You are on page 1of 31

CHEMICAL ELEMENTS A. Practical Purposes 1.

Alkali and alkaline earth metals include:

Knowing reactivity in the water Observing the color of flame in water The introduction of ion in water 2. Halogen includes: Knowing the oxidizing power of his place in the order of the periodic arrangement Know the color and halogen gases such as bromine, chlorine and iodine
3. Classification of transition elements include:

The introduction of distinctive colors Understand the ability to have more than one oxidation state Observe the formation of complex compounds B. Theory + MSDS Elements in the same group resemblance to each other in terms of chemical behavior because these elements have similar outer electron configurations. Chemists have long known that the first member of each group (ie, the elements in the second period from lithium to fluorine) differs from other members of the same group. For example, lithium, although memperlibatkan many characteristic properties of alkali metals is the only one in the group 1A metals that do not form more than one compound with oxygen. Generally the reason for these differences is the small size which is not unusual for the first member of each compared to the other members in the same group.

In comparing the properties of the elements in the same group, it must be remembered that the most valid comparison if we are dealing with elements of the same type. These guidelines apply to group 7A elements are entirely non-metallic and class 1A and 2A allmetal. But the class 3A to 6A contains non metal, metalloid, and metal so it's natural to expect some diversity in the chemical properties even though members of the same group have similar outer electron configurations.

Alkali and Alkaline Earth The distinctive feature of alkali and alkaline earth metals are a great reactivity and generally can dissolve easily in water to form a strong base. The solution of these metals can be known by the reaction of the flame as it can provide a distinctive flames. Ions of alkali and alkaline earth metal is deposited so difficult to mengendapkannya must use special reagents. For example, sodium precipitated with uranyl magnesium acetat and pottasium with sodium cobalt nitrite. a. Alkali Alkali elements in the periodic system are in group 1A. alkali metals are highly reactive elements in nature that are often found in such compounds NaCl in seawater.

Physical Characteristic Alkali Metal Elements Metallic bonding between alkali atoms is very

weak because it only has one valence electron so that the metal is ionic and easily cut with a knife. Alkali metals have high melting point and boiling point is relatively low.

Further down, melting point and boiling point lower because of attraction alkali metal atoms weaker.

Chemical Characteristic Alkali Metal Elements To become stable, easy release of alkali metal

valence electrons, forming positive ions X X+ + e-. radius of alkali metals from lithium to francium gets larger, the smaller the ionization energy means to more easily release their outer electrons so that the greater the number of atoms more reactive alkali metal. Reactivity of alkali metals can also be studied through reactions with water and a potential price reduction. Flame Reaction at Alkali Metals Each atom if given the energy or will to change the position of the electron excitation and will undergo radiation emitting electron magnetic energy to return to baseline levels (steady state). According to Niels Bohr, the amount of energy emitted by each atom to a certain amount (terkuantitasi) in the form of emission spectrum. Some members of the spectrum lies in the visible region so the colors will provide a clear and distinctive for each atom. Therefore, the emission spectrum can be used to identify an element. To determine the flame color of the alkali metals we have to spend the metal elements. This can be done by burning (flame test) compounds. Elements Flame Colors b. Lithium Red Sodium Yellow Potassium Rubidium Purple Red Cesium Blue

Alkaline Earth

Is in group 2A. alkaline earth elements in nature are common in the rock such as limestone (CaCO3) and beryl (3 BeSiO3.Al2(SO4)3) Physic Characteristic

Alkaline earth metal is relatively soft but harder than alkali metals. Its boiling and melting points mkin down in general decline and the types further down the greater.

Chemical Characteristic And top to bottom, the radius of the larger alkaline earth

elements. Its ionized energy prices so that the smaller the greater reactivity. When compared with the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals reactivity smaller than alkali metals. Lithium is more reactive than beryllium and sodium lebiih reactive than magnesium. Elements Flame Colors Flame color emitted by strontium and barium are very beautiful and so are used as fireworks or as a token gesture in the military hierarchy. b) Halogen Halogen elements are a strong oxidizer-oxidizing. The order of strength of oxidation in the periodic arrangement from top to bottom on the wane. Halogen gases generally have specific colors. Halogens in the periodic system is in group 7A.

Flame Reaction Magnesium Calcium Stronsium Barium White Orange Red Green

Beryllium White

Physic Characteristic

Halogen is a diatomic molecule. At room temperature has the form of a different color. Halogen group elements of Fluorine to iodine, boiling point and melting point higher. Likewise density so that Florin and gaseous chlorine, bromine and iodine liquid are solid. Chemical Characteristic Halogen reactivity can be observed based on the prices of electronegativity of Fluorine has the highest reactivity so highly reactive or easily attract electrons from atoms of other elements. Decreased electronegativity of Fluorine to Iodine. The radius of the halogen atom of Fluorine to Iodine greater so as to attract an electron from another atom more difficult. Oxidizing Power of Halogens Halogen has strong oxidizing power. Its oxidizing power sequence from top to bottom (Fluorine to Iodine) decreased. Halogen oxidizing power can be seen from the price of each of the standard electrode potential. Price halogen reduction potential is as follows F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 reduced. Reduction Structure In the form of elements, halogen (X) exists as diatomic molecules (X2). X2 molecules can undergo dissociation into atoms + + + + 2e2e2e2e 2F2Cl2Br2IEo = 2,37 Volt Eo = 1,36 Volt Eo = 1,09 Volt Eo = 0,54 Volt

This shows that the lower the more difficult to be

X2 (g)

2X (g)

The stability of the molecular halogen (X2) decreases from Cl2 to I2. It is due to the addition of atomic radii so that the energy of the Cl-Cl bond to II reduced. But the F-F bond energy is smaller than the Cl-Cl bond. It happened due to the small radius of fluorine atoms that repel between the nucleus and between the free electron pair in the molecule F2 menjdi big enough. The low F-F bond energy is one factor that causes Florin very reactive element. Color and Fragrance of Halogen Halogen has a certain color and aroma. Here's the color of the halogen elements are: Elements Color Fluorine Flaxen Chlorine Light Green Bromine Crimson Iodine (solid) Black Iodin (vapor) Purple

All halogen smelling and stabs excitatory and toxic. Said chlorine, iodine and bromine comes from the Greek, means green, violet and urine odor (fishy). c) Transition Elements Transition group elements have unique properties such compounds is colorful, has more than one oxidation state and can form complex compounds. Physic Characteristic Transition elements are generally colored da tone that is paramagnetic and diamagnetic. The more unpaired electrons the greater the magnetic properties. Melting and boiling

points of transition elements are very high. It shows the elements of the transition metal bond is very strong. From the electrical conductivity and heat conductivity also shows the transition elements are metals. Demonstrated high density transition elements including metal hardware. The Colour of Transition Elements Iron compounds in the FeCl3 color is yellow and the green is FeSO4. Both of these compounds are a different color because they contain different ionic charge or oxidation number is different. Why there is a transition element compounds are colored and colorless ?. In subshell d orbitals so that if there are 5 transition elements bonded with other elements will be changes in the energy levels of the orbitals and orbital energy levels caused so different. In these orbitals, electrons can move from one orbital to another orbital while absorbing energy from light. Wavelengths of light are absorbed in the visible region of the substance is the color of light reflected. Complex Ion Complex ion or complex compounds formed from ions of transition elements that have empty orbitals with other molecules or ions that have electron pair resulting in a covalent bond coordination. A complex ion consists of the central metal ion surrounded anions or molecules to form coordination bonds. Metal ion center called central ion / atom center. Anions or molecules surrounding the so-called central metal ion.

MSDS I.HCl Physical Boiling Point : Colorless to light yellow liquid. : 110oC (383 K), 20.2% solution 48oC (321 K) ; 38% solution Melting Point Mr Hazard : -20oC (247 K) ; 20% solution : 36,46 gram/mole :

HCl is corrosive chemicals where it is destroyed and is known as a sharp. In chemical can cause inflammation. HCl also toxic that can cause death.Safety way :


: move the affected person to fresh air if breathing is difficult, give oxygen. If not, give artificial respiration and get medical attention.


Eye and Skin

: wash with clean running water for 20 minutes. And provide medical help.


Ingestion : Do not induce vomiting because it can increase the damage to the esophagus, mouth and digestive system.


Physic Boiling Point Melting Point Mr Hazard

: liquid, colorless, oily and odorless : 340oC : 10,35oC : 98,0716 gram/mol :

H2SO4 is a corrosive material. If the skin it will cause irritation and burns. If inhaled it could lead to irritation of the respiratory tract. If ingested it will irritation of the gastrointestinal digestion. H 2SO4 is a

hygroscopic material and strong oxide. If contact with the material may cause fire. Safety Way

: allow victim to rub or keep it shut so and provide medical help immediately.


: wash with water for at least 30 minutes, do not

b. c.


: wash with water and soap for at least 15 minutes. water drinking.

Ingestion : Do not induce vomiting. If conscious, give milk or Inhalation : bring the victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. If not breathing, give artificial respiration and immediately take it to a medical.



Physic Color pH Mr Boiling Point Melting Point Density Hazard

a. b. c.

: powder or crystalline, odorless : orange :4 : 294,18 gram/mole : 500oC : 398oC : 2,676 gram/cm3 : : can cause burns. The skin can cause allergies.

Eye and skin

Ingestion : burns and damage to the digestive tract kidney. Inhalation : irritation of the respiratory tract, liver damage and kidney.


: : rinse with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes and give medical assistance. : rinse with running water for 15 minutes and Immediately make medical assistance.

Eye Skin



Ingestion : give 2-4 glasses of water or milk and give medical assistance. Inhalation : move the victim to fresh air. If not breathing, give oxygen and give immediate medical assistance.


C. Tools and Materials a) Alkali dan Alkaline Earth Tools : 1. 1 piece of glass cup 2. 1 piece clamp 3. 1 piece of nichrome wire 4. 1 piece of cobalt glass 5. 2 pieces of test tubes 6. 1 piece of Bunsen Materials : 1. Sodium concentrated
2. 2 mL HCl concentrated

3. 2 ml of 0.1 M LiCl 4. 2 mL of 0.1 M NaCl

5. 2 mL Ba(NO3)2 0.1 M

6. 2 mL of 0.1 M KCl
7. 2 mL of Sr(NO3)2 0,1 M

8. 2 mL of 0.1 M K2CrO4
9. Magnesium uranyl acetate 0,1 M

10. Sodium cobalt nitrite 0,1 M

11. Litmus Paper

12. 2 mL of 0,1 M H2SO4 13. 2 mL of 0,1 M BaCl2


Halogen Tools : 1. 9 pieces of test tubes 2. 3 pieces oral test tube stoppers 3. 1 piece spatula 4. 1 piece Pasteur pipette 5. 1 piece measuring cup 10 ml 6. 1 set of test tubes Materials : 1. 2 grains of potassium chlorate 2. 1 grain of potassium chromate 3. 1 grain of potassium iodate
4. 2 mL of 0,1 M KCl 5. 2 mL of 0,1 M KBr 6. 2 mL of 0,1 M KI

7. 2 mL of 0.1 M chlorine water

8. 2 mL of 0,1 M bhrome water 9. 2 mL of 0,1 M iode water 10. 3 drops of H2SO4 concentrated 11. 6 mL CCl4


Transition Elements Tools : 1. 1 piece tube rack

2. 6 pieces test tube 3. Pasteur pipette for reagents Materials :

1. 2 mL of 0,1 M CrO422. 2 mL of 0,1 M Cr2O723. 2 mL of 0,1 M KMnO4 4. 2 mL of 0,1 M Mn2+ 5. 2 mL of 0,1 M FeSO4 6. 6 mL of 0,1 M FeCl3 7. 2 mL of 0,1 M Ni2+ 8. 5 drops of 0.1 M H2C2O4 9. 2 mL of 0,1 M CuSO4 10. 2 mL of 0,1 M Co3+ 11. 2 mL of 0,1 M Zn2+ 12. 5 drops of 0,1 M KSCN 13. 5 drops of 0,1 M H2O2 14. 1 mL of 0,1 M Hg(NO3)2 15. 3 mL of 0,1 M Cr(NO3)2 16. 1 mL of 0,1 M ammonia 17. 10 drops of 0,1 M NaOH 18. 3 mL of 0,1 M Cr(NO3)3 19. 5 drops of 0,1 M H2SO4

D. Procedure a) Alkali dan Alkaline Earth 1.a In a beaker filled with water, float a piece paper. Take a piece of sodium with tongs and place on paper. Do not hold the sodium by hand. Observe and record what happens (Demo Assistant).

b. The solution contained in a beaker in the experiment, dip litmus paper into it. Observe and record what happens 2. Dip the nichrome wire into concentrated HCl, and then burn it on top Bunsen colorless. Repeat this experiment until no longer visible flame color. Dip the clean nichrome wire into the solution: a. b. c.
d. e.

LiCl NaCl KCl BaCl2 Sr((NO3)2

3. Take four test tubes and number them 1-4. Enter mL NaCl and mL tubes magnesium uranyl acetate at no.1; mL KCl and mL of sodium cobalt nitrite on the tube no.2; mL of Ba (NO3) 2 and mL of H2SO4 on the tube no.3; mL Sr (NO3) 2 and mL tube K2CrO4pada no.4. Observe and record what happens. b) Halogen 1. Enter into the third test tube of each solution of KCl, KBr and KI by 2 mL of water and add chlorine to the respective reaction tubes. Repeat the above experiment with bromine water and iodine water. Observe and compare the results then make a conclusion.
2. Take 3 pieces of tube with a rubber stopper. Put it in the

reaction tubes each 2 grains of potassium chlorate, potassium chromate 1 egg and 1 egg potassium iodate. Put on each tube 1 drop of concentrated H2SO4 and close the tube with a rubber stopper. Wait a while until the gas arises. Then enter CCl4

approximately 2 mL into the third tube. Observe and record what happens.. c) Transition Elements 1. Observe and record the color of the following solutions:
a. CrO42b. Cr2O72c. MnO4d. Mn2+ e. Fe2+ f. Fe3+ g. Ni2+ h. Cu2+ i. j. 2. a.

Co3+ Zn2+ Enter 2 mL KMnO4 solution into a test tube, then add 5 solution and add H2C2O4. Observe and record the occur.

drops H2SO4

Enter 2 mL FeCl3 solution into a test tube, record the color. Then add 5 drops of KSCN, note the color. Repeat the experiment with FeCl3 added H2O2, record the color changes. Then add KSCN, record the color. Compare the two experiments above.

2 mL of CuSO4 solution is added drop by drop of

ammonia. Observe and record the changes that occur


Provide 1 mL Hg (NO3) 2, add KI solution drop by drop. Observe and record the changes that occur. Added drop by drop NaOH in 3 mL Cr (NO3) 3. Observe and record the changes that occur.


E. Observational Data

Alkali dan Alkaline Earth 1. Sodium Reactivity in Water

a. Highly reactive, smoke and fire red


Litmus paper color: Red Blue, Blue Blue. 2. Blazing Reaction Test

LiCl NaCl KCl BaCl2

: Red : Yellow : Purple : Green

Sr(NO3)2 : Red -

3. Generated Deposition
a. NaCl + magnesium uranyl acetate b. KCl + sodium cobalt nitrite orange hint c. Ba(NO3)2 + H2SO4 precipitate with white solution d. SrCl2 + K2CrO4 yellow solution without precipitation


1. Color Test

Reagents Cl2 Br2 I2

Substances Investigated KCl KBr No Color Yellow Hint Yellow Yellow

KI Yellow Yellow

2. Generated Color

Cl2: produce gas and no deposits, the place feels hot Br2 I2 :: hot and there is a purple color on the cork which suspected

iodine gas


Transition Elements 1.
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

Color Solution Observation Results CrO42MnO4Mn2+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Ni2+ Cu2+ Co3+ Zn2+ : Yellow : Purple : No Color : Yellow Hide : Yellow : Blue Hide : Blue : Orange : No Color Cr2O72-: Orange

2. a.

KMnO4 + H2SO4 + H2C2O4

KMnO4 first color: Purple

Color After Reaction: Purple

b. FeCl3 + KSCN

FeCl3 first color: Yellow After the color reaction: Brownish Red

FeCl3 + H2O2 Happens Color: Yellow FeCl3 + H2O2 + KSCN Happens Color: Dark Red Brownish
3. a. CuSO4 + NH4OH, colors occur: blue with blue precipitate b. Hg(NO3)2 + KI, changes: orange with orange sediment


c. NaOH + Cr(NO3)3, changes that occur: dark green

F. Data Analysis a) Alkali dan Alkaline Earth 1. Sodium Reactivity in Water The experiment was not done by the experimentalist but demonstrated by the laboratory assistants because of the materials used is quite dangerous. This experiment aimed to test the reactivity of sodium in the water. Sodium is a soft metal solids. Sodium initially placed on the paper and then put in a beaker filled with water. Fungs laid paper is intended that the indirect action of sodium metal with water. Sodium is a metal that easily oxidized, so immediately react with water and air and volatile. Therefore, it should be stored in metal sodium naphthalene solvent or xylene. The workings of this paper is to absorb water little by little and then the paper gets wet then reacts with solid sodium. The reaction occurs that the air bubbles that show the formation of H2 gas and the presence of sparks. It can be concluded that the reactivity of metallic Na had great because sodium metal has a radius of large atomic nuclei so that the distance to the outermost electron which will lead to increase in size the smaller the ionization energy of metal reactivity is very large. Reactivity of alkali elements dipengruhi by the number of electrons outermost single electron is so easy to let go of one electron to form the cation-charged +1 and form a small cohesive forces. Therefore, metal bond in a weak crystal. This is evident from sodium metal used in the experiments was not loud so easy to cut.

After the metal sodium reacts, conducted experiments with dipping litmus turns red to blue and blue litmus color remains. This suggests that the solution in the beaker is alkaline because compounds formed NaOH which is the reaction between sodium metal with water is exothermic. The reaction is: 2 Na(s) + 2 H2O(l) 2 NaOH(aq) + H2(g) This reaction produces a strong base and the NaOH and H2 gas. Alkali metal compounds are ionic and soluble in water. The reactivity of alkali metals increases in accordance with increasing atomic radius. So in a group, the reactivity of alkali metals increases from top to bottom reactive. Alkali and alkaline earth metals also is alkaline when reacted with water. 2 L(s) + 2 H2O(l) 2 LOH(aq) + H2(g) (L = logam alkali) Sodium metal should not be taken by hand because it was feared in the surface water is present yag hands from sweating so the sodium reacts with water and will cause an explosion and skin irritation. Therefore, when making experiments Na metal then pick it up with tongs. 2. Flame Test Time trial aims to determine flame color of alkali and alkaline earth metals. First, nichrome wire dipped in concentrated HCl that aims to reduce the impurity ions that may be left on the nichrome wire. Then, nichrome wire dipped in solutions to be tested flame color is LiCl, NaCl, KCl, BaCl2 and Sr(NO3)2. After the flame test, the data obtained as follows: LiCl : Red KCl : Purple Sr(NO3)2 : Red NaCl : Yellow BaCl2 : Green

The difference in flame color of each element occurs because when the elements are given some form of heat energy, there will be movement of electrons from the ground state to a higher energy level (excited). This is due to the unstable condition of the electron. When these electrons return to original energy level of the electrons will be releasing excess energy in the form of rays / light or radiation energy. Energy generated radiation has a wavelength different on each element. Wavelength different emission spectrum will form. Therefore, the resulting light of different wavelengths depending respectively. When looking at the color of the flame so that the color of cobalt glass used flame can be seen clearly that know the difference. 3. The Resulting Precipitate The experiment was done to precipitate the elements of alkali and alkaline earth metals. According to the theory and references, alkali and alkaline earth metals deposited with the results of specific reagents (such as non-polar solvent) due to ions of alkali and alkaline earth metals are very difficult to settle.
NaCl with Magnesium Uranyl Acetate

In this session, the practitioner does not perform as magnesium uranyl acetate solution was not made. But if the session is done then a mixture of NaCl with magnesium uranyl acetate precipitate will form yellow crystalline form according to the existing equation
NaCl(aq) + [Mg(UO2)3(CH3COO).9H2O]-(aq) Na[Mg(Uo2)3(CH3COO).9H2O]-(s) + Cl-

KCl with Sodium Cobalt Nitrite

The deposition of potassium using special reagents are sodium cobalt nitrite. The resulting orange solution with high

levels of (+) derived from sodium cobalt nitrite brown. However, based on the reference, the resulting yellow precipitate the potassium hexa nitro cobaltat (III). Corresponding equation. 3 KCl(aq) + Na3[Co(NO2)6](aq) 3 NaCl(aq) + K3[Co(NO2)6](s)
Ba(NO3)2 with H2SO4

To get the barium precipitate is then used specific reagents is H2SO4. The resulting solution is white and there is a white precipitate. This is consistent with the reference that produces white precipitate BaSO4 form according to the equation. Ba(NO3)2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) BaSO4(s) + 2 HNO3(aq)
SrCl2 with K2CrO4

The deposition of strontium specific reagent that is used K2CrO4 and replace SrCl2 with a solution of Sr(NO3)2. It was found that the resulting solution color yellow and a precipitate is formed. But according to the reference, which should be formed yellow precipitate strontium chromate with the equation: Sr(NO3)2(aq) + K2CrO4(aq) 2 KNO3(aq) + SrCrO4(s) Of the four experiments, there is a difference between the results of experiments with the reference. This may be caused by: 1. Observer less scrupulous in observing sediment occurs. 2. Been contaminated materials used before reacted 3. Inaccuracy comparison substances that do. 4. The presence of other substances that affect the formation of precipitation. b) Halogen 1. The Characteristic Oxidizing of Halogen

The experiment was carried out by reacting the compound with a halogen salts containing halogen elements. This was done to investigate the oxidizing power of each element of the halogen. From the experiments are obtained as follows:
KCl + Cl2

(No Color)

The solution is colorless because Cl- experiencing oxidation and difficult to form negative ions with the compounds themselves back Cl2 + KCl. This is in accordance with the references.
KBr + Cl2 2 KCl + Br2 (Dark Yellow)

In accordance with the above equation, the color changes cause the element Cl2- capable of pressing ion Br2- which bound with K+ resulted in a ion Br- is bound to be free. Eo Cl2 < Eo Br2.
KI + Cl2 2 KCl + I2 (Dark Yellow)

In accordance with the above equation, the color changes due to the element of Cl2 has a higher oxidizing power than I2. So Cl2 capable pressing I2 so that Cl2 will bound and I- to be free.
KCl + I2


Should the reaction, the color formed is colorless. This is because the Cl- has a greater oxidizing power than I- so I2 can not press the Cl-. Eo I2 < Eo Cl2.
KBr + I2


According to the reference, it should not happen so the results are not colored reaction because Eo I2 < Eo Br2 will be obtained Eo were negative. I2 in a free state is not able to exert Br which bound with I2. Power oxidation weaker than from Br-.
KI + I2


Supposedly by reference, no reaction occurs and the solution remains colorless color as an element of I2 is oxidized and difficult to form negative ions with compounds alone. In this experiment, the experimentalist not experiment with bromine water (Br2) because it is not available in the laboratory. According to the reference, which is located more halogen compounds on the dolongan VII A and is available in a free state (as a diatomic molecule) able to exert a teretak halide ions underneath. This is because the halogens are located above is a more powerful oxidizing agent so as to urge the hydrogen ions that are below it. Oxidizing power sequence is as follows: F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2 Discrepancies experimental results with theory / reference due to several factors: There has been contamination of the solution so that the resulting color deviations occur. An error in the preparation of the solution used. Less rigorous experimentalist identify colors. 2. Color of Gas Produced This experiment aims to determine the color of halogen gas and some elements are chlorine, bromine and iodine. However, the experiment was not done by reacting potassium chlorate and potassium iodate respectively concentrated H2SO4 dropwise. H2SO4 hatching useful to provide an atmosphere so sour gas formation reaction can react more quickly. It should be added that CCl4 halogen compounds soluble in nonpolar compounds but because CCl4 is not available then the addition of CCl4 is not implemented. Equation of this experiment are:

3 KClO3 + 3 H2SO4 2ClO2 + ClO4- + 3 SO42- + 4H+ + 3K+ +H2O

3 KlO3 + 3 H2SO4 2lO2 + lO4- + 3 SO42- + 4H+ + 3K+ +H2O In experiments obtained colorless gas produced color: Cl2 I2 Cl2 I2 to: Contaminated solutions

: incurred but not colorless gas : purple arise in gas cork which suspected as I2

And the color should be produced by reference are: : sulfur : purple The difference in color of the gas produced by the theory due

Less scrupulous in observing the color produced gas Less careful in making excessive dripping concentrated H2SO4. c) Transition Elements 1. The Color of Transition Elements These experiments prove that the transition elements have distinctive properties. It can be seen from the experimental results:
a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j.

CrO42MnO4Mn2+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Ni2+ Cu2+ Co3+ Zn2+

: Yellow : Purple : No Color : Yellow Hint : Yellow : Blue Hint : Blue : Orange : No Color

Cr2O72-: Orange

Transition metal compounds include compounds having characteristic colorful. Colored transition metal compounds with more than one oxidation state makes higher color intensity due to the oxidation owned any ions of transition elements produce different colors. The absence of color due to the transition element ions have unpaired electrons in the 3d subshell. If all the electrons in the 3d subshell full as Zn 2+ ([Ar] 3d10 4s2) and a half-full as Mn2+ ([Ar] 3d5 4s2), the ions will be no color in accordance with the experimental results. In addition, the color difference is also due to d orbital electrons and excited to emit visible light. Another factor that contributed to the color of the emitted photons by atoms reacted with a gas flame color. This is due to the absorption of photons whose energy is related to a quantum leap in ion / to the level of energy required to remove electrons from one orbital larger ions into the empty orbital on the ion types other than the five d orbitals of the subshell have not full filled energy levels the same. However, the presence of the ligand led to the separation of the orbital energy levels. Based on the data obtained, it can be proven that low oxidation has no color colorful example Zn2+ with oxidation state 2 (no color), while the oxidation MnO4-7 has a purple color. By reference, a colorless transition elements not only Zn2+ and Mn2+ but also Fe2+ looks colorless. This is due to the state of a substance that is not good / accuracy in color vision. 2. Ability Transition Elements Oxidation Numbers Have More Than One

This experiment aims to look at the ability of transition elements that have more than one oxidation ilangan. Ability is caused by the instability of the transition elements that tend to be stable binding / electron capture.

KMnO4 + H2SO4 + H2C2O4 Before reacted KMnO4 solution will be colored purple, after H2C2O4 + H2SO4 reacted with the solution remains purple. H2SO4 provide acidic function that MnO4- react quickly. Solution should be colorless because oxidation will affect the color of the transition elements. The equation:
2 KMnO4(aq) + 3 H2SO4(aq) + 5 H2C2O4(aq) K2SO4(aq) + 2 MnSO4(aq) + 8 H2O(l) + 10 CO2(g)

Ion MnO4- is reduced to Mn2+ Mn mean oxidation decreased initially +7 to +2. Changes in oxidation state, it makes the original purple color of KMnO4 became colorless after reacted. The reaction takes place quickly due to Mn2+ catalyst formed (autocatalyst) as the catalyst produced. Use of H2C2O4 is a good primary standard for permanganate in acid solution. The difference in color due to contamination of the solution.
FeCl3 + KSCN

Initially, the yellow FeCl3 solution after treated with KSCN produces a brown color. The equation is: FeCl3(aq) + 3 KSCN(aq) Fe(SCN)3(aq) + 3 KCl(aq) This occurs change the oxidation state of +2 (yellow) to +3 were colored brown with high levels (++). And the equation above shows that the complex ion formed Fe(SCN)3 is characterized by the formation of a new solution color after reacted.

For comparison FeCl3 added H2O2, the resulting color is still yellow and there was a little bubble that produced the O2. As the equation is: 2 FeCl3(aq) + 6 H2O2(aq) 2 Fe(OH)3(aq) + 6 HCl(aq) + 3 O2(g) Then after adding KSCN, the resulting solution color is dark red. The equation is:
FeCl3 + 2 KSCN + 6 H2O2 K3[Fe(SCN)6.(H20)6] + 3 KCl + 3O2

In this reaction the oxidation state changes are marked by a change in color. Based on these data, it is known that the transition elements have multiple oxidation states. Variety is the case because the rate of oxidation valence electron transition elements occupy the 3d subshell and 4s where two energy levels of the orbitals are very close together. In addition to electrons in the 4s subshell, transition elements can also use the 3d subshell electrons in bond formation. 3. Formation of complex compounds

CuSO4 + NH4OH Original color was dark blue CuSO4 and NH4OH is colorless. After reacted solution becomes blue and there is a blue precipitates. The reaction that occurs is : CuSO4(aq) + 2 NH4OH(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq) + Cu(OH)2(aq) The precipitate formed is Cu(OH)2 (Copper Peroxide). If the excess NH4OH added the solution becomes more concentrated due to the formation of complex compounds tetraamino kuprat (II). Cu(OH)2 + 4 NH4OH [Cu(NH3)4(OH)2] + 4 H2O

Hg(NO3)2 + KI

In this reaction, the resulting color is orange and precipitates in the form of an orange HgI2. Reksinya equation is : Hg(NO3)2(aq) + 2 KI(aq) HgI2(aq) + 2 KNO3(aq) When added KI excess then becomes : HgI2 + 2 KI K2[HgI4] The experimental results are not consistent with the theory that the color of the solution should be red scarlet. This may be due to solution of Hg (NO3)2 or KI that has been contaminated.
NaOH + Cr(NO3)3

Solution of Cr (NO3) 3 original dark blue and colorless NaOH. After reacted solution became dark green and there are deposits of the Cr (OH) 3. The equation is: Cr(NO3)3(aq) + 3 NaOH(aq) Cr(OH)3(aq) + 3 NaNO3(s) If the excess NaOH is added then the mixture is not going to happen precipitate and form complex compounds. The equation is: Cr(OH)3 + 3 NaOH Na3[Cr(OH)6] G. The Answer of Question a) Alkali and Alkaline Earth

a. What is the conclusions obtained from experiment 1 Elements of class IA (alkali) is very reactive when it reacted with the water example sodium. This is evident with the onset of smoke, flame and explosion. Reactivity of alkali metals increases from top to bottom (Lithium Francium). Reactivity of alkali metals because the radius of the atomic ionization energy so small it easily release electrons.



Write the equation ! 2 Na(s) + 2 H2O(l) 2 NaOH(aq) + H2(g)


Make the conclusions from this experiment! Once the sodium is reacted with water it will produce a strong base (NaOH). This is evidenced when red litmus paper is dipped into the solution changed to blue.

3. In experiment 2, the different elements have different flame colors. What is the cause? Different elements have different flame color because the metal elements are excited due to heating the compound in flames. While returning to the original energy level, it will release the excess electron in the beam shape due to emission spectrum. Spectrum has a different wavelength and each element that produces a different color flame. b) Halogen 1. In experiment 1, there is a reaction and others do not. Why? Oxidizing power of halogens have different. Elements that its oxidizing power greater then the power would urge element so weak oxidation will react. And weak elements oxidation power can not urge element stronger oxidation power so that the reaction can not take place. Pengoksidasinya power sequence is: F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2 2. Write the equation for the second observation? 3 KClO3 + 3 H2SO4 2ClO2 + ClO4- + 3 SO42- + 4H+ + 3K+ +H2O

3 KlO3 + 3 H2SO4 2lO2 + lO4- + 3 SO42- + 4H+ + 3K+ +H2O c) Transition Elements 1. Write the reaction 2a observation!
2 KMnO4(aq) + 3 H2SO4(aq) + 5 H2C2O4(aq) K2SO4(aq) + 2 MnSO4(aq) + 8 H2O(l) + 10 CO2(g)

2. Write the reaction 2b observation!

FeCl3(aq) + 3 KSCN(aq) Fe(SCN)3(aq) + 3 KCl(aq) 2 FeCl3(aq) + 6 H2O2(aq) 2 Fe(OH)3(aq) + 6 HCl(aq) + 3 O2(g) FeCl3 + 2 KSCN + 6 H2O2 K3[Fe(SCN)6.(H20)6] + 3 KCl + 3O2 3. Write the reaction 3a, 3b and 3c observation!
a. CuSO4(aq) + 2 NH4OH(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq) + Cu(OH)2(aq)

If the excess NH4OH: Cu(OH)2 + 4 NH4OH [Cu(NH3)4(OH)2] + 4 H2O

b. Hg(NO3)2(aq) + 2 KI(aq) HgI2(aq) + 2 KNO3(aq)

If the excess KI HgI2 + 2 KI K2[HgI4]

c. Cr(NO3)3(aq) + 3 NaOH(aq) Cr(OH)3(aq) + 3 NaNO3(s)

If the excess NaOH: Cr(OH)3 + 3 NaOH Na3[Cr(OH)6] H. Conclusion

1. Sodium is an alkali metal group that reacts violently with water to

cause a burst of flame and produces hydrogen gas and an alkaline solution of NaOH.
2. Alkaline properties resulting from the reaction of sodium with water

is evidenced by the change red litmus to blue.

3. Reactivity of alkali metals associated with atomic radii greater the

ionization energy is low so easy to remove electrons.

4. Flame color of alkali and alkaline earth metals are :

Li Na

: Red : Yellow

K Ba

: Purple : Green


: Red

5. Flame color of an alkali and earth akaline vary due to different

wavelengths on each energy emitted when electrons are excited by thermal energy to return to its original level.
6. Oxidizing power of halogen groups in one class from top to

bottom will be smaller (F2 > Cl2 > Br2 > I2).
7. The ions of alkali and alkaline earth deposited difficult that it

took a certain reagents such nonpolar compounds to be easily deposited. 8. Color and halogen gases (theory) Cl2 : sulfur I2 : purple
9. Transition elements have distinctive colors and different in each

oxidation number. The difference in color is due to the : 3d subshell the transition elements that are not fully The existence of a bound ligand Switching energy levels of 3d (excited) Photon emission / visible light

10. Transition elements form a compound / complex ions when dissolved in a solution of alkali / alkaline earth. I. Bibliography Chang, Raymond. 2005. Kimia Dasar 2 Konsep-konsep Inti. Jakarta: Erlangga Keenan. 1993. Kimia Universitas Jilid 2. Jakarta: Erlangga

Petrucci, Ralph H. 1992. Kimia Dasar Prinsip dan Terapan Modern. Jakarta: Erlangga Svehla, G. 1985. Analisis Anorganik Kualitatif Makro dan Semimakro. Jakarta: Media Pustaka Syukri. 1999. Kimia Dasar 2. Bandung: ITB