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Time Machine Introduction Course Overview What is Time Machine? Setting Up Time Machine Exclude Items from Backup How Backups are Stored Enter Time Machine Viewing Backups Restore Process Symptoms & Fixes Troubleshooting Practice Learning Resources Contact Us Printer Friendly

OS X Lion: Time Machine

This course covers Time Machine, the backup utility built into OS X Lion. It allows users to backup and r their entire Mac.

Course Overview

Course Objectives
Describe what Time Machine is, what it can do and how it can benefit users Explain the backup process Identify how and where backups are stored Demonstrate how to locate and restore backup data Determine and resolve common Time Machine issues


Technicians who wish to troubleshoot and service Mac computers


OS X Lion: Basics, Installation, Startup, File System, Applications, Accounts and Permissions

Time Required

60 minutes

You will need...

OS X Lion (10.7), Mac computer, Printer


Format: Mac OS Extended (most common).info. Mac OS Extended (Case sensitive. you can recover it from a local copy. Note: External disks connected to an AirPort Extreme. modify. Time Machine keeps a spare copy of the files you create. Partition Type: GUID (GPT) is recommended. every day.php?page=printer and Internet connection What is Time Machine? Time Machine is the breakthrough automatic backup feature that's built right into OS X Lion. copying jus files that have changed since your last Go to Backups are made every Journaled) or XSan 2. Time Machine Requirements Time Machine can back up to any of these volumes: 1. USB 2. iPod. This is all done in the background. Some partitions on Master Boot Record (MBR) disks m be available for use.6 or later) Specific Hard Drive Requirements 1. Secondary partition on your hard drive 3. or disk formatted for Windows will no with Time Machine. iDisk. It keeps an to-date copy of everything onto an external drive.php?page=printer 2/14 . Local Snapshots OS X Lion lets you take the Time Machine experience with you when you’re away from your Time Capsu backup drive. If you accidentally delete a file while on the road. Network Server (using Apple File Protocol (AFP) file sharing and Mac OS X or delete right on your Mac.0 FireWire or Thunderbolt-based external hard drive 2. Learning Activity Learn more about Time Capsule and how it works with Time Time Capsule (wireless hard drive + full-featured Wi-Fi base station that that works seamlessly wit Machine) 4. http://www." Symptom #4: Alert Message: "Time Machine could not be configured.3/25/12 choose Time Machine. service. Move the slider bar to "Off" to disable Time Machine backups. An error occurred while copying files to th backup volume." Symptom #3: Alert Message: "Unable to complete backup." Symptom #2: Alert Message: "No volumes to be backed up were available. choose Apple Menu > System Preferences > Time Machine: Click the red "i" icon for more information. From the View menu." Symptom #5: Alert Message: "Must create a new backup" Symptom #6: Backup Is Slow Symptom #7: Backup Disk Fills Faster Than Expected Symptom #8: Backup Is Interrupted Symptom #9: Can't Find Item to Restore Symptom #10: Certain items are not backed up More information to help you troubleshoot If you are having issues with backups." Summary Time Machine is unable to complete a backup.. Symptoms and Fixes Here are common problems with Time Machine as reported by users. 2. alert message appears: "The backup volume is read only Resolution Attempt to repair your Time Machine's backup: 1. Symptom #1: Alert Message: "The backup volume is read only.php?page=printer 3/14 .apple. Back to top Symptom #1: Alert Message: "The backup volume is read Follow steps in the order indicated to resolve the issue. Choose System Preferences from the Apple

An occurred while copying files to the backup volume. 9.. An error occurred w copying files to the backup volume. If the repair is Drag the sparsebundle to the Disk Utility sidebar. delete the sparsebundle and start a new backup. Restart your Mac. 2. alert message appears: "No volumes to be backed up we available. Double-click your Time Capsule. Click your Backups folder and locate your backup sparsebundle. alert message appears: "Unable to complete backup. 10. 2. Choose Apple Menu > System Preferences > Time Machine. 11. Move the slider bar to "Off" to disable Time Machine backups. Back to top Symptom #3: Alert Message: "Unable to complete backup. Verify you have not excluded all available volumes. attempt to backup via Time Machine.3/25/12 service. Back to top Symptom #4: Alert Message: "Time Machine could not be configured. If the repair is not Run Disk Utility located in /Applications/Utilities. 8." Summary Time Machine is unable to complete a backup. 7." Summary Time Machine is unable to complete a backup. Try the backup again. Click Select the sparsebundle.php?page=printer 4/14 . Back to top Symptom #2: Alert Message: "No volumes to be backed up were available. alert message appears: "Time Machine could not be service. For external hard drive and network volumes select volume and click Repair.php?page=printer 3." Resolution For Time Capsule backups: 6. 12. Open a Finder window and locate your Time Capsule in the sidebar. 3. To view the list: 1." Summary Time Machine is unable to complete a backup. 4. then click Repair." Resolution This can happen if all volumes are in the 'Do not backup' list.

Resolution There are a few conditions in which your backup may be slow: First-time backup First backup after a software update or changing a large amount of data A long time since the last backup To speed up your". Try backing up without a USB or FireWire hub. Delete the file "NetworkInterfaces..plist" to the desktop (to make a precautionary backup).php?page=printer 5/14 . Symptom #6: Backup Is Slow Summary Backup is slow or Time Machine will prompt you agai to start a new backup. To create a new backup. try a different one. Verify the source and destination disks with Disk Utility. try to minimize other computer processes: Don't back up during any of these processor-intensive activities: Disc burning Movie rendering Spotlight indexing Antivirus software scanning Quit unused applications to free up memory. Then Control-click the Time Mach in the If you back up to a Time Capsule. From the Finder's Go menu go to this location: /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/ 2. Your existing backup is deleted. 5. Copy the file "NetworkInterfaces. reconfigure your Network and Time Machine preference panes in System Preferenc Back to top Symptom #5: Alert Message: "Must create a new backup" Summary A problem has occurred that prevents Time Machine from using the existing backup.php?page=printer configured. click Back Up Later. Once restarted. Enter administrator name and password if prompted. Restart your Mac. and your data will be backed up only after the new backup is completed. Resolution To try to retrieve data from the existing click Start New Backup. 4. or install more memory in the computer. service. Use a different drive cable if you get I/O errors in the system." Resolution 1. and browse the star field to retrieve the files you need. check the Apple Support website to be sure you have the most curren available firmware. If your drive supports multiple interfaces.. 3. For network pick a time when the network is less busy.3/25/12 service.

Resolution If you can't find an item to restore. 3. Time Machine continues the backup when the network connection re-establishes. 2.php?page=printer You can use Spotlight to search your Time Machine backups in the Finder. Resolution When Backup Drive = Network Volume 1. 3. Time Machine is on. Backup was not finished. Back to top Symptom #8: Backup Is Interrupted Summary Time Machine backup is interrupted. 2. Time Machine will begin deleting the oldest If the volume is full. Reconnect or remount external drive. Item. 2. Resolution Some files can be very large in size. it might not have been backed up yet. Verify the following: 1. Resolution When Backup Drive = Locally Connected Volume You disconnected or unmounted external drive during the 1. Back to top Symptom #9: Can't Find Item to Restore Summary Item(s) you'd like to restore can't be Reconnect to the network volume.php?page=printer Use wired networks instead of wireless. the folder or volume it resides in is not in the excluded items list. service.3/25/12 service. Check network connection (ethernet cable or AirPort) Back to top Symptom #7: Backup Disk Fills Faster Than Expected Summary Backup disk fills faster than Also consider the following: Time Machine also deletes backups if they're too old. Time Machine resumes the backup when you reconnect the drive. What might appear to be small changes to these files still cause the to be backed up with the next Time Machine backup. Drive is recognized in the Time Machine preference pane. You can also browse your Time Machine backups in the Finder. Consider a backup method other than Time Mach these files. 6/14 .

and then click Done. For more repairing the directory does not repair previously damaged files. To remove an item that should not be in the list. Time Capsule Users: The initial backup may be faster if you leave your computer in the same room as Time Capsule. Choose Apple menu > System Consider verifying and disk prior to using Time Machine. then the backup is likely damaged as w unless the damage happened after the file was backed click Re (-). 3. Connect an external hard drive to your Mac. or use an Ethernet cable to connect your computer to one of the Ethernet ports on the Ti 1. Damaged Source File = Damaged Backup File If the source volume has a damaged file on your source volume.php?page=printer 7/14 . Time Machine can’t back up software from companies other than Apple due to a se made by that software. select it. and then click Time Machine. however you should not interrup initial backup. Click Options. Back to top Symptom #10: Certain items are not backed up Summary Time Machine does not back up a particular file(s). Time Machine Setup: External Hard Drive 1. you may have excluded them from backups in Time Machine preferences. Note: In rare cases. Back to top Setting Up Time Machine About the First Backup The first backup may take a while. contact the manufacturer of the software.php?page=printer You can use Spotlight to search your Time Machine backups in the Finder. Directory damage can cause file damage.3/25/12 service. You may want to set up Time Machine in the evening so that the init backup can be done overnight. service. Resolution If Time Machine doesn’t back up one or more files. Portable Computer Users: Make sure to plug your portable computer in to AC power during your first backup. Look in the “Do not back up” list. Disk Utility's "Repair Disk" verifies and repairs directory dama however. The Mac may be used during this 2.

Time Machine Setup: Partition. Time machine detects the 8/14 . Click Time Machine. 2. Choose Apple Menu > System Preferences. Click Select Disk. service. Time machine will start an initial backup of everything on your Mac. Click us backup disk.php?page=printer and will ask you if you'd like to use it as your backup disk. Network Drive or Time Capsule 1. Choose the disk/volume. 4.3/25/12

Click Save. Y also drag items to the list. To remove an item from the 4. 5. Time Machine allows users to encrypt their external backup disk. Click Time Machine. If it is not encry any person who gains possession of the disk can read the information on it. Click Options. Learning Resources "Mac 101 : Time Machine" (HT1427) Time Machine Support Page "Time Machine : Troubleshooting backup issues" (HT3275) Exclude Items from Backup You can exclude items from a Time Machine backup to save space on your backup disk. click Add (+).com/service_training/en/063/en/Lion_TimeMachine/index. select it.” Attention FileVault Users: You must choose to encrypt your backup disk if they wish for the data on bo drives to be secure. Choose Apple Menu > System Preferences. and then click Remove (-). and then select one or more items. Turning on FileVault does not automatically encrypt a Time Machine backup.php?page=printer Encrypt Backup Disk Starting in OS X Lion.3/25/12 service. 1.php?page=printer 9/14 . To specify an item that shouldn’t be backed Existing non-encrypted backup disks can be converted to an encrypted backup by selecting the disk an choosing “Encrypt backup disk.

Backups maybe separated by hours.3/25/12 service. you ma backups separated by 10/14 . Local Backups This is the file structure used by Time Machine to store local backups : BackupHD Backups. or weeks. days. Time Machine manages these backups to gradually reduce number of differences saved for the oldest files. you will need to reinstall OS X L and your applications. How Backups are Stored Time Machine organizes backups in a logical way that's easy to understand. days. A package (folder that looks like a file) named like a backup and has the file extension ". service. the backup is located at /BackupHD/Backups. or weeks Depending on whether you keep Time Machine on and whether you keep your drive MyMac Computer Name 2011-07-20-091411 yyyy-mm-dd-hhmmss Macintosh H Volume Back Example: if you back up your computer.backupdb/MyMac/ An alias called "Latest" that takes you to the most recent backup. "My Mac" to the volume named "BackupHD" at 9:14:11am on Ju 2011.php?page=printer Automatically Excluded The backup disk is automatically excluded from the items that should be backed an appropriate folder replaces this package. Excluding system files and applications? Excluding OS X Lion system files and applications from a Time Machine backup will save space on your Important Items Found in the Backup Folder 1. However. 2. in case your startup disk requires repair or replacement.inProgress the backup completes.

info. Snapshots of previous backups appear in the background: Backups These represent each Time Machine backup Network and Time Capsule Backups Network and Time Capsule Backups are stored in special kind of disk image called a Sparse Bundle file (.3/25/12 service. in Time Machine preferences) Time Machine opens in full-screen mode with a window for each backup "going back in time".sparsebundle). While your b disk is connected.sparsebundle Note: 'yourcomputername' is the name of your Mac (from the Sharing System Preference) Enter Time Machine Time Machine makes it easy to browse your backed-up files for items you want to restore.php?page=printer 11/14 . choose one of the following: Click the Time Machine icon in the Dock Choose Enter Time Machine from the menu bar (If you selected Show Time Machine status in the menu Time Ma shows the current state of the computer in the This mountable directory of banded files only takes up the amount of space actually us its contents compared to a traditional disk image that uses a fixed amount of space whether full or emp The Time Capsule or network volume path to a Time Machine backup volume for is: Backupvolume/yourcomputername. Currently viewed backup You can navigate the currently viewed backup like any o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 service.

apple. it will have the same Time Machine cancel. Example: If you have deleted an email by accident. If you don’t know exactly when you deleted or ch a file.3/25/12 service. Use Quicklook Preview file contents to make sure its the one you Simply the Spotlight search field and use the back arrow to have Time Machine search through your bac to find what you are looking 3. Applications displayed instead of the Finder Some applications store data in a way that may not be easy to navigate in the Finder such as Address Bo Mail and iPhoto.php?page=printer Why the different colored snapshot markers? The purple snapshot markers on the right side of the Time Machine screen represent a backup. 2. Use it to reach a certain point back in time (it sh the times of all backups on your backup disk). timeline controls. service. Viewing Backups There are three ways to view your backup data in the Time Machine window: 1. Time Machine will display these applications instead of the Finder. open Mail and then start Time Machine from Although Mail windows will be shown instead of Finder windows. Local snapshots are represented by white markers (these only appear on portable computers).info. Highlight the file and press the Space B bring up a preview. you can use the back arrow to let Time Machine automatically travel through time to show when that folder last changed. The Finder window that opens in Time Machine works just like regular Finder window. Use Spotlight Perform a Spotlight search in the Time Machine Finder Window search field to find a file.php?page=printer 12/14 .apple. Use the Timeline On the right side of the window is the

Restore Process Restore: Individual Files and Folders If the file you are restoring has another file in the same location with the same name. 2.php?page=printer How do I delete items from backups? To delete all backups of one or more items from a Time Machine Connect your backup disk. Authenticate with an administrator password when prompted. 4.3/25/12 service. Click the Time Machine icon on your Dock to enter the Time Machine restore or to move or delete items in your Machine backup repository." from the contextual menu.. Select the correct version of the file(s)/folder(s) you'd like to Control-click (or right click) the highlighted item(s) and select "Delete All Backups of. 4. you will be prompted to choose which file to keep or keep both. Restore: Entire System 1. 2. Click the "Restore" button. 3. Start up your Mac from the OS X Lion recovery partition.php?page=printer 13/14 . Important: Do not use the Finder to move to the items to the Trash. Command-click to select multiple items.. The file will automatically be copied to the desktop or appropriate folder.. 3. or select "Delete all backups of.. follow these steps: 1. Click on the item you would like to delete." from the Action Item menu.

Scenario: Can't Find Backup of File A customer reports that he is unable to locate a backup of a spreadsheet file on his home computer. Troubleshooting Practice Taken from the experiences of Apple service personnel. Choose Restore From Time Machine Backup from the OS X Lion Utilities 14/14 .info.3/25/12 service. If "You can't restore this backup because it was created by a different model of Mac" appears when rest backup that was made on a different Mac.php?page=printer 2. He misplaced the USB flash drive that he uses to bring work files home. 3. Restoring a Time Machine backup on a different or new Mac? Use Migration Assistant (Applications > Utilities) to transfer files onto a different or new Mac. here is a troubleshooting scenario involving co presented in this course. Start up your Mac from the OS X Lion recovery What procedures should you follow? Click here to view answer service. follow the onscreen