You are on page 1of 166
PCM and Data Communications Protocols By Hyder Khoja, P.Eng mei we “iin oe hat Module #1 Overview of the Analog Data Communications System The figure below shows a generalized analog data communications system as studied in the Telecom course. Subscriber loops Twisted wire pair Az>d Nona Trunks (Metallic carrier Figure 1.1 3 KHz BW) DTE: Data Terminal Equipment - A computer, keyboard, teletype, plotter or any other device that generates data to be transmitted. Usually a computer or an analog to digital converter. UART: Universal Asynchronous (or synchronous) Receiver and Transmitter — Commonly known as a serial port. (Example 8250 on IBM PC or Intel 8251) A device which converts parallel data from the computer into a serial stream and vice versa. RS-232 A 25 pin D-sub connector which converts binary data into bi-polar logic levels. Binary levels Bi-polar levels +5V to+15 V DCE Data Communications Equipment - Also called data set. Commonly known as modem (Modulator - Demodulator). Converts binary data generated by the computer into analog form suitable for transmission over 3 KHz analog tertiles 8, ead converts analog signals into digital at the receiving end. ‘converted into RS-232 levels and applied to the modem. The modem then ‘this binary data into analog form compatible with the 3 KHz analog telephone . This analog signal is then transmitted over the analog channel through the local ‘over the analog trunks, through the intermediate switches and finally to the | destination modem where it is converted back into digital format, transformed into RS- "232 levels, and converted back into parallel form to be processed by the receiving DTE. This is a brief description of the analog transmission technique that was learnt from the previous Telecom course. The object of this course is to study the modem digital communications | techniques and associated communications protocols as well as the principles of wide area networks. But before we begin our study of digital communications, the following key concepts and terms related to data communications in general must be clearly understood. The material presented here is intended as a review only and the students not familiar with these concepts are strongly advised to refer to the relevant chapters in the reference text - Telecommunications by Warren Hioki. Bit A single binary digit. The smallest unit of information is a binary 1 or 0, represented as SVDC and OVDC respectively. SV rf bits transmitted per second Expressed in bps. N transmits 1000 bits in one second, the bit transmission rate ; frequency shift keying (FSK) modulation. In the carrier frequency to a designated value < the Bell 103 modulation scheme is