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# ELECTRICAL FORMULAE USED IN CALCULATIONS

OBJECTIVE
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## CABLE SIZING CALCULATION

LV CABLES VOLTAGE DROP (RUN/START) IS THE MAIN CRITERIA (R cosfi + X sinfi) 100 L I DV = ---------------------------------------- (%) V1
where: V1 V1 V R X Cosfi Sinfi L I = = = = = = = = = V / 3 for 3-ph system V / 2 for 1-ph system. line to line voltage of the system (V) cable electrical resistance at rated operating temperature (ohm/km) cable reactance (ohm/km) power factor of the line current corresponding sinus line length (km) line current (A)

## CABLE SIZING CALCULATION

MV CABLES SHORT CIRCUIT WITHSTAND ALSO NEEDS TO BE VERIFIED S2 = I2 t / k2
Where :
t S I k = = = = fault duration (s) cross-sectional area (mm2) effective short circuit current (A) 115 for copper conductor insulated with PVC 143 for copper conductor insulated with EPR or XLPE 94 for AL conductor insulated with XLPE

## CABLE SIZING CALCULATION

The allowable current carrying capacity Iz is calculated by multiplying the cable rated ampacity In by the following correction factors: Iz = k1 k2 k3 In (A) where: k1 = correction factor for ambient temperature k2 = correction factor for grouped cables, according to typical arrangement of cables k3 = additional derating factor, when applicable; otherwise: k3=1.

## CABLE SIZING CALCULATION 3443-NN-CX-0013443-NN-CX-001-Cable Sizing and Utilization.doc AttachmentAttachment-A-B.doc AttachmentAttachment-C.doc

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TRANSFORMER SIZING
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HV/LV distribution transformers power rating (in a radial system ) shall be equal or greater than:

## An = 1.2 x P / (n x cosfi) kVA,

where: P= n= cosfi = 1.2 = electrical input power (peak) from user list number of distribution transformers installed 1, except single feeds where n=1 load power factor or improved value, in case capacitor bank is installed. Spare Capacity

## POWER FACTOR CORRECTION

The p.f.i. capacitors power "Qc" is calculated by the formula: formula: Qc = 1.1 Pa (Tg1 - Tg2) (Tg1 Tg2 where: where: Pa = kW of the Load requiring PF correction. correction. Tg1 Tg1 = tangent of power angle corresponding to load power factor pf1 without correction; pf1 correction; Tg2 Tg2 = tangent of power angle corresponding to final required power factor pf2. pf2 1.1 = coefficient. coefficient.

FAULT LEVEL
Simple Formula To Calculate the Short Circuit Power at the secondary side of a Transformer (considering infinite source on Primary side) Pcc = Where Pcc An ucc An / ucc is the Short Circuit Power at the Trafo. Secondary side in MVA is the Rating of the Transformer in MVA. is the Per unit impedance of the Trafo.

## EARTHING CONDUCTOR SIZING

The minimum cross sectional area of the ground conductors is calculated by the formula: 1 _________ A = ------I2 * tc K A = conductor cross section (mm) I = rms current (A) tc = time of current flow (s) K = Material Constant

## LOAD FLOW & SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS

THE CALCULATIONS ARE PERFORMED USING THE SOFTWARE ETAP-POWER ETAPSTATION - ELECTRICAL TRANSIENT ANALYSER PROGRAM, FROM OTI OPERATION TECHNOLOGY, INC. FOR LOAD FLOW STUDIES, NEWTON RAPHSON METHOD IS UTILIZED. SHORT CIRCUIT CALCULATIONS USED TO VERIFY EQUIPMENT RATINGS IEC909 STD. IS USED.

WHY DO WE NEED THIS ANALYSIS:
TO ENSURE THAT CABLE, TRANSFORMERS , SWITCHGEAR ETC ARE SIZED APPROPRIATELY TO CARRY REQUIRED LOAD. TO MAKE SURE THAT THE TRANSFORMER TAPS ARE SET APPROPRIATELY TO OBTAIN SATISFACTORY VOLTAGE PROFILE WITHIN THE AREA OF STUDY.

SOURCE

110kV

TRANSFORMER

## VOLTAGE LEVELS CURRENT FLOW

11kV

REAL POWER FLOW REACTIVE POWER FLOW etc ARE WITHIN LIMITS ??

## SHORT CIRCUIT STUDIES

SOURCE NORMAL 100A 100A 100A L O A D THE CIRCUIT BREAKERS IN THE SYSTEM AND SHOULD ALSO BE ABLE TO INTERRUPT THE FAULT CURRENTS.
IF BREAKERS ARE CALLED

SOURCE

20000A

L O A D

## LINE TO GROUND FAULT 30000A

UPON TO INTERRUPT FAULT CURRENTS HIGHER THAN THEIR INTERRUPTING RATINGS, DISASTROUS CONSEQUENCES CAN FOLLOW.

SOURCE
3 PHASE FAULT

30000A 30000A

L O A D

## LARGE MOTOR START UP STUDIES

THE CALCULATIONS ARE PERFORMED USING THE SOFTWARE ETAP-POWER STATION ETAPELECTRICAL TRANSIENT ANALYSER PROGRAM, FROM OTI OPERATION TECHNOLOGY, INC.

## WHY LARGE MOTOR START UP STUDIES

UTILITY THIS ANALYSIS IS NEEDED TO DETERMINE THE
IMPACT ON THE SYSTEM VOLTAGE DURING STARTING.

TRANSFORMER 110kV

DETERMINE WHETHER THE MOTOR WILL START SATISFACTORILY & COME UPTO RATED SPEED.

11kV

IF SYSTEM VOLTAGE DROPS DOWN TO <75%, LOSS OF ALL MOTORS AND OTHER SENSITIVE LOADS MAY LARGE MOTOR OCCUR.

## PROTECTIVE RELAY CO-ORDINATION STUDIES CO-

THE STUDY IS PERFORMED USING THE SOFTWARE ETAP-POWER STATION ETAPELECTRICAL TRANSIENT ANALYSER PROGRAM, BY OTI OPERATION TECHNOLOGY, INC. (UNDER DEVELOPMENT)