Seetha Mahalaxmi . D, B. Dr. Viswanadha Raju . S and C. Dr. Vinay Babu . A
Abstract:-Software is a comprehensive view of set of Algorithms, Data Structures, User Interface, and trade off of the implementation details. In order to provide security for this software various techniques such as cryptography, steganography, were proposed. Software watermarking is one technique that protects the ownership rights. There are so many software watermarking algorithms that have been developed. In pattern to these a new model was proposed which is known as Version Based Watermark or in short VBSW. This main theme of this model is to create a watermark using LOC of the software and version number of the software. In the remaining part of the paper the architecture of the VBSW and Frame model of the VBSW are discussed. Keywords: VBSW, LOC, Version Number, Version Watermark

F.A. Seetha Mahalaxmi .D, is the Associate Professor, Department of CSE, JNUHCEH. S.B. Dr. Viswanadha Raju. S, is the Professor, and HOD of CSE, JNTUHCEJ. T.C. Dr. Vinay Babu. A, Principal, JNTUHCEH. 1. INTRODUCTION A key element of any software is to protect the software from various attacks and in case if any theft has occurred then the developer must be able to prove their ownership[1][3][4]. Software Watermarking is one of the technique which helps in proving the authentication of the developer in which the developer embeds a secret message into cover message. A lot of research was done in Software watermarking [2][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] but all this work is discussing on various embedding techniques of a software watermark into a program and the software watermark which was used for embedding is a serial number or a unique identification of the developer. In this paper a new methodology to obtain the software watermark, which is known as Version Based Software Watermark, is given. The remaining part of the paper the architecture and frame model of VBSW are discussed. 2. MOTIVATION Till now various algorithms are proposed for embedding the software watermark into programs, and all these algorithms are discussing on different ways of embedding a software watermark into the program, some of the embedding techniques are dynamic graph[1], dynamic Path Based [2], Abstract InterpretationBased Framework [3], embedding a watermark using graph problem[4][5]. In all these techniques the watermark that is used to embed is a number in a binary form, or a serial number. In the proposed work a new method of evaluating the Software Watermark known as Version Based Software Watermark is proposed. The main objective of the Version Based Software Watermark is to act as a copyright protection and to protect the software from the Version attack and LOC attack. 3. Problem Statement Version Based Software Watermark is one of new approach of a Software Watermark. It is making use of LOC and Version number of software which are the heart of any software. The Lines of Code is the number of lines that have been used to develop the software. While counting this number of lines the dummy lines i.e the authors name, date of development, is not counted for Lines of code. Version number is the latest software release. Every release of the software has a new feature or a set of new features with new version number. The Version Based Software Watermark is calculated using the LOC and Version number of the software. This is useful not only to

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prove the ownership of the software but also can be protected from version attack and lines of code attack. The goal of the work is that it must be difficult to retrieve the watermark by the attacker under different conditions. 4. Architecture of Version Watermark The architecture of VBSW consists of embedding the watermark into software, tamper-proofing, and obfuscating the software, and at the receiving stage a recognizing process is carried out in order to recover the original watermark.
Software, S Calculate, V

is the comparison where it compares calculated Version watermark V' with the V. Definition 1 (LOC): The LOC is a sequence of instructions or code which gives the functionality of the software. This does not take into account any comments that are included in the software. Symbolically can be represented as L(S) = l.



Recognizer, V


Obfuscate, S'

Figure: Sender The Version Watermark is calculated and inserted into the software, than the next step is to provide tamper-proof and finally obfuscating a portion of the software so that the attacker is unable to reverse engineer or do other possible attacks. At the receiving side the client re-calculates the Version Watermark and compares it with the received Version Watermark. 5. Frame Model of Version Watermark A Version Watermark can be explained by the following functions: O (T (I (S, V) ) ) → S', R (A(S') ) → V, C: V = V' Where O(T(I(S,V) is the Insertion of Version Watermark V and subjecting it to tamperproofing and Obfuscation functions, the resultant software is denoted by S'. R(A(S)) is the recognizer function where Version Watermark can be extracted correctly even after the software is subjected to various attacks. V' is the Version watermark which was computed from the received software. C Definition 2 (Version): The software is model which can be used to perform specific functionality or a set of functionalities. The released software can be once again updated to add new functionality. The software obtained for each release can be identified by version number. Symbolically can be represented as Z(S) = z. Definition 3 (Version Watermark): Version Watermark is a watermark which is computed using the values of LOC l, version number z, and assuming the probability of success that the attack is not possible is 0.8. 𝒍 ∗ 𝒑 𝑽 = 𝒛 Definition 4 (Insertion of Watermark): The Insertion function inserts a Version Watermark after performing various transformations such as Tamper-proofing and Obfuscation on it. Mathematically the same can be expressed as: 𝑰𝒏𝒔𝒆𝒓𝒕: 𝑺 , 𝑽 → 𝑺′ Definition 5 (Recognize): The Recognizer helps to prove the ownership of the developer. The recognizer function can be expressed as:

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7 𝑹𝒆𝒄𝒐𝒈𝒏𝒊𝒛𝒆

: 𝑺′ → 𝑽′ Where V' is calculated using the LOC and Version number of the received software. Definition 6 (Compare): The received watermark is compared to the calculated watermark. Mathematically can be expressed as: 𝑪𝒐𝒎𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒆: 𝑽′ = 𝑽 If compare function returns true than it means that the watermark is present and not distorted, or if the compare function evaluates to the false than it means that attack was performed on the software. 6. CONCLUSION In this paper a brief note on the Motivation of VBSW, the Frame Model of VBSW and the architecture of VBSW are proposed. References 1. D.Curran, N.Hurley, and M.O.Cinneide, “Securing Java through software watermarking”, in nd Proceedings of the 2 international conference on Principles and Practice of Programming in Java, 2003, pp. 311 – 324. 2. C.Colleberg and C.Thomberson, “Software Watermarking: Models and Dynamic Embeddings”, in Proceedings of Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, POPL'99, 1999, pp. 311 – 324. 3. Hirose, N., Okamoto, E., Mambo, M., “A proposal for software protetion”, in proc. 1998 Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security, SCIS’98-9.2.C, Jan. 1998. (in Japanese) 4. A.B.Kahng, J. Lach, W.H.MangoineSmith, S,. Mantik, I.L.Markov, M. Potkonjak, P.Tucker, H.Wang, , and G.Wolfe, “Watermarking Techniques for Intellectual Property Protection”, Proc. 35th ACM/ IEEE DAC design Automation Conf. (DAC’98), pp. 776781, June 1999.
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5. S. Kannan and T.A.Proebsting, Register allocation in structured Programs, Journal of Algorithms, 29(2); 223-237, Nov.1998. 6. A.Monden, H.Iida, and K.ichi Matsumoto, “A practical method for watermarking Java programs”, in The 24th Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2000, pp.191 – 197. 7. A.Monden, H.Iida, and K.ichi Matsumoto, K.Inoue, and K.Torii, “Watermarking Java Programs”, in International Symposium on Future Software Technology'99, Ocotober 1999, pp. 119 – 124. 8. G.Qu and M.Potkonjak, Analysis of watermarking techniques for graph coloring problem, in IEEE/ACM International Cnference on Computer Aided Design, pages 190-193, Nov. 1998. 9. G.Qu and M.Potkonjak, “Hiding Signatures in graph coloring solutions”, in Information Hiding Worshop '99, pp.348 -367. 10. T.Sahoo and C.Collberg, “Software watermarking in the frequency domain: Implementation, analysis, and attacks”, in Computer Science department, University of Arizona (USA), Technical Report, vol. TR04 07, March 2004. 11. J.Stern, G.Hachez, P.Kouene, and J.J.Quisquater, “Robust object watermarking: Application to code”, in Information Hiding Workshop'99, 1999, pp.368 – 378. .html

12. R.Venkatesan, V.Vazirani, and S.Sinha, “A Graph Theoretic approach



to Software watermarking”, in 4th International Information Hiding Workshop Pittsburg, PA, 2001.
First A. D Seetha Mahalaxmi completed B.Tech in ECE from JNTU, Hyderabad. Pursued M.Tech in Computer Science from JNTU, Hyderabad. Presently working as Associate Professor in department of Computer Science, JNTUHCEH, Kukatpally, Hyderabad. Teaching experience is more than 15 years. Till to date presented papers in 5 International Conferences and 8 International Journals. Conducted 5 refresher courses in Academic staff college, UGC, JNTUH, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, India. Conducted 4 refresher course in Information Security and 1 refresher course in Software Engineering and Design Pattern. Second B Dr S Viswanadha Raju being M.C.A from Osmania University, Hyderabad, INDIA. M.Tech in Computer Science and Engineering from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, India. He was awarded Ph.D in Computer science and Engineering from A N U, INDIA. Presently he is working as Professor of CSE, SIT, JNTUH, kukatpally, Hyderabad. He was Head, Dept. of Computer science and Engineering JNTU Jagityal, from September 2010 to January 2011. Director, MCA (Accredited by NBA), G R I E T, Hyderabad from July 2009 to July2010 and also HOD of CSE/MCA from July 2003 to April 2009. Convener, International Conference on Advance Computing Technologies (ICACT 2008) at GRIET, Hyderabad. Member Governing Body in GRIET from April 2009 to July 2010. He has attended many national international conferences / seminars and presented papers. He published many research articles in various national and international journals. Third C Dr. A. Vinay Babu has done B.Tech in ECE from OsmaniaUniversity, Hyderabad, India. Pursued in ECe and M.Tech in Computer Science from JNTU, Hyderabad, India. Has completed Ph.D from JNTU, Hyderabad, India. Presently, Principal, JNTUH college of Engineering, JNTUH, Kukatpally, Hyderabad. He was a Director of Admissions, JNTUH, Hyderabad from march 2009 to November 2011, Director to SCDE, JNTU, Hyderabad, from July 2004 to March 2009. He was the head of the Department of Computer Science from June 1997 to July 2004. Convener for PG Admissions, JNTUH, JNTUA, JNTUK and Kakatiya University from 2009 to 2010. He has received Best Teachers award from State in the year 2011.

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