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Transportation Inequity AFF

From the start with Rosa Parks, to present day transportation infrastructure, there has always been and inequality between races. Caucasians thought that they ended legal oppression between races in the emancipation proclamation and civil rights acts in the 1960’s, while in fact we still discriminate against other races subliminally.We can’t discuss any policy to increase transportation infrastructure when the problem of institutional racism is at the core. We must rethink how we see transportation equity before we can fix transportation infrastructure.

We affirm the resolution as act of reconceptualizing transportation infrastructure.

Transportation remains a major stumbling block for many to achieve self-sufficiency. racism continues to be a central factor in explaining the social inequality. Even when the laws change.” The black ghetto is kept contained and isolated from the larger white society through well-defined institutional practices. and infrastructure development. social isolation. skills. somediscriminatory practices remain. Robert Bullard. in their 1945 groundbreaking Black Metropolis. Of course. psychologist Kenneth Clark proclaimed that racism created our nations “dark ghettos”. transportation is even more crucial for the vulnerable population that is moving from welfare to work. Dean of the BarbaraJordan-MickeyLelandSchool of Public Affairs at Texas Southern University. White racism shapes transportation and transportation-related decisions. but few urban core neighborhoods have experienced an economic revitalization that can rival the current jobs found in the suburbs. and indestructible component of this society permanent or not. and rewords offered to white Americans. Racism is a potent tool for sorting people into their physical environment. white institutions maintain it. Some contend that “racism is an integral. Highway Robbery 2004 Beyond mapping out the paths of freeways and highways. Institutional racism and transportation inequity devastates communities that are primarily composed of poor people and people of color. and jobs are meaningless if millions of Americans can’t get to work. and the siting of facilities. and white society condones it. work. freedoms. Highway Robbery 2004 America’s dirty secret. Modern racism must be understood as an everyday lived experience. In 1965. contemporary race relations in America can no longer be viewed in the black-white paradigm. private actions. Racism makes the daily life experiences of most African Americans. and play. Not having reliable public transportation can mean the difference between gainfulemployment and a life of poverty in the ghettos and barrios. Claire Drake and Horace R. the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders. opportunities. the Kerner Commission. documented the role racism played in creating Chicago’s South Side ghetto.Transportation Inequity AFF Advantage 1: Institutional Racism Racism plays a central part in the development of transportation infrastructure in the US. Furthermore. St. and the poor health of people of color in the United States. permanent. In the end. Native Americans. which have consequentially created a national transportation infrastructure that denies many black Americans and other people of color the benefits. Robert Bullard. Transportation planning affects residential and commercial patterns. racist transportation policies can determine where people of color live. and government policies. transportation policies determine the allocation of funds and benefits. In 1968. the enforcement of environmental regulations. Since most do not have cars. It boils . Training. Latino Americas. reported that “white society is deeply implicated in the ghetto” and that “white institutions created it. political exploitation. and Asian and Pacific Islander Americans very different from that of most white Americans. Cayton. institutional racism is a part of our national heritage. Dean of the BarbaraJordan-MickeyLelandSchool of Public Affairs at Texas Southern University. it would be ideal if job centers were closer to homes of inner-city residents.

In concert with FHA support for segregation in the suburbs.The Possessive Investment in Whiteness. The process of urban renewal and highway construction set in motion a vicious cycle: population loss led to decreased political power. Puerto Ricans. The University of Vermont. not to mention more susceptible to the placement of prisons. and other projects that further depopulated these areas. as opposed to only 10 percent of those inhabited by whites.sciencedirect. which made minority neighborhoods more vulnerable to further urban renewal and freeway construction. public transportation does not connect urban residents to jobs. federal and state tax monies routinely funded the constructuion of water supplies and sewage facillitites for racially exclusive suburban communities in the 1940’s and 1950’s. The Federal Housing Administration and the Veterans Administration financed more than $120 billion worth of new housing between 1934 and 1962. these areasoften incorporated themselves as independent municipalities in order to gain greater access to federal funds allocated for “urban aid. Katrina is a glairing example of the nearly unimaginable devastation that results from insufficient transportation infrastructure. “Distribution of impacts of natural disasters across income groups: A case study of New Orleans. or members of other minority racial groups. Master of Public Administration Program. Rubenstein School of Enviornment and Natural Resources. Professor. For years. but less than 2 percent of this real estate was available to non-white families-and most of that small amount was allocated in segregated areas. federally assisted urban renewal projects destroyed 20 percent of the central city housing units occupied by unOrigin=google&_acct=C000001898&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=16764&md5=ff609daa40a7264aa6e9 b15304ab3849) . Construction of the Harbor Freeway in Los Angeles. and Kerchner—2006 (Michel Masozera. The possessive investment in whiteness in the form of transportation infrastructure investment has devastated communities of color and has benefitted white surburbanites. Bailey. and political precincts. Louisdisplaced thousands of residents and bisected neighborhoods. Masozera.” George Lipsitz.2005 Federally funded highways designed to connect suburban commuters with downtown places of employment also destroyed already scarce housing in minority communities and often disrupted neighborhood life as well.Transportation Inequity AFF down to “no transportation. incinerators. More than 60 percent of those displaced by urban renewal were African Americans.” 6/9/06. the General Services Administration routinely channeled the government’s own rental and leasing business to realtors who engaged in racial discrimination. Melissa Bailey. During the 1950’s and 1960’s.2005 The federal government has played a major role in augmenting the possessive investment in whiteness.” and.” At the same time that FHA loans and federal highway building projects subsidized the growth of segregated suburbs. Department of Community Development and Applied Economics. while federally subsidized urban renewal plans reduced the already limited supply of housing for communities of color through “slum clearance” programs. and the Mark Twain Freeway in St. no job. more often than not. shopping districts. Santa Barbara. toxic waste dumps. The University of Vermont. Department of Black Studies University of California.The Possessive Investment in Whiteness. Santa Barbara. The current structure of transportation infrastructure can be attributed to the “possessive investment in whiteness. George Lipsitz. Mexican Americans.Professor. Gund Institute for Ecological Economics. http://www. urban renewal programs in cities throughout the country devastated minority neighborhoods. the Gulf Freeway in Houston.By the 1960’s. Charles Kerchner. The University of Vermont. Department of Black Studies University of California.

we use the analogy of a life-threatening virus. However. Morrow and Enarson (1996) found that poor women are generally unable to evacuate when a disaster hits because they lack economic resources for supplies and transportation. twenty-eight percent of households had two vehicles and another 6% had three or more (US Census Bureau. or van for private use. There is still racism in America. with those in poverty lacking the resources needed to evacuate. Transportation is a major component in any emergency preparedness and evacuation plan. A study done by Gladwin and Peacock (1997)reported people with lower incomes are less able and less likely to evacuate in the case of a natural disaster. As of 2004. truck. we found a positive correlation between the percentage of residents living below the poverty level and the percentage of residents who did not own a vehicle for neighborhoods in New Orleans.000–30. due to a lack of transportation. Unequal access to transportation alternatives in natural disasters increases the vulnerability of the poor. To rid ourselves of the fact that inequality still exists we have buried the fact that transportation touches all our lives. American Community Survey. . Actually. there was a wide variance in households' ability to appropriately respond to the hurricane. which suggest that low-income neighborhoods were more vulnerable during the response phase. because only addressing the symptoms doesn’t solve the problems. 2004). 3.We can’t just take ibeuprophen for the headaches or tums for the nausea. Just because there have been steps taken to reduce the amount of racism in society doesn’t mean that will make it disappear. Our findings. Thus. 1 in 5 New Orleans households did not have access to a car. One of the factors that increased the vulnerability of lower income groups in New Orleans was the lack of access to transportation to evacuate the city as Hurricane Katrina approached. because the policies of transportation infrastructure were made to support white culture and white supremacy. 2005). the exact opposite has occurred because of the fact that society no longer talks about racism. and will continue to grow if we do not stop it. why more than 20. especially in our transportation infrastructure. If we don’t acknowledge that we have a virus when we really do. Ability to respond: transportation While our analyses show that low-income residents were not more likely to be harder hit by the physical event of Hurricane Katrina. As illustrated in Fig. are consistent with previous research. elderly. because institutional racism is a virus on the body of society. and disabled people.000 residents were stranded in the Superdome(Center for Progressive Reform. To better explain this.Transportation Inequity AFF 4. the virus will only spread around the body and start to destroy critical pieces of us. there is evidence to suggest that they were disadvantaged during the response phase due to lack of transportation. racism has grown to almost uncontrollable measures.1. Lack of adequate transportation explains. in part.

Vol. In this task. A crucial element of this transformative pedagogy is public advocacy. 1998. but the first step to fixing a problem is to ACTIVELY EXPRESS that there is a problem. which limit your use of personal political agency. usually you debate arguments that you might not believe in. Gordon R. transportation inequity is not likely change right after this debate. Argumentation & Advocacy. we are raising the awareness that equity in transportation infrastructure DOES need to be changed. institutional racism. University of Pittsburgh) It is possible to go beyond thinking of debate as a remedial tool to redress educational inequities and to start seeing debate as a political activity that has the potential to empower students and teachers to change the underlying conditions that cause inequities among schools and communities in the first place. making debate practice directly relevant to actors who are studied during research.It helps to elevate scholarly debate and eliminate spectator posture. thereby starting a reconceptualization. PPA is the concept that your life experiences dictate the arguments that you run. By the forcing of the argument that equity in transportation infrastructure needs to be changed. Though. Mitchell. Since we are arguing something we believe in. we are using out ppa to influence the debate community. 35 Issue 2. the public advocacy skills learned by debaters can be extremely efficacious. allows us to debate something that we really believe in. The only way we can solve anything in transportation infrastructure is by reconceptualizing the core problem of transportation infrastructure. Associate Professor. and making the topics researched relevant to the lives of students and teachers . By arguing the way my partner and I do. and that these arguments that you run have a significant influence of the community of debate. When you run traditional debate. Debate helps to empower its participants Mitchell 1998(PEDAGOGICAL POSSIBILITIES FOR ARGUMENTATIVE AGENCY IN ACADEMIC DEBATE. tomorrow. or even in a month. The ability to present ideas forcefully and persuasively in public is powerful tool. p41-60. which allows us to use the full potential of our personal political agency.Transportation Inequity AFF Advantage 2: Agency Personal political agency(PPA) plays one of the biggest parts of the debate. one that becomes even more dynamic when coupled with the research and critical thinking acumen that comes with intensive debate preparation.