so strongly supported

by manuscript authority.
3 4 s

This
C. 1

is

equivalent to saying
^j\jic.

"

I will play

with

fire

and not get burned."

L. 1 jX\
,

u-i-.
.

C.'jj.

C. 2 has

c/U- (jiAc

9.

AWHADf.

737

Jfy beloved hath imprinted figures of musk on the moon;* liath cast a consuming fire into the hearts of men.

The mole of ambergris which she hath set on the rose-leaf* hath dimmed with blood the pnpih of men's eyes. The foot of the cypress-tree hath gone down like a nail into
the earth before her figure, so

much hath

it

beaten

its

hands on

its

head. 5

S. *f for yf.

seven couplets are omitted by S., and the last six by L. 1 Metaphor for moles or beauty-spots on the cheeks. * I.e. the mouth or lip. 5 The cypress typifies a tall, shapely form and the poet, by the rhetorical figure called JJ*" r*. , whereby a real fact is explained by a fanciful and
last
3
;
.

The

accounts for the cypress being rooted in the ground by its having poetical cause, beaten its head (the sign of lamentation), in despair of emulating such grace, so much as to drive its root " like a nail " into the ground.

738

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.

10.

ASADf.

From

afar she shot at me the arrow of her eyes' regards ; the point of the barb struck me full in the heart, since she
it

point blank. We, indeed, did not show to Musulmdns the wound which was inflicted on our stricken bosom, for it was inflicted by an
fired
infidel.

fluttered like a pigeon, because, like a pigeon, her glance

has smitten

me through

the arc of her eyebrow.

Every quarry which she overthrew she picked up in some way, save this bewildered victim, whom she deemed too lean.

Red

[i.e.

blood- stained~\

tears,

at

all

events,

came

to

my

assistance, else

my

passion for her had struck

my

sallow

face into gold. thou regardest my words as confused, blame me not; for If it is thy love which hath confounded Awhadt."

10.

Asadi.

The book entitled has produced some fine verses. is one of his compositions. Karshdsp-ndma
11.

He

Abu'l-Mdj'id Rdyagdni.

Rayagan

is

a village in the

Qazwin

district.

He

was

a contemporary of Abaqa Khan [A.H, 663-680, A.D. 1265 1281]. Malik Iftikharu'd-Din of Qazwin was constructing a lofty building.

"

What

Abu'l-Majid came to see it. thou concerning this building sayest


:

Malik "

said,

He

ex-

temporised as follows

Dialect-verses:'i

1st couplet.
1

^j\ (C.

'

L. 1 has o&l) twice

Museum.
2

while ()&]} occurs in Add. 7,630 of the British

For the reasons already given, I cannot pretend to establish the correct text of these dialect-verses, and therefore simply print the readings of the MSS. to which I have been able to obtain access.

11. ABU'L-MA*JID.

12.

AM^R

KA.'.

13. UYA*NJ.

739
1

(L.

couplet?

jj c/^T 4j^-.43!
A-^ (C.
2
)

12.

Amir Ed'

of

Qa&tfftn.

He

has some fine verses in the Qazwin

dialect. 8

13.

Uydnj*

(or Utdnj) of
.

Zanjdn (or Rayhdn).


.

He was

a contemporary of

It

is

related that

his patron caused

him

to sit
:

below his compeers, whereat

he was angered and said

2
3 *

L. 3 = Add. 7,630 of the British Museum, dated A.H. 1009. Omitted in L. 1


C. 1 adds

"
:

Khayanni (^^Lrf-

is

a village in the Qazwin district."


;

C.i reads

jUjj
omit

^1
all,

L.'

^U

yl

P. 2

J\*,

and other

MSS.

or nearly

all, of this passage.

C., L.

L., P.,

740

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.
Dialect-verses
:
1

13.

(C.

(K)

,_j o
--j

,u_ xii

*_

(P.

J^

14.

ABU'L-'AL! OF GANJA.

741

14.

Abu'l-'AZd of Qanja.
verses,
:

He

has

some

fine

and was Khaqani's master.

Concerning Khaqdni he says

"When
sense
:

this reached

Khaqani's

ears,

he rose up to take

vengeance on him.

Abu'l-'Ala couched an apology in this

J
1 To these two words Baron Rosen adds " Plutot a seul et mm pas ."

i-A-J

in his transcript the following note

2 3

C. 1 reads o. r C. 2 , L. C. 1
1

^ for ^j~*
jtf.
;

^
.

L. 2 readl l,}. J4J

2 *-; C.

C. 1 , L. 1 joi j C. 1 reads Jic


C. 2

K.

and L. 2 have

742

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.

14. ABU'L-'ALA.

L. 1 , L. 2 om. [,
L. 2

K. reads;?

for

j\ ,

2
3

^.
J<_y
.

C. 2 , L. 1 , L. 2 read jpl4 for

*
s

K.om.
L.i.L.
2

[,].
,

K. J^i.

2 K., L. omit 7

[],
.

for

which L. 1 reads

j.

L. 3 reads

^aU

These very coarse verses are given, with a good many variants, by Dawlatof (pp. 70-71 of my forthcoming edition) in his biography of Abu'l-'Ala Ganja and also (with French translation) by Khanikof in his excellent monograph on Khaqani (Journal Asiatique for 1864 Memoire sur Khucdni, pp. 14-15
shah
; ;

of the tirage-d-part). The text of the second piece here given is so far less offensive than those alluded to in this note that it contains a retraction and an

apology, whereas the more usual form is well described by Khanikof as "tout miel au commencement et tout fiel a la fin."

PINDA*R.
15.

BAHA'u'D-DfN.

JAM/L
l

ABHAllf.

743

Pindar

(?

Bunddr)
His

of Ray.

He

too has

some

fine verses

in the Pahluvi language. 3

and unequalled productions diicdn is well known and

highly esteemed.
16.

Qddi Bahd'u'd-Din

Zai\jdnk.

He was the contemporary and panegyrist of Khwaja Shamsu'd-Din Juwayni, the Sahib- Dhcdn. He skilfully
incorporated in his poetry the technical terms employed by the Turks. To this assertion wituesseth the qasida* which

begins as follows

17.

Pur Bahd-yi-Jdmk.

He was the panegyrist of Shamsu'd-Din the Sdhib- Diu an, and other notables of that period. He has some fine verses, and his diwdn is well known.
18.

Bahd'u'd-Din

Sdicaji.

occasions

and has some good verses. On several this humble individual [the author] with qasidas and fragments.
is still alive,

He

he

has

honoured

19.

Jamdlu'd-Din Abhari.

He He

died at Tabriz in A.H. 600 [A.D. 1203-1204], and was

buried in the Poets'

Corner at Surkhab [near Tabriz].

has some fine verses.

1 Since <_> and <_ are seldom distinguished in the older MSS. , and vowel From points are seldom inserted, the form of this name is doubtful to me. a verse cited by Dawlatshah (p. 43, 1. 4, of my forthcoming edition) it would

appear that he adopted the first form. " or " dialect." * So L. 1 Other MSS. have " in that language 3 The whole of this poem is given by Dawlatehah (pp. 182-184 of my edition), who ascribes it to Pur Bahk-yi-Jami. This poet is tin subject of the next notice (No. 17), and a transposition of these two articles iu some MSS. of the Gu;nln 2 to arrive at the same conclusion (e.g. L. and L. ) would lead anyone using them as Dawlatshah.
1

For

C. 1

has

C.

and S.

\*>;

L. 1

744

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.
20.

-20-21.
He
has some

Jamdlu'd-Dm 'Abdu'r-Razzdq.
Kamalu'd-Din of Isfahan.

The
good

father of

verses.

21.

Jamdlu' d-D.m Rustuqu'Z-QutnL 1


is

In a quarter in the city of Qazwin. the dialect of that place he has some incomparable verses,
Rustuqu'1-Qutn
into

which he has introduced very

fine ideas.

He

died in

the reign of Abaqa Khan [A.H. 663-680, A.D. 1265-1281], being about 90 years of age. Some few of his verses also
are in the Persian language, amongst
'

them the following

plsj-lsl!

-*j\j^

<**

.l~j

"

gold, thou art that which compasseth all pleasures

thou

art the Beloved of

mankind

at all times
yet, like

Without doubt thou art not God,

God, thou art the

Concealer of Faults and the Fulfiller of Needs."

22.

Jaldlu'd-DiH* 'Attql.
fine

He

is

ghazals,

and has some them this amongst


still

alive,

verses,

especially

(6

L. 2 has

3 4 5
6

L. 2 has
C.
1

'
:

Uki

<IXJ }

'ti \*i-

L. 2 has Jamdlu'd-Din. has JuU for


jiA>.

L. 2 omits these two couplets, and L. 1 the second of them.

22.

JALXL

'ATfQf.

23. jtflAHA.

745

From

evert/ particle of dust which in stirred up by the sole of thy foot souls rain down and hearts pour forth. That lightning which consumes the reason flashes forth from

the clouds of thy love,


life arises from the dust

and

that fragrance which giveth

of thy door.
senseless in the dust
;

My
I

passion for thee lays

me

from

the

dust thy fragrance raiseth me up again a madman. 1 will not sever myself from thee ; even though thou should at

consume me an hundred times

like aloe-wood, the

smoke

of my heart mil turn back and cling to thy garment. soul of 'Attqi, how can Reason contend icith Lore ? How
can any low-born churl vaunt himself before the King ?"

23.

Juldha (" the Spider ") of Abhar.


verses in the Pahlavi dialect, amongst

He has some fine them the following


:

Dialect verses

1st couplet. 9

(C.)

*J

'

lj^*

,\3

^Xi^ )j\

(P.

(P.

a
)

(S.)

L. J omits the
This couplet

first

of these couplets,

and L. 1 both of them.

8 3

Over

3 1 wanting in L. and L. the word ; is written as a correction or a variant. is

746

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.
2nd
1

23. jtfLAHA.

couplet.

Jj ^(ji.J^-'

(C.)

(P.

3rc? couplet

jJ
1
.
<

(P.
2

LJ jj ^*j jjijU^

~\

<uU

^jj

jj

(P.

4^A couplet*
1
\

'

\*~. j^l

^^^

JU A^

*>

24.

Sayy id Jamdlu'd-Dm* KdsM.

He
a

fine verses,

was the contemporary of Abaqa Khan. He has some He has composed both serious and flippant. tarjt-band parodying Shaykh Sa'di of Shiraz, which
:

begins thus

This couplet

2
3

Wanting
L. 2

: and L. 3 is wanting in L. in S., L. 1 , L. 2 , and L. 3 has Jaldlu'd-Din.

24.

JAMXLU'D-DfN KXSHf.

717

<

^
(*r )>
>

'

>

"

/ aw

a drunkard, a libertine, a spendthrift, and remains ever mine.


have

this character

What

to

do with worldly business ?


spot.

desire trine,

a fair companion, and a sec/tided

The tavern and


will

the street of the single-hearted friend

never

quit these precincts /

will take a

brick

from

the

top of the wine-vat for


idol's

my

pillow,

and

the dust of
thee,

my

door for

my

couch.

Love

is

forbidden

friend, if thou in no wise seekest

after union.

The consummation of the

love of fair ones is union : all ehe is but a fanciful illusion. When Sa'dt 'sat still and was patient* it was from impotence

and

slackness.

I am

a second Ashraf, not a patient man, and in is that desire which note possesses me.

my

head

will arise

and

take the

hand of my beloved
"

how can I

rest

without

my

beloved ?

L.

omits this and

all
\

prefixes the
verses.

words

ci

^ t>-y **

the remaining verses except the refrain, to which it L. 2 omits this and the next three )

748

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.
25.

HASAN.

KHAYYAM.

Sayyid Hasan of Ghazna.

He was the contemporary of Sultan Bahrain Shah the Ghaznavid [A.H. 512-547, A.D. 1U8-1152], and is the It is said that when he went author of some pretty verses. to visit the tomb of the Apostle of God (on whom be the blessings of God and His peace), he recited the tarjiband beginning " Sillamu yd qmcm [Greet, 1 When he reached this verse "J. people
.
. .

....

"

dare not vaunt


offered

my

sonship in this thy presence, but homage : send forth a robe of honour,"

my

I have

hand at once came forth from the vault of that holy tomb and fragrant shrine with a cloak, and said, "Take it,
a

O my

son

"

26.

Khayyam.
b.

His name was 'Umar

Ibrahim.
the

In most sciences,
service of Sultan

more
of

particularly astronomy, he his time. He was attached

was the leading authority


to

Malikshah the Saljuq [A.H. 465-485, A.D. 1072-1092], and is the author of some excellent treatises and fine poems.

Amongst

the latter

is

this

"-" l- "

<'* ^

"

Every atom which


of~\

on the face of the earth hath been [part a beau/y with cheeks like the sun and a forehead like
is

Venus ; Brush the ditst gently from your


the fair cheek of

sleeve,

for

it

too hath been

some charmer."
first

1 See my forthcoming edition of Dawlatsh&h, pp. 104-105, where the Terse of the poem, as well as the verse here cited, is given in full.

2 3

C. 2 has

'
:

\jtvj
fc

oj

^Li ^&jj v-H

L. 1 has

'
:

Jj o--

^^

JJ

^Ui

L. 1 reads

for

27.

KHAQANf.

28.

KHWAJtl OF K1BMAN.

749

27.

Khdqdni.

His name was Afdalu'd-Din Ibrahim, the son of 'All the He died in the year A.H. 582 carpenter of Shirwan. A.D. 1185], and is buried in the Poets' Corner at l_=

Surkhab [near Tabriz]. He has some incomparable verses and unsurpassed writings, and in the sonorous majesty of his verse no one hath equalled him till the present time.

28.

Khwdju of Kirmdn.

verses, and is the author of the Garden of Bright Flowers "), Gul u Khwraw, Huntdy u Humdyun, Kamdl-ndma, and many other treatises and graceful odes, amongst them the following:

He

has

some

fine

Raicdatu'l-Anu-dr

("

1 According to Dawlatshkh (p. 251, 1. 15, of my forthcoming edition) the proper title of this work is the Rawdatu'l-Azhdr, but H&ji Khalifa (No. 6,629) confirms the Guzida.

2
s

L. 3 has djj for o^j

For
L.
'

ly C.-

reads
all

tj*

*
5

omits

For o^ *-

the following reraes, and L. 2 C. 2 reads miu .

all

except the

last.

50

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.

29.

/J.A -x
2

laments with the smoke of our fire-filled heart not suppose that its sighs are [tnere] breath.
It
is

do

a nightingale which makes

its

song of air ;

it is

a tuneful

singer which wails in the pavilion.

If

so be that I, being sick at heart, lament by reason of


3

my

heart, wherefore, then, does that sick one lament, since


it

hath

lost its
it,

heart ?
it

They sound
it

and
is

can do naught but wail; ivhat


its
is

else

can

wounded; wailing from or hypocrisy. So often hath it robbed on the highway the hearts of seekers after truth, that evidently it wails for fear of God.

do?

It

not

deceit

The waitings and lamentations of Khwdju are all for lack of substance : what has he suffered that every moment he "
cries out in

song ?

29.

Daqiqi.

He was

the

contemporary of Amir

Nuh

the Samanid

[A.H. 366-387, A.D. 976-997], and composed a thousand couplets of the Shdhndma, of the story of Gushtasp. Hakim Firdawsi included these in the Shdhndma in order to make

apparent the worth of his

own

verse,
:

and

in reprobation of

Daqiqi's verses speaks as follows

" It

is

better that the

mouth should want for food than thou should'st lay an unappetising table."

that

L. 2 reads

wb

for

" Smoke of the heart " is a common metaphor for sighs. " or Because the " heart pith of the reed is removed to make

it

into a flute.

30. RAFfu'D-DfN.
30.

31.

RUKNU'D-DfN.

751

Kafi'u'd-Din Bikrdnl*

from Abhar, but lived in Kirman, and died in the of Ghazan Khan [A.H. 694-703, A.D. reign 1295-1304]. He has composed some incomparable verses in Arabic and Persian. This quatrain is his
:

He was

"Do

do not cry ; out like the harp at the stroke of destiny. They will not suffer gold to be wasted in the earth, or pearl* in the waters of the ocean ; let not then thy heart le

not fight with hear en or with adverse fate

vexed"
31.

Ruknu'd-Din Bikrdni.

He was the son of the above, and was a pious and learned man, and has some fine verses. This humble writer has

When I asked him for a copy a very high opinion of him. of his Diwdn, I sent him this fragment
:

LJ

<u

_-

,_-._

C.

^b//

C. 2

L. 2 U ij?* C. 1 has'iJal for jiu


.

^
;

L. 1

^U/

L. J

^^

Cf. n. 4 on next page.

L. 2 and S.

jU.

S.,
6

L.'^.
50

L. 2 omits this and the next five versea.

J.R.A.B. 1900.

752

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.

31.

RUKNU'D-DIN

'

a^-Jjjj c^j^X-i-J

JJj

_j

^Ur>

>J

'

*V^

lilil

.i

}>-

j*""]
^._^_^j J-^LJ

'

.Xft

.|

i'*

'

i-'

i_g.lxl

__;l

.Jjb

^U*-

"

World of worth and


kail,

talent,

Soul of speech, Huknu'd-Din,


!

thou ichose peer the eyes of time have not seen

The

ideas of thy verses in the

garment of utterance seem

like

the

life

in the body, or the light in the eyes !

L. 1 omits this and the next four verses.


C. 1 and C. 2 have ^a* for ^le. For AA C. 1 and C. 2 have

The MSS., except

S.,

read U for

Us.

2 3 4 5 6
7

C. 1
C. 2

The word-play in this has JUS for^*j L. 2 JSUii

w^l<

line confirms the reading

Bikrdni.

L. 2 transposes and S. has <_*T for *U-

^^

W7
1

LS.*>J>

L.

omits this

line.

C.

reads

' :

A^K

JAC

, As.

JA! J^i ^Uj

31.

RUKNU'D-DfN BIKR^Nf.
speech,

32.

RUDAOf.

7'*

>

The powers of

one would

sat/,

in

the beginning

<>f

the Eternal Creation, instinctively selected thce, through pleasure in thy verse.

For

this cause

hath wisdom become Prince


it

in the realnw of

genius, that
.

had gathered gleanings from

the seech

At

of the harvest of thy merit. no time teas any subtlety of ancient or modern knowledge veiled before thy mind.
in its lifetime hath ever heard from thy sweet utterance any mistake in history, scripture, or proverb. virtue of superabundant merit thou art Prince of tin-

No
By

ear

throne of speech
service.

wisdom

icith

heart and soul does thee

Thou art

the noblest product of Bikrdn,


to

and

therefore thy

fine genius strives

beautify the faces of the virgin*


2
;

I had

[bikran] of verse. a copy of the Garden of thy Fancies


it

now someone
it

thy servant. If thou wilt be gracious and send

has stolen

from

me
is

again another copy,


deserving of
it.

will be a ivorthy gift to one

who

Remain

ever richly rewarded in the icorld of talent, drinking

the water of grace from the cup of merit

and

talent

!"

32.

Eudag'i.

He was

the

pioneer of Persian poets, since before his

time the Persians too composed poetry in Arabic.


the contemporary of
A.D.

He was

Amir Nasr

the

Samauid

[A.H. 301-3-31,

913-942].

He

has composed

many

poems, but only

a few are generally known. I have read in some history that he composed 700,000 couplets of poetry, and in that
history

many

of his verses are cited.

The metrical Persian

[version of] Kalila and

Dimna

is

one of his works.

Or " powerful " or " precious," " of I.e.


thy poems."

for the wordjjje has both meanings.

754

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.
33.

33. RAFf'.

34. RADf.

Rafi'u'd-Din of Lunbdn.
the Isfahan district.

Lunban
known.
34

is

a village in

He
is

[i.e.

Rafi'u'd-Din]

has some fine verses.

His Diwdn

well

Malik Radi'u'd-Din JBdbd of Qazwln.

Abaqa Khan

of Diyar Bakr in the reign of When he 663-680, A.D. 1265-1281]. [A.H. was dismissed from Diyar Bakr, and surrendered to Amir

He

was the governor

Jalalu'd-Din, the palace eunuch, he wrote these two verses to Khwaja Shamsu'd-Din the Sdhib-Dtwdn
:

(_

t__5b)

&>-

1>U>^>J

i*'-^^

(t*<) *J

'

T'

lv

'
'

>"

I
(

*i j

"

King, thou hast taken thy realm from one like me, and hast bestowed it on a hermaphrodite, neither man nor

woman.

By

this

deed it hath been made plain to me that in thine eyes one who wields the sword and one who yields the cymbals
are of equal account."

35.

SuzanL
ibnu's-Salmani
l

His name was

Abu Bakr

of Kalash, one

of the dependencies of Samarqand. He was the contemporary of Sultan Sanjar the Saljuq [A.H. 511-552, A.D. 1117-1157].

He

carried ribaldry to excess [in his verses], are the following


:

amongst which

'

Lj

i.-^-S

j_^

This name

is

doubtful

the reading ^LSl yi\ also occurs.

35.

stfzANf.

36. SA'Df.

755

But he

also has

some serious verses which are incomparable.


forgave

They

say that

God Almighty

him

for this verse

/ bring four I bring

things,

Lord, which are not

in

Thy

treasury

nothingness, need, shortcoming,

and

sin."

36.

Sa'dt of Shirdz.

His name was Muslihu'd-Din b. Musharraf. 1 He is associated with the Atabak Sa'd b. Abu Bakr Salghari. He died at Shiraz on the 17th of Dhu'l-Hijja, A.H. 690 He was a mystic, and has written [Dec. 19, A.D. 1291]. both in prose and verse, in both of which he enjoys finely a wide celebrity. The art of writing odes reached its consummation in him. I give two couplets of his poetry
for luck

OOM)JI

.<>.Lg

/it

>>*>-

^._~_;

^__;

/J>

MI

tj'

the lover,

How

[champion of the faith"] runs after martyrdom : who is slain by love, is more excellent than he ; should the former be like the latter on the morrow of the

Resurrection, since that one was slain by the foe

and

this

one by the friend?"

Or Mushhf,

or Miuharrif, or Sharaf.

756

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.
37.
1

37.

Sirdji.

He has some fine verses. I here set down in writing three couplets which I have in mind of a qasida throughout which he has obliged himself to introduce the names of
the four elements in each verse
'
:

jljjT

J_*J
5;

.j
lj

Jij^j JAJ
^V
:\

^b ^A/F

.LUI>. +zja

(i

>^4/
'

(j^-R
lj'

L>-

/--i^-

u-jl

a ^r<?
\lips

w// Aecpr^
rubies
:

[A-w^fec?]

by those two luscious


tresses

liki\

since

the

wind stirred her

I am

become as dust.
the

The dust of

road

is

turned

to

mud

I wonder] why
me
like the

she set

me on fire and

by my tears, [as then departed from


:

wind.

If I heave

a deep sigh,
tears,

will set fire to heaven

if

rain

down hot

will turn the

ground

into

a garden

of anemones."

38.

Sirdju'd-Din Qumri.

He

excelled in verses celebrating the vices.


:

In

this sense

he says

^ J/b
"

^jl

drink wine, and

my

wine-drinking will easily be condoned

by anyone who

is, like myself,

man

of sense.

C. 1 reads

^/-.

38.

QUMRf.

39.

SANA*'/.

40. 8A<D-I-HAH.(.

In

eternity past
if

Qod knew

that

ahottld be a

did not drink, then God's foreknowledge would be

stultified."

39.

Sand'i.

He was named Abu'1-Majd Majdud b. Adam of Ghazna, and lived till the time of King Bahram Shah [A.H. 512-547, A.D. 1118-1152]. He has been already mentioned in the section treating of Shaykhs. The Hadiqa is one of his
compositions.
40.
Sa'd-i-Ba/id.

He was
A.D.

the contemporary of Uljaytu Sultan [A.H. 703-716, 1304-1316]. He has some fine verses, amongst them
:

the following

" Qod forbid that


that

love

for thee should quit


those

my

heart, or that

form and

qualities should fade

from my

memory
1

This quatrain

is

'Umar Khayy&m,

as also

to ascribed by Whinfield (No. 195 of his edition, p. 133) if here is the answer to it (No. 144, p. 99), which

'1/zu'd-Din Karajf. (No. 60, infra) attributed to

758

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.

41. SHAMS-I-SAJlsf.

Who

is there who does not with his whole soul love moment when thy stature passes by, swaying [like

that
one~\

extreme of intoxication ? Since thy beauty hath given points 1 to the King of Heaven, who is the Moon that it should seek to rival thy face ? ' love lifts from my heart the grief of the world : when Thy
in the

the

Light of Truth comes, the Darkness


'

of Error
it

departs.

Give not thy heart


is

to the beautiful,
it is

Sa'd-i-Bahd, for
to

not an easy task;

a hard thing

lose

one's.

heart to anyone."

41

Shams-i- Sajdsi.
[A.D.

He

died at Tabriz in A.H. 602

1205-6], and

is

buried in the Poets' Corner at Surkhab.


fine verses.

He

has some
collected

The Diwdn

of

Dhahir of Faryab was

by him.
42.

Sharafu'd-Din Shufurvah of Isfahan?

He was

the contemporary of Sultan

Arslan

b.

the Saljiiq [A.H. 556-573, A.D. 1161-1177].

He

Tughril has some

excellent verses, and, particularly in his odes, has originated some fine ideas
:

Literally, applies to the


to

horse (knight) and a rook (castle)." The metaphor of chess. Of. Bustdn, ed. Graf, p. 145, 1. 70 beggar [so wily] that he could put a saddle on a male lion, or give a knight and a queen
1

" hath given a

game

"A

Abii Zayd." (Abfi Zayd is the Persian Zukertort.) A paraphrase of Qur'an ivii, 83. See Bieu's Persian Suppl., pp. 161-2. * C. 1 reads
2 3

^^V

42.

6HUFURVAH.

43.

8HAM8-I-TABAsf.

759

rtw'*^,

Zephyr, pass one night ly her abode, and,

if thy heart be willing, bear to her a message from me. When thou arrivest there, go quietly and breathe not, that
the

sweet

sleep
like

be
.

not

troubled

in

her

bewitching

Do

eyes] not stir the curls of her tresses save with the finger of courtesy; take care, take care that thou play not the

na rciss us [

Turk with

Jier

Hindu

locks

Very gently throw

aside that coloured veil

from her

face,

and, if thou hast no evil thought, imprint a kiss upon her cheek.

Nay

endure

icrongly ; beware, for BO much I cannot even though thou art our special envoy, yet do not thou even glance towards her /
!

spoke
:

When

thou seest

my

heart

'

there,
while~\

say,

May

union

be

forbidden thee !

[For

I am

art her constant companion.'

"

thus parted, thou

43.

Shamsu'd-Din-i-Tabasi. 1

One has some There were two [poets of this name]. The other is and his D'ucdn is well known. still alive, and has produced some incomparable verse and This humble writer enjoys his friendship, and has prose.
fine verses,

repeatedly been honoured with cominuuications from both in verse and prose.
i

him

C.* omits this

life.

760

44. SHAHS-I-KA*SHA*Nf.

45.

DHAHfR.

46. <IRA*Qf.

44.

Shamsu'd-Din of Kdshdn.

He

died within the last two years.

(" History of

Ghazan Khan
fullest

")

was
to

versified

The Tdrikh-i-Ghazdni but by him


;

he has done the

justice

his poetical talents in

qas'ida, embellished with most of the poetical artifices, which he composed in honour of Khwaja Baha'u'd-Din, the Sdhib-Diwan, of Juwayn.

45.

Dhahiru'd-D'm-Fdrydb.
b.

His name was Tahir

Muhammad.

He

died at Tabriz

in [the month of] Rabi' I, A.H. 598 [Dec., A.D. 1201], and He has some is buried in the Poets' Corner at Surkhab.

This is a verse which he composed in verses. Arabic to indicate the distinction between the letters ddl
delicate
(A)

and dhdl ( J) in the Persian language


l

*j
1

JU } Jb

^
this
is

_.s*"

s\j

" Knoic the difference between dal and dh41, for essential principle in Persian ;

an

Wherever
is

it

comes before a quiescent

letter,

except

waw,

it

dal; but otherwise dotted [dhal]."


46.
'

Iraqi.
b.

Buzurjmihr b. 'Abdu'l-Ghaffar al-Jawaliqi, of the village of Mahall in He died in A.H. 686 the A'lara district of Hamadan.
[A.D.

His name was Fakhru'd-Din Ibrahim

1287], in

the Jabalu's

Sdlihin

("Mountain of the

Just "), in Syria.


verses.

He
is

has composed some philosophical

His Diwdn

well known.
47.
2
'

Unsuri.

He was Prince of Poets (Poet-laureate) at the Court of Sultan Mahmud-i-Sabuktagin [A.H. 388-421, A.D. 998-1030].
1

C.'has
C. 1

\tA

47. 'UNSURf.

7--I

from Jus and came to Ghaznn, 'Unsuri, Farrukhi, and 'Asjadi had gone for an excursion into the country, and were sitting by the side of a stream. When they saw Firdawsi approaching them from afar off,
Firdawsi
fled
1

When

each one composed a hemistich such that there was [as

they supposed] no fourth rhyme [to them], and demanded that Firdawsi should supply the fourth [hemistich], so that,

when he should be unable


trouble them.

to give

it,

he might cease

to

'Unsuri said

" The sun

Farrukhi said:

'

(J

^^

is

not so brig/it as thy face

"

Jj-i

J-^e^^ L-^,

+b

"No
'Asjadi said:
'

rose in the garden can

colour with thy cheek

compare in "

^fr j\

^^Jfejju-^c^ol^
pierce

" Thine

eyelashes

through

the

"
'

breastplate

Firdawsi said

*
:

^j (&>- jJ

^
in

^\

..

<XjjU

"Like Giv's spear This anecdote


is

combat with Pushan."

well known, and how, in consequence of this, they strove to prevent Firdawsi from obtaining access to the Court, until fortune favoured him, so that he

obtained admission to the King's presence, and the business of turning the Shdhndma into verse was entrusted to him.

The following

are some of 'Unsuri's verses

C/b ^bjj
Job tlS U-

'

Ji^j
'

*U/ Jj-f j
c->T
ij
I

JJ Jb
from
;

" Oh alas

that

this bright place

we must go beneath the

hollow ground
1

For

,.^

C. 8 has

^^

762

BIOGKAPHIES OP POETS.

48.

'ASJADf.

That, with bodies uncleansed from the dust of

sin,

we must go

Pure God ! with such a mind [That]


before the

\_flashing~\

like fire

and [mobile]

as water, one

must weigh
48.

the

wind and become dust."


1

'Asjadi.

None
1

of the

MSS.

C. ), hy omitting the next Fakhru'd-Din applies to 'Asjadi.


(e.g.

contain any notice of this poet, hut some of them title, make it appear that what is said of

(To be continued.)

JOURNAL
OF

THE ROYAL ASIATIC


ART.
I.

SOCIETY.

Biographies of Persian Poets contained in Ch. V, " Select of the Tdrikh-i-Guzida, or History," Translated by of Hamdu* lldh Mustawft of Qaztcin.
6,

EDWARD

G. BROWNE, M.A., M.R.A.8.

(Continttedfrom p. 762, October Number, 1900.)

49.

Fakhnt'd-Dm

this

[Fakhru'd-Din Fathu'llah], the brother of the author of work (may his life be long!), has composed some fine

odes.

The following

is

written in imitation of

Awhadi
'

J^

ir

a By an oversight this notice is repeated 1 almost verbatim (No. 65), in the place where it occurs in C.
1

little

further on

J.K.A.B.

1901.

49.

FAKHRU'D-DIN FATHU'LIJCH.
i

,^A

'

x--

C_"

.**?

knots,
tips

e had tangled those fragrant locks in a hundred and had cast into confusion a whole world like the
tresses.

of his

He

had gone proudly forth

into the meadow, with a cup of wine in his hand, beating time with his feet, so that thou ^wuld'st say he had dashed off two or three goblets.

His cheek perspiring with the trine-flame, thou would'st say that the breeze had dashed a dew-drop on a tender
rose-leaf.

Thou would'st say

that he had wrought with perfumed 1 unguent on the jessamine-leaf, and had imprinted a dot on the face with that fragrant mole.

Metaphor

for the cheek.

49.

FAKHRU'D-DfN.

50.

'mu'D-DfN KAIUJf.

The garden-plot had filed


as

itself with all sorts

though ornaments.

to

welcome
-

his

footsteps

of sweet herbt, with gold and

The

hands

of the

pavilions

and
the

carpet screens

spreading

Zephyr had erected


for
his

of cypress and pine

auspicious cavalcade.

The jessamine,
fragrant

lily,

and

the eglantine were steeped in

perspiration, for
essences.

the breeze

had watered
to cast at

his

path with

The rose-garden, for an offering entertainment, had produced


turned them into gold.

his feet

leaves on every side

and an and had

for long

the jonquils (for eager craving, thou would'st say,


filled with

for him) had formed rings


the door.

eyes fixed on

For

love

of him

my

head was wreathed

in smoke, like aloe-

wood, because he

had hurled

fire into

my

heart

and

eyes,

as though into a censer.

In blood the pupil of my eye washed its hands clean of life : 1 so much had the luckless pigeon fluttered therein. He passed me by, and did not even look at me : that quarry
which
teas

in such

poor condition did not even arrest


the
lives

his gaze.

His glances attempted


victory for

of God's creatures,

and

the heart's sake cast itself on the point of his

dagger."
50.

'Izzu'd-Din Karaji.
tribe of

He
some

was from Qazwin, of the


fine verses.
:

Kara j is. 2

He

haa

He

speaks as follows in reply to Siraju'd-

Din Qumri 3

Uj

LJi-e ty
"

1 the pigeon is a metaphor I do not understand this line, but I presume that for the eyelid or some other part or apnanage of the eye. 2 Concerning this family, see B. du Meynard's Description Jtistorique dt I* villt 4c Kazvin (Journal Asiatiqnc for 1857), p. 35 of the tmige-a-part. 3 See pp. 756-757 supra.

"

51.
'

'IZZU'D-DIN

HAMADNI.
is

" Thou did'st say,


ivho is

In

my

eyes sin

of

little

account

'

one

worthy will not speak thus. To make Eternal Foreknoioledge a cause of sin can, in the
opinion of the wise, only be from extreme ignorance."

51.

'Izzu'd-Dm Hamaddni.
[i.e.

He has some fine Pahlavi them the following


l
:

dialect] verses,

amongst

Dialect-verses

1st couplet.

r^

b *$

(P * 2>

2nd

couplet.

3rd

couplet.

j-^
couplet.

*.

JO^I

(C. >

(P. )
-I*

<uAs>-

*-^i^ <t>.

jl^o

1^, <o^ Jj ^- (P.

5^A couplet.

(P.

1 while L. 1 C. 2 omits all this, including the heading, but gives the verses 2 "ires only the heading and part of the next line, and L. omits the whole article. "
;

* 3

Omitted by P. and Barou Rosen adds a note

P. 2

"
:

*j\y

."

52. 'ATT^R.

53. 'ABDU'L-WXSI'.
02.

*>\.

-IHYD-I-LUR.

>

'Attar.

His name was Faridu'd-Din of Nishapur. most spirit-stirring verses. The Hadiqa*
Tadhkiratu'l-Atcliyd
his works.

He
[sic]

has some

and the

("Memoirs

of the Saints") -are

amongst

53.

'Abdu'l-Wdsi'.

He was

[A.H. 511-552, A.D. 1117-1157].

the contemporary of Sultan Sanjar the Saljuq They say that at first he

was a husbandman.
singing
:

The king saw him


>.

in a cotton-field,

3b

'

"

long-necked camel

I know

icJiat thoii icouldst

do

Thou

stretchest forth thy neck, \buf] thou shalt not eat

my

cotton."

attached

The King perceived in him the signs of a graceful fancy, him to his retinue, and educated him, until he

reached such a degree that until the present time none hath
equalled

him

in song.

54.

'Imddu'l-Dm Fadlaicayh.

He was
A.D.

the contemporary of

Abaqa Khan
said to

[A.H.

663680,
in jest : said

1265-1281], and was in the service of Shamsu'd-Din

the Sdhib-Diwdn.

The Sdhib-D'twdn
furdkh!"

him
the

"Ay

kun-i-zanat
:

'Imadu'd-Din

Lur

a propos of this

1.

So both the Cambridge MSS. Sank'i was, of course, the actual author. Da^latahuh (p. 74, Cf. Ouseley's Notices of the Persian Poett, p. 108. 20 et seqq.) discredits the story.
1

6
"

55.

'UTHMAN MA"Kf OF QAZW/N.


utterest words \jprecious~\ as pearls, be careful !
'

Although thou

for thou talkest with 'Imdd the Lur : Tliy fault is this, that at chess thou sayest too often
r> /
i

55.

'Uthmdn

MdM

of Qazicin.

Din Mustawfi. 2

was the panegyrist of my cousin Khwaja Fakhru'dHe has composed innumerable verses in Because his cousin Mawlana Sa'id a most fluent style. Qadi Radi'u'd-Din (may his tomb be pleasant !) had done
injustice,

He

he composed a satire on him, entitled the He amassed Radi-ndma, containing some 5,000 couplets. such riches by his poetic skill that he received in largesses
30,000 or 40,000 dinars, all of which he frittered away. One of the odes composed by him is here set down
:

him

-T

**;>-

...'.'.Mh^

The

point of these verses (which are celebrated)

lies in this,

that the abusive

words
2

object of

the may either be taken as applying to " poet's patron, or as being th& "par mi -gift," which also means thou talkest too much."
la

Concerning this family, see B. de Meynard's Description de

mile de Kazvin

(Paris, 1858), p. 36.


*

C. 2 reads

56.

'IMAWD-D/N ISMAIL.

57.

FIRDAWS/.

(*-

^
(

(J
..

p^
..

<*>-*>
*

j>

J-fJ

?C j

>

* .X

i_J

j->

Tit. ^ h
+\

>

" ^i^ morning, when thou


cheek,

cosiest

aside

the tresses
to

from thy
drunken

thine eyes

and cheek put

shame

the

narcissus

and

the anemone.

If a

should fall in the wine-cup from the image of thy face, the drunkenness of thy drunken eyes would
reflection

intoxicate the goblet.

If thou

the mirror

hast not seen the houris, behold thine oicn image in ; if thou icantest a store of musk, unloose thy
taste a taste

plaited locks.

If a houri should
angels.

she would bear a morsel

from the Banquet of thy Love, from thy lips as a gift to the

Thou

hast abandoned love


;

seed of harshness

and constancy ; thou hast sowed the thou hast not regarded thy lover of

many
Thou

years.
l

didst say,
:

My

ruby[-lip] will fulfil the craving of thy


to

heart'

I want

meet thee now; what use have


!

I for

promises ?

By

thy

life,

Nidhdm

thy lovers

is thine, thy very slave " hath sealed the acceptance !

The Qddi of

56.

Malik 'Imddu'd-Dm Isma'il al-Bukhdri.

has some fine verses, and his poetry excels that of his He died at Sultaniyya father, Malik RadiVd-Din Baba, at the beginning of the reign of Sultan Abu Sa'id Bahadur

He

Khan

[A.H. 716-736, A.D. 1316-1335].

57.

Firdawsi.
b. 'Ali

His name was Abu'l-Qasim al-Husan

of Tus.

He

58..FARRUKHf.

59.

FALAKl

60.

FAKHR-I-GURGA N.

>

are but

has some fine verses besides the Shdhndma, though they 1 little known amongst them the following
; :

"

If I might

rest

for one night on thy bosom, in pride

1 would

touch heaven with

my

head;
the

1 would break
In

the

pen

in

hand of Mercury

would

snatch the crown from the head of the Sun; honour I would rise above the ninth heaven

with

my

trample on Saturn's forehead ; If I possessed thy beauty, if I were in thy place,


foot

I would

would show pity

to the unfortunate,

would be merciful

to the distressed."

His death took place in the year A.H. 416 [=A.D. 1025-1026],
at Tus, in the reign of the Caliph al-Qadir [A.H. 381-122, A.D. 991-1031].

58.

Farmkhk?

59.

Falaki of Shirwdn.
of Manuchihr,

He was the panegyrist He has some fine verses.


60.

King

of Shirwan.

Fakhnfd-Din of Gurgdn.

was the contemporary of Sultan Tughril Bey the Saljuq [A.H. 429-455, A.D. 1037-1063]. He has composed
See Dr. H. Elbe's excellent papers on Fird&si als Lyriker iu the Munchener This poem Sitzunysberichte for 1872 (pp. 276-304) and 1873 (pp. 623-653).
1

He

will 2

The mere

able to find in any of the

he found at pp. 296-297. title, without any biographical particulars, MSS. which I have consulted.

is all

that I have been

61.

FAKHRf.
fine poetry.

62. FXKIITA.

63. QUTB-I-TABRfZ.
l

some
ibis

The book

of Wis and Rdmiii

is

one of

works.
61.

Fakhri of hfahdn.

the contemporary of Ghazan Khan [A.H. 694-703, A.D. 1295-1304]. He has some fine verses.
62.

He was

Fdkhta of Kdshdn.

He was named Zaynu'd-Din 'All. His verse is fluent. He was the panegyrist of the nobles of Qazwin. The book
[entitled]

Nasd'ihu'l-awldd (" Counsels to Children

"),

in

praise of my late lamented brother is one of his compositions.


63.

Ammu'd-Din

Nasni'llah,

Qutbu'd-Diti 'Atiqi of Tabriz.

He was
fine verses,

the father of Jalalu'd-Din 'Atiqi. amongst them the following


:

He

has some

/*-V>-

t\_>iJ

<i

J cr><i<>ii;

-*uS

.._J>

'A>-

\3*

Published in the Bibliotheca Indica

series, Calcutta, A.D.

1865.

10

64.

QANNA*Df.

65.

FAKHRU'D-DfN.

"
I,

by reason of this burden, that I have my face set toward a journey, rain down my very heart's blood from my
heart and eyes.
is

Sare God, there

none that knoiveth

my

state

there

is

no

companion who will sympathize with me for a moment. In this caravan there is none more consumed \_with grief~\
than

me

there

is

a fear of

this, that

I may

surrender

up

my

soul to Destiny.
at the beginning

The caravan passes by me, while I stand


the road
:

of

my

soul

is

sick with the grief

of separation,
again

and I am Every moment


again

ailing in body.

fall back

from

this

caravan

and

turn

my

face toivards the abode

of that swaying
sick

cypress.

The

beast bears burdens by

at heart, bear

my

day and rests by night : I, burden both by night and by day.

These words come from the burning heart of Qutb : there a fear of this, that fire may spring from my speech."
64.

is

QannddL

He

has some fine verses.

65.

Fakhru'd-Lin.

has some pretty odes.


follows
:

Fakhru'd-Din Fathu'llah, my brother (may he live long !),. In imitation of Awhadi l he sings as

For the

original of this parody, see pp.

736-737 supra.

Some

of the verses,

however, as will be noticed, occur in both, though occasionally with slight variations. The substance of this notice has been already given at pp. 762-764
supra (No. 49). 3 In C. 2 the refrain
is

throughout

**Jj

for

j.;

jj

65 [=49]. FAKHRU'D-DfN FATHU J LLXH.


j

j\

o^l

^Ua-

it-lf^.

c*

l^.l

.^J

Jl

\ '

f ^

C.

C. 2 om.

C. 3 reads

for l<rff;

C.'^
7

C. 1 hasjj

12

65 [=49]. FAKHRU'D-DIN FATHU'LLAH.

*j; -cS

<

-A_i

*.

she hath tied a

hundred knots on
tresses.

those tresses

fragrant

as ambergris
like the tips

she hath cast into confusion a whole world

of her

She

is

garden with a goblet of wine in her hand, gently swaying [so that] one would say she had dashed off two or three goblets.
gone walking in the
is

Her

cheek, informed with wine,

suffused with perspiration

one would say that the breeze

had dashed a drop of dew

on afresh

rose-leaf,

Sad

with ghaliya 4 on a jessamineleaf, had dotted the face with that fragrant mole. The garden-ground hath bedecked itself with all sorts of sweet
inscribed a

nun

(jj)

herbs, as though

icith

gold and ornaments to cast at

her feet.

The hands of the carpet-spreading Zephyr have raised a canopy and curtain of cypress and fir for her auspicious advent. The jessamine, lily, and narcissus are bathed in perspiration,
because the breeze hath sprinkled the road of her approach

with fragrant essences.

To

cast before her feet the


leaves
5

(or provision),

Rose-garden hath hurriedly made and turned them into gold on

every side.

It

is

long since the jonquils, in longing for thee t as thou may'st suppose, have formed a circle set with eyes, all

fixed on the door.

2
3

C.I

yM ,>
letter,

This

4 6

from its shape, is often compared to the eyebrow. kind of fragrant cosmetic, compounded, I think, with musk. The word barg has the double meaning of "leaf" and " provision."

66.

QATRAX.

67.

KAMAL-I-INFAHANf.

Through

smoke ascends from my head, as from aloe-wood, since, like censers, she hath filled with fire my heart and eyes.
desire of thee

In blood

the pupils of

my

eyes have

washed clean their hands

of life, so often, like pigeons, have they involuntarily dashed themselves upon her. She passed by me, and did not even look upon me; this

quarry of hers did not even arrest her glance, so lean she

found

it.

Her

glance conspired against

God's people;

and took captive the hearts of on the points of those darts hath she

impaled the distracted heart [of her admirer~\."


66.

Qatrdn.

67.

Kamdlu'd-Din Isma'il of Isfahan.

has some pretty verses, and has originated some charming fancies. He has also composed sundry scholarly He was treatises, amongst them a Treatise on the Boic.
killed in Isfahan

He

during the Monghol invasion, and, as he was dying, wrote these two quatrains on the wall with
his blood:
C.'.

-wu^n
i
'

jjjrj

x_j l>i

lr .-1

C* - "

<_JV 4

.*

U.*-JfeX-*

choked with blood, and

this is the condition

of

a melting soul ; In His Cult this is the

least diversion :

not say aught ; Notwithstanding this, It may be, per/taps, that such is the reward for faithful
service."
C. 2 omits this title, and no particulars are given in anv of the MSS. was a native of Tabriz, where he was seen by Nasir-i-Shusraw ed. Schefer, p. 1) in A.H. 438 (A.D. 1046).
1

I dare

Qatruti

14
''

68. KiFf-I-KARAjf.
'

A.^5 >x>p

JJ

<LxJ^ ^ JjiL
*j c^-*u-J

JU- j)
Jj}/*
it
I

Jo^f J^.

^j ^j

L' t

e-wcj

J^5 jj

^xj

Aweep over its native land ? evil chance ?

" Where

is

the heart, that


its

may

May

weep over

own

state

and an

Yesterday there were two hundred lamentations over one who

had died :
To-day there
is

not one to weep over a hundred !

"

68.

Kdft-i-Karaji.

His name was Abu'l-Faraj Ahmad b. Muhammad. He was the panegyrist of Majdu'd-Din 'Imadu'd - Dawla of Hamadan, and died at the beginning of the Monghol invasion. He has some fine verses in the Karaji dialect, two or three couplets of which are here set down.
Dialect-verses.
I.

First couplet.
1

(C.
.

(P.
.-w'

w\_-_>

...xuAxj

i.'tJ

(P.

I.

Second

couplet.

Baron Rosen notes

See n. 2 at the foot of p. 764 supra. " Uncertain ; might also be read LjJw or
:

BIOGRAPHIES OP POETS.

68.

KAF/-I-KARAJf.

">

(P.*)
^ >

-~

''

II. JVrs^ couplet. 1

A^

A)

(C.

(P.

Sj

&?- (P.

2
)

^
II.

<L^

_Jb L^ ^jl*.

<)^-

Second
JD
'

couplet.

^^ ^
j

jj

1>

<utj

^\ U*AJ (c.

>

5j

Jp

L-Ar
(P.
1

(p.

2
)

ii.
1

^
J

1
\

(C.

^^-31 (P.

forming one poem.

two pieces are joined together, as though however, they are separated by the word UM . 2 Barou Rosen notes "I had read U AI , but M. Zhukoraki thinks that it is rather ^AI that should be read."
1

Baron Rosen notes that


In C.
:

in P. 1 the

P. 1 omits the remaining verses.

16

69.

KAMAL-I-ZANJANf.
II.

70.

KARGAS.

Fourth

couplet.
1

(C.
'

LJ" *U.,

^. CL

J&u
j

-l) (P. )

69.

Kamdlu'd-Din Zanjdni. 1

the panegyrist of Khwaja Sadru'd-Din Ahmad-ithe Sd/iib-Diwdn. He has some fine verses. Khalidi,
70.

He was

Kargas.

of
.

His name was Najmu'd-Dm. He was the contemporary and the panegyrist of was also his panegyrist but he held Kargas in
.

.....
:

the highest honour, because he excelled both as a companion and as a poet. Concerning Kargas [his rival] said

C. 1 reads
?jJ.

^M
:

C. 1 reads

,U

'*lil>k

70.

KARGAS.

71.

KtfTWAL.72.

MU'l/zf.

17

"

this, how Nimrod in his pride touched for a while the heavens with his crown of lordship. The inflation ofpride and empire left his heart no ear to hear

Thou hast heard

the prophetic miracle wrought by

the Friend of

God

'

(Abraham).
Therefore
inevitably
to

a gnat

Lord of the Universe appointed do battle and contend with him for a while.
the

When

the gnat, without aid of spear or help of shield, found,


aid,

by God's

power

to slay

him,

An

order came
'

from

the Creator to the Snatcher of souls,

sayiny,

soul-seizing

Phoenix of the lotus-vaulted


the soul

Zenith,
'

Arise

to

bear unto the

Lord

of one hampered

in

desire, as ashes for the furnishing of Hell

f
will tell thee, \f

Know for
God

u'hat reason this befell

Nimrod : I
:

thou wilt not hold


decreed against

me

culpable

him every moment a fresh torment because he had instituted the custom of pampering the
Vultures (Kargas) ."
71.

Kutwdl.

He

His name was Mahtnud the son of ..... of Khurasan. is still alive, and has some fine verses.
72.
Mu'izzi.

He was the panegyrist of Sultan Sanjar the Saljuq, and attached to him, and was the Poet-laureate of that period.
J.K.A.S.

1901.

18

73.

MUBARAK-SHAH.

74.

He

has some fine verses.

While Sultan Sanjar was playing


Mu'izzi said
:

polo, the royal horse stumbled.

"

King
If the

punish the vicious horse, for eye on the comely face.


!

it

hath cast the evil

ball errs, strike

it

is vicious,

give

it to

me ! "
to

with the polo-stick, and if the horse

The King gave the horse


saying
:

Mu'izzi,

who mounted

it,

"

mounted

the horse to kill


to this

it

for

its
:

fault

it

'

said,

First

hearken

my fair

excuse

I am

not the

Earth-Cow

that

am I the Fourth Heaven

that

should bear the world, nor I should carry the Sun ! '
'

73.

Mubdrak'Shdh of Ghur.

He was

versified Introduction

the panegyrist of Sultan Ghiyathu'd Din Ghiiri. to Astronomy is one of his com-

positions.

74.

Mujiru'd-Din Baylaqdm.

has some fine verses, and in particular has given utterance to some incomparable word-plays.
75.

He

Majdu'd-Din Hamgar.
associates of
-

He

was a native of Yazd, and one of the


Baha'u'd - Din
of

Khwaja Amongst
but

Juwayn,
he had

the

Sahib

Diwdn.
is

the amusing anecdotes related of

him

it

said

that he had an aged wife,

whom

left

behind in Yazd,

who came

after

him

to Isfahan.

pupil of his said to

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.
him,

75.

MAJD-I-HAMGAR.

19
!

" Good " news, for your lady has alighted in the house " Good news would rather be in this, that the Hamgar said,

house had alighted on her


to the lady.

When
:

This speech was reported she saw her husband, she reproached
!

"

him, saying

"

Sir, night

and day

existed ere

I and

tJiou

were

"

Before me, yes but God forbid that day and night should have existed before thee " The people of Kashan sent him these verses concerning the poetry of Anwari and Dhahir

Hamgar

said

"

. i
,

JUU> !_>>

..

.'?</<

^Aow w/*0 ar^ weighty as the earth, who in the heaven of learning art the moon of auspicious countenance and the

most luminous sun

One party of

critics

prefer the utterances of Dhahir to the


this

verses of Anwari, While another party deny

statement

in

short,

they

Do

are in a state of strife and contention. thou indicate to them a preference for one side

Realm of Eloquence genius /"

is

; for the under the signet-ring of thy

20

75.

MAJDU'D-DfN HAMGAK.
as follows
:

Hamgar answered

t.

jb\

3
4

C. 2 reads (_>b^j. C. 1 reads jb *,e. Perhaps we should read^*

MSS.^j, which
is

neither scans, nor, so far as 1 can see,

makes

sense.

The

emendation

conjectural.

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.

75.

MAJD-I-HAMGAR.

21

s^_i_i

^
ball

jtj

^1

number of
excellence

the people of the district of

Kdshdn, and learning have borne away the

tcho in

of

eloquence,

Disputed on the utterances of the composers of verse, as to which did best string the flashing pearls of Dart [i.e.
Persian] speech. Their dispute was about Anwari and Dhahir, as the higher rank as a poet.
to

which held

The one proffered pearls from One

the water of

Fdrydb, the other,

1 Ja'fari gold from the land of KJidicardn. preferred the sun to the moon ; one set the

Houri

oter

the fairy.

Since the one party could not obtain justice


their glance selected

from

the other,

humble me for the

arbitration.

An

appeal

was

written.

When

there

reached me,

the

petitioner,

this

demand for judgment, with unbiassed

mind
1

The

41

Ja'fari

"

native places of Dhahir and Anwari respectively. is of particularly fine quality.

The

gold called

22

75.

MAJDU'D-DfN HAMGAR.
to

/ explored from
even as

end

end the mine of genius of that one,


the depths of this one's ocean.
to be as

I dived into
the one

The poetry of
Although
it

proved
proved

royal pearls,

tchile the

verse of the other

to be like Ja'fari gold.

Dhahir transcends the order of verse, cannot boast equality with the style of Anwar'i. Neither does his verse reach the zenith of Jupiter, especially
the poetry of

on occasions of rhapsody and panegyric. Although the nature of the fresh date is sweet and pleasant l to the taste, how can it surpass 'Askari sugar ?

Although the

icillow

succulent, yet

the cypress in

is green and graceful, pleasant and how can the willow give itself the airs of the meadow ?

is the belief of your servant concerning the two apologists, ifthou wilt follow the opinion of Majd-i- Hamgar. This conclusion icas evolved at midnight at the end of Rajab,

This

in the year

674

[^

= 600 + ^= 70 + J = 4]
:

of the

Flight of the Prophet."

Imam

of Herat says on this subject

*
\
\

*v

.,>__J iij

\ '>

"
*

imS^t

'

)i

-**

"

thou

who pursuest

the paths of meditation on this question,


to the truth

if thou lookest
excusable.

of the matter thou art not

There

is no need of so many words in order to arrive at a decision by the process of comparing the two styles.

sugar.

'Askar is said to be the name of a place near Shushtar celebrated for ite See Vullers's Pertian Lexicw, 6

76.

MAHMTJD TABRfzf.

77. NAJM-I-ZAItKtfl3.

23

For

this is

that a

a miracle, and that mere magic ; this a candle and lamp ; this a moon and that a star ; this a houri

and

that a fairy."

76.

Malik

Mahmud

of Tabriz.

He was the son of Malik Mudhaffaru'd-Din, and one of the great ones of the world. He has some fine poems, them the following amongst
:

tw*5
jl
La *

ih)

d-->

sjj\

n>

Jo*uJ ^^j.

n
^^j

Jji .j

iX.-

Jo UJ

i^^^pj .^-

**

y^-**

s
life

not yet come for


its

me

to clasp thee in

my embrace:

approaches
(

end : how long

this anticipation ?

When I
say,

shall strain thy

form

to

my

bosom, the world will

Lo, we ' embrace !

have

again placed thy desire in thine


beware,

Life and youth pass like the wind icithout tarrying lose not the opportunities of love's season !

Make good

use of this time,

else,

remains,

whom
"

doth

lamentation

when opportunity no longer profit ? how shall

weeping avail ?

77.

Najmu'd-Din Zarkub ("the Gold-beater").

Khan.

He was the contemporary of Abaqa Khan and Arghun He has some fine verses, amongst them the
:

following

24

78.

NIDHAMf OF GANJA.

79.

NIDHAMI

<ARTJI)f.

"

/ am
I
sit

but a icail

a gold-beater, and what and a lament.

I gain from my I

craft

is

naught

ever in the midst of gold, but

never have a single

farthing."
78.

Nidhdmi of Ganja.

a contemporary of Sultan Tughril, the son of Alp-Arslan, the Saljuq. The books of Khusraw and SMrtu, Layld and Majnun, the Seven Faces (Haft Paykar}, the

He was

Treasury of Mysteries (Makhzanu'l-Asrdr), and the Book of Alexander (Iskandar-ndma) are amongst his poems.
79.

Nidhdmi-i-'Arudi.

He

was a contemporary of Nidhami of Ganja.

The book

entitled Najmafu' n-Nawddir (Thesaurus of Facetiae) is one of his compositions, and he has some fine verses. It is said

that the

thee ?

"

" King asked him, Is

there another

Nidhami

besides

He

replied

>.\

.;

>

L<

-?

J>^>-

^o

jJ

-to

A jl

>J

>- *^_'.;_^).

.^j

-^

TTe

re

^ree Nidhdmis
a icorld

in the world,

King, by reason of King, while

whom Of

is filled

with outcry.
in waiting on the before the Sultan.

these, I,

your servant,

am

the two others are in

Merv

MSS.

read

*J

for

These verses (with some variations, and a much fuller account of the circumstances which gave rise to them) are given hy Nidhami-i- 'Arudi himself in his Chahdr Maqdla. See my translation of that work in the J.R.A.S. for July and October, 1899, pp. 85-87 of the tirage-d-part.
2

80.

NASIR-I-KHUSRAW.

81.

NAjflJ.

25

Although they utter verse

[subtle] as spirit, and although can speak like the Spirit of Wisdom, they When I begin to weave a cord, both desist in despair from
their

labour"
80.

Ndsir-i-Kkusraw.

He was an extreme ShHte of the Sect of the Seven, and this sect entitle him Hnjjat ("the Proof"). He was & man of philosophical mind, a contemporary of Mustansir the Fatimid Caliph of the West, and carried on a propaganda in the name of Nizar. 1 He lived nearly a hundred years, and was born in the year A.H. 358. 2 He has some exquisite The book of the verses, but was not free from fanaticism.
Rawshand'i-ndma 3
81.
is

one of his poems.

Najtbu'd-D'm Jarbddaqdni.

the panegyrist of the Amirs of the Castle of 4 Dasaq (?), and died towards the end of the Saljuq period. He has some fine verses. The Book of Bishr and Hind is

He was

one of his poems.


82.

Qddi Nidhdmu'd-Din.

He was

contemporary with Abaqa Khan, and has some

good verses in Arabic and Persian. These few verses, from the bilingual qaszda composed by him in praise of Khwaja

Shamsu'd-Din the Sdhib-Diwdn, which are in


here set

my

mind, are

down

of the sons of al-Mustansir, who was set aside in favour of his brother This, however, belongs to a subsequent time, and the author seems to have confused Nasir-i-Khusraw with his successor Hasan-i-Sabbah, the later Isma'ili propagandist. 2 He certainly lived to a considerable age, since in some of his poems he speaks of himself as being over sixty. The actual date of his birth (as stated by himself) was A.H. 394 (A.D. 1003-1004). 3 Published and translated Dr. Hermann Eth6 in the Z.D.M.G.,
1

One

Musta'li.

by

vol. xxxiii, and vol. xxxiv, pp. 428-468. pp. 645-665, 4 C. 2 reads . I am unable to identify the place.

jU^

26

82.

QADf NIDHAMU'p-DfN.

SljiT

ci^iJ

Jji

^
.

altercation it is [which passes'] , /ts^n, /w^ pleasant an behveen the stream and the river-side cypress.

C. 1 reads

^U

f or

CU

BIOGRAPHIES OF POETS.

82.

QApf NIDHAMU'D-DfN.

Every moment it [the stream'] displays its clear heart, unloosing a hundred tongues in fluent speech. To it quoth the cypress, faithless friend, why do I quiver
'

over thee in love ?

I am

hampered by

my

uprightness

thou pursuit crooked

paths, intruding everywhere. Since thou must needs gather the worthless about thce, 1 thou leavest such an one as me without a companion.

Now my

hand holds but wind from thy words, mourning in the dust*
to it,

I am

seated in

In answer
its
'

[the brook'] recited this ode, whilst

it

hung

head in shame.
indeed, that thou hast no desire
voics
is

/ see,

for union

icith

me

thy

have no

stability.

wrought by thce save wilfulness, naught by us save gentle moods and conciliation. Henceforth make no claim to nobility, boast not of steadfast-

Nothing

ness in love.

I nursed thee

tenderly in my lap, that perchance one day thou mightest o'ershadow my head. Now, indeed, thy affairs have prospered ; if thou secst me not,

thou remembered

me

net.

For

love

of thee
is

stones on

I turned my face to the open country, my bosom in my restlessness.

dashiiuj

Thy head

exalted to heaven in upliftedness, while fallen humbly at thy feet.


is

I am
;

Thy head

glossy,

are distraction

and thou hast beauty and freshness and desire.

mine

May

this exaltation ever be thine,


'

for thou abidest while we

pass away

Thus spake [the

streani], then suddenly sank down, casting in the dust in soul-abandonment. itself

Hereat was the uplifted head of the cypress troubled, much was it distressed by lore.

is

1 For the rubbish floats in water, while what is precious sinks. often alluded to as preferring levity to solid worth.

Hence water

28

83. KASIR.

84.

HUHAM-I-TABRIZf.

It came into the garden, sinking birds lamented over it.

hand on hand,

while the

This verse of the Master's song comes into in truth is icorth inscribing on thy heart
4

my
:

mind, which

The doves flutter over the


like

trees: the
l

garden exhales a fragrance

Qiimdri

aloes.'

"

83.

Ndsir of

2
. .
.
.

...
He

2
,

is

a village in the district of Ramjird, in Ears.


Sa'di,

was a contemporary of

and has some

fine verses.

84.

Humdmu'd-Din of

Tabriz.

He was

a contemporary of Sa'di of Shiraz, and has some

charming verses and passionate odes ; but since Sa'di had carried off the ball of fame in [the composition of] odes,

Mawlana

Humam

says on this subject

-^_

ttjiiM

L$ U
i

1 Qumdr or Qamdr is explained by Vullers (Je^. Jfcrs., s.v.) as the a city or district in India celebrated for its aloe-wood.

uame

of

Name

illegible.

It looks like

*s-.

84. HUMAM-I-TAimfzf.

85.

WATWAT.

29

uj]/-*&
r/o

or

business with a single glance;

but thou

dost not concern thyself with the care of the unfortunate.

In longing for thine image I am the slave of sleep is he whose companion and confidant thou art !
Since we are content
to

happy

behold thy face from afar off, why with the tips of thy tresses ? docs the Zephyr toy Surrender once more 2 the tresses of the Beloved into the hands

of the windt for

tale-telling is

the occupation of that

busybody. Gaze not on the straight cypress ; it were better for thee to dally with thine own upright stature.

Art thou not shamed by my face ? for thou art set apart in beauty amongst the fragrant herbs.' ' Is it fitting that Give this message to the nightingale :
Say
to

the

Hose

'

where Jin-mam

Humdm
doth

thou shouldst sing songs of love ? has an utterance sweet and charming ; but what
is
it

'

a rail, for the poor fellow

is

not a Shirdsi."

85.

Watwdt.

His name was Rashidu'd-Din Muhammad b. Muhammad b. He was a contemporary of Sultan 'Abdu'l-Jalil al-'Umari. The books jffadd'iqu's-sihr (" Gardens of Magic ") Sanjar.

and Fard'idu'l- Qald'id

(" Necklaces

has amongst his compositions. three are written down for luck :
1

He

some

incomparable ") are fine verses. These

I.e., I

I fancy that

can I hope to see thy face. long to sleep, for only in dreams " " " we should read JM for JL , Do not give or surrender."

30

85.

RASHID-I-WATWAT.
.t

-.

86.

MAHSATf.

_J

fc*

<^>-

^.jjli

U_^O>

LT--Mjux

(^y* jJ {J

'"

The eye hath communings with


lustre in the eye.

thee,

and from

thee there

is

Thy
It
is

star hath opened love to tne, for in this casket are drugs
to restore sight.

meet that

1
is

for to-day

should lay hold of the tips of thy a day for the unloosing of knots."

tresses,

86.

Mahsati. 1

She has some

fine
:

quatrains.

Concerning herself and

a butcher-boy she says

"

Every knife which he withdraws from the victim he hath and takes in his sugar-stceet lips and teeth,

slain,

Were he

to

place

it

once again on the throat of the slain,

it

would renew

its life

for desire of

its lips."

And
<
I

again

r
'

r*-i
4
'

<

~
\

41

The

butcher, as
'

is
is

his custom, overthrew me, slew me,

and

said,

Such

my

habit !

'

See n.

on

p.

736 supra.

C. 1 jiw male.

87-.

'AYASHA.

88.

FIRDAWS.

:ii

Again he

treacherously lays his head on

my

feet, breathing

on me that he

may flay me /"


'A'yasha the Recitress.

87.

She has some

fine quatrains,
l

amongst them the following


**~>)J

^l&uri>

J3 j\

l*"^

"'

i*

**

W,

heart craves of thee a kiss ! price for a kiss from me is thy soul !'
'

'

My

'

He

'

replied,

The

The heart came and touched


to say,

the soul with its finger, as though


;

Buy

Strike the bargain

it is

cheap [at the

price].'"'
88.

Firdaws the Minstrel.

She was a minstrel.

When Khwarazmshah
:

gained the

victory over the kings of Ghur, she said

"

King, the Ghuri escaped thee by

idles,

escaped like a chicken

from

the clutches of the

hawk ;

He

alighted

from his horse [asp, also knight in chess], turned aside his face [rukh, also rook, castle'] : the surrendered to thee his elephants [fil, pit King bishop

= =

in chess] and so escaped mate


1

!"

(knight), piytida (pawn), rukh (castle), jil (bishop), thdh all belong to the game of chess, but are all (except the last) used here in their ordinary significations of horse, pedestrian, eheek, elephant, and king.

The words asp

(king),

and mdt (mate)

32

89. BINTU'N-KAJJARIYYA.

89.

Bintu'n-Najjdriyya.
.
.

She was a contemporary of good verses.

and has some

c^wilj^jxi <^j^j3j

<L5lr^

jj 'ci-wilj^jii

<$>

Xj,j

*Jo \j\*

cannot restrain

me by hard words
:

(?) :

owe cannot keep

me

in the cheerless house

Her

ichose tresses are like chains one cannot keep at


[even~\ with chains."

home

(Here follows

ch. vi,

on the city of Qazwin.)

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