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Contents
Preface to the Third Edition
Preface to the First Edition
xii
xiii xiv
The Authors
Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Continuum Theory 1.2 Contents of Continuum Mechanics
Chapter 2
Tensors
3 3
Part A The Indicial Notation 2A1
2A2
2A3 2A4 2A5 Part B 2B1 2B2 2B3 2B4 2B5 2B6 2B7
Summation Convention, Dummy Indices Free Indices Kronecker Delta Permutation Symbol Manipulations with the Indicial Notation Tensors Tensor: A Linear Transformation Components of a Tensor Components of a Transformed Vector Sum of Tensors Product of Two Tensors Transpose of a Tensor Dyadic Product of Two Vectors
11 11 13 16 17 18 20 21
vi Contents
2B8 2B9 2B10 2Bll 2B12 2B13 2B14 2B 15 2B16 2B17 2B18 2B19 2B20 Part C 2C1 2C2 2C3 2C4 2C5 Part D
Trace of a Tensor Identity Tensor and Tensor Inverse Orthogonal Tensor Transformation Matrix Between Two Rectangular Cartesian Coordinate Systems Transformation Laws for Cartesian Components of Vectors Transformation Law for Cartesian Components of a Tensor Defining Tensors by TransformationLaws Symmetric and AntisymmetricTensors The Dual Vector of an Antisymmetric Tensor Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of a Tensor Principal Values and Principal Directions of Real SymmetricTensors Matrix of a Tensor with Respect to Principal Directions Principal Scalar Invariants of a Tensor Tensor Calculus Tensor-valued functions of a Scalar Scalar Field, Gradient of a Scalar Function Vector Field, Gradient of a Vector Field Divergence of a Vector Field and Divergence of a Tensor Field Curl of a Vector Field Curvilinear Coordinates
22 23 24 26 28 30 32 35 36 38 43 44 45 47 47 49 53 54 55 57 57 61 63 68
2D1 Polar Coordinates 2D2 Cylindrical Coordinates 2D3 Spherical Coordinates Problems
Chapter 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8
Kinematics of a Continuum 79 Description of Motions of a Continuum 79 Material Description and Spatial Description 83 Material Derivative 85 Acceleration of a Particle in a Continuum 87 Displacement Field 92 Kinematic Equations For Rigid Body Motion 93 Infinitesimal Deformations 94 Geometrical Meaning of the Components of the Infinitesimal Strain Tensor 99
Contents vii
Principal Strain 3.9 3.10 Di1atation 3.11 The Infinitesimal Rotation Tensor 3.12 Time Rate of Change of a Material Element 3.13 The Rate of Deformation Tensor 3.14 The Spin Tensor and the Angular Velocity Vector 3.15 Equation of Conservation Of Mass 3.16 Compatibility Conditions for Infinitesimal Strain Components 3.17 Compatibility Conditions for the Rate of Deformation Components 3.18 Deformation Gradient 3.19 Local Rigid Body Displacements 3.20 Finite Deformation 3.21 Polar Decomposition Theorem 3.22 Calculation of the Stretch Tensor from the Deformation Gradient 3.23 Right Cauchy-Green Deformation Tensor 3.24 Lagrangian Strain Tensor 3.25 Left Cauchy-Green Deformation Tensor 3.26 Eulerian Strain Tensor 3.27 Compatibility Conditions for Components of Finite Deformation Tensor 3.28 Change of Area due to Deformation 3.29 Change of Volume due to Deformation 3.30 Components of Deformation Tensors in other Coordinates 3.31 Current Configuration as the Reference Configuration Problems
Chapter 4 Stress
105 105 106 106 108 111 112 114 119 120 121 121 124 126 128 134 138 141 144 145 146 149 158 160 173 173 174 176 178 182 182 187 190 192 195
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10
Stress Vector Stress Tensor Components of Stress Tensor Symmetry of Stress Tensor - Principle of Moment of Momentum Principal Stresses Maximum Shearing Stress Equations of Motion - Principle of Linear Momentum Equations of Motion in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates Boundary Condition for the Stress Tensor Piola Kirchhoff Stress Tensors
viii Contents
Equations of Motion Written With Respect to the Reference Configuration 4.12 Stress Power 4.13 Rate of Heat Flow Into an Element by Conduction 4.14 Energy Equation 4.15 Entropy Inequality Problems 4.11
Chapter 5 The Elastic Solid 5.1 Mechanical Properties 5.2 Linear Elastic Solid
201 203 207 208 209 210
217
217 220 225 225 228 232 236 238 238 242 248 25 1 254 258 266 269 275 28 1 284 285 287 29 1 293 293 296 299
Part A 5.3 5.4
Linear Isotropic Elastic Solid Linear Isotropic Elastic Solid Young’s Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio, Shear Modulus, and Bulk Modulus Equations of the Infinitesimal Theory of Elasticity Navier Equation in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates Principle of Superposition Plane Irrotational Wave Plane Equivoluminal Wave Reflection of Plane Elastic Waves Vibration of an Infinite Plate Simple Extension Torsion of a Circular Cylinder Torsion of a Noncircular Cylinder Pure Bending of a Beam Plane Strain Plane Strain Problem in Polar Coordinates Thick-walled Circular Cylinder under Internal and External Pressure Pure Bending of a Curved Beam Stress Concentration due to a Small Circular Hole in a Plate under Tension Hollow Sphere Subjected to Internal and External Pressure Linear Anisotropic Elastic Solid Constitutive Equations for Anisotropic Elastic Solid Plane of Material Symmetry Constitutive Equation for a Monoclinic Anisotropic Elastic Solid
5.5
5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 Part B 5.22 5.23 5.24
Contents ix
5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.30 5.3 1 Part C
Constitutive Equations for an Orthotropic Elastic Solid ConstitutiveEquation for a Transversely Isotropic Elastic Material ConstitutiveEquation for Isotropic Elastic Solid Engineering Constantsfor Isotropic Elastic Solid. Engineering Constants for Transversely Isotropic Elastic Solid Engineering Constants for Orthotropic Elastic Solid Engineering Constants for a Monoclinic Elastic Solid.
301 303 306 307 308 311 3 12
ConstitutiveEquation For Isotropic Elastic Solid Under Large Deformation 314 3 14 319 322 324 325 327 331 335
348
5.32 Change of Frame 5.33 ConstitutiveEquation for an Elastic Medium under Large Deformation. 5.34 ConstitutiveEquation for an IsotropicElastic Medium 5.35 Simple Extension of an Incompressible Isotropic Elastic Solid 5.36 Simple Shear of an Incompressible Isotropic Elastic Rectangular Block 5.37 Bending of a Incompressible Rectangular Bar. 5.38 Torsion and Tension of an Incompressible Solid Cylinder Problems
Chapter 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 Newtonian Viscous Fluid Fluids Compressibleand Incompressible Fluids Equations of Hydrostatics Newtonian Fluid Interpretation of 1 and p IncompressibleNewtonian Fluid Navier-Stokes Equation for Incompressible Fluids Navier-Stokes Equations for In compressible Fluids in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates Boundary Conditions Streamline, Pathline, Streakline,Steady, Unsteady, Laminar and Turbulent Flow Plane Couette Flow Plane Poiseuille Flow Hagen Poiseuille Flow Plane Couette Flow of Two Layers of Incompressible Fluids Couette Flow Flow Near an Oscillating Plate
348 349 350 355 357 359 360 364 365 366 37 1 372 374 377 380 381
6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16
x Contents
Dissipation Functions for Newtonian Fluids Energy Equation for a Newtonian Fluid Vorticity Vector Irrotational Flow Irrotational Flow of an Inviscid, Incompressible Fluid of Homogeneous Density 6.22 Irrotational Flows as Solutions of Navier-Stokes Equation 6.23 Vorticity Transport Equation for Incompressible Viscous Fluid with a Constant Density 6.24 Concept of a Boundary Layer 6.25 Compressible Newtonian Fluid 6.26 Energy Equation in Terms of Enthalpy 6.27 Acoustic Wave 6.28 Irrotational, Barotropic Flows of Inviscid Compressible Fluid 6.29 One-Dimensional Flow of a Compressible Fluid Problems 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21
Chapter 7 Integral Formulation of General Principles Green’s Theorem 7.1 Divergence Theorem 7.2 Integrals over a Control Volume and Integrals over a Material Volume 7.3 Reynolds Transport Theorem 7.4 Principle of Conservation of Mass 7.5 Principle of Linear Momentum 7.6 Moving Frames 7.7 Control Volume Fixed with Respect to a Moving Frame 7.8 Principle of Moment of Momentum 7.9 7.10 Principle of Conservation of Energy Problems Chapter 8 Non-Newtonian Fluids
383 384 387 390 391 394 396 399 40 1 402 404 408 4 12 419
427 427 430 433 435 437 440 447 449 45 1 454
458
462
464 464 47 1 473 474
Part A 8.1 8.2 8.3
8.4
Linear Viscoelastic Fluid Linear Maxwell Fluid Generalized Linear Maxwell Fluid with Discrete Relaxation Spectra Integral Form of the Linear Maxwell Fluid and of the Generalized Linear Maxwell Fluid with Discrete Relaxation Spectra Generalized Linear Maxwell Fluid with a Continuous Relaxation Spectrum
Contents xi
Part B 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19 Part C
Nonlinear Viscoelastic Fluid Current Configuration as Reference Configuration Relative Deformation Gradient Relative Deformation Tensors Calculations of the Relative Deformation Tensor History of Deformation Tensor. Rivlin-Ericksen Tensors Rivlin-Ericksen Tensor in Terms of Velocity Gradients The Recursive Formulas Relation Between Velocity Gradient and Deformation Gradient Transformation Laws for the Relative Deformation Tensors under a Change of Frame Transformation law for the Rivlin-Ericksen Tensors under a Change of Frame Incompressible Simple Fluid Special Single Integral Type Nonlinear Constitutive Equations General Single Integral Type Nonlinear Constitutive Equations Differential Type Constitutive Equations Objective Rate of Stress The Rate Type Constitutive Equations Viscometric Flow Of Simple Fluid
476 476 477 478 480 486 49 1 493 494 496 497 498 503 503 506 511 5 16
5 16 520 523 526 532
537
543
8.20 Viscometric Flow 8.21 Stresses in Viscometric Flow of an Incompressible Simple Fluid 8.22 Channel Flow 8.23 Couette Flow Problems
Appendix Matrices
Answer to Problems References Index
550 552

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