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GROUND LADDERS

OBJECTIVE Learning Outcome 10 Operate Extension Ladders.

Assessment Criteria 10

10.1 State the purpose and functions of ladder. 10.2 State the various types of ladders used in the fire service. 10.3 State the parts and function of ladder. 10.4 Recognize the important of ladder loading.

10.5 List safety precautions while using ladder. 10.6 Describe service testing of ladder. REFERENCES a. PU 200422-2 Manual Of Firemanship. b. Essential of Fire Fighting Fourth Edition. c. Fundamentals of Fire Fighter Skills.

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GROUND LADDERS
INTRODUCTION Despite many technological advances in the fire service, one fundamental piece of equipment has not changed much. The ladder remains one of the fire fighter's basic tools, carried on nearly every piece of structural firefighting apparatus. The portable ladder is one of the most functional, versatile, durable, inexpensive, easy-to-use, and rapidly deployable tools used by fire fighters. No advanced technology can substitute for a ladder as a means of rapid, safe vertical access for fire suppression and rescue operations. Every fire fighter must be proficient in the basic skills of working with ladders. STAIR USING Use the following steps: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. As a rescue tool. Up and down the building. As a bridge. Move on unsafe ground. Staircase to replace the burning. As a temporary stretcher. To make the frame while the tank. Step ladder.

TYPES OF APPLIANCES Stairs are divided into several types: a. b. c. d. e. f. Straight Ladder or Single Ladder. Combination Ladder. Extension Ladder. Roof Ladder. Folding Ladder. Pompier Ladder

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Straight/Single Ladder

Combination Ladder

Extension Ladder

Roof Ladder APPLIANCES DIVISION

Folding Ladder

Pompier Ladder

Ladder is divided into two parts, namely: a. Main section. contains: (1) (2) (3) (4) Heel. Bed. Truss block. Beam. (String)

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(5) (6) (7) (8) b.

Toggle. Tormentor Pole. Spur. Round. (Rung)

Sliding Section. contains: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Top (Head) Beam Rail. Truss. Pulley. Anchor. Extending line. (halyard) Lock. Fly. Round Top Fly

Truss Bed Tooggle

Beam/ Rail

Lock

Pulley Anchor

Halyard

Tormentor Pole

Beam/ Rail

Truss Bloks

Heel

Spur

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Figure 2: Appliances Division HOW TO BRINGING LADDER There are 6 Steps How to Bringing Ladder: it is done individually or grouped namely: a. b. c. d. e. f. One person carry. Two person carry. Three person carry. Four person carry. Five person carry. Six person carry.

One person carry

Two person carry

Three person carry

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Four person carry

Five person carry

Six person carry Figure 3: How to take the ladder SAFETY PRECAUTIONS When using a ladder safety precautions to be observed as the following: a. b. c. d. All firefighters shall wear safety clothing including gloves and helmet. Choose the appropriate steps with the task to be done. While upholding the stairs determine adequate number of firefighters. While raising the ladder below the waist, do not use body strength.

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e.

Determine the ladder near electrical cables are not upheld.

f. Determine the steps erected on the building at an appropriate angle which is about 75o or distance of the stairs of the building (work) shall be: (1) During the test - of the height of the building (work) Example: Place of work 20 feet. x 20 = 5 feet During working hours - 1 / 3 of the height of the workplace. Example: Place of work 30 feet 1 / 3 x 30 = 10 feet

(2)

g. Determine the top of the stairs close beside the window with three round pass threshold window. h. i. j. k. l. m. Determine the proper pawls on round. Before the rise or fall, determine a safe and proper ranking. Use the Leg Lock or ladder belt while working on the stairs. Up to the highest birds before entering through the arrest. Up / down the stairs to the right hand, right foot, left foot left hand same time. Do not climb the stairs to the members of the excess (Overload)

n. Place the right hand position in the longitudinal or shorten the stairs to avoid pinched. LADDER TEST Appliances should be tested and examinations to determine it is always be ranked the best, safe and can be used. There are three types / how to test conducted as follows: a. Test round. Round tested in the following manner: (1) Extend the ladder and back up to the wall building. Bunch the top for safety. (2) Start from the top of the legs are divided edge of birds, and create a jump to the bottom of the rounds to the rounds. (3) Determine the lower (Heel) is guarded by two members before jump is made. (4) The two steps in grip strong in the current round jump.

(5) Do not make the jump more than a rounds to avoid tapping strong in rounds. (6) Rounds that can not be made the jump, tie a rope and pull the power of two. (7) Be alert and cautious when making the leap, it is feared failure

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b.

or damage to the rounds will occur. Strings Test. How the test is as follows: (1) Extend the ladder and back up to the building.

(2) The distance of the stairs (Heel) with a building would be 1 / 4 height place to work. (3) (4) (5) (6) Tie the two strings in the middle or section the second step. Measure the distance the string with the building. Use the weight of two people on each string. Measure the length of the string with the building.

(7) If the same size, meaning that the string is in good condition. if the size is different, meaning that the string is not satisfactory and send to be repaired or exchanged. Warning: Do not make binding on the round when the test string.
c.

Extending Test Line. (1) shorten the stairs.

How to make the test are as follows:

(2) Re-growth steps with strength and weight of two firefighter held at the side of the stairs. (3) (4) Two firefighters clung to the line extending as low as be. Extend the ladder to try some rope above.

(5) Once again, two members clung to the line extending as low as possible. INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE Each step must be made for the benefit of inspection steps under the circumstances time as follows: a. b. c. d. e. When first received. Three months. Before and after use. The time specified or deemed necessary. After being sent for repairs (Major Repair).

Need Parts Review. Inspection on parts the following must be done carefully to the safety of: a. Sliding section Determine the independent movement in place. b. Extending line the pulley. c. Pawls No damage to cord or wire, and can move freely in

Able to work properly.

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d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. CONCLUSION

Hanger Round -

The ropes and wires, determine the conditions firm. No sign of broken / sharp and strong position in its place. No signs of dents or cracks.

Run and Sliding Cable Nails / screw Pulley -

No convoluted and in good condition. In the strict and would not come out. in good condition.

Jack Wheel - Can work well. Tormentor Pole In good condition and no dents / cracks.

With the above, fire fighters could carry out with confidence when using ladders to suit the place without that things do not desired.

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