Soluble Salt Analysis for Soils and Waters

10-1. All fertile soils have at least small amounts of soluble salts in them the

exchangeable cations equilibrate with the H 2 CO 3 , dissolved in soil pisture, yielding soluble carbonates and bicarbonates of the metallic cations and leaving the corresponding amount of hydrogen ion on the exchange. Traces to 100 ppm or more of nitrogen occur as nitrate salts in soils. Natural waters from rivers, lakes, and wells contain varying amounts dissolved salts. Runoff waters from soil carry soluble salts as well as spended solids. Lysimeter leachates contain dissolved salts. The acmulation of soil salts in larger amounts is ma inly through influx , runoff, and irrigation waters, followed by concentration by evapoinspiration. Varying amounts arise from the processes of nitrification, acidification, and fertilization. 10-2. Soil Salinity. When a soil contains an excess of soluble salts, it (?) a saline soil. Sometimes it is called a "white alkali" soil because of the white saline crust that sometimes appears on drying. Occurrence of soil classes:
1. Natural occurrence of excess salts in soil, in the absence of adequate drainage, usually in semiarid or arid regions, but also through marine waters or sediments even in humid and tropical areas. 2. Occurrence of excess salts in soil as a result of fertilizat ion, trouble-some in highly fertilized greenhouse soils and in fertilizer bands. This situation occurs frequently, even in humid soil regions, and includes the problem of salt index of fertilizers.

linity problems fall into 2 main

10.3. Soluble salt analysis for soils and waters generally concerns wether enough salt is present to cause interference with normal seed germination, plant growth, or plant intake of water. The determination of the actual amount of each ionic species in the soil salts is also important in the interpretation of the extent of their interference with plant function. Besides determination of both concentration and composition of salts in the soil solution and natural waters, soluble salt analysis includes the analysis of salt crusts and salt deposits such as CaSO • 2 H 2 O (gypsum) and CaCO 3 (calcite) in the soil profile. 10.4. Water soluble salts occurring in soils in total amounts of over 0.1 per cent usually consist principally of the four cations Na + , K + , Ca 2 + , and Mg 2+ , linked mainly to C1 - and SO 4 2- , sometimes to NO 3 - and CO 3 - - , and to a limited extent to HCO 3 - . Usually 98 per cent of the soluble salts of saline soils consist of these ions. Soil salinity problems

10. Soil Alkalinity.. Saline and alkaline soils taken collectively are often termed alkali soils. Associated with the occurrence of salinity or its aftermath is the occurrence of soil alkalinity.. APPARATUS 10-7. Mg . The poor permeability often persists as a detriment to productivity after the alkalinity has dropped to near neutral and even after the percentage Na saturation has been decreased. by the electrical resistance of the soil paste.Appreciable occurr in resistance found with different soils having the same percentage of salts. the ions Mn + + and Al ++ + are also toxic to plants if present in soil as soluble salts at more than quite low concentrations. Cl . CO 3 -.8 times the conductance of the correspond solutions. may be made by means of the salt bridge. Poor permeability of the soil to water (under I cm/hr) frequently develops in association with over 15 per cent of Na saturation when the salinity is low. A standard soil paste . is tought to result from Mg saturation in excess of 30 per cent..but seldom from Ca ++ .frequently arise from Na + . The percentage of exchange saturation with Na is call ed the degree of alkalization (¶ 4-44). Soils at the saturation moisture perc entage gave conductance 0. The soil paste method gives a fair semiquantitative approximation except for soils low in salts but high in exchangeable Na. A semiquantitative estimate of the salt content of a soil. and has been found to be extremely useful in field work. The soil paste -salt bridge technique has been indispensable for the survey and reclamation of soil s of arid regions. although this meaning of the term “alkali” is not entirely acceptable in a chemical sense.. such as soil surveys. somewhat like that of Na saturation. SO 4 . Needed apparatus includes a thermometer and salt bridge .5. the approximate measurement of the salt content by soil paste resistance is simple and rapid.5 to 4.3 to 10 or 11). Nonetheless. where wide variance in soil salt content occurs in short distances.. which in general is eviden ced by suffeciently high soil Ph to turn phenolphthalein pink or red (Ph 8. A dispersive effect on the soil. DIRECT SEMIQUANTITATIVE TEST FOR SOIL SALINITY CONDUCTOMETRICALLY ON SOIL PASTE 10-6. Toxicity to plants of borate ion even in small amounts is important in irrigation waters and in saline soils. This range is frequently associated with a high percentage (15 to 85 per cent or more) of exchange saturation with Na in soils. Chlorosis is sometimes associated with high HCO 3 concentration coupled with high pH (¶ 10-5).

An electronic eye replaces the buzzer in some bridges. and somewhat more if the soil is dry and of very fine texture). REAGENTS 10-8. The cup is tapped to remove air bubbles. 1 per cent phenolp hthal indicator solution. The principles of resistance or conductance measurements are presented in ¶ 10-22. consisting of an A. 10-11. The ohm resistance range needed is from about 10 to 10. The soil sample is sieved through 6-mm screen (0. 10-10. but thick enough so that no free water stands on the surface. if the dial reading is 1. Then the coil resistance knob is turned to 10. An adjustment of the soil resistance to the 1000 factor may be necessary to get a minimum with the knob. the dial resistance knob is turned back and forth until the point of minimum sound is located. PROCEDURE 10-9. the phone placed to the ear and the button depressed. Also. If such a position cannot be found. the mixture is equilibrated for a period of 20 minutes. To obtain the resistance of these soils. 10-1) are suitable. The soil is added with stirring until the paste is wet enough to glisten on the surface. The rubber resistance cup is filled about half full of distilled water (or somewhat less if the soil is rather moist.“salt bridge” apparatus. the soil water mixture may be made in a beaker and transferred to the cup.25 inch) and thoroughly mixed on a rubberized sheet. 100. When the minimum point sound is found. the top of the soil is struck off to leave the cup just level full. the soluble salt content of which are to be determined. and carefully collected and representative soils sample. the cup resistance is 145 ohms. a standard conductance meter (¶ 10-21) and separate soil resistance cup (Fig. If a buzzing is heard. or 1000 as the case may be. The knife switch of the “salt bridge” is set in the “out” position (the “in” position places an extra resistance of 100 ohms in series (with the soil cup). For example. the coil resistance knob is turned to 100 and the dial resistance knob again turned back and forth to the position where the sound is the faintest. and the cup (clean externally) is placed between the spring clips of the salt bridge. the dial reading is observed and multiplied the setting of the coil resistance factor 10.000. the knife switch is thrown to the “in” position to throw . the product is the ohms resistance in the cup. soils containing large amount of soluble salts may have a resistance below the range of the dial.C potentiometer with standard Bureau of Soils hard rubber soil resistance cup is suitable. Needed are distilled water. Pebbles and large root fragments are discarded.45 and the coil resistance factor is 100.

The ratio of electrical conductance of the saturation extract (mmho/cm) to the electrical conductance of the soil paste in the standards cup was found to be 2.49 per cent resistance change (1. the soil paste resistance values corrected to 15. Interpretation of Resistance of Soil in Terms of Salt Content. Salts content as parts per 100. The salt content of water or soil solutions may be estimated by the determination of the resistance when the soil cup is filled with it (Table 10-2).100 ohms in series with the soil cup. and R is the resistance the soil paste in ohms. and the dial is adjusted to minimum sound.8 (60 ).1 per cent is considered nonsaline except for the (?).25 R wherein 0.8 table values from 0 to 33 = RT ( T – 158 ) 0. A soil having a (?) content of less than 0. which is the conventional temperature for soil paste resistance comparisons. a higher percentage rannging up to 0. for which the soluble salt contents were determined by extraction and weighing (¶ 10-17).the approximation is to within (32 to 92 ) and within 10-13. by the formula. temperature correction. TABLE 10-1 Approximate amounts of salts in soils of various textures with given electrical resistance of soil paste in standard soil cup* Percentage salts content of soils containing salts consisting Predominantly of chlorides and sulfates (?) In part of sodium carbonate (turn phenolpthalein pink) . Each represents a 2.71 for some muck soils and city clay loam.8 (60 ) are interpreted in terms of salt content as percentage by weight of the soil. 10-14. or more conveniently (and with fewer arithmetical steps). The resistance R corrections may be made by fairly tedious calculations from tables. and when in the “in” position should balance the 100 ohm bridge setting when the cup contacts are short circuited with a buss bar.25 is the constant for the Bureau of soils cup. In which RT refers to observed resistance at T . These data were based on average saline soil encountered in the field. The 100 ohms resistance controlled by the knife switch is also used to test the bridge. R15. by means of the chloride and sulfate column of table 10-1. 10-12.8 degree F away from 60 ). The data of Davis and Bryan (Tables 10-1 and 10-2) agree well with those of Whitson and king.0249 + RT 2 per cent of 5 per cent up to 40 . 100 is subtracted. The temperature of the soil suspension is measured and corrected to 15. the spesific conductance of the soil paste is 0.3 per cent (?) the upper limit for nonsaline clay soils (¶ 10-42). From the product obtained as in the preceding paragraph.000 (as they are sometimes expressed ) may be obtained by multiplying by 1000.38 per cent per degree centigrade away from 15.

0 2.0 2.2 1.2 1.77 0.2 0.22 … Clay Loam … … … 3.1 1.0 2.2 1.23 0.29 0.64 0.4 2.0 5.2 1.26 0.6 1.0 5. … … … Clay loam … 3.44 0.28 0. in ohms Salt content of water containing salts consisting Predominantly of chlorides and sulfates p.90 0.3 1.98 0.0 2.49 0.34 0.43 0.4 1.0 0.49 0.94 0.20 … … … … … Loam 3.4 1.97 0.70 0.7 1.38 0.51 0.44 0.7 1.86 0.20 … ….86 0.37 0.74 0.0 2.32 0.5 6.63 0.6 2.t 7.Sand 18 19 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 240 300 380 3.41 0.3 p.55 0.58 0.33 0.79 0.4 1.21 … … Loam … … … 3.0 0.71 0.35 0.38 0.3 1.8 C (60 F).34 0.2 1.3 0.21 … … … … … clay … … 3.37 0.69 0.9 2.4 1.9 1.34 0.43 0.20 Clay … … … … 3.9 1.64 0.t 30 35 40 45 7.9 1.3 1.28 0.0 2.5 1.27 0.31 0.55 0.4 1.2 1.7 1.6 1.42 0.75 0.7 6.4 1.82 0.51 0.67 0.6 1.8 1.57 0.45 0.50 0.48 0.49 0.28 0.24 0.29 0.2 1.p.56 0.7 6.6 2.3 (?) .53 0.p.40 0.86 0.56 0.22 0.9 1.47 0.66 0.22 … … … … … Sand … … … 2.20 TABLE 10-2 Approximate salt content of water with given resistances in standard soil cup * Resistance of water at 15.33 0.87 0.0 2.2 1.77 0.1 0.39 0.1 0.59 0.1 0.5 6.39 0.29 0.43 0.0 0.

65 0.6 4.2 3.81 1.44 1.50 1.31 4.87 1.6 4.83 0.95 1.0 3.09 1.1 2.70 1.46 0.3 2.6 2.8 2.6 3.9 2.65 1.76 1.35 0.1 2.16 1.59 0.41 0.71 0.88 1.6 3.79 0.24 1.3 2.8 3.3 4.22 1.10 1.7 2.1 2.87 0.0 3.38 .60 0.38 1.4 3.71 0.0 1.50 0.32 1.96 0.00 0.44 0.0 1.54 1.5 2.60 1.55 0.0 2.50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 260 280 300 340 380 400 450 500 4.90 0.02 0.41 1.

the soil cup is washed. particularly those made with high water to soil ratios. HCO 3 .20 0. If a pink color was obtained. Standardization. are a less accurate measure of the solute content of the soil itse lf bec ause more sa lts may be re move d tha n are e ve r pre se nt in the soil a t field moisture contents. The salt bridge is carefully protected from mechanical shock and kept clean. and the corresponding columns in Tables 10-1 or 10-2 were used. After use. the amount of calcium and sulfate from a gypsum-bearing soil is about 5 times as much in a 1:5 extract as in a 1:1 extract.15 0. For greater accuracy.28 0. Extracts of soils. the ionic species extracted may be different from those present in the soil solution. even of alkali soils above Ph 8.16 0.and Na + increase with dilution. the estimate of salt content based on the sulfate and chloride columns (Table 10-1) is better than from the carbonate columns for all soils. 10-17.22 0.3.16 0. the salts were in part sodium carbonate. indicating Ph 8. The accuracy of the soil resistance method seldom justifies this refinement. and free from grease. If CaCO 3 is present. Care of the Salt Bridge. the salt content is determined on the saturation extract of all samples (¶1027). For example. It is possible to standardize soil paste resistance in terms of the salts occurring under the particular field conditions.23 0.550 600 700 800 1000 1500 2500 0. the contact aret metals are kept clean. 10-16. Particularly. the latter being .15 10-15.18 0. In practice. DETERMINATION OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE OF SOIL SOLUTIONS A ND WATERS AS A MEASURE OF SALT CONTENT 10-18.20 0. A fairly quantitative estimate of the salt content of solutions extracted from soils or of natural waters can be made from their electrical conductance .25 0. Davis and Bryan checked for the presence of Na 2 CO 3 by addition of drops of 1 per cent phenolphthalein solution to the soil or solution. The salt content 10 or 12 representative soils is determined by the conductance of the saturation extract (¶ 10-27) or gravimetrically (¶10-75).3 or above.27 0.32 0.18 0. rinsed and dried. Also.

SO 4 . Because (?) numbers obtained expressing spesific conductance of soil solutions are (?) small. Extraction of soil natural field moisture (?) gives the most accurate measure of soluble soil salts.displaced by Ca++ dissolved from CaCO3. definitions. Increased quantities of sulfate extracted (?) diluted suspensions in one soil was attributed to anion (?) hydroxyl. because the soil : water ratio influences the amount (?) of salts extracted. or conductivity (?) solution in mhos is the reciprocal of resistance. spesific conductance may be measured with (?) various dimensions by means of a cell constant (¶10 -32).. (?) moisture saturation percentage (¶ 10-27) is related to soil (?) stants. L of moisture . a nd Na + are g rea te r in the 1:1 extract than in the soil saturation extract. and may be visualized as the conductance (?) cm 3 . 10-20. hydrolysis of the exchangeable sodium increases with the extent of dilution.. To some extent. The content of Na+ may be twice as great in the 1:5 extract as ex tra ct. I is the current in ampere (?) R is the resistance in ohms. Other units such as 10 mhos/cm. in ohms. the dissolve d Ca + + . R. conductance is often expressed as millimhos (?). Chloride and nitrate concentrations decrease more (?) by dilution of the suspension. or mhos cm. an effect attributed adsorption” (Donan distribution) or to bound water of the acting as a solvent. of a solution is the conductance (?) would be measured at 25 between electrodes 1 cm 2 in cross section (?) placed one cm apart. it has been found convenient to express spesific conductance (?) millimhos cm (1000 times mhos cm) and this unit has been (?) widely. 10-19. L. Electrical resistance is defined by the equation : E = IR In which E is the electrical potential in volts. C= For convenience. spe sific conductance. the soil ratio employed must be (?) with the analyses. Electrical conductance. likew ise. and field moisture content at which the soil (?) may be employed to regulate the soil: water ratio for extraction. and micromhos/cm (?) have been employed (Table 10 -3) TABL E 10-3 Various units whic h have been employed for electrical conductance of soil solutions and other waters Relative zise of unit Factor for calculation Example. C.

3 10 .3 10 . In a salt bridge (a resistance or conductance bridge) 2 fixed resistances R 1 and R 2 and a variable resistance (?) are connected in a branched circuit with the conductance cell having resistance R x (Fig. ordinarily a 1000 (?) source is used. 10-22. Principles of the Salt Bridge. As the frequency rises.6 1 10 .006 mho/cm 6 millmhos/cm (adopted) 600 mhos 10 5 /cm * 6000 micromhos/cm 10-21. but some bridge operate on a 60 -cycle power line source. An AC potential is applied at C and D.5 10 . (?) resistance of the test sample.6 mhos/cm mhos mhos mhos extract of a moderately saline soil 0. the voltage drop between AD : IR x = I’R 2 Also IR v = I’R 1 then division of equation 10-4 by 10-5 gives : = Whence : Rx = Rv Since R1 and R2 are fixed. between BD must equal I’R 2 . 10-2 and 10-3). or suction pump (a centrifuge and tubes may be used) for separation of the soil extract.10-4) (?) platinum-blackened electrodes.5 10 . a Buchner or special vacuum funel (?) a vacuum flask or desiccator. 10-5). . (Fig. an AC potential is employed to prevent electrolysis of the solution and polarization of th e electrodes in the conductance cell at R x .saturation 1 10 . 10-2). needed apparatus consists of an AC “salt bridge” or electrical (?) bridge. conductance cell (Fig. the dial on (?) can be calibrated to read. capacitance effects become important and are compensated for with the variable condenser in p arallel with R 2 . and a thermometer. The variable resistance R v is adjusted until theres is no current passing in the phone circuit from A to B. as indicated by a minimum sound or shift in the electric eye. and the voltage drop IR x (eq. Then A and B are at the same potential.

10-27. Stones and coarse (?) are discarded. KCl. the soil sample may be either field moist or air-dry. Sometimes the surface (?) greater salinity than the subsoil. needed reagents consist of 0. Free water does not collect in the depressions on the surface on standing a few minutes. The first half or two-thirds of the water is added down the side disturbed during this process because water movement through puddled soil is very slow. The water content is right when the soil barely flows toghether into a hole made with spatula. (?) 10-25.Or. each sample of approximately 1-liter volume is placed in a (?) paper bag with label inside on a tag. source. the mixture slides off the spatula. For complete salinity analysis. or fertilizer (?) may be added to various soil samples for standardization work. The soil is mixed by passage through a 2-mm sieve. CO2 free distilled water and filter paper. REAGENTS 10-23. and quality of water used (?). the surface 5 cm.4912 gm of KCl per liter of solution). The quantity of soil sample to be extracted depends on the soil texture (table 10-4) and the volume of the conductance cell to be employed. soil description. wet samples are partially air-dried prior to shipment to the laboratory. that is directly in conductance of the solution. The approximate weight of soil to provide the needed filtrate volume is placed in a beaker. The soil saturation moisture content is defined as the maximum amount of water held in the puddled soil without free water collection in a depression made in the soil mass. soil samples (?) to a depth of 120 to 180 (4 to 6 feet). area represented. and sometimes this situation is (?). the soil sample. CaCO3. the next 5 to 30 cm and each succeeding 30 cm (?) sampled separately and analyzed for comparison to the troublesome (?). The soil is then (?) with a spatula. and crop variety grown and condition. salt such as CaSO4 2H2O. 10-24. for purposes of the standardization work.02 M KCl (1. Moisture Saturation Extract of Soil. salt such as (?) of NH 4NO3. but not (?). It is convenient to add increments of water to several succesive samples to be analyzed. as well as on the outside of the (?). 10-26. the dial on (?) can be calibrated to read 1/Rx. Clay soils can more (?) be sived before they are completely air-dry. depth to water table. and more water content. quantity. Increments of water are added until the soil mass is fully (?) by capillarity. NaCl. and Ca(H2PO4)2 with an equal amount of (?) may be added to a slightly acid nonsaline soil and saline soils. and the soil surface is wet enough to glisten. time being allowed for full imbibition of one increment before more is added to each sample. The label is suplemented with data on location. If free TABLE 10-4 .

Turbidity. If the extract is to be analyzed chemically for ionic composition (¶ 10-78). and “saturation extract” filtrate is removed by suction. With a little practice.Quantity of soil to be taken for each ml of saturation extract in relations to soil texture and moisture properties Soil texture Sand Sandy loam Silt loam Clay Peat Relative * Wilting percentage 1 4 10 25 35 1 Field percentage 2 8 20 50 70 2 capacity Moisture percentage 4 16 40 100 140 4 saturation ? Water stands on the surface. too much water has been added. (?) of a standard KCl solution. For conductance measurements. mmhos. The cell constant. coloration of the extract by dissolved organic matter does not appreciably affect the conductance or chemical analysis. so may generally be ignored. or may be cleared up by the passage through a Pasteur-Chamberland filter (¶10-53). 10-32. for many purposes the percentage moisture at saturation (?) not be determined. and use of the equation: k= in which : L : known specific electrical conductance of standard solution. The soil is placed on a suitable size of Buchner funnel with tighly seated filter paper. 10-31. the moisture-saturated soil is equlibrated for (?) hours to permit ionic-exchange equilibrium to be attained (¶ 10-18) but no longer because of changes in composition that result from bacterial activity. the (?) acteristic moisture saturation percentage can be reproduced. the saturated soil is equilibrated for 10 minutes if gypsum is absent or for 2 hours if gypsum is present. equilibartion time. of a (?) cell is determined by measurements of the electrical conductance. may lead to an appreciable error in the chemical analysis. usually 0. Turbid solutions may clear on standing. on the other hand. 10-28.02 M KCl. A porous tube device has been employed for sampling soil solutions during water-spreading operations. The soil saturation extract also may be obtained by the pressure membrane (¶10-47) or by centrifugation. mmhos cm C : conductance of the standard solution measured in the given cell. (?) may be estimated (¶ 10-44) 10-29. . k. filtration. 10-30. It may be determined by oven-drying a sample. and a (?) more soil is added to blot up the excess. determination of cell constant.

As the soil moisture content is changed from wilting percentage to field capacity or saturation percentage. but if insufficient solution is at hand. Various standard conductance solutions are available.The specific conductance. or approximately by use of a reference solution at the same temperature as the test solution. The cell is filled with the test solution (¶ 10-30. by means of the salinity scale. the salt become more concentrated in the soil solutions as the soil moisture is used up and the wilting percentage is (?) Greater salt damage to crops is often observed in hot summers. the cell may be rinsed with and dried from acetone to prefent dilution of the exteact with water.39 mmhos/cm at (?) and 2.768 mmhos/cm at 25 . The bridge is balanced and the reading is recorded as resistance or conductance (specify units. of the 0. a given absolute amount of salts per unit (?) of a sandy soil creates a greater concentration of salts in its soil solution (?) the wilting percentage than that same amounts of salts would create (?) finer textured soil (¶ 1042).0200 M KCl is 2. multiplied by the cell constant gives the spesific conductance. The conductance cell is (?) stored immersed in distilled water. the temperature of the solution is taken into account in the calculation of the result. The specific electrical conductance of the saturation extract. Workers of long experience with saline soils tend to prefer electrical conductance units to . L. the salt present in the soil solutions (?) diluted. Lmmhos/cm. of the test solution : L = kC 10-33. which is linearly related to osmotic pressure as well as concentration of salts in solution (¶ 10-37). the concentration (?) in the soil solution at the wilting percentage to soil moisture constants (?). The cell is usually rinsed (?) with the test solution. Electrical conductance of a solutions increases approximately 2 per cent per degree C. determination of solution conductance. Although different plants vary in their tolerance to the presence of soluble salts the salinity scale is found applicable to plants classified into relatively (?)groups. ¶ 10-20). For all soil textures. cooler summers. 10-35. Soluble salts decrease the availability of the soil water by contributing osmotic pressure to the integrated soil moisture stress. the soil salinity scale. Converseiy. presumably because the wilting percentage is (?) smaller for (?) than for finer textured soils. in millimhos. the saturation extract is thus an “equipotential” soil moisture content for various soils. of a test solution (¶ 10-33). C. The measured conductance. 10-9). The (?) with its conventional cell reads directly in specific conductance (?) constant thus being needed. temperature corrections may be (?) by use of a temperature bath at 25 . can be interpreted directly (?) of plan growth. and the latter decreases yields if it exceeds low values. The specific conductance as Lmmhos/cm is calculated (eq. 10-79) (?) the electrodes completely. 10-34.

the latter can be estimated (?) waters in the alkaline soil regions : ppm of salts = 640 Lmmho/cm % salts in solution = 0.064 Lmmho/cm Equivalents per million multiplied by the gm-equivalent weight gives (?) parts per million. and trees grow. sugar beets. cereals. CaSO4.0 Percentage of salts in moisture saturation extract 10-38. 0 Nonsaline Salinity effects mostly negligible. Meq of salt per liter = equiv.064 Lmmho/cm % salts in soil = 0. Only salt tolerant grasses. However. 10-36. MgCl2. ranges from 8 to 20. per million = 125 Lmmhos/cm The factor for the single salt solutions of NaCl.5 1.75 mmhos per cm or below. 8 Strongly saline Only tolerant crops yield satisfactory.units of concentration of salts in solution. Bare spots appear because of injury to germination. The (?) factor to percentage salts for highly fertilized soils of the humid region (?) approximately 0. and NaHCO3. 16 Very strongly saline Only a few very tolerant crops yield satisfactorily. Na2SO4. and grain sorghums adapted. irrigation waters should range from 0. A linear relationship exists between the specific electrical conductance in a water extract of soils or irrigation water and the concentration of salts as found by analysis (¶ 10-78) and expressed as meq of anions (or cations) per liter solution. the effects of salts on plants is more closely related (?) equivalents of salts per million parts of solution (¶ 10-37) (?) metric weight units per million.3 0.1 0. Equation 10-11 involves the assumption of an (?) gm-equivalent weight of 51 for the various salt present. millimhos per cm. 0 0. High salinity hazard is incurred in the use of irrigation water having conductance much above this range (¶ 10-80) 10-37.1 to 0. cotton. herbaceous plants. Alfafa. The relative conductance units of the salinity scale can be interpreted as readly as the relative numbers of the soil pH scale. CaCl2. TABLE 10-5 The Salinity Scale* Specific conductance of the saturation extract of soil.1 (¶ . calculation of specific electrical conductance to salt concentration in solution. according to data published in the international critical tables. MgSO4. 2 Very slightly saline Yields of very sensitive crops may be restricted 4 Moderately saline Yield of many crops restricted. shrubs.

the salt concentrations of the soil extract or water may be cheked by gravimetric determenition through evaporation (¶ 10-75).1 as great as that of the clay soil . Supposing L = 10 mmho/cm in the saturation extract.51 . A line drawn through point A from the origin is the locus of salt percentages for all values of specific conductance for soil having 100 per cent moisture saturation percentage. Toxic Limit Percentage of Salt in Soil.36 Lmmho/cm The factor 0. from equation 10-13 : % salts in soil = = = 0.36 applies well for NaCl and for solutions extracted from alkali and saline soils and should ba applicable to irrigation waters in (?) regions. from equation 10-12 : % salts in soil = L 0. the concentration of salts in the dry soil would be 80/100 of that in saturation extract from it. 10-39. and thus a factor about 0.10-51). 10-40. 1 (?) sand and the other a clay. and for L = 10 mmho/cm in the saturation extract. For example.064 = 0.064.3 for common MX2 and M2X salts and 0.3 would be expected for highly fertilized soils of the humid region. having a saturation moisture percentage of 80 per cent. thus no (?) percentage of salts in soils can be given at which toxicity begins is all soils. The salt content of soil (?) as perecentage or ppm of the dry soil is not simply related to the (?) toxicity to plants grown there (¶ 10-35). Specific conductance can be (?) verted to osmotic pressure: Osmotic pressure of solution.64 This value of 0. or somewhat higher than 0. = 0.64 per cent is plotted as point A (Fig. For a second soil. both with same salt content on the dry (?) weight basis. the salt index of fertilizer may be estimated by electrical conductance : Salt index = 100 10-42.28 for MgSO4. If the moisture saturation percentage of the clay soil happened is be 100 per cent. 10-41. The factor is 0. Osmotic Pressure of Solutions. the concentration of slats in the soil solution would be equal to that in the dry soil. atm. the salt concentration in the soil solution at the wilting percentage is about 0. and (?) that the average equivalent weght is greater than 51. 10-6) at a saturation extract conductance of 10 mmho/cm. in 2 soils. The anion and cation species in the solution may be determined (¶ 10-78).064 = 10 0.

¶ 1-23).05 per cent (200 to 500 ppm) of soluble salts. and about 0. The soil with the desired moisture content is passed over the opening (?). 10-6). The displacement method has been employed to study the effect of fertilizers on the concentrations of the soil solution and (?) soil conditions. with a wooden rod. acetone. a small portion of the soil paste is removed. and 2500 ppm of the soil is the maximum for growth of woody plants such as rose bushes. and the mosture content is determined by oven-drying. Alternatively.Which is plotted at point B (Fig. Double these values may be taken as the toxic limit for more resistant plants (limit of moderate salinity. 1500 ppm in the soil is often found to be the maximum salt content for growth of soft-stemmed plants. Sandy soils or peats are (?) is firmly as possible at all . and W is its weight in gm.35 per cent for a peat soil (Fig. Table 10-5). as follows : Saturation moisture percentage = 37. a fertile soil may contain 0. the toxic limit percentage of soil salt is 0. To do this. The soil is then packed is threefourths fill the tube. (?) displacing liquids used include water. A content of 0. A 5-mm layer of glass wool is next laid over the gravel or beads. and to study the solution phase of mixed fertilizers. Wilcox has published a formula for the calculation of the saturation moisture percentage from the weight of a known volume of saturated soil paste. For a silt loam soil. the formula is suitable for mineral soils but no for organic soils. Quartz gravel or glass beads arev placed over the opening (?) the glass leaching tube or metal cylinder (inverted 1-liter glass bottle ? gently sloping neck and with bottom cut off. Water or other displacing liquid appears to replace the sorbed films of the soil solution. The density of water is taken as unity and that of the soil particles as 2. ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURES 10-44. Determination of Saturation Moisture Percentage. and oil. Taking Scofield’s value of 4 mmho/cm as the upper limit of salinity that is harmless to plants (Table 10-5). Displacement of the Soil Solution.65. The various lines show the relationship of salt content (of soils having stated saturation moisture percentages) to specific conductance of the saturation extract. 10-45. 10-6). pushing it ahead through the column. 10-43.05 per cent for a coarse loamy sand.74 in which V is the volume in ml of the saturated paste. It is often desireable to determine the saturation moisture percentage.1 per cent for a silt loam.02 to 0. Salt contents in soils en excess of these percentages would be harmful to some plants. alcohol. about 0. the estimate was found to be 4 to 6 per cent low for those mineral soils that swell considerably.1 per cent salts in a slit loam corresponds to 1000 ppm in the soil or 4000 ppm in the soil solution at the field moisture capacity of 25 per cent.

(?) consisting of 50 to 1500 gm of dry soils or its equivalent (?) is added to an equal weight of CO2 – free water (the water ? included in this total) in a bottle of suitable size. (A small ? ployed if only conductance measurements are to be made. A (?) loam is best used at a moisture content of about 10 per cent. is packed by hand into the pressure membrane (?) depth of 5 to 10 or more cm. (?) process carried out at 15 kgm per cm2 (?). with occasional mixing. 10-48.moisture contents. preferably in a (?) . 10-47. the soil first is sprayed with a fine mist of water while being rapidly turned in a can or on a rubberized mixing sheet. In the event that air-dried soil is to be examined. and when (?) packed has an apparent specific gravity of 1.50 to 1. The finer classes of (?) are packed more lightly and used at a moisture content somewhat (?) the field capacity to insure adequate rate of solution displacement. The 1 : 1 Soil : Water Extraction of Soluble Salts. as there is little danger (?) making them impervious to the displacing liquid. the leaching tube is suspended from a ring stand and 300 to 500 ml of water containing 0. The soil is equilibrated with the water by storage at high humidity and constant temperature for a period of 2 weeks. Soil Solution Obtained with a Pressure Membrane. the remainder is caught in successive 25-ml portions and a few drops are tested on aspot plate with 4 per cent FeCl3 solution. The method serves well for more exacting studies and as a means to check the extent that the results are being affected by water extraction procedures.5 per cent of KCNS is added. 10-46. After about 20 per cent of the soil solutions has come through.60. but has the advantage that the soil solution is obtained without dissolution of additional materials from the soil. or moistened soil after storage. The first appear (?) of a pink or red color in this test indicates CNS – ions of the displacing solution are coming through and collection of the solution is stopped. The field moist. This solution displaces or pushes the soil solution ahead of it without rapid mixing of the 2 solutions. The cylinder is then closed. Extraction of the soil solution by means of the pressure membrane is slower and requires a larger soil sample than do water extracts.) (?) stoppered and shaken for a period of 2 hours. making it possible to get a portion of the actual soil solution (usually 20 to 50 per cent) before any of the dispalcing solution comes through.

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