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and Adam

Man and Humanity

Romans 5

Karl Barth
With an Introduction by Wiihelm Pauck

The most

influential Protestant

modern times reveals the central theme
thinker of
of his thought











Y.im Man mm in and Humanity Romans 5 Translated by T. SMAIL COLLIER BOOKS NEW YORK. N. A. .

Printed in the United States of America . Hecho en los E. No book may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews.E.This Collier Books edition is published by arrangement with Harper & Brothers Collier Books is a division of The Crowell- Collier Publishing Company Books Edition 1962 First Collier is a translation of Karl Barth's Christus und Adam nach Romer 5 published in 1952 by the Evangelischer Verlag This work in Zollikon-Zurich Copyright © 1956.U.U. by Harper & Brothers part of the All rights in this book are reserved. 1957.


org/details/christadammanhumOObart .Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2011 with funding from LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation http://www.archive.

has been of special importance in the history of Christian thought. "is chiefly word ekkechutai which by in later versions is translated shed abroad" but was in- rendered in the Vulgate by infusa est ("was fused"). Romans 5:12 —"As sin came into the world through one and so death spread man and death through sin. on which Barth here fixes his attention. It was largely through the influence of Augustine that certain of Paul's ideas expressed in this part of his most powerful letter came to play a major role in the theology of Roman Catholicism and in — 5:5 that of the Protestant Reformation. to all men because all men 7 . Romans "the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Spirit" — furnished the Scriptural basis for the theology of grace in relation to the and the sacraments. Furthermore.The fifth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans.

meaning "because. His interest concentrated upon the re- lation between Christ and it. Hence the words of the Apostle were understood to mean that. then assumed special significance in relation to the doctrine of the atonement. es- pecially in connection with the fact that the phrase "for that" (eph'ho). Adam upon as the Apostle un- derstood By-passing the entire exegetical and this theological tradition built chapter of the Pauline Epistle. the Pauline concep- tion of the the other two humanities. On the basis of this teaching." appeared in the Vulgate translation as "in quo" ("in whom"). Barth offers an entirely new and unprecedented interpretation of the conception of man implied in the Apostle's tween Christ and Adam.Introduction sinned" —became way the Scriptural keystone of the doc- trine of original sin. view of the relation bein the light of three The treatise must then be read considerations: 8 . and its penalty (death) The teaching that Adam's sin is passed on to all men was explained by of an exegesis of these words. sin and death entered the world through him. 5:12-21). Barth does not deal with is all these doctrines. one headed by Adam and by Christ (Rom. in view of the fact that all men sin in Adam. In this essay.

To date. 1. 1 and 2. Otto Weber has provided an "introductory report" on I. H. The Doctrine of Recon- A Karl Barths Church Dogmatics Press. J 1 . 1 Let us briefly deal with these three topics: that is method. ^J™ The God. IV. these volumes have been published in several parts: I. and IV. m. cannot be undone by of the law but only through divine human works justification that must be received in faith. editions in English have been published in 1956 and 1957 respectively. group of Scottish theologians is now engaged in the task of translating the entire work. see V. The curse of sin. is designed to consist of five vol6 Doctrine °f th * Word of God. the Apostle Paul. 1 and 2. of I. (Philadelphia: Westminster 9 . the Church Dogmatics.Introduction (1) It is a contribution to the interpretation of the chapter of Paul's Epistle to the Romans. H. The Doctrine of Doctrine of Creation. 1 to m. iThis work. begun in 1931. he says. New York. distinctive exegetical famed fifth (2) It is an example of Barth's central a theme crowning systematic achievement. by Charles Scribner's Sons. The Doctrine of Redemption. 1 and 2. 1 and 2. tion. Other parts of IV and V are in preparaciliation. but chiefly on account of the parallel between Adam and Christ which Paul introduces in connection with his argument about the universal sinfulness of men. (3) It illumines the significance of in Barth's (1) The fifth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans presents special difficulties to the exegete not only because of the intricate reasoning of its author. To date. 4. 1-4. 1954). m. both Jews and Gentiles. rv.

and sin with Christ. the first man. seen as the one entered into the world who pre- urrection all Redeemer through whose death and resmankind is saved. is and consequently death.Introduction The reasoning cially in the of the Apostle. 12-21. By heredity. pictured as the "type of w. these ideas linking men's predicament of sin with Adam. through the sexual all manof perdition. as the father of the race." to recall Auguskind became a "mass connection of one generation with another. tine's words. In dependence upon him. came to hope of freedom from receive a stress far removed their from the intention and meaning of Paul: Adam. In the course of Christian history. always subtle. espe- second part of the chapter. was viewed as the originator of sin. is particularly difficult to follow in this passage. Christ as the head of a new humanity that has the promise of eternal life. and by whose disobedience many were made Christ. 5:19). men were supposed to be inescapably caught up in "original sin"." He by figures the him who to whom sin. Indeed. Adam is viewed as the head of sinful mankind that is doomed to die and sinners. is Here Adam is come. the "sin of 10 . Barth implies. The Apostle thus appears to think of two heads of humanity: Adam. by whose obedience many are to be made righteous (Rom.

" Thus particular Pauline passage became the basis of one in of the most powerful and influential doctrines in the history of Christendom: the union of all men Adam. He tries to think through closely the tions of the Biblical text.Introduction the origin" was felt to taint all its members. He 11 . Only this those to who "put on the Lord Jesus Christ" could hope be liberated from the "curse of Adam. the first sinner. meanings and affirmaHis one purpose is to make plain what the Biblical authors wanted to say. in whom they all find their condemnation. Barth's prime to correct this age-old tradition is by point- ing out that Paul not correctly understood unless one recognizes that the Apostle sees Christ as the true head of all humanity. Although surprisingly Barth makes no direct refit erence to this historic teaching. beginning with Adam's transgression. Adam included the tri- — umphant head of that humanity which. he evidently has in mind throughout purpose is his commentary. because all its members have sinned and do sin like Adam. (2) The method of exegesis which Barth employs in the present essay has the same flavor and cast as the many exegetical essays which it has been his cus- tom to include in his large dogmatic work. is doomed to death.

Nor does Barth display any interest in the evidence purporting to prove 12 .g. where Paul also relates Adam and Christ to each other). he concentrates his attention almost entirely upon the passage at hand.. though he does not hesitate to use historical insights about the origin and the original purpose of the individual Biblical works. He refrains entirely from an inquiry into the sources of Paul's ideas. 15 :21-22. Only occasionally (e. Nor does he compare the teachings of the Apostle with those of his contemporaries and his predecessors and followers. 1 does he glance at other books of the Bible Cor. he carefully tries to bring the whole Bible to bear upon each of its parts. 45-49. and forms of speech. taking every word with utmost seriousness.Introduction therefore pays strict attention to the context of the passage he has to expound. He therefore does not seem to attribute any signifi- cance to the evidence that literature that it is in Jewish Rabbinic one all finds for the first time the story of Adam's fall so interpreted as to explain the origin of the fact that men sin. In this essay. terms. Persuaded that the message of the Bible constitutes a unity. He does not choose to interpret the Bible histori- cally. He does not refer to other commentators (although it is apparent that he is mindful of the work of some of them).

pp. conceived as a theology of God's Word.. he pays no attention to the question of how Paul's conception of Christ as the second Adam may how it is be re- lated to similar ideas of his contemporary Philo. 1949). This grand work is is." etc. ed. Green and Co. P. 2 Moreover.g.Introduction that the idea of the connection between the sin and death of first Adam and that of his descendants was advanced in such writings as the Wisdom of Solomon and the Books of Enoch. 93 ff. 1929). Elias Andrews. For him the Epistle first and foremost part of the canon of the New Testament to which. or to be understood in the light of the early Christian interpretation of Jesus as the "Son of Man. 2 New 13 . e. Christian theology must orient itself as to the Word of God.. 3 Cf. according to his view. 3 We must assume that Barth does not take account of such problems because he interpret the Epistle to the is not concerned to in the Romans manner is of historical exegesis. The Meaning of Christ for Paul (Nashville and New York: Abingdon Press. (3) There is a close relation between the thesis of this exegetical treatise of Barth's and one of the basic themes Church Dogmatics. N. that the- ology that deals with God's revelation in Jesus Christ The Ideas of the Fall and of Original Sin (2nd York: Longmans. Williams. the Alexandrian Jewish philosopher.

and of the nature and destiny of man. a system of thought intended to be Biblical it through and through. is Christological: The man the key to the understanding of crea- reconciliation and redemption.Introduction as it is attested in the Bible. to man. Barth has never deviated from the course he thus set for himself. therefore. Jesus Christ. the all Son of God 14 . insists Barth. In the course of time. or rather Christ. the Dogmatics set in opposition to brand of natural theology whether found in Catholic Roman Barth's Thomism or modern Protestantism: magnum opus does not proceed from man's knowledge of God and does not undertake to explain the meaning of the Christian gospel in the light of man's religion: it avows itself an exposition of God's disclosure of himself in Jesus Christ and of all that is implied therein for the understanding of his cosmos. In is method and basic every theme. does not man and move upwards God. Barth. the from to man Trinity It is and the Incarnation. but downwards from God. Hence he has not hesitated to forsake time-honored modes of theological thought rather than modify his basic principle in any way. has become more and more Christ Jesus tion. in respects. and he erects his theology on the doctrinal foundations of the Word of God.

36. he constructs the doctrine of man: human nature must be understood in the (III. 1) and he radically rethinks the doctrine of predestination by focusing its meaning on the person of Christ In the same way. that is. and he develops the doctrine of creation on the {Church Dogmatics HI. Adam and all his de- scendants. realize that this Christological view of implies a radical departure from all ordinary general doctrines of man. that in the light of biological or historical or philosophical conceptions of human nature. basis of soteriology made Man. its beginnings risings. its sin and its its endings. all human history. the only indispensable precondition for nature is an understanding of human the fact of God's revelation of Himself in 15 . must be seen under the aspect of Jesus Christ in whom God became Man. Finding himself compelled by the Biblical witness to ground all doctrines in Christology. that is. whom God has declared himself incontrovertibly. man and mankind must is. including the We must man traditional theological "anthropologies.Introduction only He is the "light in which we see light" (Ps.9). Rather. unchangeably for man. light of the nature of Christ." According to Barth. 2). its fallings and and in redemption. not be interpreted in terms of Adam.

Introduction the man Jesus. can undo The reader of the following essay should keep 16 . He who upon or supersedes the race begun is "the revealing word of God. But because there a higher order of humanity than that of Adam. the burden of man's and death can never be the first or primary word about man's nature and destiny nor the key to the understanding of them. 2. Man Man human be seen as resting the promise of and because God has chosen nature and human life must upon a foundation that can never be shaken. the first one of the race. because in Christ God has become in Christ." It is still (Ill. and that of every other man) is real. He agrees that the consin (that demnation lying upon mankind because of of Adam. guilt man in Christ. For. 47. nor as the head of a new human- ity that follows by Adam. an order disclosed in God's election of sin. ends for which the world was created.) that Barth's doctrine of more important man involves also a reinterpretation of traditional theological anthropology. p. Nor dare we regard Jesus himself as the "perfect" or "ideal" children of man and as such one of the Adam. is the source of our knowledge of the human nature God has made. The destiny of man is grounded upon God and no human defiance of the it. Its gloom and doom may not be is minimized.

. ." The verdict that all have sinned certainly implies a verdict on that which is human history apart from the will and word and work of God and a knowledge of the sin and guilt of man in the light of the word of grace of God implies a knowledge that this history is. 1. . Ill. He will find them extensively treated in Vol. which has recently appeared in as Servant" to a discussion of He devotes part of a chapter entitled "Jesus Christ." trans- Barth again directs his attention to anthropology in Vol. . This does not control. of man [p. grounded and determined by the pride to the point to think of . 2 of the matics. A summary of his exposition may prove writes: helpful. . it is what we mean by the word "history." Here he makes specific use is of the teachings of closely paralleled little Romans 5. mean that outside of divine in Jesus Christ. . IV. lation. What he has to say by the exegesis offered in this essay. Church Dog- whose 800 pages constitute but a single chapter. entitled "The Creature. 505]. in fact. . much . the Lord "The Pride and Fall of Man.Introduction these teachings of Barth in mind. But in the light of this The history of the world 17 . History is concluded in disobediit is ence. Thus he the When very word "all" is used (in Romans 5:12). have its which God made and with a view to him. cannot cease to center and goal in him.

of Adam the transgressor sums up this history as the history of mankind which God has given up. There no point in looking first back to one. No to its corruption [p. 507]. first man was immediately the Who all are. given up and this is to its pride on account of its pride . He has not poisor passed on a disease. . . mean that he has bequeathed to us as his that we have to be as he was. . and therefore as primus inter pares This does not heirs so oned us is not done according to an example which irresistibly overthrows us. .... cannot say Yes but only . . What we do after him . What history? is . . . . this reason why there never can be any progress — is the it con- tinually corresponds to his history. the obviously outstanding feature of world . or an imitation of his act which is or18 (first among equals). He was in a trivial form what we man of sin.Introduction goal and center God . [It] is the all-conquering monotony the monotony of the pride in which man has obviously always lived to his own detriment and that of his neighbor. It constantly re- enacts the little scene in the Garden of Eden. — the explanation of its staggering monotony. There is never was a golden age. is a Adam? . 508]. But he was so as the beginner. The sinner [p. . from hoary antiquity and through the ebb and flow of his later progress and recession both as a whole and in deand will most tail. the pride in which he still lives certainly continue to do so till the end of time.. 506]. . . The Bible gives to this history and to all men in this The name sense the general title of Adam [p. . . .

In Gen. he recognized quite a different figure. What is to him the 5: 12. as it obviously is. . He. too. . 19 .. . too. in that great and typical sinner and debtor at the head of the whole race. not as a creature only.19). 5:18.Introduction dained for We . 3 become to him. He. of course. . .. . 510]. in that dark representative of all his successors that bear his name. This other. . . thing in this primitive representative of humanity that according to . He was not the primus inter pares in a sequence. ? he is the one man by whom "sin entered into the world and death by sin. In that first and isolated figure . . and he are reached by the same Word and judgall his successors. justifying them before God (Rom. making atonement by his obedience. the sins of other men.. . relevant . covering their disobedience. . ment of God in the same direct What The fact is Adam to Paul? way [p." But how does he know it? Where has he found this? . 5:12-21 there is only one answer to this question. are so freely We No one has to be Adam. He represented them as a genuine leader. . . . the divine Word which is decisive and normative and authoritative for his whole understanding of mankind and the history Rom. too. of man? According to the text of Rom. and on our own responsibility [p. 509]. but as the Son of God and himself God by nature. and so that death passed upon all men because all have sinned. . is the representative of all others. But how could Gen. 3. but as the sinless and guiltless bearer of the sin of others. was a sinner and debtor. came directly from God..

It cannot stand against it.Introduction This Pauline argument is usually called the parallel between Adam and Christ. The former is like the rainbow in relation . Pt. . [first] the eschatos Adam [the last first is Adam] this does not mean is that in relation to the Adam the of Gen. . . man and humanity and of it is Adam and In a brief Introduction. It does not balance it. 3 he the of second. When weighted in the scales it is only like a to the sun. It . In the unrighteous man at the head of the old race he saw again the righteous man at the head of the new. [p.. criticisms hardly proper to offer that is and evaluations of the work to fol- low. Such is Barth's view of Christ. The reader must. judge for himself whether Barth has rightly read and understood what Paul wrote to the Romans and whether he has drawn the right conclusions for a true interpretation of the Christian faith. 4 Adam which the other is only a type . . I. ... Is it not clear who and what is the primus and who and what the posterius [later]? Even when we are told in 1 Cor. 15:45 that Jesus Christ is feather. 4 From The Doctrine of Reconciliation.. Adam. but rather that he first and true 513]. 512]. But at the very least we ought to speak of the parallel between Christ and Adam For [Paul] knew Jesus Christ first and then [p.. It has no independent existence.. Reprinted with the permission of Charles Scribner's Sons. Vol. . is only a reflection of it. therefore. 20 . IV of Church Dogmatics by Karl Barth.


houtos kai henos paraptomatos eis pantas di' henos dikaio- 22 . men 18 Ara oun hos eis di' anthropous katakrima. polio mallon he chads tou te Theou kai he dorea en chariti tou henos anthropou Iesou Christou eis tous pollous eperisseusen. hamartia de ouk ellogeitai me ontos nomou. ei gar to tou henos paraptomati hoi polloi apethanon. kai pantas anthropous ho thanatos diel- ho pantes hemarton: M achri gar nomou hamartia en en kosmo. 16 to dorema. to Kai oukh hos di' henos hamartesantos gar krima ex henos eis katakrima. houtos to charisma. hos estin typos tou then. 17 Ei gar to tou henos paraptomati ho thanatos ebasileusen dia tou henos.] [Greek transliteration from Nestle 12 Dia touto hosper di' henos anthropou he hamartia eis ton kosmon houtos eiselthen.ROMANS 5:12-21 text. 14 alia ebasileusen ho thanatos apo Adam mechri Mouseos kai epi tous me hamartesantas epi to homoiomati tes parabaseos Adam. 15 All' oukh hos to paraptoma. eph' mellontos. kai dia tes hamartias eis ho than- atos. to de charisma ek pollon paraptomaton eis dikaioma. polio mallon hoi ten perisseian tes charitos kai tes doreas tes dikaiosunes lambanontes en zoe basileusousin dia tou henos Iesou Christou.

grace of if many much more have the God and the free gift in the grace of that one 16 man Jesus Christ abounded for many. 14 Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses. gift is not like the effect of that one man's gift but the free cation. 17 following many trespasses brings justifi- because of one man's trespass.ROMANS 5:12-21 [English translation from the Revised Standard Version. 18 through the one man Jesus Then for all as one man's trespass led to condemnation men. even over those whose sins were not like the transgression of Adam. who was a type of the one who was to come. For died through one man's trespass. And sin. much more will those If. death reigned through that one man. and so death spread to all 13 men because all men sinned sin indeed was in the — world before the law was given.] 12 Therefore as sin came into the world through one man and death through sin. but sin is not counted where there is no law. so one man's act of righteousness leads to . the free For the judgment following one trespass brought condemnation. 15 But the free gift is not like the trespass. who receive the abundance of grace and the free gift of life righteousness reign in Christ.

21 hina hosper ebasileusen he hamartia en to thanato. hosper gar dia tes parakoes tou henos anthropou hamartoloi katestathesan hoi polloi. 20 Nomos de pareiselthen hina pleonase to paraptoma. houtos kai dia tes hypakoes tou henos dikaioi katastathesontai hoi polloi. hou de epleonasen he hamartia. 24 . hypereperisseusen he charis. houtos kai he charis basileuse dia dikaiosunes eis zoen aionion dia Iesou Christou tou kuriou hemon.matos eis pantas anthropous 19 eis dikaiosin zoes.

grace also might reign through righteousness to through Jesus Christ our Lord. 21 so that. so by one man's obedience many will be made righteous. 19 For as by one man's disobedience many were made sinners. 20 Law came in.acquittal and life for all men. 25 . where sin increased. grace to increase the trespass. but abounded eternal life all the more. as sin reigned in death.




as it is part stated in the key verses Rom. the power of God unto salvation Paul brings out the the eis soterian.Romans 5:12-21. There it is made clear that the gospel the revelation of dikaiosune (righteousness) 1 also called dikaiosis (justification. acquittal [Rom. 5:16]) — i. Translations ful in the original text have been translithave been added in parentheses where helpEd. is the first eleven verses the first of a series of passages in first which Paul develops the main theme of the of the epistle. Greek words appearing erated. the revelation of the final righteous for everyone decision of God. theme and the way 1 treated are the same. is who acknowl- —dynamis Theou full edges it in faith. for comprehension. along with of the chapter. though the context it is is different.e. which.. in each of which. 4:25 and 5:18]) and dikaioma (righteous decision [Rom. — 29 . is 1:16-17. implications of that statement in chapters 5-8.

9-10). 10. we have peace God (v. That has happened the presupposi- tion of our future salvation before the judgment of wrath (w. justified by faith). it is its positive side. ceived reconciliation". and in the presupposition of our glory. 5. The clearest description of reconciled with God". how this righteous is self.Christ and Adam arguments of chapter 5 1-11: The is basis of the detailed laid down as follows in w. and in v. That is what has happened That is wherever God's righteous decision has been ac- knowledged and grasped in righteous decision faith. of hope of partaking in God's ing to 3:23) which (accord- we must. as sinners. our strugbroken. according to God has been effected which the love of God Himhas been poured forth into is His love toward this us. decision of in v. our hearts. why it this and the gospel 30 that reveals are . have completely and finally fallen short. gle against Him thing has reached its limit and so can go is no farther. the lordship of sin over us is The same expressed in v. v. 1). "we are now "we have now re21 where we are told that every alien lordship has now become for us a thing of the past. when this right- eous decision of effective for us God becomes known to us and through our acknowledgment and with grasp of it in faith {dikaiothentes ek pisteos. and. in 11. on relation to the present.

still (v. they can only make us the can only provide us with assurance.Christ and Adam That not is called (1:16) "God's saving power. still weak (v. 2). So peace. summon us all the more to hope (w. because is. 6). to it pour forth God's love into the their hearts. so He has made commended His ward us. It will let us be put to shame For. but has come to meet us and gone be- fore us. God's righteous decision has such power to to reconcile make peace with God for believers. 10). sinners (v. to them God." why we glory in such hope (v. It still godless 6). can. in this indirect way. serve only to 3-4). has been carried out in Jesus Christ. we have taken our stand. 9-10). In sovereign anticipation of our faith God has justified us through the sacrificial blood of Christ. still enemies has therefore not waited for us. because steadfast. on this presupposition. 5). so reconciled us. In the death of His Son God has intervened power of love to- on our behalf in the "nevertheless" of His free grace in face of the apparently insurmountable our revolt and resistance (w. who quite uniquely way by which we gain (v. 8). For God's love toward us commends itself in this (v. that Christ died for us while we access to the grace in which 2) were (v. Because God in Jesus Christ so exercises 31 . (v. even in our present afflictions we can more only glory. 7). (v. 8).

we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son. we immediately become sharers in Christ's triumph "how much more" {polio mallori). we have for our future only the bold shall word sothesometha "we and there existence. is be saved" (w. as the reconciled.Christ and Adam is His sovereignty on our behalf. 9-10). Ahead of us lies salvation. Christ died for us when we were much more saved by shall is we" —on how the ground of our justifi- cation which already objectively complete —"be Here Him" (w. nothing left to us but to glory in our On the death of God's Son there follows His life as the Risen One (v. the stupendous fact that the believer may and must glory in its ground and 32 . 10). Him as well —we can do nothing but his existence has we must now life glory in In particular. When we put our faith in God's righteous decision carried out in Him. and—since. share His shared His death. 10). be saved in His risen life" it is (v. when we were yet enemies. how much more shall we. 8-9). and "Since. explicitly made clear that this is argument from based upon having with it. because this love of in the God poured forth through the Holy Spirit our hearts. reconciliation to salvation logically the fact that Christ has not only died but has also risen. — In this context Paul uses this phrase twice: "Since yet sinners.

with their past. going on from which we have only one future. and himself and other men (here. But the existence of this human individual does not therefore exhaust self in its individuality. present. It is clear that he puts the as distinguished Him man Jesus in His dying all and rising on the one and side. from the dead. believers). meaning that here. mark a point in our journey beyond which there is no turning back. and in which we can only glory. His resurrection is risen life sets the seal God effected in His death. the supreme act of God's sovereignty. It is clear that although Paul sees Christ as be- longing together with sees too. this peace. 11) when we glory in our hope Put concretely. we glory in the glory which. It is clear that he speaks of Him as a human individual and describes Him as such it- with unmistakable emphasis. that means mouth and His we glory "through our Lord Jesus. God and His work. and our reconciliation. The very 33 existence of this . henceforth we are bound to live and think in its light." through His voice. We glory "in (v. on the other side.Christ and Adam God" (v. and speaks. and the pouring forth of the love of God in our hearts. 2). future. in the first place. His upon the righteous decision of and because He lives. he also from God. of His human nature. as the resurrected He proclaims.

the certain hope of sharing in God's own glory and can only glory in existing in such a hope. future. All that is due. direc- which rather tended in precisely the opposite tion. That means that in His own death He makes their peace with God before they themselves have decided for this peace and quite apart from that decislutely decisive for their past. when He died on Golgotha and in the garden of Joseph was raised up from the grave of Arimathea. In believing in Him they are acknowl- edging that when He died and rose again. died and rose again in Him. and that. they too. He reconciles — ion. What matters most to them is that they are no decision about longer the enemies of God that they once were. not to their resolving and disposing. they have. In believing. now on. from their life. so as to be manifest and effective in those who believe in Him in a way that is abso- and them with God through His death.Christ and individual cision is Adam indefinite multi- identical with a divine righteous de- which potentially includes an tude of other men. can only be a copy and 34 . present. also. but to the fact that it was settled without and in spite of them. ahead of them is future salvation instead of certain condemnation in the judgment of God's wrath. in its essentials. they are only conforming to the them that has already been made in Him.

Afterward. and dying. they are of course asked about that also. a decision is made which at first is simply contrary to and which afterward they can own decision. them. that mean that He is in them and they in Him —and can only that to- happens quite independently of any prior love ward God from this their side. own if it de- He pleads their cause. they are dividuality is also and of all in Him. and of themselves. there would be existence in human is which they could Such then the status of this human individual. only acknowledge and carry out in their cision. But this must be understood quite they glory even now "through Him. but.Christ and Adam is image of His. and because literally: has happened. that. 35 not merely as were His own. 11). in and with His own cause. He in fact . His in- such therefore that with His being and doing. He is an individual in only beside Him and most such a way that others are not along with Him. but in their critical decision about their relationship to first God. in echo of the new glory of human existence proclaimed through His mouth. with His living about them their also." and only through Him (v. Apart from nothing in glory. and their hearts It is He who God's love toward is when this love of God poured forth in through the Holy Spirit.

Adam it He does that in such measure that might well be asked uality could how He distinct Himself in His individ- remain from them.Christ and pleads theirs. Paul goes farther than in the half by the setting the same material is in a wider context. Here new point that the special anthropology of Jesus Christ the — one man— is and so the men in constitutes the secret of "Adam" also. He re- mains unmistakably distinguished from any of them. in w. theirs of receiving. His of leading the way. In this second half of first the chapter. the prece- dence in origin and status between Him and them remains intact and irreversible. first in w. norm of all anthropology. Paul now the one man for all men. His position remains unchangeably that of original. His function remains that of giving. theirs of following. . all makes a fresh start with the question of the past out of which believers have come and in which they still have a part. But which it apis pears that His individual distinctness from them preserved by the unique way in He identifies Himself with them. theirs of copy. at the same time. It is. And. and at the same time he takes up again the question of the totality of men whom. however. 12-21 that these rela- tionships become quite clear.

the relationall ship between Adam and of us then. 12 sets out this negative relationship. 37 . 2 More probably it should be taken as a kind of head- ing to what follows. —Ed. for this reason shall we be saved by sharing in the risen life of Jesus Christ. and through to all sin death. V. a mannerism characteristic of Paul's way of speak- "A probably because he dictated his letters. 12 has usually been taken as an anacoluthon. and as death has spread sinned" men. and enemies. godless. sin- ners. "As through one sin has man all broken into the world. For this reason (dia touto) are we such as w. in the present. in the past.Christ and Adam 6-10 he had first set over against Christ as weak. for this reason through Him —namely. godless. and so in the past from which we came. Because of that correit is spondence 2 true. but stood in a definite (even if negative) relationship to His saving power. sinners. V. corresponds to the relationship between Christ and all of us now. do we glory in our hope that already as weak. 1-11 described us. as Paul has already emphasized syntactically carry out the construction ing. enemies. for that men have — in other words. we were not completely beyond the reach of the truth of Jesus Christ. sentence or expression in which the latter part does not begun in the first part" (Webster). already as children and heirs of Adam.

in an entirely different world. forsaken and we were not completely it. and in the future that opens out We were not. When we we must and we may Kingdom recog- nize the ordering principle of the of Christ even in the ordering principle of the world of Adam. we were traveling in a very different direc- tion. former existence outside Christ stood. unredeemed past with Because of cause of even in that past lost. enemies. Be- w. 8. we can now look back at that past with good cheer from —and can it. Because of that. 10. even then. Even then. we dare to glory in our future salvation —we who still still have that past. that Christ died for us while still living in the it. Even when we were weak. we existed in an order whose significance was of of course just the opposite of that of the Christ. the rule of the indeed the same as — road strikingly resembled the one —was Our we know now. 6. but Kingdom which had the same look back structure. there- fore "so much the more" glory in our present. 38 . we dare to confess that we have peace with God. Between our former existence outside Christ and our present existence in Him there is a natural connection. we who to- day are the same men who were once weak. is. godless. already a still rightly under- hidden but real existence in Him. though sinners.Christ and in Adam we were Adam.

Man's essential and original nature to be 39 . and even taking fully we are still allowed and required to confess our reconciliation and glory in our salvation. —was of us the relation- already —namely. and enemies. to typos tou mellontos. is is not that the relationship between the expression of our true that Adam and us and original nature. ship. 12. Our past cannot it." "Adam and which now follows. us. and us reveals not the primary but only the secondary anthropological truth and ordering princi- The primary anthropological which only mirrors truth and ordering principle. just because our past as such ship between Adam and all —namely. Adam it godless. the type of Him who was is come. ordered so as to correspond to our present and future the relationship between Christ and all of That is what is made clear in the heading in v. is itself in that relation- made clear only through the relationship be- tween Christ and us. frighten us: in spite of into account. as is said in v. 14. so we would have to recognize in Adam the funda- mental truth of anthropology to which the subsequent relationship between Christ and us would have to fit and adapt itself. The relationship between Adam ple. The meaning of between the famous parallel (so called) Christ.Christ and sinners. Adam is.

Christ and found. of his beginis and variation of ning and his end. has sinned his so. That our past. in the irremovable unity of the others with the one. Because was consti- by this double relationship between the one 40 . and ene- mies. Adam it Adam we can only find Adam can therefore be interpreted only in the light of Christ and not the other way round. not in Adam but in Christ. So were we weak. the man in and reprewhose de- and destiny the decisions and destinies. in our relationship to Adam. the and the death of all the other men who come him. Adam in his relationship to us. in the irremovable distinctness of the one over and against the others. cision sins the man who in his own is sents the whole of humanity. It is also after true that each of these others has lived his own his life. own sins. In prefigured. of his sin and his death. and has had to die own death. This then is our past —Adam and we all of us. Even the lives of all other the repetition men after Adam have only been his life. godless. always the one Adam in us and ourselves in Adam. and the many. sinners. But past existence without Christ has no indeit now our tuted pendent status or importance. therefore. are anticipated. of Adam. This is the history of man and person of humanity outside Christ: the sin and death of a single man.

When we Christ. Human existence. The righteous decision of God has fallen upon men not in Adam but in Christ. and then 41 . shadow of our present existence. 12. status. enemies. upon our relationship him and so upon our unhappy past. has no independent reality. The us is. tionship that exists originally and essentially between Christ and us. by the relationship between the One Christ and the many others and by the grace of God and His promise of life to men. 12 straight to w.Christ and Adam and the which others. the likeness. But in Christ the preliminary is itself constituted it has also fallen upon to Adam. know tween we also know Adam as the one who the rela- belongs to Him. as constituted by our relationship with Adam in our unhappy past as weak. 18-19. Paul's next point can best be understood by first passing on from v. godless. Now the way in which our past was related to Adam can be understood only as a reflection and witness of the way in which our present is related to Christ. It is only an indirect witness to the reality of Jesus Christ and to the original and essential human existence that He inaugurates and reveals. sinners. relationship that existed be- Adam and according to v. or importance of its own. it is now only the type.

who by what he and does and undergoes. in and do and undergo. is and does and undergoes. as such. which a summary of the whole: "As sin reigned all held sway over men) in death. 21. the one. Adam parallel itself. These verses contain the V.e. inaugurates. are also the many. is and in both. 21. He also is . the many. and recogfirst nizing himself only too clearly in him. 19: "As by the sin- one man's disobedience many were accounted ners before God. But or the less Adam. men who come after him. in is. will also and reveals what the many. represents.: justification which leads to life) for all men.Christ and to v. for the time in the true sense. all men. in Adam." V. have to be here. our Lord. so one man's righteous act (dikaioma) leads to the righteous decision which brings pardon and 18: the promise of life (dikaiosis zoes. but each rather finding himself completely in what the one Christ. be accounted righteous. so through the life righteous decision grace reigns unto eternal through Jesus Christ. In both cases there all is is the one. not one of them the is less guilty penalized because he not himself the one. for all the others.." The parallel must first be seen as such. all men. Here. lit. so by one man's obedience shall is many (i. There. the One the who stands." And then v. "As one man's trespass led to condemnation for all men.

Him the many. so also the resurrection came through one man. Thus both all all of us" and "Christ and of the start closely connected. and Revealer of what through Him and also be. In this Cor. there in Christ. not one of them is less righteous or less blessed because he not himself the One." the situation of man here sides us" Adam and man —"Adam and — from are there with Christ. righteous decision and the promise of eternal That laid is a general summary of the relationships in down w. Paul first makes formal parallel clear: "As death came through one man. One who in and does. is the lordship of sin. with it. so again. 1 18-19. The parallel is formally complete. the result for men is the lordship of grace exercised in the divine life. and has received. the result many. but each rather rinding and recognizing himself again in what this takes his place is. also for the first with all time in the true sense. are the many.Christ and Adam Inaugurator. and. do. and immediately become aware of that we connection when 43 . Representative. is so in Christ shall all alive. 15:21-22 also. As the existence of the one. here in for the Adam. men. all men shall and receive. in the existall ence of the One. all men. And there. the destiny of death. 21. For as in be made with Adam That all die.

5. This formal parallel however. not Paul's only leaves the material rela- Taken by itself. Paul does not leave it an open question whether to Adam is prior to Christ or Christ is superior leave the two side by side in Adam. whereas us the truth about all Adam tells men. remains an open question whether Adam or Christ tells it us is more about the true nature of man. on one side or the other. 18-19. to Adam now binds us to Christ. there is an essential priority and an inner superiority that would make Christ the master of still Adam or Adam the master of Christ. we find that Paul does not deal with the formal parallel between the two sides in isolation. it tionship between Christ and Adam still undefined. He does not 44 . 21. Even in w. But when we look again at Rom. bound us concern. but in a context where their material rela- tionship is made unambiguously clear. Perhaps still they will ultimately prove stronger. Perhaps sin as grace and death are as strong and It life.Christ and Adam relationship that once we see that the same formal is. We do not know whether. Perhaps Adam who pears in embodies basic human nature as it ap- all its many it possible forms whereas Christ only embodies in the one form in which it appears in Christian or religious tells men: perhaps Christ only us the truth about Christians.

not annulled or transformed even by But in reaching that conclusion we are bound to recognize that the formal identity itself depends greatest possible material disparity sides. the sin of Adam is lower than the Adam counts for less than significant the righteousness of Christ. But to discover this 45 . have already seen that on both sides there is so that the formal identity of the one human nature which sin. So also the relationship of the many to Adam is less than their is other relationship to Christ. He also concerned to make quite clear the material relationship of these lel sides. not enough for him in to show that life in Christ helps to explain life is Adam.Christ and Adam It is a merely formal relationship. Therefore the status of status of Christ. and that in two different ways it is shown to be subject to the ordering of God its Creator. The only thing that common to both relationships is that in two different contexts true human nature is revealed. We is two formally paralno uncertainty can remain. upon the and the rest of between the two For what we have said about it Adam rest of us is only valid because corresponds with what we already know about Christ and the us so that ticity of it is who vouches for the authenAdam and not Adam who vouches for the Christ authenticity of Christ.

because Adam's humanity is a provisional copy of the real 46 . priority Adam and before Adam is to relationship to Christ has an essential and superiority over our relationship Adam. the head "first man only because he is below and is because his claim to be the of humanity like Christ truly man" and only apparent. We are men because we. man is "The first man is of the earth. Adam is beneath. only are not his because Adam Our not our head and we members. We are real men is in our relationship to Adam. The same as it human nature appears in both but the humanity of reflects Adam is only real and genuine in so far and corresponds to the humanity of Christ. earthy. us like Adam. And this difference is that our relationship to Adam is only the type. because Adam's claim to be our head and to make members in his is only apparent. the likeness. Christ true above. 15:47. body are below and not above. the second is from heaven. He is the Victor and we in Him are those who are awaiting the victory. common factor that connects the we have between to take into account the decisive difference them.Christ and Adam two sides. Adam not above. the preliminary shadow of our relationship to Christ." That is how Paul puts it in 1 is Cor. because above Christ. Our human nature is preserved by sharing Adam's nature.

And so. It is not even a case of power against power. but of man's He against God's truth. on the other side. godless. in our past as weak. That is why we cannot against the man rest content with the formal parallel and why the question about the priority and superiority of one side over the other can only be answered in one way. we are in this provisional way still men whose nature reflects the true human nature of Christ.Christ and Adam so as humanity that dren and is in Christ. and between our bond with him and our bond with Christ. but of man's powerlessness against God's power. sinners. not of truth against truth. and enemies. The main point of Rom. And Adam's chil- heirs. its visional formal structure can and must even in its perversion be the same. Right from the start we have to take account of the essential disparity between him and Christ. and. Least of all is it a case of God against of this world against of God the Creator God—a god —but simply one God. This is not a case of right against right. The whole argument character of Adam turns on this provisional and of our human nature in its relation to him. because our nature in Adam is a procopy of our true nature in Christ. the same one God for man. 5:12-21 47 is that here man . but of man's wrong against God's right.

because the in guilt and punishment we incur Adam have no independent reality of their own life but are only the dark shadows of the grace and we find in Christ. That is the point which Paul is making clear in is the middle section. and so be the precursor of Christ. God in such a that. his wrongness. 15-17. w. there relationship to Adam two are with for- his relationship to Christ. although the is really the greatest and most fundamental disparity between them. It should be noticed that this passage comes before w. The point here that when we compare man's mally symmetrical. even in his opposition. that even as Adam reflects and Adam's child he must be the mirror that God's work. his ness. still Even it in his bad relationship to Adam. to Our relationship Adam is a subordinate relationship. he is remains man. 48 . and the structure of his nature such that his can find its meaning and still fulfillment in good relationship to Christ. Even under the lord- ship of sin and death his nature is human it nature will and so is the image and likeness of what life. be under the lordship of grace and essential disparity That is how the is between Adam and Christ con- tained within their formal identity. and his powerless- he must be a witness for God. 18-19.Christ and stands against Adam way lie.

the heis and the on both sides in w. 15b gives the reason for the one of course. 18 shows. is The of these in v. houtos to charisma — oukh hos to para- literally: "It is not the same with grace as other words. V. 18-19 is introduced as a corollary of the disparity between them." In sin. true that the sin (paraptoma = peccatum) of the many. brought about the death of its not only as consequence but as something directiy . It is. It is by first emphasizing the disparity that he comes polloi. to recognize the identity as well. this statement. the sin of Adam is not comparable with the grace of Christ. What he sees and says first first concentrating is rather that our relationship to Adam is completely to different from and subordinate to our relationship Christ. and which taken together make his meaning first clear. 15a: ptoma. in is not to be measured by formal identity between them. The parallel between the one and the many. as the inferential "then" (ara oun) of v.Christ and in Adam which the parallel is developed. Paul himself has not adopted our procedure of getting a clear outline of the whole by upon the formal identity of the two sides and then going on to explain their essential disparity. Adam. grace spite of the it is with the transgression. Paul sums up that disparity in two statements which have the same construction.

15a said that the grace (charisma) was not Paul to all is to be measured by the transgression (parais ptoma). 12). involved in sin. with (v. But over and against that stands the so that there other truth that in the grace of the other One. but he is affirming that the grace of Christ has an incomparably greater power to make these is dead men truth in alive. the man Jesus. itself. but he saying that its it is a subordiits nate truth that depends for validity on corre- spondence with the final truth that is in Christ. Thus. final. is The second of our two statements 50 in v. That why the opposite alone still is possible. Why "overflowed"? Because Adam's is only Adam's sin. though they are formally identical. prevailed. even before they were born. and irremovable difference between God and man. yet the difference between them the radical. That is why v. not denying that Adam's sin brings death men. overflowed. it And so eperisseusen. when the work of Christ was greater than sin. 16a: kai . It is true that there death also broke into the world of men and then the many died. He is not saying that there is no Adam.Christ and Adam and then. the grace of God overflowed upon these sin sin is many who were already dead in and with the of Adam. is compared with the is work of Adam. but the grace of Jesus Christ the grace of it God and it His gift.

so that in men have now sinned and become condemnation its first and ripe for (v. first of which prepares the way for the second. In and with and condemned. 15. which started in the one. It is more detailed than in arranged in two contrasts between Christ first and Adam. the effect of Adam's is sin is not compara- ble with the effect of Christ's grace. 12). 16b contains this introductory con- What has come upon is us through the one who in- sinned (ex henos) judgment (krima) which evitably led to punishment (katakrima). In v. The place where grace makes contact with men is in the transgressions of many. 16b it is are found guilty first him we contrasted with the completely different result of grace. What that means in practice will be explained more closely in v.Christ and Adam oukh hos di'henos hamartesantos to dorema litnot the same with the gift [given us through the grace of God] as it is with what has come upon us through the one who sinned. The supporting argument in w. the trast." In other words. the paraptomata pollon. has their relation- been completed in the many. the result of grace is not to be measured by erally: "It is — the result of sin. That is the result of sin. 51 . 17. Grace {charisma) enters in just at the point where the work of ship to the one all guilty sin. V. 166-17 v. in spite of the formal identity be- tween them.

8:1). train.Christ and Adam sin justifies its claim and that is the very place where that all men are guilty in and with Adam. the pardon is which the katakrima that follows the krima is not taken into account any more. 166 leads us to the question it is by showing us that although easy to understand it is how sin leads to condemnation. 17 that gives the real reason for the 16a. "There therefore now no condemnation {katakrima) for those who are in Christ Jesus" (Rom. sin very opposite. so that what actually follows the paraptomata pollon many) is not the condemnation of sin. But how can sin lead to pardon. statement in has the same grammatical construction as ei 156: gar to tou henos paraptomati. and renIt is ders them liable to Adam's condemnation. It should be noted that v. not strange that sin should bring judgment and judg- ment condemnation in its that at the precise point But sin it is very strange all where has brought men under condemnation. the pardon of God. but its Paraptomata after —dikaioma. (the transgressions of grace should intervene. impossible to understand how v. 17 v.. But it is v. (if through one 52 . . —pardon. grace can lead to pardon for sinful men.. eis how can we it pass ek pollon para- ptomaton to dikaioma (from many transgressions not impossible to find a into justification)? Is way pardon from sin? V.

Death. When broke into the world 12). and all the more many many also have sinned. on the one we can understand. is this katakrima. which is in- dicated in v. scheme sin man's world it had no place (v. Death man's is not so much God's direct reaction against sin. is an intruder into human for in the original at all. . now explained by bringing out what actually happens when work among men. and grace set to What of death. like sin. . all death found the is way by which it could claim men. And through that one it is lordship over the as well.). To say that death rules over all v. The external disparity of the is two sin sides. each for himself.Christ and Adam man's transgressions. That what hap- pens when as a result of his sin man is condemned. side. The thing. and the thing. that all men have died. 166. It emphasizes that death is an objective and alien power that is now its exercising lordship over man. . this punishment or conis demnation? Paul's answer that it is the lordship By the transgression of the one that lord- ship has been established and is now being so because the exercised. with 156. on the that we cannot understand. life. men is not the same as to say. that other. Think 53 men Book of . are now named. it is rather God's abandoning of the of the who have abandoned Him.

15b) and they receive the dorea tes dikaiosunes. justifying act). as soon as Israel turns to strange gods. 16b. which becomes inevitable where man has cast off his obedience to God. the logical connection between sin and That is what it condemnation cal is easy to understand. are rescued from that situation and transferred into a completely different situation. but the practilife is it outcome of death ruling over human it is so unnatural that Its impossible to understand is at all. tection. they will live their own true life and so 54 . Through the one who sinned there has come upon us the unnatural oppression and constraint of death. and the result that instead of death ruling over them. in which instead of dying an alien will death. its danger and helplessness are immediately made clear. complete contrast to that the practical signifi- cance of the dikaioma (righteous decision. With God's rule there goes also God's proand when Israel cast off that protection. Here grace overflows on all men is (v. God's free gift of righteousness.— Christ and Adam it is Judges. immediately abandoned to the hostile power of alien peoples. Men who are already under the alien lordship of death and are already dead in their sins. As we saw in v. they themselves are going to rule in life with God en zoe basileusousin. means in practice for man's sin to be condemned.

condemned is to death should ever come to enjoy the natural result of God's pardon. the logical connection between and pardon impossible to understand. dikaiomo (righteous (judgment). As we saw in v. then. that of the man who righteous in the eyes of God. the greatest hope of all. namely. the hope of the glory of God. this hope is the natural condition of is man. But now we can go farther than this: the dikaioma is the dikaioma of God. the hope of the basileuein en zoe (ruling in life) of living the true kingly life of man. This the situation which has already been described as our future salvation in vv. though it is indeed marvelous that men it. We have already seen that where the act) intervenes on the krima no more katakrima (condemnation). What could be more obvious than that a righteous should be able to live in glory of this man hope of sharing the God? is This. it can be understood with- out any difficulty at We can now see the disparity 55 . and as our hope of sharing in God's glory in v. and to live in is. there is — This hope. 1 is 6b. And so there goes with it hope. 2.Christ and Adam is not be slaves but lords. but the practical result that lives it is man receives life and so natural that all. the dorema. 9-10. sin the difference between the result of and the sin result of grace. the free gift.

On the and one side the logical connection between sin death unmistakably obvious. its due For the two is results are quite different. in a new way. human nature. and that grace that has the word about the true nature of man. is the disparity between man in Adam and man in Christ. Paul both looks back to the place where death ruled. The result of sin is to is destroy it. We may sum up Paul's two arguments for the disparity between Christ and 56 Adam as follows: The . between the result of grace and the and so once more. in life (v. basileusousin. but the practical outis come of the rule of death impossibly strange: while on the other side the logical connection be- tween sin and pardon the material is completely miraculous and living their true life is outcome of men natural and true to the fundamental nature of man. noted that here also there or annulling the truth in It should be clearly no question of denying Adam. ebasileusen. it is the result of grace is to restore so that obvious that sin it is subordinate to last grace. men will He has accurately recognized and explained both results in their inner nature and at the same time has given each place. These glaring contrasts make the difference between the two results quite plain. 17). as well as looking forward to the place where rule.Christ and Adam result of sin.

Whenever it is possible to use the phrase "much more" in comparing one thing with another. So in this case it both presupposes and affirms the identity of the two sides." which first appears in w. 15-17. But we have not yet noticed an important element in practical and in this central section of the passage. At first sight it appears to be of no importance. This is the polio mallon. it is man who that on the one and on the other God in all His finality. and at the same time uses this presupposition to make their disparity clear. 16-17. The markable thing about it is that it both connects its two terms and subordinates the one to the other. but to consider it will bring to light yet another essential factor in this situation. This formula the key to the relationship of the two sides and to re- the meaning of the contrast between them.Christ and first is Adam w. the nerve is in v. yet in external context. the second in first of the side and shorter argument acts. the nerve of the second is and more de- tailed argument is that although our relationship with Christ with formally the same as our relationship Adam. internal content. the two and diametrically opposed. we are dealing with two things that fall under the same 57 . 15. the "how much is more. 9-10 and taken up again is in the important w. in logical structure are completely different outcome.

Christ and
ordering principle, which
in lesser degree


and recognizable
in greater de-


the one side,


was not first valid on one side, it could not be "so much more" valid on the other. If it was not first clearly recognized on one side, it could not be "so much more" clearly recognized on the other. In our context, the first term in
the other. If the comparison


the entire realm of the truth in


in which, according to


15-17, the


die in the transgression of the one, because through

the transgression of the one death has gained lord-

men. About this truth in Adam the makes one thing clear. It tells us that it stands under the same ordering principle as the truth in Christ, and that even though the truth in
ship over

polio mallon



subordinate to the truth in Christ, yet in


that principle

and can be recognized. To understand why this can and must be so, we have to refer back to the use of the same formula in


9-10. There the


term of the comparison,


put, so to speak,


the left-hand side,


our reconciliation through the death of Christ when

we were still weak, sinners, godless, and enemies. Since, we are told in w. 9-10, this first term on the left-hand side is valid, "how much more" valid is
the second term


the right-hand side, which




Christ and


hope of salvation through the resurrection of Christ from the dead. And so both reconciliation and salvation are

grounded on the same ordering
find a


and both
it is


validity in the

one work of

Christ, in the humiliation

and exaltation of



within that


of Christ both can be

recognized, the distinction between


stands, for



are sure that Christ achieved our

reconciliation that

we can be


much more"



has achieved our salvation as well. In


15-17 the

term on the left-hand

side, the sin of

Adam and its result, seems to have nothing in common with the second term on the right, the grace of
and the gift it brings. In fact the one seems as different from the other as darkness is from light. But here, as before, the polio mallon forms a bond and a link and points to an ordering principle
Jesus Christ
that can connect even such opposites as these.



because polio mallon


connects the two

terms in
sites of

w. 9-10, that w. 15-17.


can also connect the oppo-

The death and

the resurrection of Jesus Christ,

our reconciliation through His blood on the one hand, and our hope in the power of His life on the
other, are
it is


two aspects


very different aspects,


single action.

For that reason, in

Christ and


w. 15-17

also, it is

not enough merely to distinguish

the truth in


from the truth in


a valid and recognizable connection between

Christ's death for sinners

and His

rising to bring life


men, there must


be a valid and recognizable

connection between

Adam in whom men sin and and Christ in whom they are pardoned and made
The only connection between





that for


Christ died

and rose again.

Adam, as such, no way leads to the way from krima (judgment) to dikaioma (righteousness), no way from katakrima (condemnation) to soteria (salvation), no way from death to life. If we looked from left to right, we would find every attempt to move in that direction frustrated, every door closed. If we could regard
the sin of

grace of Christ, no

Adam and

our participation in his


and condemwhole, then

nation as an isolated and

self -centered

would be impossible

to find there

any connection

with Christ and our participation in His grace and

But so to regard
not go to



impossible. Paul does

how he is connected with Christ; he goes to Christ to see how He is connected with Adam. Already in w. 9-10 he has looked back
to see


our unhappy past, and in so doing has brought



sin. godlessness. because the past contains not only Adam's sin and Adam's death.Christ and Adam and future. for Christ has challenged the right of sin and death to rule over Adam's world. It is it ness. Adam from and claimed it for Him- that Paul can find a connection between the two. contains also it the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. into positive relation with our present which at first sight it seemed to have nothing in com- mon with at all. light of its own. could we judge the truth in Adam no to be absolutely without light. 2]). And when 61 that Jesus Christ that light shines. Only by overlooking or forgetting the truth in Christ which has broken into the world of Adam. prosagoge eis ten this charin tauten. en he hestekamen (an access to grace in which can- we in fact stand [v. It has. But it is drawn into the light by the fact risen from the dead. The present and future belong to Christ and in belonging to Christ they are connected with the past. by invading that world and making it His own. a self way that leads Adam to Christ for him- and all believers. The truth in Christ will not allow it to be that. of course. because Christ has thus invaded the world of self. Thus in as w. not only our weakand enmity. and through our reconciliation to God. is it . 15-17 Paul though it not treat the truth in Adam were inde- pendent and self-contained.

In that world He is already King. Already erable right to represent and into Adam's place and into our place with the claim. who have sinned with Adam. the two stand together under is one ordering principle. which is power and our knowledge a closed circle beyond whose bounds we cannot pass. He disputes also the right of all others.Christ and Adam shows us the cross on which the same Jesus Christ suffered and died for the sin of Adam and the sin of all men. which in our treatment of polio mallon we put on the left-hand side of the comparitruth in son. the right. That why it is legitimate to relativize the opposition between them in such a remarkable way by the polio mallon of w. 15-17. secretly in He disputes Adam's mismake valid against Him a distinct truth of his own. He is already in the midst of the world of sin for our and death. to make our sin and our death His responsibility. 62 . and by which life Adam and all men are reconciled and pardoned and can rind again the now reopened way to with God. and the power. bringing in instead of it the promise in power. Be- cause the truth in Christ has this superiority in power over the truth in Adam. The same Jesus Christ is already involved in the Adam. He steps His humiliation. and so to pronounce God's pardon and remove the katakrima from the world.

and opened the doors and Adam can pass from sin to pardon from death to life. and the polloi (many) on both That parallel is no mere playing with words and ideas. He died also for in Adam. in dying for the one sinned the many who had Adam. is The close relationship of the to Christ. because the one Jesus Christ who took Adam's place in His death on the cross. established. 15-17) to identify Himself with Adam. He has thereby entered into the closest possible relationship with them. Of this direct connection opened up Christ has removed the barriers — 63 . Christ has the power (w. but by trying to find by seeing that Christ has found the only way to Adam by His cross. and. Adam.Christ and Adam on in And (one) that is why it is relevant to go w. and so to establish the formal identification parallel rests. And since Christ has passed from His side into the world of Adam. 18-19 is justified and made necesby the fact that although sary Adam has no power to identify himself with Christ. not upon which the two sides a way from Adam Adam is now free to pass into the world of Christ. struction of The parallel between Adam and Christ in the conw. 15-19 to point out the formal parallel between the heis sides. has thereby entered into the closest possible relationship with since.

the grace of unmistakable and irrevocable dikaioma (justifying act) which first begins to operate in relation to the paraptomata ton pollon (transgressions of the many). how could it not be ever "so much more" valid and recognizable on the other side. God which in the one Jesus Christ overflows upon the many who had sinned and were dead in Adam. it must be "all the more" valid and recognizable on the other side as well. 18-19. Since it is already valid and recognizable even on the first side. where this mystery does not arise? The second term of the comparison one to the other. we are dealing with two things that fall under the same ordering principle. For if it is already valid and recognizable on the one side.Christ and Adam between the two sides. The formula not only joins its terms together but also subordinates Whenever it is possible to use the phrase "so much more" in comparing one thing with another. is w. it is the expectation of a kingly life in the glory of 64 . Paul makes legitimate use in mallon has w. significant phrase polio its The now to be explained on other side as well. where its presence is a mystery. it is the incomprehensible yet in our case the truth in Christ described in it is 15-17. which is valid and recognizable in lesser degree on the one side and in greater degree on the other.

where it seems so questionable and open to doubt. because it we can if already be sure of indirect there with Adam. The polio mallon makes clear that we can "all the more" surely recognize the validity of this truth in Christ.Christ and Adam God — the life that has taken the place of the kata- krima (condemnation) which inevitably threatened man. is brings It and our hope of sharing in the glory of God. 65 and . reconciliation when we were weak. There. it the subordinate world of hold good in the world of originally belongs! If it where it really and it can shine in the darkness where for it seems impossible it to shine. the future salvation us. to the use of the To understand this we have to go back once more same formula in w. "how much more" can it shine in the all brightness to which surer of it belongs! We can be the here with Christ. And. 2. even only in an and subsidiary way. 9-10. is the second term of the comparison zoe (life) it — the resurrection of Christ. the grace in which. because it is already recognizable even in Adam. "how much more" does Christ. this zoe is "all because the other term of the through Christ's sinners. 9-10. says the more" comparison death —our certain. godless. according to v. w. If the truth in Christ holds good in the dark and alien world of Adam. we have taken our stand.

The krima (judgpronounced and not revoked. and from which they have already been rescued by His death on the cross. sinners who all over again make them- selves liable to the death that He suffered for them. Men are still sinners. Noth- ing happens to open our eyes. but still go on sinners all who cry "Crucify Him!" and commit over again the very sins that Christ bore away. because here amidst the sin of the world even Christ Himself seems to win no triumph. claims to have accomplished once and for the heart of the mystery is And that we are thus left in our ignorance. the katakrima ment) is . Sin takes its course. the world is still as ignorant as ever of what Christ did for men. sinners.Christ and Adam To that enemies — is already certain and sure. where we against in our ingratitude. to rescue us from our ignorance. it is we might reply that by no means sure or certain that Christ's death has brought reconciliation to men. There nothing there to stop us. who make still no thankful response rejecting it: to God's grace. This is the place where sinful man. who do not know that Christ died for them and that they are therefore reconciled sinners. successfully stand out is Him. That that is the real dark mystery surrounds our reconciliation. but is present in His complete humiliation. which Christ all. where Church and State.

happened that we were reconand that our reconciliation is no less real or this valid because that contrary. as the Christ who was humiliated by all. even in His exaltation. Is Christ less Christ because else He He is can be completely Christ except in His complete present only in His humiliation? How humiliation? And is He not completely Christ here. Christ suffers. because here in His utter loneliness by all? How else could He be all? Could He be exalted. this is which our reconciliation can be valid the only and real. if it the only way in were otherwise? No. unless was how it came about.Christ and Adam (condemnation) follows with a relentless logic that is only too easy to understand. is and buried But we have forgotten the very thing that we ought not to forget namely. and also by us. On the we had been reconciled amidst the sin. This is way in which there can 67 . He is abandoned who is for were He not also thus the Christ humiliated? Must not He always be acknowledged. dies. and so as the Christ who was humiliated for all and also for us? Is it surpris- ing that here our relation to Him is terrible igno- rance? to die Would we be and did the sinners for whom He had die. that it was at the very — moment when ciled. darkness of the mystery of we could not have been reconciled at all.

but the Lord hath laid on all" (Is. Him But the iniquity of us The place where place. is made bright. God's righteous decision has been car- Adam's pardon and ours has been pronounced in spite of his sin and the paraptomata ton ried out. in which He is to all eternity our Saviour and in spite of us 68 . more" bright our present over which the Easter shines without any darkness at brightness shines also For its on our to past. for us) Christ's decisive work. in reality. In that darkness our reconciliation has taken place. That happened in the humiliation of Christ.Christ and Adam light of break in upon the dark world of sin the Easter Day. because there He bore our iniquity for our salvation and to the glory of God. so that indirectly and subsequently we have in the darkness (where all acknowledge that here was done without us and and so. even our unhappy past when it is seen in that light. we have turned every one to his own way. 53:6). He bore our iniq- uity must be a dark into that darkness there shines the bright light of Easter. "how much light of all. "All we like sheep have gone astray. has been performed. God's decision for us has here been made completely and entirely in opposition to us. which has absolute superiority over Adam's work and all its results for ever. pollon (transgressions of the many). And is if.

the sinners. and the only thing we can be sure of is the wrath of God. the godless. that "how much more" sure and certain salvation and hope when we see them in light's direct are the same and unreflected blaze! From also. be- cause the term on the left is already certain and of which sure. falling indirectly past. certain. the that cance of polio mallon in we can go on to understand the signifiw. Again at a first glance we have good reason to be surprised. In these verses is "all second term first the more" sin. This first term here is Adam's we have become guilty by our sinning in Adam. the enemies. He intercedes for us as the Risen and Exalted And so. if the light of Easter.Christ and Adam King. 15-17. It happened in His blood in the power of which Lord. could anything make us surer of the disgrace of man? Where is there here a prosa- goge eis ten charin (access to grace)? Here the weak. and Adam's death. on our makes it clear that in that past our sal- vation and hope have their eternally unshakable foundation. are clearly their on own ground. is seems appropriate Here the only thing that the monotonous alternation of 69 . which by our sinning we also deserve to die. Would not "how much less" be more in place than Paul's astonishing "how much more"? How can we be sure of God's grace in this situation? On the contrary.

are basileusontes zoe (those who will reign in life)? The very men It is over whom death became the uncontested king. have seen. are justified through God's power? The many who guilt by their transgressions have shown that the is and It is condemnation of these Adam by right their own. Who are those who. is an endless chapter which makes completely comfortless reading. and only in the fact that truth in Christ has it is related to the all. Who. Old Testament not to be read by Here. which the whole truth in Adam it By itself it is false- hood. But. 17. according to te v. according to 16. too. 16." taken by itself. according to v. 70 . we discover how isolation and the apparit ently endless accusations at last and threats against can v. we must not forget the context in stands. itself. condemned men that God has justified. any validity at But when we see Adam's world in the context of Christ's its world. Who are those who. just as the this we chapter is not to be read by is itself. is the in Christ? sinful is man on whom God's grace has overflowed The man who is already dead in Adam's fall. "Adam as and us. be brought to an end. It is to these dead men that God's grace shown.Christ and Adam is accusations and threats that found in so many prophetic passages of the Old Testament.

On the contrary. but Jesus Christ the midst of them. and must be those sinful As we saw in w. Adam a mystery. That is also He who was crucified. are not alone. 9-11. and dying men. itself Men who share the sin of share the grace of Adam Christ. 71 . That is why it reveals sinners and dying men as those on whose behalf Christ intervened on the cross. these are things said. those condemned and is enslaved men. Behind the that can antithesis of w. 9-10 there lies no frivolous dialectic. men who men who is belong to Adam now belong to Christ. That is why His light is so penetrating. that makes His presence with have become becomes mysterious. He who and He who identified Himself with those who shared in Adam's sin. in and sin- who was crucified between the two thieves.Christ and Adam become the lords of the slaves of death that are to life. the sin of Adam. It once more from the Risen and Exalted Christ that the fight breaks through the darkness to shine on rose is Adam and his children and heirs. their self-will and self-sufficiency that are the mystery. the Friend of publicans ners. identified Himself with them once and it is for And their since He is in their midst. who self in free obedience was willing to identify Him- with Adam and his children and heirs and has all.

by making the truth in Adam transparent. and turning it into a reflection of itself. Adam's fall where it is surrounded by so much mysThe truth is transparent and reflected in this mysterious context because in faith we know the Risen and Exalted Lord. The truth in Adam of its valid. which towers over its superiority.Christ and Adam living why it reveals righteous and men where by and ourselves we can see nothing but these sinful dying men. Because we know Christ the Conqueror. not because of any intrinsic quality its it. own. The truth in cause it Adam own can stand only be- points beyond in its comfortless message about human is sin and death it to the truth in Christ. But now it is no longer from that reflection that we recognize low the truth. Because 72 . we can also know Adam and ourselves as sinners who were once condemned to die. Because we know and ourselves as men who are pardoned and who are going to share God's glory. Now we know it not only in the context of tery. but only in is relationship to the truth in Christ which lishes its above the truth in Christ estabrelation to own validity in its what lies be- it. we can also know Adam Christ the Crucified. but the Liberator. Because of that the one who is our Head is not the captive. Now we live in the full light of the truth of Christ.

are not Adam Adam's fellow captives. perversely to make look better than Now it has already been brightened entire hopelessness. "how much more" does hold good in the world of grace and life where it properly and originally belongs! If in the light of Easter we 73 . and emptiness and lostness by revealing it as the time in which Christ died to make men. has delivered the past from present.Christ and of that we. Now is Christ risen and by His resurrection He has revealed to the — us the victory and the reconciliation He has already achieved in the hiddenness of His death on the cross. and the light that there all and truth in so there must more be reality and truth in Christ. because sin. Now it is not for us either to be dismayed by the hopelessness of the truth in Adam (when viewed in it isolation) or to try it is. Now we know Adam. Now. has its make an after that past. the time of the Messiah. but those whom Christ has set free. the dawned. — just as it is in all its which has made is reality it Now we look into bright. Now we know that He has reconciled us. the present a time of grace and pardon its for And if the truth in it is Christ can prove validity even when hidden amidst the sin and death of it the world of Adam. the many. even when we were dead in He died to save us to from judgment and condemnation and end of the power of death.

w. "how much more" clearly can we see Him own world where that light has its source! truth in Christ tion it is valid and recognizable in the reflec- casts into the past. 15-17 about the Christ and tial essential disparity between Adam.Christ and Adam in His If the can see Christ amidst the darkness of Adam's world. But within disparity. 15. . Because he is that. not in an inand directly in all its direct reflection. who is to come. but clearly present reality and power! We can now bring together what we have learnt from w. The polio mallon (much more) of w. the witness. Our unity with Adam is less essenthan our true unity with and less significant Christ. so that both tionships between the sides have the same ordering principle. this belonging together there a For Christ who seems 74 come second. But within that formal identity. Adam is subordinate. 18-19 and 21 significant parallel can go on to draw a valid and between the two. it is and recognizable "how much more" valid when it is seen. the typos (type) 14] of the Christ [v. has already made it clear that the two sides do belong together to in that is way. the preliminary shadow and likeness. On both sides there are the same formal relaone and the many. because he can only be the forerunner. in its first meaning. 17. because he is really like Christ.

Between the sin and death of man. only true Adam is man in so far as he re- and points to the original humanity of Christ. on the one side. in this passage about the Law Adam's significance as typos tou mellontos (a type of the coming one) is first recognized. Paul goes on to conits sider the disparity between Adam and Christ in relation to the Law. Our relationship to relationship to Adam Christ. We have to correct and interpret what we know of because flects Adam by what we know of Christ. that to find the true to is and essential nature of man we have to look not Adam the fallen man. depends for its reality on our And that means. In Christ the relationship between the one and the many is is original. on the other.Christ and really first Adam comes really first. Between Adam and Christ there stands Moses. 13-14 and in v. and the grace of God. and It is it is in this way that he makes the that relationship between the two sides unam- biguously clear. and Adam who seems to come comes second. in practice. In w. in Adam it only a copy of that original. 20. fallen has but to Christ in whom what been cancelled and what was original has been restored. there stands the revelation of God's will to His people Israel. What effect does the Law of Moses have on the relationship Adam and Christ? Does the intervention of 75 between the Law .

Here man by the manifestation of God's favor toward him and also by the restraint of God's command upon him. speaks of Moses he thinking of the entire content of the Old Testament —He again is confronts in the same way as. ac- cording to Gen. he once confronted Adam. Here God reveals Himself explicitly and over and over again in the midst of the daily life and experilike ence of men.— Christ and Adam each other it between them destroy their relationship to and make that Paul all that has already been said about in radically false is and wrong? It is these two questions facing and answering w. in a holy place. the story of Adam is the history of 76 . forgotten truth that essentially the history of human history is God's covenant with man. himself is sanctified The with history of Israel Adam —and is the story of God's dealings dealings with of Adam's God expanded so that it covers the continuing life of a whole people. indeed in a unique way. The all hidden. in God's presence. 13-14 and Moses to His is 20. When God people Israel reveals Himself through —when Paul man 3. Here in Paradise — man lives once again and so — Adam in a special. revealed and openly proclaimed in the history of Israel by the mouth of Moses and the prophets.

Here in Israel are revealed the paraptomata ton pollon (transgressions of the many) and the inevitable krima (judgment) and train. and in the history of Israel contracted into the life story of a single For both Israel. That what happens when God chooses it Israel out of all the other nations to reveal to is alone His will for men. is katakrima (condemnation) that follow in their The whole baseos sion [v. history of Israel in all its stages tes the revelation of man's sin. where He is it so specially present and gracious. Nowhere else does become so plain that the history of humanity.Christ and Adam man. he rebels against the God who is has is been revealed to him. epi to homoiomati para- Adam (in the likeness of Adam's transgres- 14]) in shameful identification with the sin in committed by it Adam Gen. where He makes so specially 77 . The place where God sets man apart for Himself in such a special way. he becomes disobedient and made subject to the power of death. 3. That in is what happens among the people whom it is re- vealed that the history of humanity the history of God's covenant with man. in the story of Adam man's response to God's revelation is the same. always and every- where the history of the sin and condemnation of men. for is all its changes and progress. lets In both he himself be enticed away by the voice of the stranger.

shared Adam's Paul does not say a single word to suggest that the Jews others. the very place (v. not humanity outside fall. in the light of God's Law. laid to account. is substantiated as such. registered. sin ellogeitai — 13) literally. is completely perverted and because its verdict on man is the same as the verdict of the prophets in their endless accusations and threats. where. where is is it is once and for it all put on record that corded that God man gracious. Not that other peoples that have not also sinned in Israel has not also Adam. or that the others were or are worse than the were or are better than the sin Jews. On the contrary. sinful. That a conclusion from which the history of Israel allows no escape. has also to be reis a sinner. he has explicitly reminded us: achri gar in the nomou hamartia en en kosmo: was world before the Law 78 came. naked and bare. Here. it God's dealings with Israel make either to conceal or to explain impossible fact that is away the man is true. God's that Word because it represents Israel as a people lost. hard as it is for us to admit that that is The Old Testament it witness to God's revela- tion in that presents this burdensome truth without It is concealment or extenuation. before there was visible recapitula- any question of that special and .Christ and clear Adam is what He will have of him.

But there is no Law there. Adam In v. that all is have repeated for Adam's sinful act. Death ruled already apo Adam sinful just as mechri Mouseos (from Adam Moses) over men. Here ciousness of God and Israel only the ellogein (laying to account) takes place. no excuse for scorning the Jews who were honored by this distinction were smitten by it —although they to as well. 14). this substantiating and registering of human That sin. The special thing that happens only in Israel. There also men have sinned." that to say. at all times and so the krima and the katakrima apply all not only to Israel but to men. it ruled over the Gentiles around Israel. There no excuse any predis- sumption on the part of Gentiles who lack the tinction of the Jews.Christ and tion of the history of Adam in the election of Israel. the thing that distin- guishes it from its predecessors and neighbors. as in Israel itself (v. Paul already has is made it clear that "all have sinned. and so there also death rules. no revelation 79 . is is that here only there a clear revelation of the grathe sinfulness of man. is something that cannot be said about the history of the men and peoples before and around Israel. the whole history of is a unique working out of this ellogein. 12. much The paraptoand in all mata were and are committed places.

There men can live out their lives with- out having their ideals and errors disturbed. and man's sin struggling against terpret it the facts do not force us to in- in these terms —and and these terms alone. which is inesbut from the — knowledge of from the burning realization that the misery which men suffer is a punishment for their sins and so cannot be escaped at all. There man's sin can always be concealed and extenuated and there are of the truth by which fully many evasions —not from men escape only too success- the wrath of capable there and everywhere else God. There men are it. There their history can be interpreted as history of civiliza- tion and political history. 13]). There in all the triumphantly successful un- dertakings by which man tries to extricate himself 80 . not compelled to see the cleavage that runs through human existence and through all human achieve- ments.Christ and of God's will to Adam what it is. it We are not compelled to understand in terms of God's grace it. show us this sinning as is to make it known (sin is that death God's condemnation ellogeitai upon men: hamartia de oukh me ontos is nomou law not laid to account when there no [v. There it is an open question whether it is for the good of those concerned or not it is not revealed that man's history is the history of his broken cove- — nant with God.

Christ and




called progress of civilization

and help himself on in the great soand politics there is

proof that this cleavage has not been seen, that



caused no real suffering,
the worst, there
in a

that, if the

worst comes to
its reality

always an escape from

touch of tragedy which never

fails to


to the liberal toning


of the severity of the

cleavage and to the
through. Here a


needs to help




although here too he

has sinned and here too he must
things stand




where hamartia oukh

ellogeitai (sin is

not laid to account). That

pen where there

is what can and must hapno Law. Here there can be no sinning epi to homoiomati tes parabaseos Adam (like Adam's transgression [v. 14]). Adam's sin is,

indeed, repeated there but


not an open, explicit,

conscious repetition of his rebellion against God.





election, there

can be no sin com-

mitted in unfaithfulness to





cannot be slighted and disgraced. Where
sanctification, there is






Where God has given no

no com-

mandment, there can be no high-handed transgression. Where there are no prophets, there can be no accusations and no threats. The sins of men outside Israel are, then, the same, and yet not the same, as

Christ and
the sin of

Adam did,



same because what


also do, but not the same, because these


are not confronted with


and so


less badly,

but in complete ignorance

of the badness of

what they do.

This situation gives rise to a problem with which



of the


in Israel

— —mean

has to deal. Does not the undeniable fact
of the special revelation of God's will

radical separation between the sin


and the grace of Christ, and does destroy the relationship between them and




common ordering principle that they both share? Where God reveals Himself, the truth comes to light. God reveals Himself in the Law, and the
date the

comes to light in this revelation is that the place where God reveals His covenant with man as the meaning of His will as Creator is the very place
truth that

which He and



so hopelessly so specially


Where God's grace becomes
plicitly great, Israel, in the

and ex-

where in the election and
mission of Moses,

calling of




conferred upon man, just there the only

result is a special








sin ellogeitai


laid to account),

human life is openly exposed and made unmistakably plain. Here we are dealing with the optireality in

Christ and

than that


of God's



toward the creation. What
turned toward

more could be expected or desired of

He should

turn toward

men as He has

Israel as its

covenant Lawgiver and Lord?

And here

in Israel the only result as

becomes obvious,



with what consistency (a thousand
turns his back

years of

fruitless toil

man God

on Him, with what
arms to a notori-

stretches out His

ously rebellious and perverse generation. Here


can have nothing to say to
said to


but what


him through the prophets of Israel in

all their

accusations and threats.

And if that is true of the green wood, what hope is
there for the others,
still sin,

who have

sinned like Israel, and


who have no

part in Israel's distinction,

in the great

measure of grace that





there for the multitude of Gentiles in

midst Israel was only an inconsiderable minority?


these circumstances can


say that God's

revelation achieved anything except the manifestation of His righteous wrath against

men? In



is it

not the Gentiles


are fortu-

nate, since they at least

have had no such revelation,

and have been spared the burdensome service of God

knowledge and

that Israel


to bear?

They can




dreams; they can pur-


But if that is so. They can go to meet the coming destruction unaware of what lies it coming and knows how dreadful it will be. there can be no positive relationship be- tween him and God. the fifth chapter of Romans. that from God's grace. and with it the whole have been written — New Testament. and against Him. that can only tion. that man in what was already for clear in Para- man is neither capable nor worthy of the fellowship with God he is radically separated which he was created. could never or could have been written only illusion it on the basis of an optimistic timism would serve only to make the whose very opmore fearful. completed And when the revelation in the Law was in the appearance of the Messiah. His encounter with Israel only confirms dise. and has fallen into a graceless existence. it means that. they can pursue evitable their political conquests vances in civilization. If that end in his destruc- were all. while Israel sees rael in a unique way. although God's grace is present and effective in Isahead. Even the to bind the Law which came final in two together can only be the and is impassable barrier that keeps them apart. but man without God. did not Israel 84 . Because of his guilt. God exists and lives and is gracious.Christ and Adam and their adin- sue their political conquests and their dreams.

between Adam and sin Christ. For of what future grace could anyit thing else be expected than that should once more bring in its train the corresponding pleonazein (abounding) of human sin? What 20a: has Paul to say to that? He first simply con- cedes the fact that the Law reveals man's sin. "The Law has come in : between" — i. no calling and no grace. between the great barrier between sion should greater than become it is great" — them —not is and grace. but great.. alienation from the grace of God? were then the Old Testament promise of future grace would also be an illusion without any substance at all. so great that it becomes objectively impossible not to recognize it.e. where there no Law. something that even the blindest and deafest Gentiles have to recognize and deal with. so great that in the life and destiny of the Jews it becomes a factor in world history. greater than anywhere else outside Israel. the law has slipped in in order that the transgression might abound). it is "that the transgressmaller. between in fact man and God. though in dealing with 85 it they . no and no covenant. nomos de pareiselthen hina pleonase to paraptoma (lit.Christ and reject Adam in its and crucify Him and it so provide the final conhistory to If that firmation of all that had done prove its all. election. in v.

mermann — . p. all positive proofs of God's existence that Gentiles have produced in their ignorance or denial of God's revelation have no value at all. which takes place in the midst of world history. as manifest as the transgres- Adam. the Jews!'" Barth. 'Your Majesty. 75. and yet is so different from the rest of world history that other nations have to recognize the uniqueness of 3 it — in "Frederick the Great once asked his personal physician Zimof Bragg in Aargau: 'Zimmermann. The Law has come is in between so that the transgression but remains manifest sion of — not covered up. for hating the Jews. 3 his loyal master is established for all The Holy Scriptures of Israel are an unambiguous proof of what happens when man opposes God. Tr.— Christ and Adam it misunderstand it by making an excuse for anti- semitism. for based not on ness of human thinking but on the factual wita part of human history to the revelation of God. This is. Dogmatics in Outline. only a negative proof. translation. In comparison with this proof. It is not a proof of man's devising. can you name me a single proof of the existence of God?' And Zimmermann replied. The remarkable proof of the existence the Great's doctor is of God which Frederick said to have offered to time. In the history and destiny of the Jews. it but that is what makes so genuine and so comit is pelling. Eng. of course.

to happen.Christ and that there is Adam is proof that the history of the world not in the exclusive control of human it thought and is human achievement. and can be revealed in the midst of huthat is man history: what happened in the Old Testament and in the subsequent history of Israel through the intervention of the Law. but that in is there at work a Will that not man's will. can abound. The sin of it man can man and the guilt and punishment that follow pleonazein. Adam had 87 remain Adam . The antisemitic misunderis standing natural and quite understandable. The only thing that his history can reveal man's rebellion. the only thing that is his destiny can reveal man's misery. That was why the to stay to And that was Law had to it The wound had open or could or he not be healed. The Jew who provides this proof of God provides at the same time proof of his own sin and his own fall. One who is man's op- ponent in the game and whose moves are secret and impossible to control. But that does not alter the fact that the mission of the Jews is to represent in themselves human rebellion and human suffering and so to provide in themselves the only genuine and convincing proof that provide of the existence of God. The Jew is is the paraptoma (transgression) that abounded. what had intervene.

of all the scorn and hate of the other nations against Israel? What advantage have they over the Jews. on the other hand. so do not have under his under God's judgment or suffer wrath? They are not 88 . should achieve noth- ing but the final and absolute pleonazein (abounding) of the sinfulness of man. and against the antisemitic error which was not in his day. The only glory that remains to it is that. It ple. it is and will be for all time the called and elected people of God. That in the first what Paul concedes himself an Israelite. and are not distinguished by God's special revelation of grace. rather. 20 — is or. his sentence of v. except that they are not Jews. which it never deserved and to which never responded by showing any faithfulness or constancy or gratitude that might have fulfilled the cove- nant between it and God. that is the bold assertion that he. in spite of itself. who makes against the way in which own people have misunderstood their election and calling. what is left of the glory of the it chosen people? There remains to only the glory of it God's grace. That being so. is left But what. to unknown even was inevitable that God's chosen peo- whom He gave the Law.Christ and Adam is could not be reconciled. and so are not exposed to five as what they are.

neither can see that 4 become great through the inter- The Wandering Jew of the legend.—Tr. except that endowed with grace. they Jew is always troubled. 20b: would have to understand hou de epleonahe charis hypereperisseusen — "Where greater. Jew is only the bearer and exponent." became great. being less an abounding of — sin is not revealed so clearly among them. they But to see sen what Paul goes on he hamartia. own superiority over and the Gentile must go on despising sin has the Jews. while the "home". For without this further knowledge. the Jew must his go on stubbornly asserting the Gentiles.Christ and 4 Adam call Ahasver. How can their scorn and hate of the when open will Jew be justified. and so makes trouble the for himself and his fellow men. and crushing. of the sinful life that they secretly living and of the hidden destiny that they sin which becomes great in Jew is their own sin. are spared such sin have to endure? The the existence of the they. Should alone and kept all it they not be grateful to the Jews because they have borne the burden of God's grace from falling upon. the themselves are sign. they have somewhere to are untroubled. . other men? that. grace became much Where that is not recognized. sin to say in v.

must have been thinking here of one people of Israel. and that Israel's des- proof of the existence of God. But what does it mean to say that grace much great? greater at the very place where sin became became From the whole context of the chapter. he cannot possibly understand that Israel's sin is the exposure of the sin of tiny is all men. Paul thing. because he persists in his let bellion against grace and cannot possibly his himself be convinced. Jew and non-Jew each must remain blind to the truth about other. for from it there has life 90 . The of which is convicted by the Law rebellion against God's grace. that God's judg- ment pronounces him guilty of sin. this stock that has been cut down right to the ground and has withered away.Christ and Adam re- vention of the Law. And without it. the people that has offered its covenant-Lord and Lawgiver nothing but unfaithfulness and disobedience. Without this further knowledge. the non-Jew does not see be- cause without the revelation of God's grace. even by own Holy Scriptures and this the whole experience of his history. has been awakened to new lous act of God in its by a miracumidst. the Jew does not see it. further knowledge. Without the at the knowledge that grace became much greater place where sin alike became so great.

and so becomes Himpledge of deliverance from every trouble of the past That is and of the present. In Christ sin abounded but grace abounded even more. grace becoming much greater at the place where sin became so great. but He also annuls it. makes an end of death in His resurrection. He shows how serious that guilt God. There is no other Jew like in the place Him because He alone of His porated in His own person the own free will man who incorrebels 91 . He was the only one who completely and genuinely stood in that place. so that self the it does not have to be endured any more. But there is more to it than that. That is the fact which at one stroke makes nonsense of of all all Jewish pride and antisemitic scorn. He was the Jew. Jesus Christ. He is the living man. And comes the Christ who. having endured the punishment and death of Israel and of all men.Christ and Adam sprung up the new shoot. Out of Israel comes the Christ who bears but also bears away the guilt of Israel and the guilt of all men in His death. Jesus Christ so He also was subjected to the was a Jew and Law. He also was set where God's grace reveals man's sin. and present. Jesus Christ was a Jew. is in the sight of is so Himself the forgiveness of all the sins of the past and of the out of Israel He is the righteous man.

true Israel of God. By the freely submitting Himself to Law He fulfilled it. Not only was Christ Israel. He chose to be Israel and to be the Israel that was subject to the Law and that through the Law was accused and convicted of its sin. There a is substitution of Israel for other peoples. whose coming was the expectation and goal of all Israel's history. And just in that way He was Israel's Messiah.Christ and against Adam is God and has to bear God's wrath. beside His acceptance of the mission of the Jews? All other Jews have in the end only endured own alone freely and of His upon Himself. for He could only be God's Son and as such had to be enthat mission. But what that compared with the substitution of Christ for Israel. In this preeminent way He was a Jew. but initiative He and He it took — grafted into Israel from the outside as the beginning of the new. Israel's sin den . And He submitted Himself to the Law in order that he might take upon Himself and Israel's punishment. and so the hidsin and the secret condemnation that were revealed in Israel but that belonged to all men. And yet He was a Messiah whom no Israelite father could beget as his son. He took that sin and that punishment upon Himself when He was pronounced guilty and put to death and because it was as Son of God that He bore them. the Israelite.

It is quite true that the Jews laid violent hands upon this Son and Heir and so finally rejected their own Messiah. So also the beginning of He- brews: "By many tokens and in various ways God spoke of old to the fathers through the prophets." That is how grace became so much greater in the very place where sin had become so great where it had been clearly revealed as homoioma parabaseos Adam (like Adam's as the areth. the work — transgression). Here the notorious rejection of Christ by the Jews can be seen in a new as the last Israel. That is His Jew par excellence. "Last of all he sent his son to them saying. as "Jesus of NazKing of the Jews. 1). that something He has done and He alone. 21:37). but on this last day he has spoken to us through the son 1 : whom he has appointed heir" (Heb. 20 which must now light. 93 .Christ and Adam is He took away the That is sin and the punishment from men. 'They will respect my son' " (Matt. The appear- ing of Christ can and must certainly be understood and perfect stage of God's revelation to all Jesus Himself often ranged Himself with the prophets before to death. But there is another side to v. be explained. John the Baptist and him once whom Israel rejected and put Now more God stretches out His hands. something no other Jew has done.

Here. The time when God sealed the covenant with Israel by Himself intervening on man's behalf and so made His grace to overflow. The whole dark story of the Old Testament is only the prelude to this final act of rebellion whereby Israel rejected its Messiah who had come in superabounding grace to reconcile it with God. Israel once again and finally showed tory it itself to be the people in whom Adam's sin abounded. as in its whole history. it has only done what every other people would also have done had it received the same revelation of 94 . was bound to be the time when Israel finally disowned the covenant and proved itself absolutely unworthy of the grace of God. It is true that here at the end of its his- gave final proof of the opposition between God's will and man's will that had been the theme of all its history under the Law. grace abounded. with the appearing of Christ. could have happened. was inevitable that the people of the revelation its should once again confirm opposition to God. But in thus rejecting Christ Israel acted as the representative of all other men. therefore accursed of The for the implication that it is God and the proper object of man's hate and scorn is same reason completely Nothing else invalid and utterly It unjustified.Christ and It is quite true that Adam when.

If God was to show mercy to man by saving him from sin and death. God's promise be gracious. And that divine the cross. And all this was was only by abound.Christ and Adam inevitable because it God's grace. Christ had to be condemned as a sinner and had to die. but in and with the Law He made known His promise that was greater than the Law. If grace sin was to and death were to be removed from the world. and if at the same time He was to honor His own righteousness as man's Creator and Lord. His promise to intervene on behalf of the men who had sinned against Him and made themselves liable to suffering and death. man's behalf. God did not rest content with making known His will in the Law. so that the For a thousand years sand years God was it is Old Testa- ment of to its is not just the dark prelude to Israel's rejection also the witness of it is Messiah. Israel sinned. That intervention is the hyperperisseuein ("superabound- ing") of the grace of God. if rejecting Christ that Israel could serve the gracious purposes of God. He had to intervene on He had to come to man's rescue and let Himself be condemned as a sinner and put to death on Christ and that was what happened in Jesus is how in Him grace became greater than sin. and so the prelude to God's act 95 . but for a thoufaithful.

But that he should be converted and live can only be God's work. But in His Son God provides this man has failed to provide. were in fact carrying out the good. In doing 96 . righteous will of and merciful unworthy and it God. God does not will the death of the sinner. And human faithfulness that so the human faith- fulness of the man Jesus is the hyperperisseuein of the grace of God. And so the Jews. God does not from man faithful allegiance to the covenant He has made. They did it as completely completely blameworthy instruments. For man is unfaithful and his response to the covenant that is to crucify Christ and to give final proof he deserves nothing but the wrath of God. That is Israel and the upon Himself the shame of all why the Old Testament can without with demanding any illusion look forward to the promised grace of rest content God. But no other than He Himself is able to remove it. when they condemned Christ to a sinner's death.Christ and of intervention in which Adam takes secret He open shame of men. But to show this faithfulness God's Son must take man's place and bear man's shame and suffer man's death. It is God's will that that shame should be removed. and so to complete that work God Himself takes man's place as a sinner who is condemned to die. but rather that he should be converted and live.

Christ and

in their

they showed once again and finally that they themselves



in general, for


they were substitutes, were transgressors


deserved to be condemned. But they did it. The pleonazein (abounding) of sin was indispensable if
the hyperperisseuein ("superabounding") of grace


to follow.



indispensable condition was



the Jews

handed over Christ

to a sin-

ner's death.

When God came to reconcile man,
was no
act of

man's response

by gratia praeveniens (prevenient grace) and co-operating with it on the basis of a still intact liberum arbitrium (free
will stimulated
will): it




was on the contrary was what man had


pleonazein of


really to let Himself

do here, if God was be covered in human shame, so


could destroy

and win the victory over


for the sake of His
tion of


righteousness and the salva-

men. Here clearly

man had

to act

and coIsrael

operate and he did act and co-operate
rejected Christ
to their full


and thus brought its transgressions measure. That was of course the act of a

who stood under the curse of God, and that was hateful and despicable in the highest degree. But there is something else we must now add to that. Through this act of this people God has taken their


Christ and


upon Himself in His Son and so has Himself become hateful and despicable on their behalf and in their stead. If this people had not acted in this way, the Son of God would not have borne the curse of sin and the hatefulness and shame of men. The accusation against the Jews over their rejection of Christ
it is


in the last resort invalid because
it falls

completely null and void or



Himself. In doing as they did they were ac-


from the


and punishment that

action deserved by God's action in bearing their guilt

and punishment on
acted as they did,

their behalf. If they

had not

God would

not have borne their

and punishment and they would not have been acquitted at all. For what they did to Christ the Jews cannot be excused, but neither can they be accused or condemned. "Who will bring any accusation
against God's elect?" cried Paul the


in a later


and there he was

certainly thinking also of


people, God's chosen people,

who were


excellence the sinners


deserved death. "It


that justifies them.


condemn them?


Christ that died, nay rather


has been raised



is at

the right

tercession for

hand of God, who makes inus" (Rom. 8:33-34). The death and

resurrection of Christ

make nonsense

of Jewish

Christ and


pride, but they also take every possible justification

for antisemitism



possible to be pro-

Jewish, and



possible to be anti- Jewish, only

some reason men are not aware how through the act of the Jews God took upon Himself man's guilt and shame, how the Jews were the


instruments of the hyperperisseuein ("superabounding") of God's grace amidst the pleonazein (abounding) of the sin of man. When we are aware of


the only relevant
ship of Jews


of understanding the relationis

and non-Jews


way Paul






needs to be interpreted in yet a Paul spoke of the pleonazein or hyperperisseuein of grace, he always thought not only of God's grace breaking through into the world



third way.


of sin

and death

in the death

and resurrection of

Christ; he always thought also of the breaking down of that middle wall of partition which had limited

God's revelation to Israel only and prevented



made known

to all



thought, in fact,

of the outpouring of the Holy Spirit


all flesh.

The death and resurrection of Jesus


mean that

God has now ceased to be the God only of the Jews, and has openly revealed Himself as the God of the Gentiles and so of all men. He has now ceased to be

seems indeed to be their conflict with their Messiah. it When Israel received that revelation itself received not for only but that it might hold in trust for all other peoples. and it now been revealed as such through the outpouring of the Holy Ghost.Christ and Adam God outinside God only inside Israel. The covenant was all is have been broken secretly the beginning a covenant with men. of Israel. And so the hyperperisseuein of God's grace means not just the Christ bore the reconciliation of the Jews but the reconciliation of And when God in the Gentiles too. and has become side Israel as well. is given in the Passion narratives of the Gos- All of them emphasize that the crucifixion of 100 . Here also barriers down —taken away. God's grace was and but for it it not for one people only all men. that gracious intervention shame was not only on behalf of Israel but on behalf of all men. And own so the sin that has been revealed in Israel's history and in Israel's rejection of Christ is not only its sin but the sin of all men. How then can the hyperperisseuein of all grace become something that affects men? The answer pels. and both outside and all He is from has the same. But where the Gentiles is the link here? How do come in? The pleonazein be entirely the of man's sin seems at first sight to work of the Jews.

certainly instigated while tion it is execu- is the work of the Roman Governor. Gentiles. "were without world. and so the work of the The Jews "handed over" Jesus to be crucithat is the technical term used by the New and Testament to describe the part played by the Jews.Christ and Christ is Adam by the Jews." that God in the in- He was hung on the gallows —not And first side Jerusalem. at the hands of those who. 2:12. 101 . Pontius Pilate. Their sin became great in that they expelled Jesus from the sphere of the holy people and gave him up to the unclean Gentiles outside. but that. but outside the city gates. who were not elected and not called. they also had a part in the pleonazein of rael's transgression as the He Is- executioners of the Jewish Messiah. way they acted. according to Eph. fied — his subordinates. Since Cain's murder of Abel the flagrant the notorious outrages of world history sins and had always been the responsibility of Gentiles rather than Jews. its not directly the work of the Jews. in that highly significant way He came for the time to the Gentiles. And because that was the way came. And like the Jews they also had a part that did not call for any positive co-operation or good By the will. And it was at the hands of these unclean Gentiles. they made it obvious that they were no better than the Jews.

He pro- nounces the judgment by which Jesus made a He has to die. the direct murderers of Christ. whose sins were often worse than the sins of the Jews. we might. but if we could forget this greater requirement. in retrospect. But however may be. forgive them. Is then his handwashing only hypocritical and they saying of — not Luke 23:34 it is as simple as that.Christ and Adam More was required of the Jews than of the Gentiles. And the part they play there shows that they are the flagrant sinners. for Jesus' death and however one apportions the guilt between Jews and Gentiles. for know not what they do" — refers in its context not to the Jews. The "Father. wonder whether the accusations and threats of the prophets justly might not have been more that aimed at the Gentiles. it is still and execution of Jesus true that in the condemnation the Gentiles are actively involved. indeed applicable only to them for they are the men whom Paul de- 102 . The first is Gentile who sin- has dealings with God's Son ner and by which is called Pilate. Christ's grave. who first re-emerge from the back- ground later. but to the Gentiles It is who have carried out the actual crucifixion. He orders the execution of that judgment. He sets the watch on He is responsible for completing the act which the Jews are equally responsible for beuseless? Perhaps ginning.

Christ and scribes in Adam sinned without the w. They did not. that And it is for them that know what they Christ now prays what they have done may be forgiven them. the men who know Law and against so were not convicted of their sin. made in due form common 103 cause with the Jews . ter On the contrary: in Pilate's encoun- with Jesus. Jesus. 13-14. and could later be proclaimed as such in the missionary preaching of the Apostles. were doing. tainly not be What was done will an act of good there was ceron the part of the heathen world. the Gentiles at the eleventh hour recapitulated in themselves the whole history of Israel. When He came to judged and executed by Pilate. that they who in their ignorance did not were sinning God. Does that mean that Christ died for these Gentiles sin that and for the abounded in them? Does that mean them that He has taken sin and death away from from the Jews? That was what Paul believed and what the whole New Testament believes. in fact. One of them is that he was the Gentile who received Jesus from the hands of the Jews. There are several good reasons as well as why Pilate's name should have a place in the Creed. That was what was revealed to the Apostles on the day of Pentecost. the Jewish Messiah. became the Saviour of the world.

They now cease to be mere spectators and become fellow workers in this for the salvation of critical event. the non-Jews in the person of Pilate man- aged to enter into the very heart of the revelation in the Law. the reconciliation of the world. in all serious- ness. This happened that they might in due as it form have a share in the pleonazein (abounding) of the transgression. and might show beyond all doubt that they are no better and no worse than the Jews (w. This not merely a religious reconciliation. 13-14). to share Israel's curse At the very last moment before the door was closed. They are also the instruments by which God accomplished his righteous and merciful will men. but. but. and Pilate and the Jewish churchmen worked hand in glove once more. its and was on the point of reaching its goal end. from From now who have no Law now on. through Jesus. the cluded in God's gracious purpose in reconciliation of the world with Himself. for the Passion narratives make it clear how. and so came and shame. even the Gentiles are without excuse. They also co-operate as sinners could it be otherwise? —and —how is so they also are inthis event. Pilate and Herod were reconciled.Christ against and Adam and hatefulness God. there is no accusation or condemnation against them because 104 . on.

For now they have openly shared in the pleonazein of the transgression. as well as for clean Jews. Pontius Pilate certainly does belong in the Creed. It is He is not the missionary first preaching of the Apostles that makes Him Saviour of the world. just there grace has be- come very much grace. What have we learned from w.Christ and the death Adam and resurrection of the Saviour of the world have taken their guilt and their condemnation away. That preaching can only witness to One who has already died at the hands of both Jews and Gentiles and has in His resurrection revealed the whole world's reconciliation to God. for unclean Gentiles. at the He who hands of unclean Gentiles. pouring of the Holy Spirit upon jectively possible all flesh The outbecame obsuffered. died and rose again. transgression "But where the became great. through what this Pontius Pilate did with his guilty-innocent hands. 13-14 and 20? They have shown us that between the sin of Adam and the grace of Christ there is a barrier which man 105 ." And so they also have a share in the hyper perisseuein ("superabounding") of God is now revealed not only as the God of the Jews but also as the God of the Gentiles. that they might be reconciled to God. the Advocate for all flesh. greater.

Christ and is Adam has espoused man's unable to cross. God has crossed this re- fused. it His Law. He is has done well what man has That is the secret of His revelation in the the secret of the closing Law in Israel. The history of Israel under the Law 106 . His contribution and crucifixion of the Messiah of who is also the Saviour of the world. But God cause. to He has done that by electing Israel and giving He has done it by causing His own Son become man as an Israelite and by making Him Law. Where man has refused. takes man's transgression seriously God upon by taking it Himself: He Himself becomes the sinner and dies in man's place and so makes both sin and death pass away. He only the rejection Israel. he God. Adam and Christ are thus distinguished from each other. When God and unique embraced man's cause in the this special way. confronted with as in rebellion against this subject to the act of God. That and completion of that revelation in Jesus Christ. But man. the men who done ill. man's reaction proved conclusively that he was still Adam he had been from the beginning. But barrier. is not willing to cross the barrier that divides sin is from grace. God has not He Himself has come to the rescue of refused. has revealed that both is Jew and as Gentile.

but Christ. the 5 about the superiority and priority of the grace of Christ over the sin of Adam. without ceasing to be Christ. Jesus Christ is the secret truth about the essential nature of man. and. The Law the ex- Adam from the grace of Christ. the decisive proof that lationship to Adam is subordinate to Christ. 14]). the Reconciler. Adam does not become Christ. but by fulfilling the Law Christ can take upon Himself Adam's sin. typos tou mellontos (a type of the one to come [v. Adam excludes Christ: but Christ includes Adam. and indeed just because He is Christ. becomes identifies Adam as well. for Paul. and even sinful man is still essentially 107 . but that there grace of Christ to the sin of cludes is a way from Adam. retract from the Law that stands midway between account is And so what to take the Law into not to is said in the rest of Rom. Adam witness to Christ. and that our reAdam is less essential than our relation- ship to Christ. To know what Law means is rather the strongest. That is we learn about the relationship between Christ what and Adam them. And because Christ thus sin Himself with Adam's the sinner becomes a and Adam's death.Christ and Adam sin of shows that there is no way from the Adam to the grace of Christ.

a sharply-defined individual. He in His individuality is theirs. and how. 1-11. as is He clearly the representative of an undeter- mined multitude of other men. without ceasing to be distinct their life an image and reand must work out the destiny that overtook them in Him. They have to identify themselves with Him. individuals. must make flection of His life but neither can there be any question of any abstraction or separation. 5:12-21. If we read that first part of the 108 . are as yet indissolu- the guarantee of their indissoluble unity with as receivers are subordinated They and bly related to Him as Giver. according to is w. In His tiny life and des- He represents and anticipates their life and their destiny so that they.Christ and related to Adam Him. shall try to Now we We have seen how. they as members subordinated and yet indissolubly united to Him Head. There is no question of any merging or any confusion between Him and them. and so they in their individuahty can only be His. Jesus Christ such. because He has already identified Himself with them. That is what we have learned from summarize our conclusions: Rom. 1-11 only speak of Jesus Christ and those believe in Him. who But w. The is ineffaceable distinction between Him and them Him.

the first is no further mention and that last continually used in w. from man as what Paul says about the "religious" relationship between Christ and Christians. The fact of Christ is here presented as all something that dominates and includes men. Here "religious" presuppositions are not once versally. we might quite easily conclusion that for Paul Christ's cant only for those who are united to Him in faith. The na- nature of Christ objectively conditions human 109 . We could not then expect to find in the manhood of Christ the key to the essential nature of man. 21) replaced by a quite general third person plural. The context world history. hinted at. We would then have no right to draw any conclusion about the relationship between Christ and such.Christ and Adam come to the manhood is signifi- chapter by itself. is widened from Church history to from Christ's relationship to Chris- tians to His relationship to all men. But in w. 12-21 Paul does not limit his context to Christ's relationship to believers but gives funda- mentally the same account of His relationship to all men. What is said here applies generally and uni- and not merely to one limited group of men. It should be noted that in these verses there person plural which is of faith or even of the gift of the Holy Spirit. 1-1 1 is here (with the exception of the phrase of v.

put in v. and as such must die. There sin rules. If account of the same subthe dia touto (therefore) we have understood of v.Christ and ture Adam difall and the work of Christ makes an objective life ference to the and destiny of men. 12 rightly. and all men become sinners and unrighteous in Adam. idle The question raised here — as distinct from w. by placing it and more general context. bringing them and opening before them a all with God. "grace rules. his intention was rather to consoli- date the special account he had already given of the relationship between Christ in this wider and faith. tian is just not raised at it mark of the ChrisWhat we are told is what means for man as such that his objective relation- ship to Adam is subordinate to and dependent upon and included in his objective relationship to Christ. The spondence to what happens to question about what is the special all. 1-11 the relationship between Christ and all Paul had obviously no intention of fathering an and arbitrary speculation this further when in this passage he passed on to ject." as 21. Our standing 110 . In short. in exactly the same way. Through Christ grace overflows pardon and prospect of it is justification life upon them. —concerns men. And that is in exact corre- human nature in its objective relationship to Adam.

as vv. have come because to Christ as believers we had is already come from 1-11 is that there in was nothing else for us to do but believe not just "reli- Him. godless. words of w. nothing in true human nature can ever attack or surpass or annul the objective reality of the Christian's union with Christ. and enemies. 1-11 have described because it. heirs. tian is is What Chris- secretly but fundamentally identical with what universally human. What said in w. We tians. 1-11. sinners. is 1-11. specially qualified. gious" truth that only applies to specially talented. Him Adam's children and in the For even when we were.Christ and as believers is Adam it. or specially guided men. whether they know it or not. it is truth for all men. so under His power. Christ died for us and so brought us into His Kingdom and and ChrisChrist." but nothing in true human nature is 111 . Much in true human nature is unrelated to "religion. weak. Nothing in true human nature can ever be alien or irrelevant to the Christian. as 12-21 describe is Our relationship to Christ as believers based upon our prior relationship to heirs. as surely as they are all Adam's children and it is The is assurance of Christians. has as its basis the fact that the Christian sphere not limited to the "religious" sphere. as described in w. our standing as men is as w.

So Christ that reveals the true nature of man. That a an incalculable significance for all our action and thought. Vv. therefore. In the same way there are no other 112 . at the same time. man in Adam who sins and dies. What Rom. To reject this passage as empty speculation is tantamount to denying that the is human nature of Christ the final revelation of the true nature of man. human nature as found True human nature. it is and Adam stands below and is second. has his life so ordered that he is both a distinct individual and. That means that can understand true human nature only in the of the Christian gospel that we believe. Man's nature in usually assumed. his true Adam it is not. 12-21 are revolutionary in their insistence that what Christians must also be true of principle that has all is true of is men. can only be understood by Christians who look to Christ to discover the essential nature of man. as is and original nature. For Christ stands above and is first. 5:12-21 is specially concerned to make clear is that man as we know him.Christ and Adam we light unrelated to the Christian faith. reflects it is it is only truly human at all in so far as and corresponds to essential in Christ. the responsible representative of humanity and of all other men.

at the same he is way losing his individuality. without in any is men are.Christ and Adam responsible representatives of humanity than individual men. and dying men understood in that man correctly But have we when we understand him that way? Could not all be quite wrong? Might not humanity be a corporate personality of which individuals are only tions or fragmentary parts? insignificant manifesta- Or might not the whole notion of humanity be a fiction. Rom. He always for himself and so. and so only in relation to like ourselves. always for this all men. We are what fellow men. 5:12-21 points in neither of If we base our thinking on this pasnothing to do with either collec- we can have 113 . and. That being it can we build on foundation? Is true that essential human na- ture must always be the existence of the man in humanity and of humanity in the man? nize that. And is the one at Adam was and so are all our Adam is what we and all time. first. sentative of all the responsible repre- men. and the reality consist only of a collection of individuals each essenunrelated to the others and each responsible tially only for himself? these directions. Man once an individual and only an individual. sage. We recog- only in relation to Adam and the many who sinful are like him.

Adam subordinate to Christ. What ity for Paul's author- basing a categorical conclusion about the structure of human nature upon nothing sounder than his knowledge of fallen man? We have seen that Paul dares to draw this conclusion because he sees Adam Christ. 114 . not in isolation but in his relationship to And for him Christ and Adam do not repre- sent two conflicting interpretations of human nature. 1-11 is shows that Paul has no doubts in all. and might seem questionable to base such about the true nature of is definite statements man upon our knowledge of him. come to But how does about is its this passage be so definite it own it interpretation of the true man? For dealing expressly with Adam and so with corrupt man. The answer w. For in valid that case the doubt as to still which was ultimately would arise —and the tone of at it w. where is shown that the formal correspondence and identity between Adam right and Christ is based upon their material disparity.Christ and tivism It Adam on the one hand or individualism on the other. and power. and parity of status Adam and It is only in this dis- in this disproportion that they is can be compared. In the encounter between them Christ has more less. 13-14 and 20. understands the true man in neither of these ways.

Whatever else in his representation of human nature may have its to be accounted for by its later corruption and ruin. Adam men. like Him. And Adam is subordi- nate to Christ. The polio mallon (much more) of w. and He can anticipate their life and destiny in himself. has no essential pri- ority of status over other He cannot be their life lord and head. In Christ also. he cannot determine their their destiny. condisin. Thus he can represent same way that each of them can represent him. Adam. With one important Adam is not God's Son become man. be man. only in so far as he is the first man among inter many others. all so he cannot. only in so far as he is primus pares. he as man can represent humanity but only as one all the others only in the among others. as the one. and at the same time be over sent the men. this ordering principle at least belongs to tion and character as created and untouched by For the subordinate representation of human nature in Adam here corresponds to its primary is representa- tion in Christ.— Christ and Adam if and not Christ uine in to Adam. the man is in humanity and and humanity difference: in the man. 15-17 115 . can repre- many. then Adam represents true and gen- human nature in so far as he shows us the man humanity and humanity in the man.

When we about the true nature of terms of this unity. And so Paul makes no self arbitrary assertion. and In theirs. and and all of us. Christ is not only God's Son. of his deeds and their deeds. Where it identity taken into account. belongs not to the perversion of his nature but to its original constitution. . this unity. of his condition is. and he is not deceiving himsimply given it when he presupposes this unity as even in Adam. man. To this unity of there certainly belongs man and we humanity. although formally he differs from Christ because he is not lord and head differs sin. man He is man an absolute it is in His hu- manity that we have to recognize true human it nature in the condition and character it in which was willed inquire and created by God.Christ and Adam is marks Christ this difference. because his nature perverted by But as such. He is also a who true is not a sinner like in Adam sense. In this unity Christ like this unity of the one and the many Adam is the type and likeness of Christ. and materially he is from Him. man and 116 seek an answer in in so far are on firm ground. in this unity. He does so because he has found given first and primarily in Christ. what remains of the is between Adam and the unity of the one and the many on both Adam. sides.

the human nature of Christ and so has not ceased to be true man and to us. whom alone back. as far as this unity is concerned. reflects man. has not ceased to show man's true nature 117 .Christ and as even sinful Adam we know.




97 ality of.. 37 f . 105f. 45.. 74. 7. to Adam.. 76 f.. see Man. 105 f. 74 f.. 51-54. 90 Church Dogmatics. 14 f. 112 f. 63. 94 f Christ: faithfulness of. Sin Resurrection Christians. 18 f. individu- 78 10 f. f. material subordination to Christ. 114 ff. 31.47. 37 f. 7.. 70 Covenant. lordship of. 9 105. 95 f. 48. Atonement.... 107. and Israel.. 11. 46 f. 67. 98 f. 96. 34. Adam. 44-51. 45. Doctrine of Antisemitism. 34 ff. 86. and formal resemblance to Death: of Christ. 114 f. see also.. universality of. 34. humiliaf. 17 of. Man. as penalty of sin.. 108-12 Anthropology.75.. 112L... 9 n. Man. 42-48. material su- periority. 43-49.. IS. Index Adam: formal resemblance to Christ. 10 13-16. Kingdom 121 49 . individuality of... f. 88 f. 116.. 107 f.. see also Death.. 70 f . and world history... 5863. 19 f. 55. 63. 65-72. as f. as basis of theology.. 64. and humanity of. 10... 53-57. f.. Christology. 9. 99- 74. Ill. 76-79. tion of. Doctrine Augustine. 64 39 f.. representative humanity of. the. 41-48. 58 ff. "type" of Christ. 8 Condemnation.42. 100 f.

Frederick the Great. 62 f. 32-34. 59 Justification. History: of Israel.. 65 Israel. Christ by. 86 Gentiles: Life. 79- 70 Love. 7.. 13.. 54 f. 76 f. 82. method 8 f . 30. of God. relationship of. 13 Pontius Pilate. f. 85. 54. 86 f.. 101-05 rejection Jews: as proof of existence of God.. 30 60. 65. 16. 76 f. to Christ. sentative of ff. over f. 62. 13. 54.. 82 f. .. to Israel. Index Easter. 29-32 of. 13 of. sin.. 18 40. as gift of grace. lordship of. 72-75 75 f. 89-97. 48. 104 122 . theolof. 114- result of. and Adam. 72-75. ogy 7 f... 86 f. 58 f. 105 69 17 f. 65 f. 87 94.. One and Many. 16 Judgment. 15 f. 30. 49. Grace: of Christ. 15 f. 44. Adam. 42.. Old Testament. 55. 100. 8. glory of.. 79. Man: 36 doctrine of. 15 f. 107 f. 11 f... Law: 105 fulfilled by Christ.. 101 Hope. 76 f. 50-58. 70. as revelation of sin. 68 f Election. 94... 53. revelation to. as repre- Original sin. 50-58. 71 f.. 102... ff.. reconciled Christ. 82 f Philo of Alexandria. by rejection of ff. 51 f. New Testament. 55-64. f... 18 f. 84 91 f. world. f. Enoch. 109- power of. 70. 103 ff. 93-99 58-62. 17 37-48.. 10. 55. 90- 93. Christ by. of Reconciliation. Books Exegesis. 100 relationship of. Pardon. 34-45.. 84 f. 88 f. human sin. ignorance of. 88. 51. 79 f. to f.. Natural theology.

80. 14 Adam. 10 f. original.. 69 65-73 Righteous Decision of God. mystery Word of Solomon. 65 18 f. 30-33. 32 58-60. Index Reformation.. 13 of God.. 7 f 40. 79-82. 83 65 f. Adam. results of. 7. 123 . 13 ff. 14 Truth. 76-88. 50-58. Thomism.. 71 f. 18 f. Wisdom of Israel.. Wrath of God. 18 f.. in Christ and in Roman Catholicism. 100 of. 34 f.... f. 74 50.. 65. 30-32.. 41. 68 f.. 58 Sin: of f. 7 Resurrection. 81. 7.. the. 70- Salvation. 49 58 f. Vulgate. ff. 54 f. ff.. 10. 13. 69. 7. of Gentiles. 57-62.

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