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Abstract. A dynamic model of a steam condenser is developed. The model is based on the assumptions of total condensation and constant liquid and vapour volumes. The operating condition is taken from the static balance of a power plant.

1. Energy Balance The dynamic model of the steam condenser described here is based on energy balance and cooling water mass balance. Energy balance is based on the assumption of total condensation, i.e. the inlet steam and outlet condensate are both saturated. Hence, the heat transferred from steam to cooling water is equal to the latent heat of steam: (1.1) Q = Fc λ

where, Q is the condenser heat duty [kW], Fc condensate mass flowrate, [kg/s] and λ the specific latent heat of steam at the saturated condition. The heat transfer rate equation is approximated by (1.2) Q = U A∆Tm where, UA is the overall heat transfer coefficient times the heat transfer area and ∆Tm is the logarithmic mean temperature difference defined as: T − Tcw (1.3) ∆Tm = c ln TT−Tcw c −T where, Tc is condensate temperature, Tcw the cooling water inlet temperature and T the outlet temperature of cooling water. Hence, a cooling water energy balance yields dT Fcw Q (1.4) = (Tcw − T ) + dt Mcw Mcw CP where, Fcw is the mass flowrate of cooling water, [kg/s], Mcw the cooling water holdup, [kg], and CP the heat capacity of the cooling water [kJ/(kgK)]. According to the Wilson Plot, the product of overall heat transfer coefficient and area can be approximated by the following empirical equation: 1 −0.8 (1.5) = a1 Fcw + a2 UA where a1 and a2 are constant. a2 is determined by U A when Fcw = ∞. In this case, U A is dominated by the heat transfer rate between the steam and tube wall, as well as the heat resistance of the tube wall. By assume the ultimate outlet temperature of coolant, a2 can be determined.

2 YI CAO Table 1.972 6500 4. dP RTc (2. T .3162 68.5538 Q 9062. The parameter values are given in Table 1.461526 3 2265. P . V .1) = (Fs − Fc ) dt V where P is the pressure of condenser. Fs . two of them are dynamic.3787e-4 Unit kJ/(kgK) m3 kJ/kg kW/K kg kJ/(kgK) K/kPa ◦ C Table 2. Dynamic Simulation The above steam condenser model has five equations. α and β. Tcw . There are eight variables. [kPa]. or.65 356.8881 P 90 T 80 Tcw 60 Tc 96. it is linearly approximated as follows: (2. the outlet flowrate of condensate is controlled to maintain the condensate level is constant within the condenser.e. λ. Condenser Parameters Parameter R V λ UA Mcw CP α β a1 a2 Value 0. For implicity. UA . Condenser Variables Variable Value Fs 4 Fc 4 Fcw 107. and seven parameters. V condenser volume. according to ideal gas equation.0958 8. where parameters. To simplify the model. the steam volume and condensate volume are constant. a1 and 2 is determined by assuming T = 90 [◦ C] when Fcw = ∞. Fcw . R.6 Unit Description kg/s steam flowrate kg/s condensate flowrate kg/s cooling water flowrate kPa condenser pressure ◦ C cooling water outlet temperature ◦ C cooling water inlet temperature ◦ C condensate temperature kW heat duty 2. CP . i.2) Tc = αP + β 3.7292e-2 7. The steady-state values of eight variables at the nominal operating point are shown in Table 2 .2 0. [kg/s]. Fc . [m3 ] and Fs the steam mass flowrate. Mcw . it is also assumed that steam inlet and condensate outlet both are saturated.Condensate temperature and pressure have a unique relationship. R the specific gas constant. Therefore. Mass Balance Mass balances of steam and condensate are based on the assumption of constant volumes. Tc and Q.

the ultimate gain.45 ∗ Ku = 10.461526/V R/V 1 s Integrator 1 5s+1 sensor P P−T 1 y Divide f(u) dTm 1 10s+1 Saturation 2 Tcw Actuator Product1 Fcw Lambda f(u) Q 1/ . The closed-loop response to a step change in P setpoint from 90 to 85 [kPa] is obtained in Figure 3. Cranfield University E-mail address: y. Steam Condenser Simulink Model 4 Fs 60 Tcw Fs <T> <Fcw> <Q> <P> Tcw y Fcw Steam Condenser PID PID Controller Input Step Test Scope Pressure Setpoint Figure 2.8 and TI = Pu /1. Pu = 3. parameters of the PI controller are: Kc = 0. By applying the closed-loop tuning method. The closed-loop model with pressure.56 [s].cao@cranfield.08 [s] have been detected. Steam Condenser Closed-Loop Model The Simulink model includes a first order delay with time constant of 10 [s] to represent the actuator and another first order lag of 5 [s] for the pressure sensor. P controlled by a PI controller is shown in Figure 2. 1 Fs Product 3 Fcw Fcw Fcw Setpoint Fc T_c 0.2 = 2. Ku = 24 and ultimate period.DYNAMIC MODELLING OF A STEAM CONDENSER 3 A Simulink model based on the above description has been created as shown in Figure 1.2 1/Cp 1/Mcw 1/Mcw 1 s T Integrator1 Figure 1.

Closed-Loop Response to a Step Change in Pressure Setpoint . kPa 90 85 80 0 100 200 300 400 0 x 10 4 YI CAO 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Figure 3.5 Q. kW 1 0.5 95 P. kg/s 150 100 50 1.4 80 T. °C 79 78 77 200 Fcw.