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Outstanding features of the

Indian Constitution


Indian Constitution is a written Constitution. Written

constitution is that which is drafted after a prolonged
process of discussion by a representative body elected for
this very purpose.


The best features in the Indian

Constitution, drew from many
sources as shown below :
British Constitution
Parliamentary form of government
Rule of law
Procedure established by Law


United States Constitution

Charter of Fundamental Rights
Electoral College
Independence of the judiciary
Judicial review

Irish Constitution
Directive principles of state policy

Australian Constitution
Concurrent List
Joint sitting of the Parliament

French Constitution

Ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity

Canadian Constitution

A quasi-federal form of government, i.e. a federal system

with a

strong central government

The idea of Residuary Powers with centre

Constitution of the Soviet Union

Fundamental Duties (Art. 51-A) on the recommendations of Sardar
swaran Singh Committee 1976)

Other Constitutions
Emergency Provision from Weimar Constitution of Germany
Amendment of Constitution from South Africa

Salient Features of Indian


Lengthiest Constitution

Constitution is the lengthiest in the world in terms of the

number of articles. Originally, at the time of being adopted, it consisted
of 395 articles but after 97 amendments (2012), it presently has more
than 440 articles. There are 12 Schedules to amplify and support the
contents in the Articles.

Parliamentary System of Democracy

The Constitution of India adopts Parliamentary system of

democracy in order to represent the pluralist tradition and interests
of the country.

Welfare State

Constitution has many features that commit the country to a

welfare State. The Preamble to the Constitution was amended in
1976 (Forty-second Amendment Act, 1976) to insert the goal of
socialism. Directive Principles of State Policy (Part IV) aim at the
establishment of a Welfare State in India. Progressive taxation,
developmental interventions like the various flagship programmes
of the government (MGNREGS), nationalization of banks in 1969 and
1980, land reforms and various subsidies are meant to establish a
welfare state. Affirmative action (positive discrimination) by the
Government in favour of the socially marginalised like dalits is an
important aspect of the welfare state.


Secular State

State has no official religion

State and religion are separate
State has an equidistant policy towards all religions
All individuals have the right to pursue the religion of their choice

Unified, Hierarchical & Independent

Indian Constitution provides for a single integrated judiciary headed
by the Supreme Court. Each state, or a group of them, has a High
Court with administrative control over the subordinate judiciary
(district and below).


Universal Adult Franchise

The Constitution provides for Universal Adult Franchise. The citizens

of India who are 18 years of age and above have been granted the
right to vote irrespective of any qualification pertaining to
education, possession of property or payment of income tax.


Important Points
Written Constitution
Various Sources of the Constitution
Important features


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