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Soluble Salt Analysis for Soils and Waters

10-1. All fertile soils have at least small amounts of soluble salts in them the

exchangeable cations equilibrate with the H 2 CO 3 , dissolved in soil pisture, yielding soluble carbonates and bicarbonates of the metallic cations and leaving the corresponding amount of hydrogen ion on the exchange. Traces to 100 ppm or more of nitrogen occur as nitrate salts in soils. Natural waters from rivers, lakes, and wells contain varying amounts dissolved salts. Runoff waters from soil carry soluble salts as well as spended solids. Lysimeter leachates contain dissolved salts. The acmulation of soil salts in larger amounts is ma inly through influx , runoff, and irrigation waters, followed by concentration by evapoinspiration. Varying amounts arise from the processes of nitrification, acidification, and fertilization. 10-2. Soil Salinity. When a soil contains an excess of soluble salts, it (?) a saline soil. Sometimes it is called a "white alkali" soil because of the white saline crust that sometimes appears on drying. Occurrence of soil classes:
1. Natural occurrence of excess salts in soil, in the absence of adequate drainage, usually in semiarid or arid regions, but also through marine waters or sediments even in humid and tropical areas. 2. Occurrence of excess salts in soil as a result of fertilizat ion, trouble-some in highly fertilized greenhouse soils and in fertilizer bands. This situation occurs frequently, even in humid soil regions, and includes the problem of salt index of fertilizers.

linity problems fall into 2 main

10.3. Soluble salt analysis for soils and waters generally concerns wether enough salt is present to cause interference with normal seed germination, plant growth, or plant intake of water. The determination of the actual amount of each ionic species in the soil salts is also important in the interpretation of the extent of their interference with plant function. Besides determination of both concentration and composition of salts in the soil solution and natural waters, soluble salt analysis includes the analysis of salt crusts and salt deposits such as CaSO • 2 H 2 O (gypsum) and CaCO 3 (calcite) in the soil profile. 10.4. Water soluble salts occurring in soils in total amounts of over 0.1 per cent usually consist principally of the four cations Na + , K + , Ca 2 + , and Mg 2+ , linked mainly to C1 - and SO 4 2- , sometimes to NO 3 - and CO 3 - - , and to a limited extent to HCO 3 - . Usually 98 per cent of the soluble salts of saline soils consist of these ions. Soil salinity problems

somewhat like that of Na saturation. Soil Alkalinity. Toxicity to plants of borate ion even in small amounts is important in irrigation waters and in saline soils.5. such as soil surveys. The soil paste -salt bridge technique has been indispensable for the survey and reclamation of soil s of arid regions.. A dispersive effect on the soil. A standard soil paste .. and has been found to be extremely useful in field work. the approximate measurement of the salt content by soil paste resistance is simple and rapid. the ions Mn + + and Al ++ + are also toxic to plants if present in soil as soluble salts at more than quite low concentrations. where wide variance in soil salt content occurs in short distances.5 to 4. Mg . Saline and alkaline soils taken collectively are often termed alkali soils. Needed apparatus includes a thermometer and salt bridge .8 times the conductance of the correspond solutions. Poor permeability of the soil to water (under I cm/hr) frequently develops in association with over 15 per cent of Na saturation when the salinity is low.but seldom from Ca ++ . CO 3 -.. A semiquantitative estimate of the salt content of a soil. DIRECT SEMIQUANTITATIVE TEST FOR SOIL SALINITY CONDUCTOMETRICALLY ON SOIL PASTE 10-6.3 to 10 or 11). Nonetheless.Appreciable occurr in resistance found with different soils having the same percentage of salts. Chlorosis is sometimes associated with high HCO 3 concentration coupled with high pH (¶ 10-5). The percentage of exchange saturation with Na is call ed the degree of alkalization (¶ 4-44).. This range is frequently associated with a high percentage (15 to 85 per cent or more) of exchange saturation with Na in soils. may be made by means of the salt bridge. Associated with the occurrence of salinity or its aftermath is the occurrence of soil alkalinity.frequently arise from Na + . The soil paste method gives a fair semiquantitative approximation except for soils low in salts but high in exchangeable Na. which in general is eviden ced by suffeciently high soil Ph to turn phenolphthalein pink or red (Ph 8. SO 4 . APPARATUS 10-7. although this meaning of the term “alkali” is not entirely acceptable in a chemical sense. The poor permeability often persists as a detriment to productivity after the alkalinity has dropped to near neutral and even after the percentage Na saturation has been decreased. is tought to result from Mg saturation in excess of 30 per cent.. Soils at the saturation moisture perc entage gave conductance 0. 10. by the electrical resistance of the soil paste. Cl .

The rubber resistance cup is filled about half full of distilled water (or somewhat less if the soil is rather moist. Needed are distilled water. REAGENTS 10-8. The ohm resistance range needed is from about 10 to 10. The soil is added with stirring until the paste is wet enough to glisten on the surface.25 inch) and thoroughly mixed on a rubberized sheet.“salt bridge” apparatus. The soil sample is sieved through 6-mm screen (0. 100. consisting of an A. the phone placed to the ear and the button depressed. Also. but thick enough so that no free water stands on the surface. the product is the ohms resistance in the cup. An electronic eye replaces the buzzer in some bridges. the dial reading is observed and multiplied the setting of the coil resistance factor 10. if the dial reading is 1. Pebbles and large root fragments are discarded. The cup is tapped to remove air bubbles. and somewhat more if the soil is dry and of very fine texture). When the minimum point sound is found. a standard conductance meter (¶ 10-21) and separate soil resistance cup (Fig. For example. the mixture is equilibrated for a period of 20 minutes. 10-11. the soluble salt content of which are to be determined.45 and the coil resistance factor is 100. the dial resistance knob is turned back and forth until the point of minimum sound is located.000. The knife switch of the “salt bridge” is set in the “out” position (the “in” position places an extra resistance of 100 ohms in series (with the soil cup). and the cup (clean externally) is placed between the spring clips of the salt bridge. 10-1) are suitable. Then the coil resistance knob is turned to 10. If such a position cannot be found. the top of the soil is struck off to leave the cup just level full. the cup resistance is 145 ohms. To obtain the resistance of these soils. and carefully collected and representative soils sample. If a buzzing is heard.C potentiometer with standard Bureau of Soils hard rubber soil resistance cup is suitable. PROCEDURE 10-9. the knife switch is thrown to the “in” position to throw . An adjustment of the soil resistance to the 1000 factor may be necessary to get a minimum with the knob. soils containing large amount of soluble salts may have a resistance below the range of the dial. or 1000 as the case may be. the soil water mixture may be made in a beaker and transferred to the cup. The principles of resistance or conductance measurements are presented in ¶ 10-22. 1 per cent phenolp hthal indicator solution. the coil resistance knob is turned to 100 and the dial resistance knob again turned back and forth to the position where the sound is the faintest. 10-10.

The salt content of water or soil solutions may be estimated by the determination of the resistance when the soil cup is filled with it (Table 10-2). The 100 ohms resistance controlled by the knife switch is also used to test the bridge.0249 + RT 2 per cent of 5 per cent up to 40 . 10-12. The resistance R corrections may be made by fairly tedious calculations from tables.71 for some muck soils and city clay loam. Salts content as parts per 100.25 is the constant for the Bureau of soils cup. by the formula. R15. The temperature of the soil suspension is measured and corrected to 15. the soil paste resistance values corrected to 15. temperature correction. 10-14. These data were based on average saline soil encountered in the field. and R is the resistance the soil paste in ohms. which is the conventional temperature for soil paste resistance comparisons.25 R wherein 0. for which the soluble salt contents were determined by extraction and weighing (¶ 10-17).8 (60 ) are interpreted in terms of salt content as percentage by weight of the soil. From the product obtained as in the preceding paragraph.38 per cent per degree centigrade away from 15. and when in the “in” position should balance the 100 ohm bridge setting when the cup contacts are short circuited with a buss bar. In which RT refers to observed resistance at T .8 table values from 0 to 33 = RT ( T – 158 ) 0. A soil having a (?) content of less than 0. a higher percentage rannging up to 0. Each represents a 2. 100 is subtracted. The data of Davis and Bryan (Tables 10-1 and 10-2) agree well with those of Whitson and king. the spesific conductance of the soil paste is 0.8 degree F away from 60 ).49 per cent resistance change (1.the approximation is to within (32 to 92 ) and within 10-13.1 per cent is considered nonsaline except for the (?).8 (60 ). or more conveniently (and with fewer arithmetical steps).3 per cent (?) the upper limit for nonsaline clay soils (¶ 10-42).100 ohms in series with the soil cup.000 (as they are sometimes expressed ) may be obtained by multiplying by 1000. The ratio of electrical conductance of the saturation extract (mmho/cm) to the electrical conductance of the soil paste in the standards cup was found to be 2. by means of the chloride and sulfate column of table 10-1. and the dial is adjusted to minimum sound. Interpretation of Resistance of Soil in Terms of Salt Content. TABLE 10-1 Approximate amounts of salts in soils of various textures with given electrical resistance of soil paste in standard soil cup* Percentage salts content of soils containing salts consisting Predominantly of chlorides and sulfates (?) In part of sodium carbonate (turn phenolpthalein pink) .

27 0.20 Clay … … … … 3.38 0.58 0.45 0.47 0.6 2.2 1.33 0.3 1. … … … Clay loam … 3.34 0.43 0.0 2.21 … … Loam … … … 3.66 0.6 1.64 0.74 0.7 1.1 1.2 1.0 2.5 1.0 0.48 0.40 0.86 0.35 0.8 C (60 F).6 2.0 2.37 0.2 1.0 2.49 0.29 0.20 … … … … … Loam 3.33 0.1 0.t 7.77 0.41 0.56 0.43 0.0 2.57 0.28 0.55 0.39 0.29 0.51 0.2 1.51 0.22 0.39 0.2 0.0 2.34 0.22 … … … … … Sand … … … 2.3 0.9 1.t 30 35 40 45 7.50 0.21 … … … … … clay … … 3.3 (?) .9 1.87 0.4 1.53 0.70 0.97 0.4 1.42 0.63 0.23 0.79 0.7 1.59 0.49 0.9 2.28 0.31 0.56 0.7 6.37 0.3 1.5 6.22 … Clay Loam … … … 3.67 0.3 p.2 1.20 TABLE 10-2 Approximate salt content of water with given resistances in standard soil cup * Resistance of water at 15.p.8 1.69 0.6 1.7 1.32 0.1 0.p.49 0.4 1.4 1.2 1.26 0.71 0.0 5.28 0.64 0.2 1.86 0.55 0.3 1.4 1.29 0.6 1.44 0.20 … ….9 1.98 0.90 0.75 0.24 0.0 2.5 6.0 0. in ohms Salt content of water containing salts consisting Predominantly of chlorides and sulfates p.Sand 18 19 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 240 300 380 3.38 0.0 0.34 0.44 0.94 0.0 5.86 0.4 2.7 6.43 0.9 1.77 0.82 0.2 1.1 0.4 1.

59 0.8 2.65 1.6 4.4 3.38 .95 1.02 0.65 0.79 0.81 1.96 0.54 1.60 1.55 0.44 0.6 3.50 0.70 1.44 1.1 2.22 1.50 1.2 3.87 0.0 1.6 4.76 1.1 2.09 1.1 2.0 1.00 0.38 1.71 0.6 2.88 1.3 2.46 0.24 1.3 4.32 1.0 2.0 3.7 2.87 1.90 0.10 1.6 3.31 4.3 2.41 1.41 0.71 0.35 0.83 0.16 1.5 2.8 3.0 3.60 0.9 2.50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 260 280 300 340 380 400 450 500 4.

20 0. the ionic species extracted may be different from those present in the soil solution. In practice. After use. If a pink color was obtained. The accuracy of the soil resistance method seldom justifies this refinement. For example. It is possible to standardize soil paste resistance in terms of the salts occurring under the particular field conditions. the estimate of salt content based on the sulfate and chloride columns (Table 10-1) is better than from the carbonate columns for all soils. rinsed and dried.32 0. Particularly. the salts were in part sodium carbonate.18 0.23 0. Care of the Salt Bridge.22 0.3. and free from grease.20 0.28 0.3 or above.15 0. the contact aret metals are kept clean. indicating Ph 8. are a less accurate measure of the solute content of the soil itse lf bec ause more sa lts may be re move d tha n are e ve r pre se nt in the soil a t field moisture contents.15 10-15.and Na + increase with dilution. the amount of calcium and sulfate from a gypsum-bearing soil is about 5 times as much in a 1:5 extract as in a 1:1 extract. even of alkali soils above Ph 8. and the corresponding columns in Tables 10-1 or 10-2 were used. For greater accuracy.25 0. If CaCO 3 is present. Also.550 600 700 800 1000 1500 2500 0. DETERMINATION OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE OF SOIL SOLUTIONS A ND WATERS AS A MEASURE OF SALT CONTENT 10-18. particularly those made with high water to soil ratios.18 0. Davis and Bryan checked for the presence of Na 2 CO 3 by addition of drops of 1 per cent phenolphthalein solution to the soil or solution. The salt content 10 or 12 representative soils is determined by the conductance of the saturation extract (¶ 10-27) or gravimetrically (¶10-75). 10-17. The salt bridge is carefully protected from mechanical shock and kept clean.16 0. Extracts of soils. Standardization. HCO 3 . the salt content is determined on the saturation extract of all samples (¶1027).16 0. 10-16. A fairly quantitative estimate of the salt content of solutions extracted from soils or of natural waters can be made from their electrical conductance . the latter being . the soil cup is washed.27 0.

an effect attributed adsorption” (Donan distribution) or to bound water of the acting as a solvent. L of moisture .displaced by Ca++ dissolved from CaCO3. and may be visualized as the conductance (?) cm 3 . it has been found convenient to express spesific conductance (?) millimhos cm (1000 times mhos cm) and this unit has been (?) widely. Increased quantities of sulfate extracted (?) diluted suspensions in one soil was attributed to anion (?) hydroxyl. SO 4 . (?) moisture saturation percentage (¶ 10-27) is related to soil (?) stants. 10-20. a nd Na + are g rea te r in the 1:1 extract than in the soil saturation extract. and field moisture content at which the soil (?) may be employed to regulate the soil: water ratio for extraction. C= For convenience. and micromhos/cm (?) have been employed (Table 10 -3) TABL E 10-3 Various units whic h have been employed for electrical conductance of soil solutions and other waters Relative zise of unit Factor for calculation Example. spe sific conductance. Electrical conductance. hydrolysis of the exchangeable sodium increases with the extent of dilution. the dissolve d Ca + + . or mhos cm.. likew ise. The content of Na+ may be twice as great in the 1:5 extract as ex tra ct. the soil ratio employed must be (?) with the analyses. of a solution is the conductance (?) would be measured at 25 between electrodes 1 cm 2 in cross section (?) placed one cm apart. spesific conductance may be measured with (?) various dimensions by means of a cell constant (¶10 -32). conductance is often expressed as millimhos (?). Electrical resistance is defined by the equation : E = IR In which E is the electrical potential in volts. C. Other units such as 10 mhos/cm. in ohms. Because (?) numbers obtained expressing spesific conductance of soil solutions are (?) small.. R. definitions. I is the current in ampere (?) R is the resistance in ohms. Extraction of soil natural field moisture (?) gives the most accurate measure of soluble soil salts. Chloride and nitrate concentrations decrease more (?) by dilution of the suspension. because the soil : water ratio influences the amount (?) of salts extracted. L. or conductivity (?) solution in mhos is the reciprocal of resistance. To some extent. 10-19.

an AC potential is employed to prevent electrolysis of the solution and polarization of th e electrodes in the conductance cell at R x . The variable resistance R v is adjusted until theres is no current passing in the phone circuit from A to B. 10-2). An AC potential is applied at C and D. . ordinarily a 1000 (?) source is used. In a salt bridge (a resistance or conductance bridge) 2 fixed resistances R 1 and R 2 and a variable resistance (?) are connected in a branched circuit with the conductance cell having resistance R x (Fig.006 mho/cm 6 millmhos/cm (adopted) 600 mhos 10 5 /cm * 6000 micromhos/cm 10-21. and a thermometer.6 1 10 . the dial on (?) can be calibrated to read.10-4) (?) platinum-blackened electrodes. the voltage drop between AD : IR x = I’R 2 Also IR v = I’R 1 then division of equation 10-4 by 10-5 gives : = Whence : Rx = Rv Since R1 and R2 are fixed. conductance cell (Fig. a Buchner or special vacuum funel (?) a vacuum flask or desiccator. and the voltage drop IR x (eq. (Fig. 10-5). or suction pump (a centrifuge and tubes may be used) for separation of the soil extract.6 mhos/cm mhos mhos mhos extract of a moderately saline soil 0. capacitance effects become important and are compensated for with the variable condenser in p arallel with R 2 . as indicated by a minimum sound or shift in the electric eye.3 10 . (?) resistance of the test sample. 10-2 and 10-3). 10-22.3 10 . between BD must equal I’R 2 . needed apparatus consists of an AC “salt bridge” or electrical (?) bridge. As the frequency rises.saturation 1 10 . but some bridge operate on a 60 -cycle power line source.5 10 .5 10 . Principles of the Salt Bridge. Then A and B are at the same potential.

Clay soils can more (?) be sived before they are completely air-dry. wet samples are partially air-dried prior to shipment to the laboratory. CaCO3. but not (?). the mixture slides off the spatula. For complete salinity analysis. time being allowed for full imbibition of one increment before more is added to each sample. and more water content. as well as on the outside of the (?). and crop variety grown and condition. or fertilizer (?) may be added to various soil samples for standardization work. soil samples (?) to a depth of 120 to 180 (4 to 6 feet). salt such as CaSO4 2H2O. for purposes of the standardization work. needed reagents consist of 0. depth to water table.Or. Moisture Saturation Extract of Soil. the dial on (?) can be calibrated to read 1/Rx. The quantity of soil sample to be extracted depends on the soil texture (table 10-4) and the volume of the conductance cell to be employed. The approximate weight of soil to provide the needed filtrate volume is placed in a beaker. 10-27. the surface 5 cm. (?) 10-25. NaCl. area represented. and sometimes this situation is (?). The soil is mixed by passage through a 2-mm sieve. the soil sample. CO2 free distilled water and filter paper. Increments of water are added until the soil mass is fully (?) by capillarity. REAGENTS 10-23. soil description. The label is suplemented with data on location. that is directly in conductance of the solution. The first half or two-thirds of the water is added down the side disturbed during this process because water movement through puddled soil is very slow. each sample of approximately 1-liter volume is placed in a (?) paper bag with label inside on a tag. The soil is then (?) with a spatula. and Ca(H2PO4)2 with an equal amount of (?) may be added to a slightly acid nonsaline soil and saline soils. salt such as (?) of NH 4NO3. The water content is right when the soil barely flows toghether into a hole made with spatula. If free TABLE 10-4 . Free water does not collect in the depressions on the surface on standing a few minutes. and quality of water used (?). the soil sample may be either field moist or air-dry. quantity. 10-26. It is convenient to add increments of water to several succesive samples to be analyzed.02 M KCl (1. The soil saturation moisture content is defined as the maximum amount of water held in the puddled soil without free water collection in a depression made in the soil mass. Stones and coarse (?) are discarded. KCl. the next 5 to 30 cm and each succeeding 30 cm (?) sampled separately and analyzed for comparison to the troublesome (?). and the soil surface is wet enough to glisten. 10-24. Sometimes the surface (?) greater salinity than the subsoil.4912 gm of KCl per liter of solution). source.

so may generally be ignored. The soil is placed on a suitable size of Buchner funnel with tighly seated filter paper. usually 0.Quantity of soil to be taken for each ml of saturation extract in relations to soil texture and moisture properties Soil texture Sand Sandy loam Silt loam Clay Peat Relative * Wilting percentage 1 4 10 25 35 1 Field percentage 2 8 20 50 70 2 capacity Moisture percentage 4 16 40 100 140 4 saturation ? Water stands on the surface. The cell constant. of a (?) cell is determined by measurements of the electrical conductance. and “saturation extract” filtrate is removed by suction. may lead to an appreciable error in the chemical analysis. . Turbid solutions may clear on standing. the moisture-saturated soil is equlibrated for (?) hours to permit ionic-exchange equilibrium to be attained (¶ 10-18) but no longer because of changes in composition that result from bacterial activity. the (?) acteristic moisture saturation percentage can be reproduced. mmhos. equilibartion time. and a (?) more soil is added to blot up the excess. 10-32.02 M KCl. or may be cleared up by the passage through a Pasteur-Chamberland filter (¶10-53). and use of the equation: k= in which : L : known specific electrical conductance of standard solution. If the extract is to be analyzed chemically for ionic composition (¶ 10-78). 10-30. filtration. k. coloration of the extract by dissolved organic matter does not appreciably affect the conductance or chemical analysis. on the other hand. the saturated soil is equilibrated for 10 minutes if gypsum is absent or for 2 hours if gypsum is present. It may be determined by oven-drying a sample. determination of cell constant. For conductance measurements. too much water has been added. The soil saturation extract also may be obtained by the pressure membrane (¶10-47) or by centrifugation. With a little practice. mmhos cm C : conductance of the standard solution measured in the given cell. 10-31. (?) of a standard KCl solution. Turbidity. A porous tube device has been employed for sampling soil solutions during water-spreading operations. for many purposes the percentage moisture at saturation (?) not be determined. (?) may be estimated (¶ 10-44) 10-29. 10-28.

Various standard conductance solutions are available. which is linearly related to osmotic pressure as well as concentration of salts in solution (¶ 10-37). in millimhos. of the test solution : L = kC 10-33. and the latter decreases yields if it exceeds low values. determination of solution conductance. The specific conductance as Lmmhos/cm is calculated (eq.768 mmhos/cm at 25 .39 mmhos/cm at (?) and 2. by means of the salinity scale. the temperature of the solution is taken into account in the calculation of the result. multiplied by the cell constant gives the spesific conductance. or approximately by use of a reference solution at the same temperature as the test solution. For all soil textures. the cell may be rinsed with and dried from acetone to prefent dilution of the exteact with water. the saturation extract is thus an “equipotential” soil moisture content for various soils. The cell is usually rinsed (?) with the test solution. cooler summers. ¶ 10-20). The (?) with its conventional cell reads directly in specific conductance (?) constant thus being needed. of the 0. 10-35.The specific conductance. a given absolute amount of salts per unit (?) of a sandy soil creates a greater concentration of salts in its soil solution (?) the wilting percentage than that same amounts of salts would create (?) finer textured soil (¶ 1042). 10-79) (?) the electrodes completely. As the soil moisture content is changed from wilting percentage to field capacity or saturation percentage. presumably because the wilting percentage is (?) smaller for (?) than for finer textured soils. C. the salt become more concentrated in the soil solutions as the soil moisture is used up and the wilting percentage is (?) Greater salt damage to crops is often observed in hot summers. of a test solution (¶ 10-33). Although different plants vary in their tolerance to the presence of soluble salts the salinity scale is found applicable to plants classified into relatively (?)groups. The conductance cell is (?) stored immersed in distilled water. Converseiy. The cell is filled with the test solution (¶ 10-30. 10-34. L. the concentration (?) in the soil solution at the wilting percentage to soil moisture constants (?). the soil salinity scale. Soluble salts decrease the availability of the soil water by contributing osmotic pressure to the integrated soil moisture stress. but if insufficient solution is at hand.0200 M KCl is 2. Workers of long experience with saline soils tend to prefer electrical conductance units to . The measured conductance. Lmmhos/cm. The bridge is balanced and the reading is recorded as resistance or conductance (specify units. Electrical conductance of a solutions increases approximately 2 per cent per degree C. 10-9). temperature corrections may be (?) by use of a temperature bath at 25 . the salt present in the soil solutions (?) diluted. The specific electrical conductance of the saturation extract. can be interpreted directly (?) of plan growth.

16 Very strongly saline Only a few very tolerant crops yield satisfactorily. according to data published in the international critical tables. millimhos per cm. TABLE 10-5 The Salinity Scale* Specific conductance of the saturation extract of soil.1 to 0.064 Lmmho/cm % salts in soil = 0. cereals. cotton.064 Lmmho/cm Equivalents per million multiplied by the gm-equivalent weight gives (?) parts per million. and trees grow. 0 0. 2 Very slightly saline Yields of very sensitive crops may be restricted 4 Moderately saline Yield of many crops restricted. Meq of salt per liter = equiv.units of concentration of salts in solution. 10-36. per million = 125 Lmmhos/cm The factor for the single salt solutions of NaCl. The relative conductance units of the salinity scale can be interpreted as readly as the relative numbers of the soil pH scale. CaSO4. ranges from 8 to 20.75 mmhos per cm or below. CaCl2. herbaceous plants. Only salt tolerant grasses.3 0. irrigation waters should range from 0. Na2SO4. and NaHCO3. the latter can be estimated (?) waters in the alkaline soil regions : ppm of salts = 640 Lmmho/cm % salts in solution = 0. The (?) factor to percentage salts for highly fertilized soils of the humid region (?) approximately 0.0 Percentage of salts in moisture saturation extract 10-38. Bare spots appear because of injury to germination.1 0. 8 Strongly saline Only tolerant crops yield satisfactory. 0 Nonsaline Salinity effects mostly negligible. and grain sorghums adapted.5 1. High salinity hazard is incurred in the use of irrigation water having conductance much above this range (¶ 10-80) 10-37. Alfafa. shrubs. However. calculation of specific electrical conductance to salt concentration in solution. Equation 10-11 involves the assumption of an (?) gm-equivalent weight of 51 for the various salt present. MgSO4. the effects of salts on plants is more closely related (?) equivalents of salts per million parts of solution (¶ 10-37) (?) metric weight units per million. A linear relationship exists between the specific electrical conductance in a water extract of soils or irrigation water and the concentration of salts as found by analysis (¶ 10-78) and expressed as meq of anions (or cations) per liter solution.1 (¶ . sugar beets. MgCl2.

the concentration of slats in the soil solution would be equal to that in the dry soil. and for L = 10 mmho/cm in the saturation extract. atm.3 for common MX2 and M2X salts and 0.064 = 0.36 Lmmho/cm The factor 0. For a second soil. 10-6) at a saturation extract conductance of 10 mmho/cm. the salt index of fertilizer may be estimated by electrical conductance : Salt index = 100 10-42.3 would be expected for highly fertilized soils of the humid region. 10-39. both with same salt content on the dry (?) weight basis.28 for MgSO4. Supposing L = 10 mmho/cm in the saturation extract.10-51).1 as great as that of the clay soil . from equation 10-13 : % salts in soil = = = 0. the concentration of salts in the dry soil would be 80/100 of that in saturation extract from it. A line drawn through point A from the origin is the locus of salt percentages for all values of specific conductance for soil having 100 per cent moisture saturation percentage. the salt concentration in the soil solution at the wilting percentage is about 0. Toxic Limit Percentage of Salt in Soil.64 This value of 0.36 applies well for NaCl and for solutions extracted from alkali and saline soils and should ba applicable to irrigation waters in (?) regions. 10-41.064 = 10 0. The anion and cation species in the solution may be determined (¶ 10-78). and (?) that the average equivalent weght is greater than 51. from equation 10-12 : % salts in soil = L 0.64 per cent is plotted as point A (Fig.51 . the salt concentrations of the soil extract or water may be cheked by gravimetric determenition through evaporation (¶ 10-75). The factor is 0. Osmotic Pressure of Solutions. or somewhat higher than 0. If the moisture saturation percentage of the clay soil happened is be 100 per cent. in 2 soils. and thus a factor about 0. thus no (?) percentage of salts in soils can be given at which toxicity begins is all soils. = 0. having a saturation moisture percentage of 80 per cent.064. 1 (?) sand and the other a clay. Specific conductance can be (?) verted to osmotic pressure: Osmotic pressure of solution. The salt content of soil (?) as perecentage or ppm of the dry soil is not simply related to the (?) toxicity to plants grown there (¶ 10-35). For example. 10-40.

a fertile soil may contain 0. and the mosture content is determined by oven-drying. The density of water is taken as unity and that of the soil particles as 2. The soil is then packed is threefourths fill the tube. pushing it ahead through the column.Which is plotted at point B (Fig. 10-6). the estimate was found to be 4 to 6 per cent low for those mineral soils that swell considerably. and oil. Table 10-5). A 5-mm layer of glass wool is next laid over the gravel or beads. The various lines show the relationship of salt content (of soils having stated saturation moisture percentages) to specific conductance of the saturation extract. For a silt loam soil. as follows : Saturation moisture percentage = 37. 10-43.05 per cent for a coarse loamy sand. 10-6). 10-45.65. the formula is suitable for mineral soils but no for organic soils. and about 0. and W is its weight in gm. a small portion of the soil paste is removed. Water or other displacing liquid appears to replace the sorbed films of the soil solution. Salt contents in soils en excess of these percentages would be harmful to some plants. Displacement of the Soil Solution. acetone. the toxic limit percentage of soil salt is 0. Double these values may be taken as the toxic limit for more resistant plants (limit of moderate salinity. 1500 ppm in the soil is often found to be the maximum salt content for growth of soft-stemmed plants. alcohol. Sandy soils or peats are (?) is firmly as possible at all . Determination of Saturation Moisture Percentage. Quartz gravel or glass beads arev placed over the opening (?) the glass leaching tube or metal cylinder (inverted 1-liter glass bottle ? gently sloping neck and with bottom cut off. It is often desireable to determine the saturation moisture percentage. and to study the solution phase of mixed fertilizers. Wilcox has published a formula for the calculation of the saturation moisture percentage from the weight of a known volume of saturated soil paste.05 per cent (200 to 500 ppm) of soluble salts.02 to 0. To do this.35 per cent for a peat soil (Fig. ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURES 10-44. A content of 0. The soil with the desired moisture content is passed over the opening (?). Alternatively. ¶ 1-23). and 2500 ppm of the soil is the maximum for growth of woody plants such as rose bushes. with a wooden rod. The displacement method has been employed to study the effect of fertilizers on the concentrations of the soil solution and (?) soil conditions. Taking Scofield’s value of 4 mmho/cm as the upper limit of salinity that is harmless to plants (Table 10-5).1 per cent for a silt loam.74 in which V is the volume in ml of the saturated paste.1 per cent salts in a slit loam corresponds to 1000 ppm in the soil or 4000 ppm in the soil solution at the field moisture capacity of 25 per cent. about 0. (?) displacing liquids used include water.

the soil first is sprayed with a fine mist of water while being rapidly turned in a can or on a rubberized mixing sheet. The method serves well for more exacting studies and as a means to check the extent that the results are being affected by water extraction procedures. The field moist.moisture contents. Extraction of the soil solution by means of the pressure membrane is slower and requires a larger soil sample than do water extracts.50 to 1. 10-46.) (?) stoppered and shaken for a period of 2 hours. as there is little danger (?) making them impervious to the displacing liquid. In the event that air-dried soil is to be examined. and when (?) packed has an apparent specific gravity of 1. Soil Solution Obtained with a Pressure Membrane. After about 20 per cent of the soil solutions has come through. (?) consisting of 50 to 1500 gm of dry soils or its equivalent (?) is added to an equal weight of CO2 – free water (the water ? included in this total) in a bottle of suitable size. (?) process carried out at 15 kgm per cm2 (?). but has the advantage that the soil solution is obtained without dissolution of additional materials from the soil. preferably in a (?) . with occasional mixing. (A small ? ployed if only conductance measurements are to be made.60. The cylinder is then closed. 10-47. the leaching tube is suspended from a ring stand and 300 to 500 ml of water containing 0. the remainder is caught in successive 25-ml portions and a few drops are tested on aspot plate with 4 per cent FeCl3 solution. is packed by hand into the pressure membrane (?) depth of 5 to 10 or more cm. The 1 : 1 Soil : Water Extraction of Soluble Salts.5 per cent of KCNS is added. making it possible to get a portion of the actual soil solution (usually 20 to 50 per cent) before any of the dispalcing solution comes through. The first appear (?) of a pink or red color in this test indicates CNS – ions of the displacing solution are coming through and collection of the solution is stopped. The soil is equilibrated with the water by storage at high humidity and constant temperature for a period of 2 weeks. A (?) loam is best used at a moisture content of about 10 per cent. This solution displaces or pushes the soil solution ahead of it without rapid mixing of the 2 solutions. 10-48. or moistened soil after storage. The finer classes of (?) are packed more lightly and used at a moisture content somewhat (?) the field capacity to insure adequate rate of solution displacement.