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Trade Information Packet

Kingdom of Bahrain
January 2012

Prepared by
Hasan AlShuwaikh
Mahmood Mahmood

WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego
2980 Pacific Highway
San Diego, CA 92101
Tel: 619.615.0868
Fax: 619.615.0876
www.wtcsd.org

WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012
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Table of Contents

Background ..................................................................................................................... 3
Map ................................................................................................................................. 4
Geography ...................................................................................................................... 4
Demographics ................................................................................................................. 6
Political Framework ......................................................................................................... 7
Communication ............................................................................................................... 9
Transportation ................................................................................................................. 9
Military ........................................................................................................................... 10
Economic Environment ................................................................................................. 10
Trade Overview ............................................................................................................. 14
National Trade with the USA ......................................................................................... 15
Trade Regulations and Standards ................................................................................. 16
Leading Sectors of U.S. Exports ................................................................................... 20
Business Travel ............................................................................................................. 29
Water Report in the Kingdom of Bahrain ....................................................................... 32
Bahrain’s  Five Main Desalination Plants ....................................................................... 33
Water Consumption by Month – 000,000 Gallons – (1997-2007) ................................. 34
Daily Average Consumption by Month – 000,000 Gallons – (1997-2007) ..................... 35
Water Production – 000,000 Gallons – (1997-2007) ..................................................... 36
Important Contacts ........................................................................................................ 37
Names of the top officials at the Electricity & Water Authority ....................................... 37
Related Websites ............................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
World Trade Center Locations ...................................................................................... 45
Appendix ....................................................................................................................... 46
Sources ......................................................................................................................... 48

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BACKGROUND

In 1783, the Al-Khalifa family captured Bahrain from the Persians. In order to secure
these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century
that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in
1971. Bahrain's small size and central location among Persian Gulf countries require it
to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Facing
declining oil reserves, Bahrain has turned to petroleum processing and refining and has
transformed itself into an international banking center. King Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa,
after coming to power in 1999, pushed economic and political reforms to improve
relations with the Shia community. Shia political societies participated in 2010
parliamentary and municipal elections. Al Wifaq, the largest Shia political society, won
the largest number of seats in the elected chamber of the legislature. However, Shia
discontent has resurfaced in recent years with street demonstrations and occasional
low-level violence.

In early 2011, Bahrain's opposition sought to ride a rising tide of popular Arab protests
to voice their political and social woes. In mid-February, on the tenth anniversary
marking the King's initiation of his democratic reform initiative, a vanguard of youth
internet activists- who rejected the legitimacy of the Al Khalifa regime- organized
demonstrations around Bahrain demanding a new constitution, release of hundreds of
Shia political prisoners, and an end to discriminations in all sectors of society. Cycles of
protestor deaths, funerals, and clashes with security forces ensued, escalating domestic
tensions and leading Wifaq legislators to formally resign from the national legislature in
protest in late-March 2011. The government's offers of modest political and economic
concessions went and the king's "national dialogue" with the opposition - led by his son,
the reform-minded Crown Prince - also languished in disagreements over procedure
and preconditions. In mid-March 2011, with the backing of Gulf Cooperation Council
(GCC) capitals - especially Riyadh and Abu Dhabi - King Hamad put an end to the mass
public gatherings by declaring a state of emergency and authorizing the military to take
all measures to "protect the safety of the country and its citizens." The government also
welcomed a contingent of mostly Saudi and Emirati forces as part of a GCC deployment
to help Bahraini security forces suppress the protests. By mid-April security forces had
largely relegated demonstrations to outlying Shia neighborhoods and villages, and
negotiations between the government and opposition reached a stalemate. The
government exacted retribution against opposition groups and their supporters through
mass firings, arrests, and sectarian incitement.

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MAP

GEOGRAPHY

- Location:
Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, East of Saudi Arabia.

- Area:
Total: 760 sq km
Country comparison to the world: 188
Land: 760 sq km
Water: 0 sq km
Coastline 161 km
3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

- Land Boundaries:
0 km
No countries

- Climate:
Arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

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1 cu km (1997) . Hazardous Wastes. Desertification. Natural Hazards: Periodic droughts. and dust storms. Law of the Sea. dust storms .82% Permanent crops: 5. Terrain: Mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment . Environment Current Issue: Desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land.. and distribution stations. Natural Resources: Oil. and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers. associated and non-associated natural gas. and Wetlands signed. Environment International Agreement: Party to: Biodiversity. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 5 of 48 . Ozone Layer Protection. coral reefs. but not ratified: none of the selected agreements. lack of freshwater resources (groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs). periods of drought. . Total Renewable Water Resources: 0. Fresh Water Withdrawal (Domestic/Industrial/ Agricultural): Total: 0.63% Other: 91. Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol. coastal degradation (damage to coastlines. Elevation Extremes: Lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m Highest point: Jabal al Dukhan 122 m .3 cu km/yr (40%/3%/57%) Per capita: 411 cu m/yr (2000) . Land Use: Arable land: 2. oil refineries. fish.55% (2005) . Climate Change. pearls .

359) 15-64 years: 77% (male 595. Religions: Muslim (Shia and Sunni) 70.6% (2001 census) .9 years Male: 32. Population Growth Rate: 2. Geography Note: Close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources.244/female 339.) Country comparison to the world: 15 WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 6 of 48 . Median Age Total: 30.705 Country comparison to the world: 157 Note: includes 235.791/female 16.6% Female: 83. non-Bahraini 37.5% Male: 88. Age Structure: 0-14 years: 20.184% (2011 est. other 29.214. Farsi. Nationality: Noun: Bahraini(s) Adjective: Bahraini .6% (2001 census) . Urdu .2 years Female: 28.108 non-nationals (July 2011 est. Population: 1. Literacy: Definition: age 15 and over can read and write Total population: 86.363) (2011 est.) .2%. English. strategic location in Persian Gulf.4%. Languages: Arabic (official).) . Ethnic Groups: Bahraini 62.635) 65 years and over: 2.6% (male 14.313 /female 122.8% .1 years (2011 est.5% (male 126. through which much of the Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean DEMOGRAPHICS ..) .

) . Capital: Manama . Flag: Red. Wasat. the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states. Note: each governorate administered by an appointed governor. Total Fertility Rate: 1. Administrative Divisions: 5 governorates. Official Name: Kingdom of Bahrain .9% of GDP (2008) POLITICAL FRAMEWORK . but this was reduced to five to avoid confusion with the Qatari flag. Shamaliyah. . Government Type: Constitutional Monarchy . Janubiyah. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 7 of 48 . Education Expenditure: 2. with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side. Muharraq.. the five points represent the five pillars of Islam. Asamah.88% children born/woman (2011 est. Note: Until 2002 the flag had eight white points.

UNWTO. IHO. IOC. International Organization Participation: ABEDA. AMF. born 21 October 1969). GCC. Political Pressure Leaders: Shia activists. G-77. IMSO. Jawad bin Salim Al-Araidh. . . ITUC. IOM (observer). IFC. Interpol. ITSO. WMO. OIC. Elections: The monarchy is hereditary. al Minbar (Sunni Muslim Brotherhood) 2. FAO. . WFTU. UNIDO. ITU. WCO. OAPEC. ILO. UN. WIPO. ICRM. UNESCO. Elections: Council of Representatives . IPU. UNCTAD. NAM. IAEA. al Asala (Sunni Salafi) 3. .last held in two rounds on 23 and 30 October 2010 (next election to be held in 2014). Legal System: Based on Islamic law and English common law. Judicial Branch: High Civil Appeal Court. IDB. ICC. Legislative Branch: Bicameral legislature consists of the Consultative Council (40 members appointed by the King) and the Council of Representatives or Chamber of Deputies (40 seats. OPCW. Heir Apparent Crown Prince Salman bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (son of the monarch. prime minister appointed by the monarch. Muhammed bin Mubarak Al-Khalifa. WTO WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 8 of 48 . Political Parties and Leaders: Political parties prohibited but political societies were legalized per a July 2005 law. UPU. ISO. MIGA. members directly elected to serve four-year terms). ICAO. has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction. Council of Representatives Election Results: al Wifaq (Shia) 18. IFRCS. IBRD. Executive Branch: Chief of state: King Hamad bin Isa Al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999). PCA. . independents 17. Other: several small leftist and other groups are active . Deputy Prime Ministers Ali bin Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa. AFESD. Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch. Sunni Islamist legislators. Head of government: Prime Minister Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa (since 1971). LAS. IMO. IMF. WHO..

country comparison to the world: 184 . Heliports: Total: 1 .1 (2007) .973. and US.851 km. Airports with paved runways: Total: 4 Over 3. Airports: Total: 4. satellite TV systems provide access to international broadcasts. Telephones.047 m: 1 (2010) . Telephone System: General assessment: Modern system Domestic: Modern fiber-optic integrated services. Internet Hosts: 53.bh . digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones International: country code . tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE. Telephones. Country comparison to the world: 123 . Internet Country Code: .400 (2009). Middle East. Country comparison to the world: 158 Paved: 3. COMMUNICATION . landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia. 1 private FM station directs broadcasts to Indian listeners.121 km WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 9 of 48 . Europe. Bahrain Radio and Television Corporation (BRTC) operates 5 terrestrial TV networks. Roadways: Total: 3.Main lines in use: 238.944 (2010) . Country comparison to the world: 137 .500 (2009) TRANSPORTATION .Mobile cellular: 1. Broadcast Media: State-run broadcast media. satellite earth station . Oil 32 km (2009) .438 to 3. radio and TV broadcasts from countries in the region are available (2007) .578 million (2009). Pipelines: Gas 20 km. microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia. Internet Users: 419. state-run BRTC broadcasts over several radio stations.047m: 3 2.

243 (2010 est. Other WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 10 of 48 . Merchant Marine: Total: 7 Country comparison to the world: 127 By type: bulk carrier 2. and Sitrah. Military Branches: Bahrain Defense Forces (BDF): Ground Force (includes Air Defense). the first FTA between the US and a Gulf state.) . Manpower reaching military significant age annually: Male: 6. and cadets. and petroleum tanker 1 Foreign-owned: 5 (Kuwait 5) Registered in other countries: 6 (Honduras 5. MILITARY . National Guard . no conscription (2010) .5% of GDP (2006) Country comparison to the world: 19 ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT Bahrain is one of the most diversified economies in the Persian Gulf. Saint Kitts and Nevis 1) (2010) . Petroleum production and refining account for more than 60% of Bahrain's export receipts. container 4. Military Expenditures: 4. continues to depend heavily on oil.) . Ports and Terminals: Mina' Salman. Bahrain's economy. Military service age and obligation: 17 years of age for voluntary military service. Highly developed communication and transport facilities make Bahrain home to numerous multinational firms with business in the Gulf.475 (2010 est. 70% of government revenues.590 Female: 6.) . Unpaved: 730 km (2007) . Bahrain implemented a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US in August 2006.375 (2010 est. technicians. 15 years of age for NCOs. Manpower available for military service: Males age 16-49: 208. Air Force. As part of its diversification plans.633 Females age 16-49: 146. Khalifa Port. and 11% of GDP (exclusive of allied industries). Naval Force. Manpower fit for military service: Males age 16-49: 170. however.365 Females age 16-49: 174.

GDP –Composition by Sector: Agriculture: 0.71 billion (2010 est.) . Budget: Revenues: $5. Labor Force: 656. Unemployment Rate: 15% (2005 est. the financing of large government projects. GDP –Per Capital: $40. GDP (Official exchange rate): $2. Other challenges facing Bahrain include the slow growth of government debt as a result of a large subsidy program.7% of GDP (2010 est. such as the bailout of state-owned Gulf Air.) Country comparison to the world: 148 . Bahrain reduced sponsorship for expatriate workers.Bahrain's second biggest export after oil .). especially among the young.61 billion WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 11 of 48 . and construction.) . Investment (Gross fit): 26. .) .2% (2010 est.) Country comparison to the world: 36 . and debt restructuring.200 Country comparison to the world: 152 Note: 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national (2010 est. to help lower unemployment among Bahraini nationals. GDP -Real Growth: 4. increasing the costs of employing foreign labor.) .finance.3% Services: 42.300 (2010 est. GDP (Purchasing Power Parity): $29.) . is a long-term economic problem Bahrain struggles to address. major economic activities are production of aluminum . The global financial crisis caused funding for many non-oil projects to dry up and resulted in slower economic growth for Bahrain. Bahrain competes with Malaysia as a worldwide center for Islamic banking and continues to seek new natural gas supplies as feedstock to support its expanding petrochemical and aluminum industries. Labor force -by occupation: Agriculture: 1% Industry: 79% Services: 20% (1997 est.) . Unemployment. Overview: . In 2009.5% Industry: 57.66 billion (2009 est.1% (2010 est.

5% (2009 est. Electricity production: 10.) Country comparison to the world: 91 .) Country comparison to the world: 63 . vegetables. Industries: Petroleum processing and refining. . ship repairing.) .93 billion (31 December 2009) Country comparison to the world: 61 . dairy products.) Country comparison to the world: 28 41. Industrial production growth: 1. Public Debt: 65. iron pelletization.) Country comparison to the world: 105 . Stock of domestic credit: $17.1 billion kWh (2007 est. Oil production: 48.26 billion (31 December 2010 est.300 bbl/day (2007 est. Electricity consumption: 10.560 bbl/day (2009 est. Oil consumption: 39. Inflation Rate (Consumer prices): 2% (2010 est.25 billion kWh (2007 est.) Country comparison to the world: 141 .) .) Country comparison to the world: 87 . Agriculture products: fruit.) Country comparison to the world: 41 WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 12 of 48 . Expenditures: $6. fertilizers.400 bbl/day (2007 est. Electricity exports: 0 kWh (2008 est. aluminum smelting. fish .8% of GDP (2010 est. Electricity imports: 0 kWh (2008 est.8% of GDP (2009 est.) .) .) Country comparison to the world: 49 .) Country comparison to the world: 59 2.000 bbl/day (2009 est. Islamic and offshore banking. shrimp. Oil exports: 238.128 billion (2010 est. Oil imports: 228.) .8% (2009 est.) Country comparison to the world: 86 . tourism. poultry. Market value of publicly trade shares: $16. insurance.

) . United States 3. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 13 of 48 .78% (2009) . machinery. External debt: $14. .) .77 billion (31 December 2010 est.) Country comparison to the world: 76 . chemicals. Imports partners: Saudi Arabia 22. South Korea 5. . Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $4.495 billion (31 December 2010 est. Stocks of direct foreign investments at home: $15. UK 4. France 9. aluminum. Germany 5. Export partners: India 4. Imports -commodities: Crude oil.26%.399 billion (31 December 2010 est.) . China 6.) .91%.4%. Natural gas –proved reserve: 92.6 million bbl (1 January 2010 est..61 billion (2010 est. Oil proved reserves: 124.01%.2%.) Country comparison to the world: 51 .77 billion (31 December 2010 est. US 7. Stocks of direct foreign investments abroad: $8. Imports: $11.) .76%.03 billion cu m (1 January 2010 est.) Country comparison to the world: 66 . Exports –commodities: petroleum and petroleum products. Current account balance: $589 million (2010 est. textiles .07% Saudi Arabia 2. Japan 5. Exports: $14.) Country comparison to the world: 54 . Exchange rate: Bahraini dinars (BHD) per US dollar .91 billion (2010 est.0.376 (2010).95%.34% (2009).19%.

There are also approximately 438 draft Gulf standards in the pipeline. and mile for length and area measurements. The total number of Gulf standards adopted as Bahraini standards currently stands at 1. for issuing   Bahrain’s   standards. Bahraini standards are required to meet national requirements (safety. quality. in accordance with Legislative Decree No. The changeover to the metric system set the pace for standardization in Bahrain. member countries are working toward unifying their standards and conformity assessment systems. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 14 of 48 . and liquid measures were converted from the imperial gallon to the liter. The pound was used for mass measurements.   Bahrain’s   Standards   and   Metrology   Directorate (BSMD) is a government institution within the Ministry of Industry and Commerce. and the foot. and fitness for purpose). is the highest authority on standards and metrology. However. as amended by Legislative Decree No. and have progressed considerably toward the goal of a unified food standard –targeted for adoption by 2011. 16 of 1985 on Standards and Metrology. made up of representatives from relevant ministries and the Chamber of Commerce as well as individual experts. b) developing new Bahraini standards must not create trade barriers. Bahraini standards are adoptions of international or Gulf standards and the development of standards in Bahrain is based on the following principles: a) no Bahraini standard is to be developed if there is an identical draft Gulf standard in existence. as prepared by the respective technical committees. 13 of 1992. It is responsible. This board. Most often. which can cause confusion for businesses.020. Standardization in Bahrain can be traced back to the late 1960s when traffic was shifted from the left to the right side of the road. The BSMD is led by a National Committee that acts as the Board of Directors.   especially   in   regard   to   food   products. yard. each country currently applies either its own standard or a GCC standard. TRADE OVERVIEW As part of the GCC Customs Union. out of which 320 are mandatory and 700 are voluntary. GCC Finance Ministers agreed to establish a committee to oversee standards that can be easily adopted. The BSMD consists of two sections: the Standards & Information section and Quality Assurance & Metrology section.   either   by   adopting   as   national   standards   the   international   or Gulf standards issued by the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Standards and Metrology Organization. In June 2008. or by preparing standards to meet national requirements.

573 19344 Total 1.752 73.899 237. Other 149.770 WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 15 of 48 . 89.059 classified chiefly by material Machinery and transport 8. 34. 1.A.000.860 97.354 products Manufactured goods 7.505 43.401.312 29 related materials Animal and vegetable oils. 21 - fats and waxes Chemicals and related 6. inedible . 5.749 405 2 Beverages and tobacco 821 - Crude materials. 3 5.332 80 except fuels Mineral fuels.424 equipment Miscellaneous manufactured 9. lubricants and 4 24. NATIONAL TRADE WITH THE USA (Cumulative Year to Date through November 2010) Exports Imports SITC Description Customs Value F. 49.974 4.S Value Basis Basis 1 Food and live animals 46.075 articles 10.

8 billion in 2001 to approximately $52. 125 percent import duty In principle. TRADE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS Import Tariffs: In January 2003. The GCC countries also have a unified tariff standard and a single-point-of-entry system. transshipments. benefit from government-subsidized utilities. imports required for development projects (not including spare parts). 5 percent import except tobacco and duty alcoholic beverages. New customs classifications are as follows: Includes 417 listed Duty Exempt commodities. Bahrain took a step toward further GCC integration by ratifying the GCC Unified Customs Union. mostly food and medical products. All industries in Bahrain. intra-GCC trade rose from $33. but permits duty-free importation of raw materials for export products and of equipment and machinery for newly established export industries. All other commodities. Tobacco. and lowered to five percent its import duties on all other commodities except alcohol (125% duty) and tobacco (100% duty). 100 percent import duty Alcoholic beverages. semi-manufactured goods to be used in manufacturing. The agreement eliminated tariffs for GCC member states on 417 items (primarily food and medical products). The Government made several changes to its customs duties regime to comply with the newly established GCC Unified Customs Union. an increase of 56 percent. no tax or duty is payable on raw material imports. According to the GCC Secretary General for Economic Affairs.8 billion in 2007. including foreign-owned firms. Foreign products entering or already in the GCC are dealt with as follows: WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 16 of 48 . Bahrain has phased out most subsidies for export industries. and re-exports.

alcoholic beverages are assessed a 125 percent customs duty and tobacco products a 100 percent duty. . and shall be approved at the customs exit point and have the local invoices attached to it. construction services have been lifted. legal. Invoices are required to detail the correct value and origin of the goods. . and for which the importer fails to prove payment of customs duties after the establishment of the customs union. Goods imported to the GCC post January 1st 2003 will be granted entry if the importer presents certificates issued by the first single-entry point as a proof that his customs duties have been paid after the establishment of the customs union. The importer must ensure that the customs authority has made the necessary endorsements that justify the entry and exit of the goods on the basis of the statistical declaration. . Goods imported to the GCC post January 1st 2003. the customs authority stipulates the beginning of the clearing process. shall have their customs duty collected at the customs point of the country of final destination. As a result of the FTA. The customs declaration for statistical purposes shall be prepared manually by the owner of the goods or the person who acts on his behalf. prior restrictions on the foreign provision of engineering. composed of the following:  Statistics Office  Restriction on import and export (Imports and Exports Restriction Office)  Auditing the customs charges and other charges  Payment to Cashier of related charges  Inspection and checking of documents WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 17 of 48 . In a 2008 GCC Health Ministers meeting. or by computer. Trade Barriers: For health and religious reasons. There is no local production of these goods. Import Requirements and Documentation: Customs Procedures: Following the completion of the Customs Bill of Entry by the importer or representative agent. . restrictions on pilotage services remain in effect. Bahraini officials agreed to impose a tobacco "health tax" essentially increasing the effective duty on tobacco by 200 percent.

 A bank payment voucher or bank receipt.  A statistical declaration if the final destination for the goods is in one of the GCC states. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 18 of 48 . RS1.  A copy of the Insurance Certificate. NS2. if applicable. Export Controls: U. it should contact its local U. the following will apply:  No customs duty is payable on goods imported in transit or for trans-shipment.gov. For more information or inquiries please contact: Bahrain Customs: P.S.;    A  Supplier’s  commercial invoice in duplicate (in Arabic or English).bh U. NS1.Customs regulation: In general. These apply on CIF Bahrain value. CC1.  Raw materials and equipment for use in manufacturing are exempt from duty under the Protection and Support Law. NP1.  Duty exemption for qualified goods is available under the GCC Trade Exchange. including gross weight and dimensions. and CC3. Box 15 Manama. Bahraini Customs requires the following documents:  A  Delivery  Order  issued  by  the  Shipper  or  the  Liner’s  Agent. CB3.  A Packing List in duplicate. CB2. Kingdom of Bahrain Tel: + (973) 17-725333 Fax: + (973) 17-727556 Website: http://www. companies exporting to Bahrain need to apply for an export license from the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) if their products or services are controlled for any of the following reasons: CB1.  A Certificate of Origin in Arabic or English (produced by a Chamber of Commerce and endorsed by an Arab Embassy). and the Arabian Free Trade Area Agreement.  Exemption is available for goods stored in bonded warehouses. For imports.bh/ E-mail: customs@batelco.  A Bill of Lading (four copies).com. Additional information about the types of products covered may be obtained from   the   State   Department’s   Directorate   of   Defense   Trade   or   the   Commerce   Department’s  Bureau  of  Industry  and  Security  (BIS).O. RS2. MT1. the Bilateral Trade Agreement. If a firm does not know its export commodity control number.S. Export Assistance Center (USEAC) for more information on BIS commodity classification.  No customs duty is payable on exports.bahraincustoms.S. All other imports are subject to customs duty at rates set in the customs tariff.

name and address of manufacturer.  Children’s  toys  containing  methyl  chloride  and  other  articles  Foodstuffs and sweets containing cyclamates. Pork products. production and expiration dates. country of origin. Facilities located in Mina Salman and Mina Khalifa may be used for the temporary import of goods for re-export.   and   children’s   toys   containing   methyl   chloride (and other articles declared harmful by the Ministry of Health). These include:  Irradiated food products. Stickers are not accepted.  Weapons. Labels must be in Arabic or in Arabic/English. net weight in metric units.  Pornography and materials considered salacious. food labels must include product and brand names. Bahrain prohibits the importation of weapons (except under special license).  Radio-controlled model airplanes.  Wild animals. a number of items are prohibited from import.   foodstuffs   containing   cyclamates. Prohibited Imports: According to the Bahrain Customs and Ports Directorate Handbook. and a list of ingredients in descending order of magnitude. Bahrain requires that pharmaceutical products be imported directly from a manufacturer with a research department and that the products be licensed in at least two other GCC countries. Products found to contain traces of pork that are not so labeled will be confiscated and possibly banned from future import for a specified period of time. Drugs and medicines may only be imported by a drug store or pharmacy licensed by the Ministry of Health (MOH). wild animals. Labeling and Marketing Requirements: By law. except under special license. pornography. radio-controlled model airplanes. or products containing pork or pork lard. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 19 of 48 . Manufacturers must present a certificate verifying that foods do not contain cyclamates. Bahrain is also taking steps to ban the import of 132 chemicals based on a memorandum passed by the Ministry of Health in June of 2008. should be clearly identified as such on the label. one of which must be Saudi Arabia. Small quantities of products in English-only labels may be approved for import on a case-by-case basis for test marketing purposes. All fats and oils used as ingredients must be specifically identified on the label.Temporary Entry: The government of Bahrain opened a Free Trade Zone that started in the beginning of 2009. Drugs and medicines may be imported only by a drug store or pharmacy licensed by the Ministry of Industry and Commerce after approval by the Ministry of Health.

Bahrain is officially committed to enforcement of the primary aspect of the Arab League's boycott of Israel. Document language in such instances is usually quickly adjusted. dollar value has reduced the cost of U. citizens and firms encounter tender documents that specify participation in the boycott. Bahrain does not enforce the secondary or tertiary aspects of the boycott.S. but permits duty-free importation of raw materials for export products and of equipment and machinery for newly established export industries. interior design. The overall market for U. The U. and new articles were drafted in harmony with WTO requirements.bahraincustoms. Export Subsidies: Bahrain has phased out most subsidies for export industries. but enforcement is lax. LEADING SECTORS OF US EXPORTS Motor Vehicles and Vehicles Products: It is expected that U. U. lubricants) where American products are preferred for their high quality. there are opportunities in niche markets (brake pads.S. Occasionally. car dealerships in Bahrain attribute strong sales to the FTA and the relatively weakened value of the dollar. cars for their safety. Bahrainis value U. car sales also benefit from an overall expanding market. 000 vehicles were registered in Bahrain in 2007. U.S.S. 287. According to the Bahrain General Directorate of Traffic. suggesting an estimated 311. 000 vehicle registrations in 2008.S. comfort. For an up-to-date copy of the prohibited items list. automobile exports to Bahrain will remain strong through 2009. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 20 of 48 . manufactured vehicles in relation to European models. benefit from government-subsidized utilities.2 percent per year on average.gov. The government of Bahrain has made efforts to withdraw all old tender documents. please visit Bahrain's Customs website: http://www. oil filters) and auto accessories (wax.-made auto parts is declining due to Asian and Saudi competition.All imported beef and poultry products require a health certificate issued by the country of export. firms cannot legally sign. including foreign-owned firms. Sanctions imposed on imports: As a member of the Arab League. and capacity to accommodate large families. which U.S. and a Halal slaughter certificate issued by an approved Islamic center in that country.bh. and registration is increasing 6. All industries in Bahrain.S. U. However.S.S.

in which case rates are negotiable. the largest hospital in Bahrain – the state-run Salmaniya Medical Complex – spent $12. It is also drawing up plans to attract international hospitals in order to promote health tourism. The Bahrain Development Bank (BDB) assists the healthcare sector by giving loans. The Ministry of Health has also identified areas for investment. All Bahrainis receive Free State health care. or through arrangements with one or more of the local private hospitals.5 million to replace its medical equipment. Most companies offer their expatriate workers some sort of health coverage. In 2002.  In  2006. Due to increased demand for diabetes treatment in Bahrain and the Gulf. In a step towards reducing the load on government health services. A "medical city" is under development as part of a $114 million investment by Ithmaar Investment Bank-. In the private sector.  contributed  to  the  growth  in  the  country’s  private  medical  services  with   the establishment of the Ibn Al Nafees Hospital. JDC announced plans to expand the existing facility with an additional building. The Royal College of Surgeons will use the medical facilities as a learning hospital. The Government of Bahrain encourages the private sector to enter the health care market and thus share the cost of services. and the establishment of other clinics also began in 2004. Current plans for the health services sector include the construction of a third large public hospital. a $45 million private hospital. either through insurance companies. In 2004. work began on the construction of the $80 million King Hamad Hospital in Muharraq expected to finish in 2009. It is looking to replace patient vital- sign monitors. the Bahrain Specialist Hospital  (BSH). the Boston-based Joslin Diabetes Center (JDC) constructed its first facility outside the U. In 2006.S. The government encourages the private sector to play a greater role in the healthcare. infusion pumps. There is an $8 fee for expatriates attending an  emergency  clinic  in  a  government  hospital.Medical Equipment/Healthcare: Bahrain has a modern health system. or National Assembly. in 2004. The current statistical MOH figures  indicate  that  only  10  percent  of  Bahrain’s  patients  receive  private treatment. The MOH has recognized the urgency of investments in the health sector is planning to establish a liaison office. which include: the pharmaceutical industry. drug WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 21 of 48 . including the management of both medical and non-medical services in the $80 million King Hamad Hospital. in Bahrain in 2003.the reclaimed land near Amwaj Island is already under contract. the King Hamad Hospital in Muharraq. and also to acquire a deep X-ray therapy machine. which is likely to continue. Ministry of Health officials recently announced that the government might start outsourcing certain jobs. the Ministry of Health (MOH) has also announced that the upper house (the Shura Council) of the legislative branch. ventilators. due to open in 2009. infant incubators. has proposed a draft legislation that introduces compulsory health insurance for non-Bahrainis. totaling $18 million in 2008. dedicated to attract investment in the health sector.  Bahrain’s  health  services  sector   showed significant growth. the expansion of the Joslin Diabetes Center.

S. a Bahrain-based consultancy firms.packaging and distribution.   part   of   the   King’s   Future   Schools’   project. health support services. Moreover. rising from $ 52 million in 2004 to $59 million in 2006. sales in this sector will increase by as much as 30 to 35 percent. A $6. The Government launched an E-Government initiative. The five-year agreement. Almost. Government schools throughout Bahrain will be using Macs to help children keep up with the electronic age. Internet use is expanding in Bahrain. the newly finished projects are an important market for American products. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Equipments: Bahrain's climate requires air conditioning most of the year due to high temperatures and high humidity. The Ministry of Education is considering implementing an extension of the project that will cover the Kingdom’s  only  public  and  medical  universities. which includes the information and communications technology service sector. The government established the Central Informatics Organization that oversee the growth of information technology. producing of syringes). Sales for units are also up. Air conditioning equipment breaks down frequently as a result of constant use and lack of maintenance. highly regarded for their reliability. and the electronic-based technology has overwhelmingly been accepted as an important tool of effective business strategy and good governance. installing and operating the electronic system at all government schools of all education stages. health resorts. The contract for the deal was signed between the Ministry of Education (MOE). and seeks to improve government efficiency by using new technologies. with a long-term vision of the formation of an information technology hub. medical research centers. health complementary services (ex. Microsoft and BDO Jawad Habib. Apple Center will be responsible for providing. Computers and Peripherals: Bahrain has focused its efforts on the entry of new private firms in specific prospective growth sectors. Leading American brands. have won the contract to install and   run   Bahrain’s   E-Investor Project. A construction boom is currently underway in residential housing and commercial real estate. Bahrain has been actively attracting international companies in the information technology sector to invest in Bahrain. all Ministries have upgraded. in addition to training teachers on its uses. aims at expanding the information technology system at all stages of government education. or are upgrading their e-services. have traditionally done well in Bahrain. which ends in July 2009. Apple Center and the Integrated Technology Group (ITG). health education and training. information technology and biotechnology. It is estimated that U.   WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 22 of 48 . The market for air conditioning and refrigeration equipment is strong.89 million contract was also signed to take Bahrain's   government   schools   into   cyber   space. including several major hotel/resort projects.

Telecommunications liberalization also extended to paging services. The TRA most recently announced the provision of three International Telecommunications Facility Licenses (IFLs). and especially the financial services sector. six International Telecommunications Services Licenses (ISLs). in 2008 the number of mobile phone users reached 723. Capital House. which took effect January 2003. Over 70 percent of Bahrain's 1. and representing a growth of 1. international telecommunications services. Cisco was awarded major tenders from several financial institutions including Gulf Finance House. national fixed services.000 residents are mobile phone users. and Unicorn Bank. The Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA). 63 telecommunication companies are currently operating in different sectors throughout Bahrain. very small aperture terminal (VSAT).King   Hamad   Future   Schools’   project   is   a   joint   program   between   the   Ministry   of   Education and UNESCO aimed to   develop   the   Ministry   of   Education’s   current   knowledge-based curriculum to a knowledge-based economy or K-economy curriculum. 000 up from 630. established in late 2002.5 percent. Telecommunication: The telecommunications sector was the first key sector to be liberalized in Bahrain following the government's announced interest in opening traditionally government- controlled industries. An open framework attracted a second wireless carrier--Zain Telecommunication--to relocate their headquarters from Kuwait to the Kingdom of Bahrain in 2007. fifteen value-added Services (VAS) "Class" licenses and eight Internet Service Provider (ISP) licenses. Batelco. In 2008. thus ending the monopoly of Bahrain's telecom services provider. 2004. Standard Charter Bank. however. TRA awarded a third mobile provider license to STC in 2008. The organization signed a $3. awarded a mobile telecommunications services license to MTC-Vodafone. 000 registered Internet subscribers. international telecommunications facilities. suggesting one of the highest penetration rates in the Middle East.41 million deal with Microsoft to upgrade their systems. Batelco had 256. has started upgrading their IT systems in order to make them competitive in a global market. In all. According to the Central Bank of Bahrain (CBB). internet service provider (ISP) and value-added services license following the full liberalization of the sector on July 1. nine VSAT licenses. The Central Information Organization established a new entity that sought to implement e-voting for the 2006 elections. due to political pressure the project was cancelled. The private sector. personal users accounted for 80 percent and business WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 23 of 48 .080. The license was awarded under the Telecommunications Law. 000 the previous year. public access mobile radio services.

intermediaries. Bahrain has promoted itself as an international financial center in the Gulf region. without impediments. there are 34 representative offices of international banks. the Government of Bahrain announced that regulatory responsibility for the insurance sector and stock exchange would move to the CBB. and 28 commercial banks. It hosts 412 diverse financial institution. Bahrain has 38 Islamic banks and financial institutions. are now permitted to operate with 100 percent foreign-ownership. International financial institutions operate in Bahrain. and prime geographical location among the GCC countries. risk management and financial crime. including 215 banks. The Telecommunication sector has grown rapidly. CBB reporting and public disclosure. the CBB granted offshore banks greater flexibility allowing them to invest locally.   in   an  effort  to   stimulate   the  insurance   industry   and   reinforce   Bahrain’s   position as a major insurance center in the Middle East. Financial Services: Bahrain is a principal financial services hub in the Middle East with the highest concentration of Islamic Banks. and Islamic insurance. established insurance sector. In addition. largely due to new technologies including use of the internet. In October of 2006. business conduct. solvency. and several other investment institutions. The sector has grown considerably since the licensing of the first Islamic bank in 1979. 42 investment banks. These firms. Bahrain is also a leading Islamic finance center in the region. The CBB is holding consultations on further reform in areas such as captive insurance. stable Bahraini Dinar-USD foreign exchange rate. tax-free status. To   promote   the   Kingdom’s   position   as   a   leading   financial   destination. including 89 insurance companies. The financial sector has established itself as a key employment generator for the local population. In   March   2004. and mobile phones. of which 61 are offshore banking unites (OBUs). of which 26 are foreign owned. This move was completed in late 2002. 23 of 1973).   the   government   upgraded the legal framework of the Bahrain Monetary Agency creating the Central Bank of Bahrain in September 2006. modern telecommunications systems. The Central Bank of Bahrain (CBB) regulates the banking sector under the provisions of the BMA law (Decree Law No. In May 2002. and accounting systems in the financial sector (onshore and offshore) are transparent and consistent with international norms. regulatory. enforcement. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 24 of 48 . In addition. Legal. Bahrain's attraction as a financial center is based on its established offshore facilities. 24 moneychangers and money brokers. which were previously required to have at least 51 percent Bahraini-ownership. voice-over-IP (VOIP). the Bahrain Monetary Agency lifted the requirement that foreign insurance brokers and loss adjusters must have a local partner in order to operate. both internationally and domestically.users 20 percent of the total Internet market. free foreign exchange movement.

The issue of education has been crucial for Bahrain since independence. buying a product from a supplier and selling it to a customer for a profit. Bahrain had a 94.  Istisna: the financing of construction or manufacturing. Islamic banking falls under four main categories:  Murabiha: cost-plus financing – i. higher than the GCC literacy rate of 85. one money exchange unit and eight Islamic banking and financial institutions. Education and Training: Regionally.1 percent. compared to 172 in 2006. Islamic Banking became an engine of growth in the Kingdom of Bahrain and continues to attract high net-worth individual investors from GCC countries.93 billion state budget for 2007-2008. The Government of Bahrain (GOB) has identified Islamic banking as one of the main economic growth areas in the coming five years. the industry included 183 companies. the highest   in   the   region. six representative offices. This sector has grown by an average of 21 percent over the past three years. Islamic banking principles are similar to those of conventional banking. as well as its religious and ethical approach. dating back to 1919 when it was the first country in the Gulf to establish a system of formal education. Islamic finance prohibits charging interest for the use of money. In 2007. As of year-end 2008. yielding a national literacy rate of 90 percent.  Musharraka: a profit sharing system that is similar to equity participation. or Islamic law. State spending on education is $703.6 million in 2006. Bahrain's underdeveloped insurance market possesses significant profit potential for investors. two financial services ancillary service providers. and disallows dealing in certain commodities. Islamic banking attracts investors because of its profit potential.7 million. four investment advisory brokers.3 percent of the entire $7. six offshore banking units. with the exception that Islamic banks must conform to Sharia. While the sector is still small.   The   United   Nation   Development   Program’s   (UNDP)   Human   Development Report for 2007 reported Bahrain as the most developed Arab state with a literacy rate of 90 percent in 2007. Bahrain has always been a pioneer in the field of education.e. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 25 of 48 .8 million. Total insurance premiums for companies operating in Bahrain increased 8..3 percent to $314. up from $289. representing 10. The Crown Prince and other government officials have voiced Bahrain's commitment to developing the sector further.  Ijara: leasing. it has registered strong continual growth despite regional uncertainties that hindered growth in conventional banking.7 percent literacy rate among Bahraini males and an 86 percent literacy rate among females. Ministry of Education employees account for approximately 32 percent of all government employees. which.Seventeen new licenses were issued in 2007: three investment bank. represents a growth of 6 percent.

six new private universities have opened since late 2006. KPMG. Growth in the education sector is driven primarily by the establishment of new private universities. Another new university for women opened in late 2005. The Crown Prince and BDF Commander-in-Chief launched a national reform initiative in 2004 that is aimed at creating a new economic. Bahrain is home to two public universities and a number of private universities including the Royal College of Surgeons. and banking. information technology. Major training institutes include the Bahrain Institute for Banking and Finance (BIBF). the Regional Institute of Advertising & Marketing. business studies. As a part of this initiative the Ministry of Labor (MOL) is actively encouraging international education and training organizations to set up bases in Bahrain. Bahrain has over 50 training institutes that offer training in a variety of areas such as hospitality. Department of Defense-affiliated school and a number of private schools offer education in English with an American-style curriculum. Bahrain Training Institute (BTI). private businesses looking for specialized courses for their employees.Rising demand has led to deficiencies in the state school system due to the fact the most parents prefer to send their children to private schools. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 26 of 48 . Open University. The Government of Bahrain is seeking to establish Bahrain as a regional center for human resource development. and greater demand for private education from neighboring countries like Saudi Arabia. the Bahrain International College of Health & Beauty. labor. liberal location for expatriates. A U. since the educational and vocational training curricula have been recently criticized recently for not adequately preparing Bahrainis for the workforce. The Government of Bahrain (GOB) is taking the initiative to promote Bahrain as a regional education and training hub. The government is making concerted efforts to turn this situation around. With a total investment of approximately $65 million. education and training vision for the Kingdom. and the Bahrain Institute of Banking & Finance. Terrorist incidents   in   Saudi   Arabia   during   the   first   two   quarters   of   2004   enhanced   Bahrain’s   appeal as a safe.S. Enrollment of both female and male expatriate students from neighboring Saudi Arabia in Bahraini schools has increased. Specialist-training institutions include the Gulf College of Hospitality and Tourism. New York Institute of Technology (NYIT). which the Government supports in order to promote private higher education in Bahrain. AMA International. The high growth in private education can be attributed to several factors. financial and tourism sectors. and the British Council. and a number of educational institutions associated with the Bahrain Institute of Banking and Finance (BIBF). including: an increased number of full-time working adults seeking part-time internationally accredited degrees. Bahrain also has a wide range of public and private training centers that concentrate on the technical. English language studies.

and commercial establishments 21 percent. the first tender was awarded to establish the first private electrical plant called Al Ezzal. domestic consumption accounted for 60 percent of demand. The study showed that both the Ministry of Electricity and Alba were both at fault for summer 2004’s   power-outage. Demand is growing by an average of 7. Electricity consumption per capita in Bahrain is about 481 units a year.  Bahrain’s  new  and  only  private  power  plant. The current installed government power generation capacity in Bahrain is 1. while discrediting   the   Ministry’s   capability   in   crisis   management   circumstances. a tender was awarded for the Development of Al Dur Electric and Water Plant to Gulf Investment Company. Gulf International Bank. completed a $380 million limited-recourse financing for the construction of the first-ever private power plant in Bahrain. In August of 2008 the government awarded a tender to develop Al Dur Power Station to Gulf Investment Company. The demand  power  creates  offers  ample  opportunities  in  Bahrain’s  power  sector.  In  November  2004.505 MW power station. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 27 of 48 . Mashreqbank. Al Hidd for $738 million.3 percent annually. in which the Government will invest more than $400 million. In August 2008. Calyon. HSBC and Societe Generale led the loan. RBS and Standard Chartered. The Government created an Electricity & Water Commission to oversee the expansion of  power  production. Demand is growing by an average of 7.3 percent annually. Bayerische Landesbank. Some industries use natural gas to produce their own power. industries 19 percent. In 2004. rolling brown-outs during the peak summer months due to a lack of capacity. the government sold their biggest power plant.  Al   Ezzel Power Company. the government was forced to implement a program of organized. A one-day countrywide power failure occurred in summer of 2004 due to mismanagement of power flow near the Alba aluminum manufacturing plant. which also included ANZ. plans have been announced for the third phase.Electrical Power: For the past several years. A Canadian firm was awarded the contract to investigate the power failure. an 800MW per day facility. Already. In 2006. The $500 million plant produces more than 950MW of power per day. ING. In 2007.839 MW. and is projected to outstrip even the expanded capacity from power upgrades and the second phase expansion of Al Hidd power station. Mizuho. Alba provides another 275 MW on standby from its 1. Demand during   the   peak   summer   month’s   forces   the   government   to draw on this regularly. Ministry of Finance and National Economy (MOFNE) awarded Ernest & Young a contract to study the privatization of the power and water sectors. In June 2003.

Approximately 78 million gallons. are for drinking purposes. building new flyovers near Al Zinj. Water production through desalinization is an energy intensive procedure.   Large-scale government infrastructure projects to build roads.37 billion for special infrastructure projects. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 28 of 48 .2 billion gallons per year. bridges. housing. a Hidd power and water station ($283 million). a new hospital in Muharraq ($80 million) and an airport terminal expansion ($51 million). Seef District. In 2007/2008. these development initiatives have had a spillover effect in supply industries. The "sweet water" for which Bahrain was long famous is now brackish and requires treatment before using it as drinking water or as process water for industry. Bahrain used 108 million gallons of water per day. and near the Formula One Track. housing ($273 million). the Government approved a strategic budget of $2. desalinated and blended. when routine maintenance work was performed in March 2007. The local water supply comes mainly from non-renewable groundwater extraction. The Government subsidizes 55-60 percent of the cost of water to consumers. Construction: The construction sector has witnessed increasing activity and opportunity as the private and public sectors undertake development projects. companies. water and power production are being integrated through the construction of dual-use plants like those in Hidd and Manama.S. Many years of heavy demand in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain have significantly depleted the aquifer. there were rolling water shortages for several weeks. agriculture. threatening its long-term viability and allowing seawater to infiltrate. airport expansions. The Commission program to upgrade Bahrain's desalination and effluent treatment infrastructure provides opportunities for U. The projects that come under this budget include: a new port and an industrial area in Hidd ($464 million). In 2008.  and  the  remaining  third  comes  from   the underground aquifer. Furthermore. Industries. and infrastructure to support the Grand Prix racing circuit have stimulated the sector throughout 2006 and into 2007. Increasingly.Water Desalination: Bahrain is a desert island on the Zone C aquifer stretching all the way to Riyadh. Two-thirds of Bahrain’s  water  is  supplied  through  desalinization. or 38. All of these projects were scheduled to be complete by 2010. and private gardens use the rest. The government increased transportation expenditure in 2008. Supply barely exceeds demand. The Government aims to have all agricultural water produced this way in the future. This activity coincides with a boom in   the   country’s   real   estate   market. making it ideal for integration with power generation facilities. Sitra. Pilot projects are underway to use treated effluent for irrigation.

BUSINESS TRAVEL Business Customs: Personal contact. is key to doing business successfully in Bahrain. commercial banks started operating even in Weekends to service their enormous client base. This past year witnessed a large influx of brand-name chicken parts at very competitive prices. An Israeli entry stamp in a passport is not a bar to obtaining a Bahraini visa or to entering Bahrain. holders of regular passports can obtain a two-week visa at the airport for 5 BD ($13) payable in Bahraini Dinars only. Visiting business professionals should be prepared to spend a portion of any business call socializing and getting to know their counterparts. particularly chicken parts and to a lesser degree whole chickens and turkey. U. user-friendly electronic visa website. and allied forces in Kuwait and Iraq. Brazil.C. Employees of offshore financial institutions often follow a more Western workweek. To encourage the financial sector. Entry visas can also be obtained from the Bahraini Embassy in Washington. Brazil and the U.S.bh/english/index- 1..S.immigration. Most government offices operate Sunday through Thursday.S. France. frequently renewed. Whole chickens represent 90 percent of total chicken meat imports. are well known for their high quality. Saudi Arabia and Denmark dominate the market for frozen whole chickens. Most commercial banks are open Sunday through Thursday.gov. but not all airline personnel are aware that the former prohibition no longer applies. where a 5-year visa costs $50. please visit: www.Poultry Meat: U.S. Visa Requirements: Entry visas for American citizens may be obtained upon arrival at the Bahrain International Airport. as well as the flow of aid and other commercial shipments to Iraq. and many companies are also open half-days on Saturdays. The General Directorate for Immigration and Passports developed a custom-made.S. The website aims to speed the airport's visa processing method and also to attract tourists through this simplified and accessible method. For more information. D. in 2006 and 2007.htm. should continue to sustain or even increase demand from all sources including the U. dominate the market for chicken parts. poultry meat. The presence of U. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 29 of 48 .

In a move to liberate the telecommunications sector. offering. The U. public access mobile radio services. and to avoid travel into villages. and the Internet. As of September 2006. Services provided by Batelco include direct dialing and fax transmission to almost anywhere in the world. and many hotels also provide Internet. as elsewhere. international telecommunications services.9   million   in   the   company’s   mobile   network.bh/ Telecommunication: All hotels are equipped with reliable phone and fax service.S. For regularly updated security more information. Americans in Bahrain. the Government of Bahrain in April 2003 awarded a 15-year mobile telecommunications license to MTC-Vodafone. thus ending the monopoly of Bahrain's telecom services provider. integrated service digital networks (ISDN). which took effect January 2003. and business and conference centers . GSM mobile telephony. Embassy advises American citizens to avoid any disturbances or large gatherings in the streets. if it is not necessary. Telecommunications liberalization also extended to paging services.000. Telecommunications services in Bahrain employ fully digitized systems and state-of-the- art technology.usembassy. In January of 2009 the TRA were successful in awarding a third mobile provider STC (Saudi Telecommunication Company) with a paid capital of $231 Million.gov. Embassy Bahrain's website at http://www. national fixed services. In the past there have been occasional minor civil disturbances in various parts of the country.Crime is generally not a problem in Bahrain. high-speed data circuits. Zain Telecommunication (a consortium owned by UK's Vodafone and Kuwaiti and Bahraini investors) began operations in late 2003. Batelco announced plans   in   June   to   invest   $23. The majority state-owned Bahrain Telecommunications Company (Batelco) provides excellent telecommunications services for all sectors of the economy. please visit the U. internet WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 30 of 48 . Batelco. awarded the second mobile telecommunications services license to MTC-Vodafone. MENA Telecommunication Company managed to increase their customer base by 300 percent because of the newly introduced "smart Box" from Motorola (Wireless Network that covers land line. The license was awarded under the Telecommunications Law. international telecommunications facilities. the TRA broke the monopolistic control of Batelco over Internet service provider (ISP) in Bahrain. new technologies were introduced by companies such as MENA that covered the island with wireless internet connection in association with Motorola. established in late 2002. wire services. and in April 2007 announced that it had captured   30   percent   of   Bahrain’s   mobile   market   with plans to dominate 40 percent by the end of mobile customers after the introduction of competition. and corporate messaging facilities. Fax.) The Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA). should maintain a high level of security awareness while following their daily business or social routines in light of the global threat of terrorism.S.   increasing   its   mobile line capacity to over 550. very small aperture terminal (VSAT).

m. Muharraq. and sometimes in relatively poor condition. and religious observations. many streets are narrow. The public sector operates from 7: 15 a. The private sector normally operates from 8:00 a. m. Sunday- Thursday. Radar and speed detection cameras are installed near some traffic lights. These superhighways   are   part   of   a   $530. Sunday-Thursday. In the older parts of Manama. multi-lane highways cover the country. Well-lit.. The 25-kilometer Bahrain-Saudi Causeway. – 5:30 p.m. Rental cars are readily available. which opened in November 1986. Financial institutions operate from 8:30 a. Construction has begun on a network of futuristic superhighways with a series of flyovers to eliminate bottlenecks.m. The North Manama Corridor Improvement Plan involves the construction of the Seef and Pearl flyovers in Manama ($26 million).service provider (ISP) and value-added services license following the full liberalization of the sector on July 1.  The  private  sector  follows  the  Bahrain  Chamber  of  Commerce  and  Industry’s   (BCCI) local.9   million   master   plan   to   improve   the   country’s   road   network. – 2:15 p. but an International Driving License is required and must be validated in Bahrain. Most major roads are three to six-lanes and are well maintained. – 5:00 p. and in villages. Travel at night is more hazardous.   and   the   public   sector   follows   the   GOB’s   local   and   religious holiday observations. twisting. Transportation: Bahrain has a well-developed road network. Local Times. Major car rental firms will help qualified clients obtain a temporary Bahraini driving license. national.m.m. Business Hours and Holidays Bahrain is seven hours ahead of Eastern Standard Time (or eight hours ahead of Eastern Daylight Savings Time). Cabs are easy to find in downtown Manama. Defensive driving is recommended. Financial institutions follow the Central Bank of Bahrain (CBB)... 2004. Another Flyover in the Seef District ($18 million) opened up in December of 2008. Drivers should exercise caution at the roundabouts (traffic circles) found at many major intersections. Traffic is congested in some areas of Manama and the Seef Mall. Sunday-Thursday. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 31 of 48 . created many new commercial opportunities.

The groundwater comes in through lateral under- flow from the Dammam aquifer. which is part of an extensive regional aquifer system. Current water project initiatives in the Commission budget involve the new Dour water production plant.000m3 per day (m3/d) capacity. the Commission submitted a request to the Cabinet to approve a $56 million budget to complete the Dour plant by the next year. working as an independent arm of the state. Two- thirds   of   Bahrain’s   water   is   supplied   through desalinization. A major boost to wastewater treatment capacity will come with the development of the Muharraq wastewater plant. and the remaining third comes from underground aquifers. however. ALBA already supplied an estimated 7 million gallons per day to the national water network. threatening its long-term viability and allowing sea water to infiltrate. which will have a 100. It has successfully pushed for the development of IWPPs. Water Report in the Kingdom of Bahrain Bahrain’s   local   water   supply   comes   mainly   from   non-renewable ground water. Desalinated water now accounts for more than 80% of Bahrain’s  water  provision. the Higher Commission of Electricity and Water announced that it expected water consumption in Bahrain to reach an estimated 135 million gallons per day by 2015. and plant expansion for the Ras Abu Jarjur water desalination facility.   or   41   billion   gallons per year.000-150.   WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 32 of 48 . the heavy increase of water demand in Bahrain has significantly depleted the aquifer. and was expected to increase its supply to 9 million gallons by the end of 2008.   Bahrain’s   water   consumption   was   113   million   gallons   per   day. The Electricity and Water Authority (EWA) is the agency responsible for the production and supply of power and water in Bahrain. including reuse of treated sewage effluence. a water pipeline from ALBA. In August 2007. with the commissioning of the Hidd phase three and now the award of the Al Dur IWPP contract. However. In   2010.   with just 15% of consumption provided by ground water in 2008. In September 2009. The Electricity and Water Authority has also made improvements in increasing the coverage of sanitation and sewage connection to 88% of  the  island’s  population  and  is  on  target  to  reach  full  coverage  by  2015. The "sweet water" for which Bahrain was long famous is now brackish and requires treatment before being used as drinking water or as process water for industry. The kingdom has also drafted a national policy for wastewater. The Ras Abu Jarjur expansion is expected to yield an additional 16 million gallons of water per day. More than half of the  country’s  water  is  provided  by  the  Hidd  independent  water  and  power  plant  (IWPP).

5. bringing the total capacity to an estimated 409. With an original production capacity of 136.000 m³/d of distilled water.000 m³/d using groundwater. According to the EWA. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 33 of 48 . It produces 114. has the largest desalination capacity in the country and uses multi-stage flash (MSF) Technology. The facility is operated by the Hidd Power Company (HPC). located to the south of Manama. Ras Abu Jarjur is another desalination plant. is the most recent major water desalination plant in Bahrain. The Hidd plant now also includes a ‘potabilisation’   plant. 4.000 m³/d. The Sitra Power and Water Plant is the oldest in the country.25 billion deal that included the cost of the 273. a consortium of International Power (40%). Bahrain’s  Five Main Desalination Plants 1. Officials from the EWA indicated that in late 2008 the plant was already producing 273. production of desalinated water was 9 million m³ in 2007. on a build-own-operate (BOO) basis. it underwent an expansion program in 2006-2008 which enabled it to product another 273.000 m³/d. It was founded in 2010 to deal with the growing demand for potable water in Bahrain.   which   means   that   it   will   no   longer   require   blending   with   brackish   groundwater. GdF Suez Energy International (30%) and Sumitomo Corporation (30%). and that the remaining 136.000 m³/d. an average of 24. The Hidd Power and Water Plant.000 m³/d. The consortium acquired all of the Hidd assets in 2006 in a $1.000 m³/d would become available in early 2009 once a final round of testing was completed. located in the south of the island of Muharraq and within proximity of Manama. The large Aluminum Bahrain (Alba) plant.000 m³ of potable water per day. The plant has a maximum output of 48 million gallons per year. having been originally commissioned in the 1970s. not seawater. This is blended with groundwater before entering into the main supply network. 2. 3. and has been producing an average of 218. The Al Dur Power and Water Company. also produces desalinated water as a by-product of its other operations. located on the eastern seaboard and currently produces around 73.000 m³/d expansion mentioned above.700 m³/d.

561 2.857 2.082 3.111 3.446 2.259 3.555 2.087 2.605 2.744 2.820 34.052 2.755 2.750 2.474 2.227 2.954 WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 34 of 48 .001 2.000 Gallons – (1997-2007) Year Month 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Jan.749 1.569 2.277 3.111 2.707 2.408 2.232 July 2.144 2.247 2.190 2.848 2.051 3. Water Consumption by Month – 000. 1. 1.616 Mar.018 3.933 1.789 2.369 Sept.244 2.914 2.546 2.069 2.905 3.108 3.208 Dec.568 2.573 2.308 2.304 2.148 2.072 May 2.195 2.974 3.663 27.786 2.565 25.129 2.538 2.931 29.948 3.932 3. 1.479 2.960 2.276 3.180 2.363 2.806 1.661 37.367 2.077 2.658 2.184 2. 2.186 2.382 32.879 2.941 36.591 2.575 2.794 2.843 2.009 3.989 2.946 2.997 3.747 2.947 3.701 2.383 2.991 2.909 Feb.908 2.735 2.731 1.380 2.272 2.154 3.200 3.523 2.525 2.008 3.258 2.079 Apr.859 3.035 2.310 2.700 2.862 3.224 2.018 2.369 Aug.083 2.230 2.488 2.270 2.808 2.953 2.686 2. 1. 1. 2.737 2.965 2.077 2.234 June 2.936 3.231 2.421 2.295 Oct.336 Nov.613 2.981 1.615 2.619 2.478 2.204 33.612 2.133 2. 1.719 2.133 2.366 2. 2.170 2.236 Total 24.766 30.141 3.197 2.989 2.235 2.204 25.970 3.

33 88.69 Sept.26 405. WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 35 of 48 .85 Oct.53 93.52 62.34 9508 99.97 95.69 108.81 100.35 105.41 100.93 84.20 88.75 88.39 85.23 74.81 106.46 61.24 95.83 72.45 84.65 72.24 64.04 94.26 88.83 78.33 79.37 72.51 82.89 97.32 Apr.71 98.93 100.34 81.80 74.74 106. 64.73 82.72 102.58 67.19 92.19 92.49 74.43 101.73 100.31 81. 70.87 93.00 95.72 104.45 74.53 67.15 85.03 71.88 90.27 76.63 87.42 Mar.37 Annual 64.41 103.13 98.85 69.49 95.49 81.67 109.61 Nov. 63.89 73.00 87.88 96.35 105. Daily Average Consumption by Month – 000.25 91.13 107.84 85.86 71.29 91.46 82.23 64.15 90. 70.33 73.82 69.95 Avg.53 85.82 67.74 84.19 69.77 85.000 Gallons – (1997-2007) Year Month 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Jan.40 102.00 70. 63.69 Aug.22 71.62 89.50 83.55 93.42 78.78 76.62 93.59 87.52 93.33 70.79 74.75 77.25 105.88 95.86 90.12 Feb.91 63.72 94.97 73.08 86.87 94.94 67.70 107.28 76. 70.05 88.52 72.22 100.09 75.12 83.66 82.19 70. 64.72 July 71.97 82. 65.71 88.54 69.38 64.59 89.34 83. 62.05 70.79 88.31 93.98 72.12 108.44 83.49 88.10 84.31 76.68 97.39 May 69.32 June 70.94 Dec.29 80.38 79.34 104.

Water Production – 000.576 1998 13.684 2007 29.687 10.387 2003 21.480 12.425 32.991 WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 36 of 48 .765 2002 20.995 25.896 37.942 29.866 24.279 30.116 10.200 35.183 25.622 33.877 2005 24.049 27.663 2000 17.569 36.000 Gallons – (1997-2007) Production Year Total Distilled Water Underground 1997 12.500 11.202 1999 13.700 2006 26.255 10.111 2004 23.101 8.710 11.881 10.108 10.930 2001 19.207 11.823 9.

Important Contacts Electricity and Water Authority.O. Nawaf Bin Ibrahim Al-Khalifa 17532788 Administrative & Financial Affairs Vice Chief Executive.gov. Dr.Kingdom of Bahrain Electricity and Water Authority Building King Faisal Street Diplomatic Area P.mew. Khalid Burashid 17546700 17532786 Planning & Projects Director. Finance Resources & Jaffar Al-Qassab 17546380 17530080 Services WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 37 of 48 . Fax H. 17546999 Sh.bh/ Names of the top officials at the Electricity & Water Authority Name Position Tel. Abdulmajeed Al-Awadhi Chief Executive 17546888 17533035 Vice Chief Executive.E. Abdul Hussain Bin Ali Minister of Electricity & Water 17546777 17537151 Mirza Affairs Dr. Bahrain Phone: +973 17-546666 Fax: +973 17-533035 Web: http://www. 17546900 Batool Ali AbdulAal Electricity & Water Production & 17533452 Transmission Vice Chief Executive. Box 2 Manama.

bh/ E-mail: customs@batelco.gov. Water Production 17832100 17830146 Ali Redha Husain Director.bahraincustoms. Water Distribution 17389800 17553718 Director. Block 331 Zinj.S.gov. Box 5497 Tel: +(973) 17-523030 Fax: +(973) 17-530730 Website: www.commerce.buyusa. Water Transmission 17875888 17875803 Abdulghani Khalaf Director.gov Bahrain Customs P. Bahrain http://www.gov/bahrain Phone: 973-1-7242746 Email: AlhaykiNB@state. Public & International Khalid Ebrahim Al Mansoor 17546767 17541182 Relations Commercial Section. U.bh E-mail: bsmd@batelco.com.O. Director. Projects 17546304 17541185 Ebrahim Al-Kaabi Director.bh Standards and Metrology Directorate Ministry of Industry and Commerce P.bh WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 38 of 48 .com. Box 15 Manama Kingdom of Bahrain Tel: +(973) 17-725333 Fax: +(973) 17-727556 Website: http://www. Embassy Bahrain Bldg 979. Electricity & Water Rana Salloom 17576595 17212559 Conservation Sami Buhazza Director . Road 3119.O.

Zinj.gov Tel: +973 1724 – 2746 Mailing Address: Bldg 979.gov Tel: +973 1727 – 6180 Mailing Address: Bldg 979. Road 3119. International Trade Administration (ITA) http://www.bh Contact: Name: Simon Westaway Tel: +973 17-679407 Related Websites U.export. Street 13. Commercial Service http://www. U. Block 331.doc.gov/ Export-Import Bank http://www.gov.S. Bahrain P. Kingdom of Bahrain. Bahrain http://www.gov/bahrain Email: alhaykinb@state. Box 50710 Tel: +973 17-679479 Fax: +973 17-679429 Website: www. Kingdom of Bahrain. DC.hpc. Block 331.com.usembassy. Washington.gov/ Department of Energy http://www.S.gov/ Tel: 1800-USA-TRAD(E) Mailing Address: 140 Constitution Ave NW. U.exim. Block 115 Al Hidd.S.energy.export.S. Road 3119. Government Websites: Commercial Section.S.O. 20230 U.ita.buyusa. Embassy.doc.bh/ Email: manamapao@state.gov/ WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 39 of 48 .gov/comm_svc/ Department of Commerce http://www. Embassy Bahrain http://www.Al Hidd Water and Power Plant Building 303. U. Zinj.

commerce.ustr. Embassy of the United States of America in Dubai.gov/ Department of the Treasury http://www.gov.gov/ Department of Transportation http://www.S.Overseas Private Investment Corporation http://www.gov.gov/ United States Trade Representative (USTR) www.treasury. Trade and Development Agency http://www.bh/ Ministry of Commerce (MOC) http://www.htm Foreign Agriculture Service (FAS).gov/ Small Business Administration http://www.usda.A.tda.gov.gov/ Department of State http://www. Department of Agriculture http://www.fas.opic.bahrainedb.bh/ Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 40 of 48 .mofne.industry. U. http://www.com/ Ministry of Finance (MOF) http://www. U.gov/ U.usembabu.E.gov Agriculture Trade Office (ATO).gov.S.bh/ Bahrain Economic Development Board (EDB) http://www.dot.ae/atodubai.bh/ Ministry of Industry (MOI) http://www.sba.gov/ Government of Bahrain Websites: Government of Bahrain (GOB) http://www.state.bahrain.gov.

gov.transportation.gov.bh/ Telecommunication Regulatory Authority (TRA) http://www.com.bahraintourism.com/ Survey and Land Registration Bureau http://www.bix.gov.gov.bh/ Bahrain E-Visa Services WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 41 of 48 .bh/ Bahrain Customs Directorate http://www.bahraingp.bahrainairport.htm Bahrain Ports Directorate http://www.bahriancustoms.bh/ Ministry of Transportation (MOT) (Covers public transportation.bh/ Bahrain Internet Exchange (BIX) http://www.http://www.gov.municipality.tra.com/ Bahrain International Circuit (BIC) http://www.bh/ Immigration and Passport Directorate. telecommunications. postal services.gov. Ministry of Interior (MOI) http://www.bh/ Bahrain Convention and Exhibition Center (BCEB) http://www.bahraintenders.bh/ Bahrain Tenders Board http://www.gov. and civil aviation) http://www.bh/ Civil Aviations Directorate and Bahrain International Airport http://www.org.bahrainports.slrb.gov.bh/ Bahrain Tourism Directorate http://www.traffic.bh/ General Traffic Directorate http://www.bh/ Ministry of Municipalities and Agriculture (MOMA) http://www.bma.immigration.gov.bahrainexhibitions.com/index_web.

com.bahraintv.bcsr.uob.evisa.bh/ Bahrain Television (BTV) http://www.bh/ Bahrain Internet http://www.gov.bh/legalaffairs/ Ministry of Education (MOE) http://www.com/ Private Sector: Akhbar Al Khaleej Newspaper http://www.gov.gov.com/ WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 42 of 48 .bahrain.bh/ University of Bahrain (UoB) http://www.bh/ Bahrain Civil Service Bureau (CSB) http://www.education.gov.gov.bh/ General Organization for Social Insurance http://www.gov.akhbar-alkhaleej.com/ Pension Fund Commission (PFC) (Public Sector Retirement Planning Commission) http://www.bh/ Bahrain Center for Studies and Research (BCSR) http://www.gov.com.bh/ Al Nuwab or Council of Representative (Lower House of the National Assembly) http://www.bh/ Ministry of Labor (MOL) http://www.csb.bh/ Legal Affairs Directorate http://www.pfc.gosi.http://www.gov.inet.shura.bh/ Bahrain Training Institute (BTI) http://www.org.bah-molsa.bti.nuwab.bh/ Shura or Consultative Council (Upper House of the National Assembly) http://www.

gulfhotelbahrain.com.alwasatnews.net Gulf Daily News (GDN) http://www.com/ Diplomat Radisson SAS Hotel http://www.alayam.com/ Al Meethaq Newspaper www.bh/ Regency Intercontinental Hotel www.reflectionsbh.bh/ Reflections http://www.L.com Mice Management W.gulf-daily-news.com/ Al Wasat Newspaper http://www.diplomatrdsas.intercontinental.crowneplaza-bahrain.com/ Golden Tulip Hotel http://www. http://www.com/ Arabian Exhibition Management (AEM) http://www.com/bahrain Gulf Hotel http://www.aeminfo.Golden Tulip.com/ Bahrain Tribune (BT) http://www.almeethaq.com/ Crowne Plaza Hotel http://www.com/ Ritz Carlton Hotel WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 43 of 48 .mice-management.sheraton.Al Ayam Newspaper http://www.com AIFG/International Fairs Group http://www.com/manama Sheraton Hotel http://www.L.bahraintribune.com.amadeusifg.

S.S. Commercial Service please go to the following website: http://www.bh/ Bahrain Financial Harbour (BFH) http://www.http://www.com/ Movenpick Hotel http://www.ritzcarlton.S.com/ Novotel Hotel http://www.export. at the U.gov WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 44 of 48 .html Commercial Section.com/ Bahrain Telecommunications (Batelco) http://www. Embassy Bahrain http://www.novotel.com/ For more information.buyusa.mtc-vodafone. Trade Events: US Government Export Portal http://www.com/ Aluminum Bahrain (Alba) http://www.batelco.html and click on Country and Industry Market Reports. Embassy in Bahrain.com.gov/tradeevents.gov/marketresearch.albasmelter.bfharbour. U.moevenpick-group. please contact the Commercial Section.export.gov/bahrain Phone: 973-1-7242746 Email: AlhaykiNB@state.com/ MTC-Vodafone Bahrain http://www. Market Research: To view market research reports produced by the U.

com http://www. WORLD TRADE CENTER LOCATIONS World Trade Center Bahrain P.O.com Primary Contact: Mr.bahrainwtc. Bahrain Phone: 973-1-7546000 Fax: 973-1-7540455 Email: helpdesk@FM-bwtc. Salah Saleh Asheer Chief Executive Officer. Box 836 Manama. Phone: 973-1-7546000 WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 45 of 48 .

Caribbean. ANZUS Australia-New Zealand. and States Pacific Group of States CCC Customs Cooperation AfDB African Development Council Bank CDB Caribbean Development AFESD Arab Fund for Economic Bank and Social Development CE Council of Europe AL Arab League CEI Central European AMF Arab Monetary Fund Initiative AMU Arab Maghreb Union CEMA Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. APPENDIX ABEDA Arab Bank for Economic CAN Andean Community of Development in Africa Nations ACC Arab Cooperation Council Caricom Caribbean Community ACCT Agency for the French. also known as CMEA or United States Security Comecon Treaty CEMAC Monetary and Economic APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Community of Central Cooperation Africa Arabsat Arab Satellite CEPGL Economic Community of Communications the Great Lakes Organization Countries ARF ASEAN Regional Forum CERN European Organization AsDB Asian Development Bank for Nuclear Research ASEAN Association of Southeast CIS Commonwealth of Asian Nations Independent States Autodin Automatic Digital Network CITES see Endangered Species Benelux Benelux Economic Union Climate Change United Nations Biodiversity Convention on Biological Framework Convention Diversity on Climate Change BIS Bank for International Climate Kyoto Protocol to the Settlements Change-Kyoto United Nations Protocol Framework Convention BSEC Black Sea Economic on Climate Change Cooperation Zone COCOM Coordinating Committee C Commonwealth on Export Controls CACM Central American Comsat Communications Satellite Common Market Corporation CAEU Council of Arab Economic CP Colombo Plan Unity WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 46 of 48 . and Common Market Speaking Community CBSS Council of the Baltic Sea ACP Group African.

gov/cia/publications/factbook/ WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 47 of 48 .Desertification United Nations for Latin America and the Convention to Combat Caribbean Desertification in Those ECO Economic Cooperation Countries Experiencing Organization Serious Drought and/or Desertification. For more information go to: http://www. ECOSOC Economic and Social Particularly in Africa Council DSN Defense Switched ECOWAS Economic Community of Network West African States EADB East African ECS European Coal and Steel Development Bank Community EAPC Euro-Atlantic Partnership EEC European Economic Council Community EBRD European Bank for EFTA European Free Trade Reconstruction and Association Development EIB European Investment EC European Community Bank ECA Economic Commission EMU European Monetary for Africa Union ECE Economic Commission for Europe ECLAC Economic Commission Note: This is only part of the Appendixes Section in the CIA web site.cia.

census.gov/ 3.com/ 5.ita.html 2. SOURCES 1. CIA Country Fact book: http://www.gov/foreign- trade/sitc1/2000/#H 4. Culture & Etiquette: D&B Doing Business Around the World – Trade Services WORLD TRADE CENTER San Diego —Kingdom of Bahrain — January 2012 Page 48 of 48 .gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.doc. Holidays & Others: http://www. Commodity Exports & Imports: http://www.getcustoms.odci. Country Commercial Guides: http://www.