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Chng 3:

tnh ton ch tiu bo v chng st


cho ng dy 110kV

ng dy trong HT lm nhim v truyn ti in nng n cc h dng


in. ng dy l phn t phi hng chu nhiu phng in st nht so vi cc
phn t khc trong HT. Khi ng dy b phng in st nu bin dng st ln
ti mc lm cho qu in p xut hin ln hn in p phng in xung kch ca
cch in s dn n phng in v gy ngn mch ng dy, buc my ct u
ng dy phi tc ng. Nh vy vic cung cp in b gin on. Nu in p
nh hn tr s phng in xung kch ca cch in ng dy th sng st s truyn
t ng dy vo trm bin p v s dn ti cc s c trm trng ti trm bin p.
V vy bo v chng st cho ng dy phi xut pht t ch tiu kinh t kt hp
vi yu cu k thut v yu cu cung cp in ca ng dy .
1.1- l thuyt tnh ton.
1.1.1- Phm vi bo v ca mt dy chng st.
Phm vi bo v ca dy chng st c th hin nh ( hnh 2-1 )

Chiu rng ca phm vi bo v mc cao h 2 cng c tnh theo cng thc


sau:
+ Khi hx > 2/3h th bx = 0,6h (1-hx/h )

(2 1)

+ Khi hx h th bx = 1,2h (1- hx/0,8h

(2 2)

Chiu di ca phm vi bo v dc theo chiu di ng dy nh hnh (2 2 ).

C th tnh ton c tr s gii hn ca gc l = 310, nhng trong thc t


thng ly khong = 20 0 250.
1.1.2- Xc sut phng in st v s ln ct in do st nh vo ng dy.
Vi treo cao trung bnh ca dy trn cng (dy dn hoc dy chng st ) l
h, ng dy s thu ht v pha mnh cc phng in ca st trn di t c chiu
rng l 6h v chiu di bng chiu di ng dy (l). T s ln phng in st
xung t trn din tch 1 km2ng vi mt ngy st l 0,1 0,15 ta c th tnh
c tng s ln c st nh thng vo ng dy (dy dn hoc dy chng st).
N=(0,6 0,9). h .10-3.l.nng.s

(2 3)

Trong :
+ h: cao trung bnh ca dy dn hoc dy chng st (m).
+ l: chiu di ng dy (km ).
+ nng. s:s ngy st /nm trong khu vc c ng dy i qua.
V cc tham s ca phng in st : bin dng in (Is) v dc ca dng
in (a = dis /dt), c th c nhiu tr s khc nhau, do khng phi tt c cc ln
c st nh ln ng dy u dn n phng in trn cch in. Ch c phng
in trn cch in ca ng dy nu qu in p kh quyn c tr s ln hn

mc cch in xung kch ca ng dy. Kh nng phng in c biu th bi


xc sut phng in ( Vp ). S ln xy ra phng in s l:
Np = N. Vp = ( 0,6 0,9 ). h . 10-3. l . nng s. Vp .

(24)

V thi gian tc dng ln qu in p kh quyn rt ngn khong 100 s m thi


gian ca cc bo v rle thng khng b qu mt na chu k tn s cng nghip
tc l khong 0,01s. Do khng phi c c phng in trn cch in l ng
dy b ct ra. ng dy ch b ct ra khi tia la phng in xung kch trn cch
in tr thnh h quang duy tr bi in p lm vic ca ng dy .
Xc sut hnh thnh h quang ( ) ph thuc vo Gradien ca in p lm vic
dc theo ng phng in :
= (Elv) ; Elv = Ulv/lp

(kV/m ).

Trong :
+ : xc sut hnh thnh h quang.
+ Ulv: in p lm vic ca ng dy ( kV ).
+ lp: chiu di phng in ( m).
Do s ln ct in do st ca ng dy l:
Nc = Np. . = (0,6 0,9). h. nng .s. Vp. .

(2 5)

so snh kh nng chu st ca ng dy c cc tham s khc nhau, i qua


cc vng c cng hot ng ca st khc nhau ngi ta tnh tr s " sut ct
ng dy" tc l s ln ct do st khi ng dy c chiu di 100km.
nc = ( 0,06 0,09). h. nng s. Vp ..

(2 6)

ng dy b tc dng ca st bi ba nguyn nhn sau:


+ St nh thng vo nh ct hoc dy chng st ln cn nh ct.
+ St nh vng qua dy chng st vo dy dn.
+ st nh vo khong dy chng st gia khong ct.
Cng c khi st nh xung mt t gn ng dy gy qu in p cm ng
trn ng dy, nhng trng hp ny khng nguy him bng ba trng hp trn.
Khi ng dy b st nh trc tip s phi chu ng ton b nng lng ca
phng in st, do vy s tnh ton dy chng st cho ng dy vi ba trng
hp trn. Cui cng ta c s ln ct do st ca ng dy.
nc = nc + nkv + ndd

( 2 7)

Trong :
+ nc : s ln ct do st nh vo nh ct.
+nkv: s ln ct do st nh vo khong vt.
+ ndd: s ln ct do st nh vo dy dn.
1.1.2.1 - Cc s liu chun b cho tnh ton.
ng dy tnh ton l = 150km. (Ph Li ng Anh)
X kiu cy thng, lp trn ct b tng n.
Dy chng st treo ti nh ct.
Dy dn c treo bi chui s - 4,5 gm 7 bt s, mi bt s cao170mm.
Dy chng st dng dy thp C-70 c d = 11mm ; r = 5,5mm.
Dy dn dng dy AC-120mm c d = 19mm; r = 9,5mm.
Khong vt l 205m.
1.1.2.2 - Xc nh treo cao trung bnh ca dy chng st v dy
dn.
treo cao trung bnh ca dy c xc nh theo cng thc:
hdd = h 2/3f .

(2 8)

Trong :
+ h: cao ca dy ti nh ct hay ti kho no ca chui s.
+ f: vng ca dy chng st hay dy dn.
fdd = . l2/ 8. .

(2 9)

= p/s =492/120. 1000 = 0,0041.


(p : khi lng 1km dy AC- 120 ,p=492 Kg/Km ; s: tit din dy AC-120
, s= 120 mm2.)
: h s c ca ng dy nhit trung bnh , = 7,25.

l: chiu di khong vt ca ng dy = 205m.


fdd = 0,0041.2052/8. 7,25 = 2,97 m 3 m.
fcs = 1,5 m.
treo cao trung bnh ca dy dn theo (2-9) l:
hddcs = hcs 2/3 fcs = 16,2 2/3.1,5 = 15,2m.
hddtbA = hddA 2/3 fdd = 12 2/3. 3 = 10 m.
hddtbB = hddB 2/3 fdd = 9 2/3. 3 = 7 m.
2.1.2.3- Tng tr sng ca dy chng st v dy dn.
Zdd = 60.ln (2.hdd / r).

( 2 10 )

ZddA = 60. ln [ ( 2. 10) / (9,5. 10-3 ) ] = 320,96 .


ZddB = 60. ln [ ( 2. 7 ) / ( 9,5. 10-3 ) ] = 437,73 .
Vi dy chng st ta phi tnh tng tr khi c vng quang v khi khng c
vng quang.
+ Khi khng c vng quang:
Zdcs =60. ln [ ( 2. 15,2 ) / ( 5,5. 10-3 )] = 517
+ Khi c vng quang, ta phi chia Zdcs cho h s hiu chnh vng quang.

= 1,3 ( tra bng 3-3 sch hng dn thit k k thut in cao p).
Zdvqcs = Zdcs / = 517/1,3 = 397,69 .
2.1.2.4 - H s ngu hp gia dy dn chng st vi cc dy pha.
Cng thc (2 11) c xc nh theo hnh (2 4).

Trong :
+ h2: cao trung bnh ca dy chng st.
+ D12: khong cch gia dy pha v nh ca dy chng st.
+ d12: khong cch gia dy chng st v dy pha.
+ h1: cao trung bnh ca dy dn pha.
+ : h s hiu chnh vng quang ( = 1,3)
Theo kt qu tnh trc ta c:
hddA = 10m; hddB = hddC = 7m ; hddcs = 15,2m.

p dng nh l Pitago ta c khong cch t dy chng st n cc dy pha v


t dy pha n nh ca dy chng st nh hnh ( 2
5).
Vi pha A:

Vi pha B,C:

H s ngu hp gia pha A v dy chng st : p dng cng thc (2 11):

Khi c vng quang: KA-csvq = KA-cs. = 1,3. 0,19768 = 0,257.


H s ngu hp pha B (hoc pha C )vi dy chng st:

Khi c vng quang :

2.1.2.5- Gc bo v ca chng st.


T hnh (2 2 ) ta c:

2.1.2.6- S ln st nh vo ng dy.
p dng cng thc (2-4) vi l = 100km ; hddcs = 15,2 m ; nng.s= 80ngy/
nm ; mt st = 0,15. Ta c:
N = 0,15. 6 . 15,2. 80. 100. 10-3 = 109 ln/ 100km. nm.
T c s l thuyt v cc kt qu trn ta tin hnh tnh ton sut ct cho ng
dy vi ba kh nng nu i vi ng 110kV.

2.2 - tnh sut ct ca ng dy 110kv do st nh vng qua dy chng st vo dy


dn.
ng dy c U 110kV c bo v bng dy chng st, tuy vy vn c
nhng trng hp st nh vng qua dy chng st vo dy dn. Tuy xc sut ny
nh nhng vn c xc nh bi cng thc sau:

(2-15)
Trong :
: gc bo v ca dy chng st ( ).
hcs : chiu cao ct dy chng st ( m).
Khi dy dn b st nh, dng trn dy dn l IS/4, v mch ca khe st s c
ni vi tng tr sng ca dy dn c tr s nh hnh (2 6 )