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Workshop Světlanka 2012

17. - 20. září Rokytnice nad Jizerou

Nhan Phan Thanh Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics, Czech Republic. Tel. +420 773 06 18 35. Email:
Abstract: The article presents simulation of geocomposites reinforced woven fabric to predict elastic behaviour and initial failure of them in tension. Author used TexGen and Ansys softwares which combine integration of models and design tools for different hierarchical scales of textile composites with integration from making model, assigning material to the composite part to analyzing strain and stress states in them. The properties of the textile composite are determined by the architecture of the reinforcement and properties of the constituents. The attention is focused on prediction of the mechanical properties of textile composites: stiffness, strength and initial failure resistance. Results from simulation were also compared with from experiment. Key words: 3D-simulation, prediction, geocomposites, woven fabric

1 Introduction
Geocomposites are fibre reinforced composite materials, which combine geopolymer and form of a textile fabric (woven, knitted, braided…) [10]. The excellent mechanical properties of geocomposites are lightweight, high relative strength, and ideal fire resistant (can sustain temperatures up to 1250oC with long term exposure) but non toxic fumes and smokes, and resisting all inorganic solvents [1]. In the other hand, the use of woven fabric brings benefits in handability of the fabrics (hence in automation possibilities and in cost) and in easier applicability of closed-mould processes. However, the woven fabric is created by the placement of interlacing the yarns that means waviness of yarns are formed. This leads to drawbacks in comparison with unidirectional laminates: lower stiffness of the composite due to inclination of fibres to the direction of the loading and somehow earlier damage initiation due to the presence of resin-rich zones created by the internal architecture of the textile. The complex structure of textile composite comprises several hierarchical levels: macro (composite component or sub-component) – meso (unit cell of the reinforcement structure) – micro (fibre placement inside yarns and fibrous plies). The most specific to textile composites is meso-level, where the structure-dependent behaviour of the material is most pronounced [10]. The attention of paper was focused on prediction of the mechanical of textile composite and analysis of strain and stress in unit cell of the composite. Results from simulation were also compared with from experiments.

2 Experimental design
2.1 Experiment to measure mechanical properties of resin The geopolymer resin were produced from amount of white powder called Aluminosilicate FC4 and a little grey powder called Metakaolin M4 and activator solution NaOH/KOH with a mass-in-gram ratio 100:14:90. This combination were stirred by machine generated a completely homogeneous resin. The resin was put then in a fridge within 10 minutes before of use.The homogeneous resin was poured into cylindrical molds for making compression samples and into beam-shape molds for making flexural molds. All geopolymer samples were dried naturally and kept in a room condition for 30 days before of test. The mechanical properties of geopolymer resin (isotropic):

Two fixed regions of samples were spread geopolymer resin with the purpose of hardening them in oder to grip more easily.23% 2.Workshop Světlanka 2012 17.20. 120 mm long. the weaves are cut for suitable dimension of the rectangular shapes. The time for vacuum and curing are 1 hour and 24 hours. The samples were fixed by two special grips inserted rubber pads to protect fabrics from tearing (fig. In general.24 mm Yarn width: 1.0 mm Yarn height: 0. All composite samples were tested on Universal Tensile Testing machine Tira Model 2810 with a rate of 1 mm/min. correspond to εut = 0.05 ρ = 1.05 σut = 27.2 GPa E2 = E 3 = 15GPa G12 = G23 = G31 = 8 GPa ν12 = 0.8 mm Yarn spacing: 2. září Rokytnice nad Jizerou Density: Young modulus: Shear modulus: Poison ratio: Ultimate stress in tension Ultimate stress in compression ρ = 2 g/cm3 E = 11. 1a shows a fabric structure.3 Experiment to measure mechanical properties of geocomposite The fabrication method of samples is manufactured by hand lay up technique.8 MPa. 1c). Composite failure a b c d The main properties of woven fabric Name: Carbon HTS 5631 800tex 12K Model: Plain Density: 200 g/m2 Thickness: 0. 2.38 ν23 = 0. Fabric samples for tensile testing were cut in warp and weft directions with dimensions according to EN ISO 13934.44% σuc = 88. Then they are placed on the flat plate and rolled with resin by a handing roller. The dried composite plate is removed from furnace and is cut into specimens for tension mode in accordance with ASTM C 1275 – 00. Continuously. Total procedure can be described shortly in the following. Carbon woven structure b.57 GPa ν = 0. All samples were tested on Universal Tensile Testing machine Tira Model 2810 with a rate of 1 mm/min. and 0. Firstly. geocomposite plate is put in vacuum bagging to remove the bubbles mixed in matrix.35 ν31 = 0. specimens have 15 mm in width and 220 mm in length approximately (Fig.9 MPa.2 Experiment to measure mechanical properties of fabric Carbon woven fabric were used to make geocomposite. Fig. the plate is cured in a furnace setup at optimal temperature 80oC and compressed by a mass. . The mechanical properties of a single fibre (orthotropic) E1 = 25. 1 a. 1b). correspond to εuc = 3.24 mm thick. Finally. Tensile region of samples has 60 mm wide.12 mm . Tensile test of composite d.7 GPa G = 5.77 Mg/m3 σu = 284 MPa Where E1. σu were determined from experiment while the others were obtained from the producer. Fig. Experiment results show that mechanical properties of carbon textile in warp and weft direction are similar. Tensile test of fabric c.

září Rokytnice nad Jizerou Here are properties of geocomposite reinforced carbon woven fabric.05 T C s1u = 199MPa .15 GPa ν12 = ν13 = 0. Two symmetrical layers In order to save time and memory of a computer. εu = 2.4 MPa. ν23 = 0.. All the parameters can be showed in a unit cell by TexGen software. yarn width. s1u = 317MPa sT = 26MPa . 3).20.39 Fraction of resin volume: 0.b). Fig. The cross section of yarns was assumed eliptical shape. εu = 2.1 Model of internal architecture of woven laminate A geometrical model of woven fabric can describe actual placement of the yarns in unit cell space and can calculate dimensions and waveness (crimp) of the yarns. Number of layers: 5 Thickness: 1.40% In weft direction: E = 12. yarn height.. Both models used the preceding geometrical parameters of fabric.5 GPa. E1 = 14.5 GPa σu = 190. 2u sC = 352MPa 2u 1 3 2 Fig.40 In warp direction: E = 12. The data inputs are given to the geometrical model: type of interlacing.2 Mechanical properties of constituents in a repeating unit cell The matrix encompasing yarns are considered isotropic material while the yarn in a unit cell are attributed orthotropic. Assuming that combination fibers and resin with a good adhesion (fig.41GPa .6 GPa σu = 193. Mechanical properties of yarns can be calculated by theory of unidirectional lamina micromechanic (included fraction of void volume).9 GPa G12 = G13 = 6. Two skew-symmetrical layers b.4 MPa.Workshop Světlanka 2012 17. shape of yarn cross section.48 mm Density: 1. E2 = E3 = 12. 3. 3 Simulation of the repeating unit cell of the geocomposite 3. number of warp yarns and weft yarns and number of layers in a unit cell. . G23 = 6.43% Experiment results show that mechanical properties of geocomposite in warp and weft direction are nearly similar. fabric thickness.17 . 2a.51 g/cm3 Fraction of fibre volume: 0. 3 The geometrical model of a tow t12u = 19MPa . two geometrical models used in a research are unit cell with two skew-symmetrical layers and with symmetrical layers (fig. 2 The geometrical models of a repeating unit cell of composite material a.

The Young modulus was determined: E = ave e ave . However.t c thickness of a unit cell. H11.583 mm are the width and save = w c . That means the strength of geocomposite from simultion agree with experiment while the strain at the ultimate stress is much lower than experiment.å RFx is the total reaction force at the displaced edge. Because the tension strength of carbon fiber are much higher than thoes of matrix. But in each layer the longitudinal tows are mostly subjected loads.01 mm. we imported them to Ansys software and assigned mechanical properties to the yarns and the matrix. Finally.c. when observing two fabric layers.The average strain in the x-direction in a unit cell were also calculated dw c . Models were meshed with total 36173 nodes and 40701 elements. . we calculated the average strains and stresses in the cell.02 mm. the longitudinal and transverse stresses at a point in cell.0. The next steps were to mesh the parts in the model and to make boundary conditions..3 Finite element solving and post-proccessing After creating geometric models of a unit cell. This is understood that the specimen could slip at grips. the failure indices at each point in matrix and in tows. Outputs from models were: .. Figure 4b. we assume that tension failure of geocomposite depends on fibers completely. We can see that the maximum stress concentrates at a place on matrix and longitudinal tows. H22. The boundary conditions can be described as followings: for two faces that are orthogonal to x-axis. the average stress in the xdirection in a unit cell was calculated å RFx . září Rokytnice nad Jizerou 3. We can realize that the behaviours of geocomposite from simulation of two geometrical models are nearly similar with the same elastic modulus E = 13 GPa. where are the middle of transverse tows. 0. H2. H66. H12 were determined in terms of the strengths of tow. describe a spectra of distribution of Von-Mise stress on matrix and tension stress on tows.A failure index was calculated at each point for matrix and tows: s 2 2 FIm = vonMise . where δwc is the prescribed displacement e ave = wc s . we obtained the total reaction force at the displacement edge of the cell. FI t = H1s1 + H 2 s2 + H11s1 + H 22 s2 + H 66 t12 + 2H12 s1s2 2 sT mu Where FIt is the Tsai-Wu criterion. 4 Results and Discussion We repeated to prescribe the x-displacements (δwc) to the unit cell with values: 0. tc = 0. .0138. Additionally.1 mm and solved the problem by Ansys.Workshop Světlanka 2012 17. correspond to the average strain is 0. the failure . Models were sloved in a linear manner. Figure 4a. these behaviours rather overestimate because they were simulated linearly. . From this. where wc = 4 mm . if compared to experiment. Inspection of the failure index of tows. the factors H1 . Nextly. we can see also that tensile load shares equally on them. However. we can point out that the failure index of tows (FIt) reaches to 1 at the middle of longitudinal tows when the average stress in a cell get value of 178 MPa. shows tension graphs from experiment and from simulation. which is equivalent to experiment.20. one face is fixed in the x-direction while the other moves translationally in the x-direction.

206 7. 3. 2010.. a.Workshop Světlanka 2012 17. University of Nottingham. Thermal Analysis. in The 7th International Conference – TEXSCI 2010. ASTM. Jonathan Jcrookston. . Prediction of elastic behaviour and initial failure of textile composite. September 6-8. Implementation of these 3D models in conjunction with geometrical parameters of a fabric structure and mechanical properties of components gave appropriate understanding nature of geocomposite material when subjected tension load. Kent L. http://texgen. Predictive models for textile composites. Autar K.. France.2006. that means the matrix is damaged. Davidovits J. Mechanics of material composite. Applying some failure criteria to matrix and tows in a repeating unit cell allowed us to predict initial damages of geocomposite materials. . p. 5. EN ISO 13934.Lomov. 4 b. 2. Standard test method for tensile properties of textile 6.Lawrence. 6 Acknowledgements This work was supported by Ministry of Industry and Trade of Czech Republic under the project “Innovation Research in Material Engineering” of PhD student Grant TUL. 1633-1656.D. Thermal-Mechanical behavior of silica-based geopolymer-carbon composite. 7 References: 1. Davidovits J. Geopolymers: Inorganic Polymeric New Materials. ANSYS Workbench Tutorial. ASTM C 1275 – 00. 2004. PhD Dissertation. Stepan V. a.Kaw. září Rokytnice nad Jizerou index of matrix (FIm) becomes too high. 3-17. Hung T. 1991.. in The 7th International Conference – TEXSCI 2010.which reaches 8. Fig. Standard test method for tensile properties of continuous fiberreinforced advanced ceramic composites. 8. 9. Mechanical testing of geocomposites was also performed which showed that prediction of elastic behaviour agreed well with experimental measurements.php/User_Guide 10. p..sourceforge. et al. Czech Republic. Tension graphs of geocomposite c. The spectra of stress distribution on the matrix and fabric 5 Conclusions Tensile testing to failure of laminate manufactured from woven fabric reinforcements showed that the models proposed offered an acceptable means of predicting mechanical behaviour of such materials. Unversity of Texas at Arlington. illustrates failure of geocomposite specimen which is agreement to simulation. Geopolymer Institut: Saint-Quentin. Polymers and Geopolymers: Introduction.205-p. Czech Republic 4. b. 37: p. in Geopolymer Chemistry & Applications. September 6-8. 2006.20. Figure 1d. 2008.