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Map Probkm No.


1071—C. * O. 8.8eh., Tort L«tv«aworth~-4-16-*t--iSftf

MAY 31, 1039.


Prepared by
Maloolm F. Lindsay, Captain, Infantry,
Class of 1933.

Dispositions of Russian Army of Manchuria. open p l a i n of the Liao v a l l e y . . 1SQ4.eavenwurth. HISTORICAL PACT3 RELATING T THE STUDY. No. After O the various reverses to th? Russian forces during the per period ous fros the 'niidl^ of June to the T a t t e r p a r t of July .-ry iiq. Aujurst 05 to b 5. i90< ­ J u l y i90<-. wh^r^ from August 15th to September 5th thr» b a t t l e o^ Liao Yang took p l a c e . 1204..r'cofi physical d i f f e r e n c e s . Plan of Japanese Attack. Ooramanrt General 3 W f School. No. 4 . August 23.. The Tai-tsu River. Tho b ^ t t l e f i o W of Li to Yans i s divide^ i n t j sec­ tlons of vi. September I I . a variety of Tilllet. No. All of the streams in t h i s area are e a s i l y for^ablo.l a n h i September 1. but l i a b l e to ludden flood. 1904. No. 8.1 ao Yang. No. Russian Defenses and D i s p o s i t i o n s (General). 6. f e r t i l e . 1013. "HE S U Y PRT23ENTED. Genera! plan for the Combined Japanese Army. The B a t t l e f i e l d of Llao Yan£. No. Annetea as follows: Ko.'nonpar*son of tho two h o s t i l e f o r c e s .iao Y-ias. u i *•(«: The D i r e c t o r . Kansas. t . M Yoar Class. Test of the Man­ darin Road l i e s the p e r f e c t l y l e v e l . which grew to H h e i g h t of I ^ ^ P ten feet ana wan close t o g e t h e r .1 . No. PAPER! ACCOMPANYING: 1. Dispositions of Russian A ray of . 3 . East of the Mandarin Road r i s e the spurn of the mountains. a t r i b u t a r y of I . and within a few miles the country la of a r e a l l y mountainoui c h a r a c t e r .--Tafl Marshall Oyana j u s t i f i e d T D in his a c t i o n s at the B a t t l e of Mao Yang. Kansas. A study of tho B a t t l e f i e l d of U a o Ynng. Dispositions of the Russian Army of Man­ churia. 3 . Plan of Japanese Attack. 5. 9. The vHileys between the h i l l s are c u l t i v a t e d in t e r r a c e s . Plan of Japanese Attack. 1C04. This area is a Jumble or h i l l s . 2. A bibliography for t h i s study. August 30. Tho Russian Defenses of 1. 18042 I I I . . At t h i s season of tho J e a r It was cov­ ered with c r o r s of which the p r i n c i p l e one was tcaollng. 1004. August 30.. ?. August 32. so»neti'ne<* covered with brush nond so^otlme-3 b a r e . Fort Leavonworth. Strength of the two H o s t i l e Forces* No. th« Russian Amy of Manchuria r e t i r e d to th* defenses of l. I .Fort J. May 51.

(?) North of th > rull-vay briage.^ain or Inner Position.and roliow­ ins tne crest or a line or heights whic^i run from h i l l 693. . cnia-fang towards Y«-yu-chl ana Hsic-pu. The Outer Position prtended from An-8han-chan on west through I ancr-tgu-ihan to An-ptng and une Mung­ «ha Ling on tho eastT a t o t a l distancw of approximately fifty-t1v* miles.ig too ox tensive for the Rus­ sian Ariiy or Manchuria under General Xuropatkin. ponton.Uo River. ThlV position wa3 a l i t >? t l e less than tan miles in extent and completely surroun­ £>e* th^ town with both Flanks re^tin« on the Tal-Tsu Ho. The space between the more Important works w^re filled with entan­ glements an* ^artous k^nis of position formed a £reat bridge-h^ad protootln3 the croisin^s over the Tal-tsu"Ho. (1) 0 Anno* No. These ^efonses were very carefully constructed anri a great amount of Tabor had been expended on then:. Ton or twftiv* miles nearer une cluy was me Advanced Position extending Irora 3hou-shan-pu through Meng. and since tho Inner Position was co?n«i«ndf-:d by tho Advanced Position. iX*jnton. Two o * trireu x mllen in roar of this position and completely dominated oy i t . ponton. (8) North of (?) anotbor brl^go ucro3 3*both branches : f tht: r i v e r . and th« 3ha south of the c l t j . ponton. . The Russian Defenses of Llao Yang. partly oV boats. O the south are n thr*u t r i b u t a r i e s of Importances tho L*n ana Tans 7 * ^ 9 rtait of LI 1 Yang. 1. flowi fro-. This position consisted of thr^e lines of fcr + s or THR outor line consisting of a series of eight *nut supporting forts extended from Huanj-chia-"^ 1 n^-tsu on the no^th bank o^ tho T^l-tiu H to ^rh-fa wbe^^ i t rested on o th^ hljrb ground north of the Plver. Tho following*bridges had buen constructed up to August 50th: (1) North of Hslao-tun-tau.*H r-i Lino Ya"f). then af t»r a sharp b*n* northwa^ I t turns V tho w-ist and then > south anrf nows Into tho T. A^v^ncud and Inner. 2. (C) Railway b r i i ^ e . Just west of Ihou-shan-pu to uxe Tal-tau Ho. {£) 100C yards ^orth.) 3) (3-7. Chinese boats. (3) (3oe Xnnex No. The defense-? of Mao Yan^ consisted of Uireo mc­ poslMons--the Cuter. was + < . (2) North of Yeh-nJ. the heaviest f i j h t l n ? took place alonjr the middle position. q nonton .-tsuan. (5) North of the north-^ast corner of tho city walls. redoubt* and vun poslt'ona connecting tb^ north west corner of the to^vn an^ Pun-ch?a­ chiao-r^o.8) . and in rear of t h i s s t i l l n third llrr* extending from the north-oust corner of tho d ty to Tuan-cMu-ohlao­ bo. The Outer Position w.••ho Ituo River. The Fattlef1. > (9) At tho bend in th* Rlv^r. th« e*it to Ltao Yans. (5) Erh-fu. In roar of t h i s lino was a second s^riei of f o r t s .

but i t has been generally estimated at 135.000 W 1 iin U KP l . The A» y Reserve (:j^ b a t t a l i o n s .T General Eil^orlVnc o/ten­ dori fron holorht 1400 through height 9100 to t. 180) 7) (4-334) . August 23.000 bayonets. Tho t o t a l of these detachments waa 14 b a t t a l i o n s .irtn Road nnfl o^Unrtlnfj fro"J the Nlu-?ouang--Uao Yan? Roud V.000 bayonets. 3ha-ho and Y p The abo<r«3 groups also included detachaant^ at Liaoho. (5* (6) ( ? ) . 35 HO. vldo In­ to four n^n Jroup*.000 sustt. cjnu-. 3. 52-l/'} ^ .!ukdon. sabres and 559 guns. o^ tn* .nflcj by ^ n . ' ^ r o n q an* ^33 cruns) corni^Mns o f t h e M HberJ^n lor?*. on the uop^i Tai-tgu H in o the neighborhood of Ta-lin. This was 13# of the whole Rus­ sian Field Am guarding points not directly threatened r y by a single Japanese soldier. Tho ? ^ t o m Group (6? b a t t a l i o n s .000 sabres and 559 guns.. The combined Japanese Army consisted of the F i r s t . 16.irf mainTi' of troopg of the 5th liberian was distributed chiefly at I. 32 q^uadron3 and 13 e. (3) (4) (See Annexes No*. 33 squadrons and 38 guns guarding the r i . Xuro­ patkln estimated his troops to be 128.ftt 0 U K Pl vldo In t l . at Hiin-min-tun. 115 b a t t a l i o n s . aid alon^ the T-ni-tau H between o Mao Yang and Pen-h«5l~hu. '0. and a point half ^as betw^nn Ta-van on tho Liao H o and Liixo Yan?..o i53. 1Q1 2 n n 3 ' w a B located at Liao-Yung. M squadrons and 470 guns. (5) (See Annex No. of which 110 were in­ fantry. and ? b a t t a l i o n s .n ^ P r S i 110.000 bayonets. 3. Strength of the Two Hostile Forces). 12.uns guarding the l e f t *fl'Ank. w 4.a«* Strength of the T o Hostile Forces. h t flank. Second and Fourth Arcaies.000 t. Thu 1 o u * > ^ Group o n i i 'Urn.000 sabres und 6?3 guns to 115.-san-Mvi In th^ v t i l e . the strength of theJaponeoe battalion was greater than the Ruisian b a t t a l i o n . Disposition of the Russian Army of Manchuria. The Rujiians. There are no accurate figures as to the ex­ act strength of the Japanese Field Army. While the Russians had more battalions than the Japanese. of th<^ 4*\ arid 1? S y r i a n Corp. on the extreme loft scattered around 3ln-t3in~tin and Wcitching the roads leading from the south-t-ast to Mukdun. 2 S'l rn con^l 4tl'.­ at Pen-h^i-hu and Ohiao-tou. Tho Run a Ian force u j already stated has bo en various­ < ly estimated from 1:38.. X Corpo an^ oart/of the XVII Corps unrt'. and Annex No.ecj we-^t of ivlulcden. how10} e«f ) ) (3-179.ho Tal-tsu General Re^™/* (30 b a t t a l i o n s . 1004). 2O-1/0 ^J ronq. r a l Zu­ I^ifctoa about 30 mile* smith of IUo Y*iS uatrido the U a ­ i. 13.

(3) On the '23d August Marshall Ojarnu l a r i e d hlq orders for tho attaolc."1 hui rotr-at>?d uithor through foroe or through uhoico.!*•" (8) (») () (10) (U) (18) (3-181) ((3 1 3 ) 31 (1-34) (8-103) (4-13) °X C ° r p q # Th0 r l 2ht flank of th ^ Position . T^ th t h i i object in view tho Plr-jt Anuj wa^ to gain po^cMiion of tho high 3*vvird weit of the Tang Ho and was to extend i t s lo^t jo 9/i <o Join v/ith the Fourth Ar vy • Tho Fourth Ar.­ though a nunibor of tho Runlan guni wore old patU«rn oven ttllo^lrw for t h e i e tho Ru-nt mi h ^ a l u p e r i c r l t y In guns. whi^h min-jtcl:' r e s u l i t e d t d i s p o s i t i o n of tho f o r c e s . In aVUtlon to the o J i e r a faot^rs unfavorable to tho R a g l a n s .h w-ii follo'voi shortly thor»>aftor tha by j now "T)i-ipon\t \on \To.s s ­ ful.\tont.' ^ .»ok the I Siberian Corps. tho l^-i? of hill f 5 south of Mon£j-chla-fan2--laji-8hia7t3U wi*h i t n extr«. The intontlon of the Japuno^e conainder­ In-ohiex"1 «-tj to drive the Ru*j3iam out of the Aa-^hun­ ohan — Lans T tzu-iliun p o s i t i o n . ^ . (1C) U l ) (13).nvwi o r t. The. mo d i s p o s i t i o n of the Russian troops 'vas as follows: Pro:u h i l l 5C5 to tho valley of Tnnu Bri. This order had thu e f f f e e t of uoolishing tae Southern and ia3t'ern Groups and thu indppondunt commands of Zarubaiev and B l l d e r l i n g .io*. In addition to thin fore* thero ^ s also in th.>s onij .nies on s.3C A'?su 3t General Kuropatkin cV^e"^ to withdraw fro:a the Outor Position to tho W Position an-i i^iiod "Disposition for tho Array of M a y. Dlapoaltion of R. tV«ir 0-? cit^nnUi pl. ^ i .rlslncrl. Pror. s i c x .. All of th» above factor* favorable to the '•(uni-.tao -"uan whH. Ajacrvn* 23.. 2M. (0. 2".J baUailorn. of both corp^ amount- in- to H onnadrons.en th* *£roi9or* and hvid boon vjtri. These r e t r e a t s h:tf da. during tho >il/ht 2S-. Ki the .? VAlLey or Tassu Brook tn^ c ? m ^ r .Japanese had b».ever. Tivi of Japanese Attick. 6". Thereafter these o f f i c e r s retained the coiiiuund of t h e i r reapellvo Corps. n t nnter 1eri»r>a\ ?nt^ov 6 squadrons o f A . 3^e :\nno-< No. «?hilo the H a n l i n ? hid b ^ n on th« d^funsive -J. H^twoen tne 1st and V Siberian Corps to ? euard the vi\io^ o f TaiS'J Broo'< Win nlncod a det»chm.ornM zed tho Pu-nian Lmy to some «:. 3. Ho.-io shv. avi W . front where they wo'ilcl bo able to ^tt-iOk the o^concl l l n ^ of tho *1o­ fon-ie. 13-^4) ^h tho^o citticka foro .a& !• ft iboMt Yi^^.y t^c Second Arrn> w-i-3 to asseii:­ blo on tho b'. und b^ the evenl^s of the 26th of Auju^t to placu h i ^ own fir. Pro'a ?i*-vi ^ n o i : to" h H i iceo i n c l u s i v e ./ a t ^ itren^th of 170f0C0 :oon.^ the Japancvv Field Ar:n. if pov*\Me. X904).'iy m ai to roach.o.. wero «rH«tlw superior In cavalry and In guno.m voro counterbalanced by the luoic of morale.nain unsucc 1 : ful. ihe 3d 51beri. h U l 1080 exclusive to the ?iv2r t h ??--!?!!. (3ee /Vrinex No. * .. August 30.4 3 8ian Arwj of tfanchuria.

(16) (1?) (13) U S ) .. ibCi) (13) (1-68. the 30th of Ausunt Mar«ihall Ov-'iaa j hi \ orders Tor th^ attack of t h a t ' p o i . (1-?) (11) (15)« (3eo Annex No. 10 squadrons -m^ 10 jun^ s c a t Thi^ 3lve3 H t o t a l of llfi b a t t ^ l l o n a .ind p a r t or the 5th ^ r l a n Corps nortn o l t n e Tai-tsu Ho on h i l l iC5? ami H i l l 9*0. On th* l o f t flank wero 4. T1 mo. 4^ b a t t a l i o n s .^l-sent waj to /?ttick the h i l l ? above .nrdlns the Liao Valley.ander­ in-chi»5f. 76) .an* was ocv­ V er«4 o? uiiu XVII Corps . (3ee Annex No. an'! 5C . an* 33 b a t t a l i o n s . 10.y an-ioted by the 30th Kbbl P. n i i 4 b a t t a l Sons and 16 £ua*5 nf. on Yentai. ? f Plan of Japanese Attack.l l . 6? b a t t a l i o n s . and Petorov and tov with 6 b a t t a l i o n s . 3 squadrom an^ 3 guns of the 5th Siberian Corp* at Pen-hsl-hu. Division an* one M euid 4th <UborUn Corps ani trio « a r r i son of M«n Vang.'-loaa­ ohlA-f-uir in conj-Mootlon "/ith th*> Fourth Array. I t was to bo as Tilted by tho 3'2 B r i d i e of th« li DYvii'on. but I t was ^DJI^rally un^^Vooo^ t h a t tho i3th Divis'on vm to e r o . i to tho ri.' 16 ^nM. To t h i * may oe added Orlov's oetachraont of 3 o a t t u i Ions.ick the p o s i t i o n be two en H^ln-li-tun -iid Tauo-fan-tun > fro>o th*> ^ i r i t Anr.:nUon ^an . 69.^ht bank of the T. l t Ion # The >^?o r w-\ to l^ave ons li^i^ion at tho 'H^poqal of tHo co oi. The 3d Di­ vision w*. unr* 13c ^in-j \a r e s e r v e . ' H I in p r o t e c t i n g deta^htnonts. Aujju^t 30.». ^"i^ cho a r M l i e r .i!-t<vi Ho i^ soon as poislbl-r.of tho ?^ Division.jqt -:o. *? squadrons and 70 Runs. 6. th». The. Al'tor f. riJ-nt Xossa-tovsfci with 8-1/'2 b a t t a l i o n s .l i n g . No fur­ V Mf t h e r :p.70. 43 s'lU-idroria anr* 4M . ir th^ noi^M^hood of the T a . 71) (4^18] (3-303. an* Orulov'a detaohmont of 0 b a t t a l i o n s . in^l was to bo foll.l » f t P. 9.i'i*idro'i*. The following aetauhimmta wore m a d d i t i o n : On ttu. 11) (5.Utloni for the Armj of Manchuria.. 4 squadrons arid * guns marehln?.t a n . ^ir-.\<i to utV. 33 S'>uad­ rcm*j.H^O an to ho . ^n.i1 TKV r of th». 90S) (1-75. 300) (IB) tl6) (17) (18) (19) U-8.Jabavln vith 13 squadron a e. and with the roinalninj t^o d i v i s i o n s was to 00­ C'-ny the hoicrhtn fro»r> h i l l 693 to H q l n ./ved by th* i : t n Brivja^. 9 3 juadrons and IS^suns near Ta-w*n.ho Ru-^ian^ hn^ H vH i fQ withdrawn to th^-Ad­ ^ .* to support tho Tho Fourth Ar?ay vt. l.b a t t a l i o n s . C s*>uai­ O ron°. a.s cov«rofl i n i t i a l l y by X ^ ^ n k o it Jl ^ f then D Srokov with 14 4.:t *\i??j 1J?H? tc bo umployed.un9 In tV? front l l n ^ i .-xnc-^ Position o*.r><* I jvin«.Pir-. r«. Haln­ lain-tun. 70) (14) (3-199. about. T«f 5 v. Th* rjonerui Raiurvo uon*i-steel of ^awisonov1 s Cavalr. 1004) .

1001 H I ) 88) (4-100) . 3 . l u « c h i a . c .c h i a . 3«ptoiabrr i . 1 for th« Manchurlan Ann.4g 1 a t or* moved to the Yentai Coal L l . Tho ono«». (3C) ( 3 1 ) .(eKclu<jivft).i-tou Ho -r o Ku-chang t-n Hgl-k M The Gonoral Rvivrvn* wan to take pO3i./ M * c r o ^ .k o u .he'r.' l vo Lh* north Mnk of th« unonx a further withdrawal. t h e 3d S i b e r i a n Corps lenvln-r jr:^ brigade and two b a t t e r i e s to take p o s i t i o n north of t h e c i t y w a l l s .lischenko t o 3 a i .fcfAcooKins to tho forosoino h i 3 t o r ­ l e a l i n r c r r / i M c n General Xuropatkin f 3 dv^oiiLon to^. The Vlss Division of lh»» 3th 3'. on the p«vt of h i s a u b o ^ i a a t o a .n of Jap-j. t h ' * 3 d S i b e r i a n Cor?3 from th^ r ^ i w « ' ( i n c ^ n i ^ ) to ^ r h ~ f a .nln P o s i t i o n o'.c h u a a s .n n R AfWr ftworal Xuropatkln Wtrn<* t h a t Uie -. It*i. r..h o .. t h e X Corng l e a v i n g one b r l j a d o and t h r ^ e b a t t e r i e s t o form up xt Hsln-cheng.l l e n . u ^ i a r u were r e t r e a t i n g b*j.tlon a* 1 s t 3i v '^r > lan Cor. and tii-j f i n a l " s t r e e t of t h e R u u U ^ .*oi.H3 ^o^?i of p r o s t ' U e anf t.r w ooft­ C l M ' H and i « thrLtonln* h l i Ur.nn Corp-i unrl one brlfitiide and throe b u t t e r i e s of t h e The XVII Corps *va'3 t o secure the l e f t flnnk bv ri >»y t.iT?u^«ion(.)S a t T .u. anfl" allo'vpc? con­ i l d e r ..a-jures adopted by Mnrihal] OjisMaH f o r f u r t h e r a c t i o n aro only i-nperf'^cLly known. and Gen e r a l I-Curo^.'*P­ ^ . ^oote.t u n . t Ar'. The Japanese followed up t h « Hw3ilan retlr«?ft»:>it to thn Main P o s i t i o n of T^iao Yanj on t h e worn ing of 1 3ep­ tfjjabsr. Ho wA^ o i / o r t t t i n j on I n t e r i o r l i n o s .fl the troop.l*'!^ around Manju YcbUci. V*. Apparant./ . The rqr. He w.\?ia0^ . HD IV• CPTNIO"! OF T .t u n .o r b .m Corps and t h e 54th D i v i s i o n u n i e r Gerior-il Orlov to Yen t a i n 3 t a t ! o n .i b l e latlLudt.« of o o ^ o u n ^ n M ^ o V d.^ to take up a oo w i t h i n t.> ralli-v:rt.tencnn? fro* C h l a g . P l . ser^raUi' us fol­ Th" 4 t h 31borl..m Corps w. b . t j c c n t r u t e .nco Attao-c. <S.i b e l l e v i n o t h a t the P . the Ruasiun SatiPct^r^atfejiv^: c o u n t e r " o f f e n g l v o . HU OPf.M^ t-iinert^r " K o U U o n .'-n'onr 1. F u r t h e r r e t r e a t p e r m i t t e d the yne. aJud 3i AuzuVt. an^>rlan Corps WHS t o tako p o s i ­ t i o n ri-riv the 3 d ' l * b e r i . (This c o r n i con<*l«jted on­ •ij^of tho 5th EH-)t 3lborl«n Riffl« Division in^ wun to oo r e i n f o r c e d by ono b^lsado arvi two b a t t ^ ^ i e a of t h e 3d 3lfcpri. (23) (300 Annex No. The cav-iirv wa^ disposed as follows: 3uasonov to 3 h a . p o s i t i o n s of t h e Faisal an Anay of i i a n c h a r i a .-nuko a Hand in t h ^ v l o i n l t j of I l a o Y-nn^ ' ^ q nourid fur t N . (See Annex No.' wa-1 <\T. L a t e r t ^ i ' j d i v i s ­ ion WHS orrV^e*"! t o H s l a o y t a .t u n to th. ^ ^ 1 ­ a .an the p u r v i i t which led up to the fl^ht. 1 J 0 4 ) .o hl:i: l0W5: ?) A!5i>>9hHl Oyania hntf t h r e e o l ^ (a) T attack o (b) To (0) To 30) (8-78^ V9) 81) (1-108.v h l a d i r e c t i v e 'J'-Olrt'? Por a "cntin»uUlon of the ^ t t i c ' * .ho p o s i t i o n * on th^ n o r t h bank or t h e Tf?. AUTHOR. 1004).

Me* ha'! f « h o i M l o . Tho R u s s i n m T»vere n o t a l o n e in co'nmiltln^ e r r o r s . an^ of coaoontratia»j.e?^ and ilurlng tho b a t t l e f u l l e d airain t o talce the o f f e n s i v e wh».in e x c e l l e n t op t-mity t o win th^ He was i r r e s o l u t e . ^ ^ a l ^ i t h a t of t h o Rus­ r n J r » u n e j . c o n ­ form t o h l i movem'-Ti**.^ p r o t e c t h i ? common i c a t ions whon by an en^r-^oti^ o f c e n ^ l v e h e niijht huve chnn^ed trte l ' o f t h e b a t t l e an* tho whole w a r . and would have been d i q a ^ t r o u s i f he had b^en con­ f r o n t e-3 by a more a g r e e s I v e and r e s o u r c e f u l Marsha"1. b u t ho had th^ advantage of T. and on more than onp occxsVon t h l g f a c t wa^ a source of c o n s i d e r a b l e worry to hire.^ r o n e r v e .rcj. ­ o f t h oo Jr»une-j«. >-n<\ kopt h l i a m y * l v i . Conclusions—Marshal O^ana was jusLined in ni8 actions at the Bat Lie or Liao Yang by tae vesuiis atLainecl Ac. A poor plan wen execuLeu is better than a -* plan poorly oxeouted. No no VI. d i d n o t u«*« h i s c a v a l r y and f r i t t ^ r c ' i nnf a-vay hl.«n by -JO doing he had :. and by hi* determination auu i n i t i a t i v e cre­ ated opportunities w. >» .iic* wero seized upon and exploited. Hl«i main i d e a was t o s t a v e o f f d»^fcat . 'in? n n r r ' j i nio n ^ is s l .«5 a^'-t^qt sMi'e^ior nuui­ o r n .ain^t a more ^n^r^etic .nd resourceful leader no was courting disaatrtr.j. conformed to t n e ono-ny.If hf d o s o « U h o r of t. o i m s . REC0:CTC^DATT0N3.*v> t h e R u n U n a U n * ^ / ' ^ to b*"in»* ' n T-. V. c h i e f c i r t i c i T m .s him would t u r n from h U t h e tioiaont he I f he attuol:o<?. 2. Inf an ivy \ . Ccr-T Japt iiin . in? . of t h e Japane •« commander wag hi^f-xx f a i l u r e t o c r e a t e an a p p r o p r i a t e re-jervn. ho 'vai coln. and </.h* l a s t t*'o > tninfc* I n i t i a t i v e . General Kuropat>3dn f a i l e d t o t n k e advantage of hiB i n t e r i o r lir\e>°> hy n o t attacl<in£ t h e J a p a n e s e Ar?ay w h i l e i t wo a di^ir'.or'i r ^ i ' i f o r c n i i o n t * . Ieadernhlp 'vas one decidiag factor in this battle.Korea a t h i s bvjfc **\<l t h e Chii<:':c who wore anl'3 -ip. Qyama WHS a* r e s o l u t e as h i s opponent was o!v>tc.a»:in?: t h e eneii. h i ^ n.

The Campaign of Liao Yang—Major H. Port Arthur. Official History of the Russo-Japanese War.i. The Ru a so-Japanese War (The Campaign in Man­ churia—1904) by Capt. .. A. Constable & Co. London. Liao-Yang. 2. Sedgwiolc (R. German Offlcian Account of the Russo.T> Key: (3-0. f text (below) pages 8 and 7. British Official History (Naval and Military) of the Russo-Japanese War. 5. Londo. Liao Yang.). London. Hugh Rees. Harrison and 3ons. Harrison & 3ona. Rowan-Robln­ sorv. Late Lieutenant 33 (Sast Prus­ sian) Fusilier Regiment. German Army. London. 1014.. 1. 101:3.. 1012. London. 4. 1000. R. R. Liao Tang.Japanese War. Part IV.A. George Allen and Company. prepared by the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defense. Ltd. ?) « No. P.P. Ltd. Trans­ lator: Karl von -Donat. London. 1000. the 3ha Ho. 3.

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