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# D.C.

Motor Torque/Speed Curve Tutorial:::Understanding Motor Characteristics

Understanding D.C. Motor Characteristics
Home Intro How They Work CHARACTERISTICS Examples This page has been requested times.

Contents:
0. Preface 1. Background From Physics 2.1 Torque 2.2 Speed 2.3 Power 5. Motor Characteristics 3.1 Torque/Speed Curves 3.2 Power Curves

*NOTE: Key terms are highlited in dark red.

1. Preface
This site deals with Direct Current permanent magnet motors operated at a constant voltage. Motor characteristics vary considerably from type to type, and their performance characteristics can be altered by the way electrical power is supplied. can be quite different than those covered here.

http://lancet.mit.edu/motors/motors3.html#torque[11/4/2012 10:25:00 AM]

The moment arm. F. F tan . also : a measure of the effectiveness of such a force that consists of the product of the force and the perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the axis of rotation 2 : a turning or twisting force Torque .the magnitude of the torque would decrease.html#torque[11/4/2012 10:25:00 AM] . 8th ed. 1992.1: TORQUE Torque . The force can be broken down into two components: a radial component. Motor Torque/Speed Curve Tutorial:::Understanding Motor Characteristics 2. http://lancet. Young: The quantitative measure of the tendency of a force to cause or change rotational motion is called torque. even if the force remained the same. we change the torque (see equation 1). F rad . a torque is created by a vertical force applied at the end of the handle. You apply a torque or moment when you turn a dial. Thus. r. As shown in the picture of a ratchet. drill a hole or tighten a screw or bolt. Torque (also called a moment) is the term we use when we talk about forces that act in a rotational manner. by Hugh D. applied to the ratchet as shown causes a tendency to rotate about point O.D. as defined in © 1998 Merriam-Webster. parallel to the ratchet handle that does not contribute to the torque. Incorporated Main Entry: torque Function: noun Etymology: Latin torquEre to twist 1 : a force that produces or tends to produce rotation or torsion (an automobile engine delivers torque to the drive shaft). flip a lightshwitch. and a tangential component. Background From Physics Section 2.C. The force. perpendicular to the handle that does contribute to the torque.mit. as defined in University Physics.edu/motors/motors3. l is the perpendicular distance between point O and the line of action of F. The distance from point O to the point of action of F is described by the direction vector. if we change the effective length of the handle. If we were to shorten the moment arm by applying the force closer to the head of the ratchet.

it is typically measured rotates the output shaft at some speed.. When we supply the specified voltage to a motor. That rotational energy is then used to lift things. This rotational speed or angular velocity. in radians/second {rad/s}.C. Incorporated Main Entry: angular velocity Function: noun he rate of rotation around an axis usually expressed in radians or revolutions per second or per minute Motors are devices that convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.062E-03 N·m Up to Contents Section 2.D.html#torque[11/4/2012 10:25:00 AM] . Motor Torque/Speed Curve Tutorial:::Understanding Motor Characteristics UNITS of TORQUE SI English newton-meters {N·m} inch-pounds {in·lb} foot-pounds {ft·lb} inch-ounces {in·oz} 1 N·m = 0.C.738 ft·lb 1 in·lb = 0. turn things.2: SPEED Speed (Angular Velocity) . motors that we have been dealing with here convert electrical energy into rotational energy.356 N·m 1 N·m = 141. propel things.. or revolutions/minute {rpm}.edu/motors/motors3.61 in·oz 1 in·oz = 7. as defined in © 1998 Merriam-Webster. etc. http://lancet.113 N·m 1 N·m = 0.113 in·lb 1 ft·lb = 1. The D.mit. revolutions/second {rps}.

html#torque[11/4/2012 10:25:00 AM] . or the linear speed of a rope as it is wound up by a winch. especially : ELECTRICITY 6 b : MOTIVE POWER c : the time rate at which work is done or energy emitted or transferred Power in Rotational Motion . from Old French poeir. be sure to use consistent units. you apply forces to a rotating body and do work on it. 1992 by Hugh D. as defined in © 1998 Merriam-Webster. This relation can be used to compute the steady state (constant speed no acceleration) speed of a vehicle if the radius and angular velocity of a wheel is known. alteration of Latin posse Date: 13th century 1 a : (1) : ability to act or produce an effect 6 a : a source or means of supplying energy.D.edu/motors/motors3. 8th ed. Up to Contents Section 2. Incorporated Main Entry: 1pow·er Pronunciation: 'pau(-&)r Function: noun Usage: often attributive Etymology: Middle English. calculations should be done in degrees/second.. In the English system. from (assumed) Vulgar Latin potEre. Motor Torque/Speed Curve Tutorial:::Understanding Motor Characteristics When performing calculations.3: POWER Motive Power . NOTE: 1 revolution = 360° 1 revolution = (2*p) radians 1 radian = (180/p)° 1° = (p/180) radians From the angular velocity. . and radians/sec for SI calculations.mit. Similar things happen http://lancet. from poeir to be able. where r is the distance from the axis of rotation. Young): When you pedal a bicycle. we can find the tangential velocity of a point anywhere on the rotating body through the equation tangential velocity.C. v = r* . as described in University Physics.

For every motor. its power (rate of doing work) is the product of the torque and angular velocity. such as a rotating motor shaft driving a power tool or a car engine propelling the vehicle.html#torque[11/4/2012 10:25:00 AM] . When a torque T (with respect to the axis of rotation) acts on a body that rotates with angular velocity W. motors. it is necessary to understand their characteristic curves.341E-03 hp 1 ft·lb/s = 1. Note that torque is inversely http://lancet. or power P.738 ft·lb/s 1 W = 1. We can express this work in terms of torque and an angular displacement. The graph above shows a torque/speed curve of a typical D. Motor Torque/Speed Curve Tutorial:::Understanding Motor Characteristics in real-life situations. Motor Characteristics Section 3..D.818E-03 hp 1 ft·lb/s = 1.mit.C.356 W SI Up to Contents 2.1: TORQUE/SPEED CURVES In order to effectively design with D. This is the analog of the relation P = F·v for particle motion.edu/motors/motors3.C. What about the power associated with work done by a torque acting on a rotating body? dW/dt is the rate of doing work. Power in rotational motion can be written as: UNITS of POWER English Watts {W} foot-pounds per second {ft·lb/s} newton-meters per second {N·m/s} horsepower {hp} 1 W = 1 N·m/s 1 W = 0. motor.C.. there is a specific Torque/Speed curve and Power curve.

and = ½ . but the shaft is not rotating.edu/motors/motors3. Due to the linear inverse relationship between torque and speed. and the other was plotted mechanically using a device developed at MIT.007. whose equation can be written in terms of torque or angular velocity as equations 3) and 4): The linear model of a D. the maximum power occurs at the point where http://lancet. is the maximum output speed of the motor (when no torque is applied to the output shaft).D. This is generally true as long as the curve represents the direct output of the motor. The torque/speed curves shown below are actual curves for the green maxon motor (pictured at right) used by students in 2. The curve is then approximated by connecting these two points with a line.C. This corresponds to the area of a rectangle under the torque/speed curve with one cornerat the origin and another corner at a point on the curve (see figures below).C. One is a plot of empirical data. Recall that earlier we defined power as the product of torque and angular velocity. or a simple gear reduced output. it is safe to assume a linear curve. Motor Torque/Speed Curve Tutorial:::Understanding Motor Characteristics proportioal to the speed of the output shaft.mit. In other words. Note that the characteristic torque/speed curve for this motor is quite linear. =½ . there is a tradeoff between how much torque a motor delivers.html#torque[11/4/2012 10:25:00 AM] . represents the point on the graph at which the torque is a maximum. The no load speed. . Motor characteristics are frequently given as two points on this graph: The stall torque. . motor torque/speed curve is a very good approximation. and how fast the output shaft spins. If the specifications are given as two points.

motor with respect to both speed and torque are quadratics.3). (power. Motor Torque/Speed Curve Tutorial:::Understanding Motor Characteristics Up to Contents Section 3.007 Mechanical Engineering CIPD FIRST http://lancet. and =½ Up to Contents Home Intro How They Work CHARACTERISTICS Examples Webmaster: Matt Page mpage1@mit.C. we again find that maximum output power occurs at repectively. =½ .C.D.2: POWER/TORQUE and POWER/SPEED CURVES By substituting equations 3. section 1.mit.edu © copyright 1999 Center for Innovation in Product Development MIT 2. and 4.1) into equation 2.html#torque[11/4/2012 10:25:00 AM] . we see that the power curves for a D. and 6.edu/motors/motors3. From these equations. as shown in equations 5. section 2. (torque and speed.