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.com on 1/12/2012 This document copyleft 2012, Mark Ure May be freely distributed and used in derivative works. May not be sold for a price greater than the cost price of the media on which it is copied. No DRM imposition permitted.

Introduction to this Document

This is a selection from 'Here Be Dragons', an illustrated modern bestiary and atlas designed to entertain and educate children of all ages on scientific and other principles using mythical beasts and worlds. The book itself is ink and paper, and available from . Six worlds are depicted in the book: 0. World Zero: Our world, in which an interdimensional transport booth was discovered. Through this portal, five more worlds were discovered. 1. Ancient World: A world containing mythical animals, substances, plants and continents, such as unicorns, dragons, centaurs, mermaids, Lemuria, Atlantis and Hyperborea. Physics is somewhat different there. It has West and East Poles but no New World. Also contains the Rainbow Bridge and Bermuda Triangle. 2. West World: A world without Africa, Europe or Asia, where humans evolved in South America. The polar opposite to Ancient World, discovered by reversing the coordinates in the booth from World Zero. 3. Realistic World: Shares the Bermuda Triangle with Ancient World, which is the bridge between the two. Superficially similar to World Zero except that the physics is like Ancient World, though this is not usually noticeable. However, many things which are popular misconceptions are true here, for instance bananas and coconuts grow on trees, Earth is regularly visited by alien spacecraft and Pop Rocks have really killed people. The world is run by a secret government which hides the truth from the general population. Yetis, Bigfoot and the Loch Ness Monster are all real. 4. Ragnarok: Shares the Rainbow Bridge with Ancient World. Suffered a mass extinction event in about the year 1000 when a hypernova gamma ray burst sterilised the New World. Physics like World Zero, population less than 1 million in two human species which look identical. Organisms similar to those of Norse mythology, e.g. Sleipnir, Yggdrasil, Jormungand and Niddhog, which are however descended from organisms which would've existed in World Zero in 1000. The Western hemisphere is gradually being repopulated from the Old World. 5. Aphrodite's Children: A giant turtle, Anteros, with four elephants on its back supporting a shield-shaped world on which various mythical beasts live, Aphrodite's Children is in fact a world in the never-ending dream of a global hive mind constituting the oceans of the Ancient World version of Venus. It can be seen at night through phosphorescent patterns on the sea bed. Not all of these worlds are represented in this sample.

From Ancient World Zombies Zombification: A form of brain damage which leads to permanent loss of consciousness combined with a permanent hypnotic state, induced by a poisonous plant. The ability of the brain to switch back to wakeful consciousness is destroyed. As such, their existence provides support for the arguments that logical behaviourism is not true in Ancient World and that type-identity physicalism is not true. The Mary's Room argument could be resolved by an actual experiment - "Interview with the zombie". In Southern Africa, there are groups of zombies which operate trains which are not in use and run them through stations in the middle of the night. When passengers board these trains, which obviously do not show up on timetables, they are poisoned and join the zombies. Vision: There are two important differences in Ancient World human vision. One is that the magnetic sense has the same sensory modality as vision, so they can literally see halos, auras and magnetic and electric fields. The thalamus does not separate the two senses, so although in a sense they are different senses, they are not subjectively different. Processes within the brain map magnetic stimuli onto probable sources and most of the time this is accurate, but on occasions, magnetic illusions are possible because of discrepancies in perception. The existence of the magnetic sense makes accidental electric shocks less likely. The other is that rather than cone cells sensitive to blue light, there are indigo-sensitive cone cells, changing colour perception. What we would consider ultraviolet is faintly visible, indigo rather than blue is a primary colour and the area of the spectrum between green and indigo is more easily discriminated. Colour spaces are also different, and in a similar phenomenon to the consequences of the invisibility of red to many men in West World, basic colour terms develop in a different order, with a word for indigo occurring as a basic term in almost all languages. To an Ancient World human, violet and purple are completely different colours. If a World Zero human with good colour vision chose three torches, each of which looked like a perfect primary colour to them, and shone them overlapping on a wall, the image resulting would look something like this:

and the central region stimulates all three, leading to the perception of white. If an Ancient World human did the same thing, this is how the result would look to a World Zero human with good colour vision:

To a World Zero human, the red and green look the same, but because the blue receptors in Ancient World human eyes respond best to shorter wavelengths, the third primary colour is in fact indigo, not blue. This also means that Ancient World magenta and cyan, also known as fuchsia and aqua, look slightly different, the former appearing richer and the latter more washed out. In fact, because we perceive these colours differently, the pigments used to make these colours are less accurate due to the fact that we are not so good at distinguishing colours including wavelengths at this end of the spectrum. There are other differences. Whereas the cyan looks less colourful to us and the magenta more so, to an Ancient World human they are both equally colourful. Also, to an ancient world human, the green looks about as colourful as it does to a World Zero one with normal colour vision, but the red looks duller and the indigo, and in fact the blue, are both brighter to her or him. The reason for this is that the ability to perceive indigo well is tied up with the ability of some Ancient World humans to perceive magnetic fields using visual receptors in their skin, which works better with indigo combined with the yellow protein which changes colour in response

to magnetism. Graphically represented, the distinction is quite subtle. The frequency response of World Zero human colour receptors can be plotted thus:

Compare this to a similar graph for Ancient World human colour vision:

Comparing these two graphs, it can be seen that the Ancient World indigo receptor is most sensitive at slightly shorter wavelengths than the World Zero equivalent. However, humans from both worlds have a second red receptor sensitivity peak in the short range of the spectrum, meaning that both perceive violet as blue tinged with a hint of red. Again though, there is a difference here because

the red receptor is generally less sensitive relative to the indigo one, so violet looks bluer to an Ancient World human and the same shades of violet are in different places. This is very difficult to pinpoint due to the subjective nature of colour perception: most of the time people from the different worlds would never even discover they were talking at cross-purposes, and the question arises of how subjective impressions of colour can be compared. Ancient World colour wheels would be larger than World Zero ones because they must accommodate the extra shades of violet at the short end of the visual spectrum. Moreover, the fact that the red receptor has completely ceased to respond considerably before the indigo one means that in a sense the purest indigo of all, though it is less intense than that of indigo itself, is in the near-ultraviolet range, and almost forms a fourth primary colour. Therefore, colour wheels are not feasible in the Ancient World because the choice would be between missing out the violet end of the gamut of colours to enable a relatively smooth blend to be achieved and introducing a sudden jarring edge in the wheel. It is consequently impossible to construct an effective colour wheel in Ancient World. Another consequence of this is that rainbows look slightly wider to Ancient World humans even in the other three physical worlds than they do to World Zero humans (incidentally, Aphrodite's Children see rainbows as simple white arcs with no colour at all). The development of basic colour terms in Ancient World: Like World Zero, languages in Ancient World develop words for colours in a particular order. Unlike World Zero, the order is different. Colour concepts are different for several reasons. Firstly, colours are never seen as warm or cold but as heavy and light. In World Zero, warm colours are associated with blood, fire and sunlight. This situation is vaguer to humans in Ancient World as red is not a clear colour to them and the colour of fire is yellow to white rather than orange or red due to there being more oxygen. The word light refers to weight, not brightness. Secondly, the cells in the retina which distinguish between colours are different. The red receptor is slightly less sensitive and instead of a blue receptor, there is an indigo cone cell. There are a few languages in both worlds which only have words for dark and light. The word for dark also refers to heavy colours. In these cases, the system is: Light: White, indigo, green. Heavy: Black, yellow, red. The next set of languages have actual colour words as well as words for black and white! These are distributed as follows: White, indigo/green, black/yellow/red. The third stage includes Chinese: White, indigo/green, black, yellow/red The fifth stage includes words for white, indigo, green, yellow, red and black. Finally, English and various other languages use eleven colour terms, as follows (with the requisite colours): Blue, violet, lilac, purple, grey, white, vrick, green, yellow, red and black. Vrick is not a word in World Zero English. It refers to indigo but is a basic colour term in wide use. A notable omission is orange. It is usually referred to as red, brown or yellow in

English although these words are not strictly accurate. Occasionally, the correct term, saffron, is used, but most people don't consider orange to be a real colour, seeing it as more something to make up the colours of the rainbow to seven and wouldn't be able to name the colour with certainty. If presented with an orange, or for that matter a piece of cloth dyed saffron, they would almost certainly either call the colour red or yellow, about equally divided. This is not because they are unable to see the colour but because they lack a common word for it.

This fruit is referred to as an orange, but in English and most other languages this name is simply the name of a fruit. It would be thought of as yellow or perhaps golden, not saffron. The word blue refers to a steely, greyish blue, not the colour of the sky. The sky is seen as indigo or violet, although even to our own eyes a clear sky would often seem to be streaked with aquamarine due to the colour of the microorganisms living in the stratosphere. The Ironic language uses the same colour terms as Sarmatian but uses them for complementary colours. Due to these differences of perception, people can have difficulty seeing fire, except as pale flames giving off an almost white light. This is a hazard and it would be expected to be selected against in evolution, but there is a residual magnetic sense, and in some a pronounced one, which enables people to find their way around in complete darkness which compensates for this to some extent. From West World Language: Male language has four forms of voicing rather than the more common two found in World Zero: voiced, unvoiced, resonant voiced and resonant unvoiced. Men consequently have shorter words and fewer other distinctions between speech sounds than women. Female language is more like World Zero language in this respect, since they lack the hyoid cavity. Both sets of language have expressive adequacy except in the realm of colour and related vocabulary, where women's language is richer. Female colour terms never have exclusively male phonetic or linguistic features. The languages are generally dialects with a considerable overlap. However, baby language lacks both the colour vocabulary and the extra phonemes. Male colour vision is based on only two types of cone cells, green and blue, meaning there are only two additive primary colours and one secondary colour, thus:

Also, to a man the central secondary colour is the brightest, close to white, with the result that the visual spectrum seems brightest midway between green and blue. Male colour vision is also anomalous in that rod cells can detect a wider range of frequencies, resulting in red and violet looking grey rather than colourful. Yellow and indigo are about equally dull. Hence although the frequency range of visible light is the same for women and men, the latter cannot see actual colours at either end of the spectrum and the brightest colour, cyan, is also somewhat unsaturated. Male colour vocabulary is therefore very impoverished indeed: the only words they have correspond to black (including red, purple and violet), white (including cyan), green, blue, yellow-orange and grey. By contrast the female colour vocabulary is as rich as that of corresponding languages in World Zero and shows the same implicational universals. Taking the lingua franca as typical, the differences between female and male colour terms also spill over into connotations, particularly in female vocabulary. The colour terms themselves differ because in male language, colours are named after objects which are typically of that colour to a male eye, whereas in female language colours have their own names. For example, the term for black and red in male language is blood-coloured, but they have their own words in female language. Female connotations for colour influence other parts of female vocabulary, so that words for emotions, for example, correspond to colour terms. They work as follows in female language: Black: This is usually pejorative, meaning mischievous or evil, but with reference to human beings it is positive. Black when referring to human appearance means beautiful, partly because humans always have dark skin, the darker the better, with black irises and hair. Paradoxically, it also means ugly when referring to inanimate objects. A black-hearted person is seen as clean and pure in thought. In male language, black is the colour of blood, giving it extra connotations. The dual of black refers to the daylight hours, that is, a period of brightness separated by two periods of darkness in female language. To a man, the

corresponding phrase would be the two bloods, which makes little sense, but the word the three bloods refers to a married triad, i.e. one woman and two men in a stable sexual relationship. White: May be pejorative as it's associated with dirt and soiling on human skin but also with cleanliness elsewhere. The sunrise and the early morning are referred to as the white line and the sunset and early evening as the black line. The word for white means ugly when referring to human beings, but can also mean old, wise and experienced. The distinctive five-number system of West World languages also come into play here, as the dual for white also means date and day in the sense of a single rotation of the planet. West World cultures outside the Arctic Circle judge the day as beginning and ending at noon, and therefore consisting of two bright periods separated by two dark ones. Red: This colour is only perceived separately by females, and in fact, red, orange and yellow are the brightest colours to women but yellow is only a very faint colour to a man and orange and yellow are completely imperceptible as saturated colours at all to them. As it is associated with blood, the trial of red, i.e. the word the three reds is the female equivalent of the male the three blacks, the word for a married triad. Red is also associated with embarrassment and anger, as women find red such a bright colour that even though humans are dark-skinned, they can detect the flush of anger and the blush of self-consciousness. Men are only aware of this in abstract terms and cannot see it. Hence the female word for red also means angry or shy. Pink is associated with the female too because it can only be seen by women: men see pink as light grey. The word for pink actually means female, and the words the two pinks and the three pinks refer to lesbian dyads and triads. Blue: Associated with healing, tranquility, calm and cleanliness by both sexes, but also with blindness and metaphorical blindness. A blind person is described as blue-eyed, which also has connotations of ignorance in both neutral and pejorative senses. The male term for blue translates as sky-coloured. The only blue-eyed people in West World are those with cataracts, who are therefore blind. The word for blue is also the female word for male. Blue-blooded means the same as blackhearted in English, and in male language also means duplicitous or equivocal because to the male ear the phrase sounds contradictory: black which is blue. Green: Envy in both sex sociolects there is no concept of jealousy in West World. Also, inexperience, the prime of life, unripeness. A green-souled person is someone who in some sense has failed to grow up. The connotations for green are close for both sexes, and it forms a kind of neutral ground. When talking to each other, women and men will tend to use the words for green more often, and the male phrase, sea-coloured is used because the male word for sea is pronounceable by women whereas more obvious phrases such as leafcoloured are not. The range of colours referred to as green is also wider in communication between the sexes than within them. Yellow: Age in male language, illness in female, but also sometimes vigour and health. Men see autumn leaves as yellow, which they cannot distinguish from brown, or black, and therefore use the term autumnal to refer to yellow with the added connotation of a dying fall. The female usage refers to liveliness and sunshine. Yellow-eyed means jaundiced to women but not to men, since they would not be able to distinguish between healthy whites of eyes and yellowed ones. See also tomatoes. Number: West World human language most commonly has five numbers by contrast with the

two of the English language (singular and plural). These are singular (for one item), dual (two), trial (three), paucal (four to six) and plural (six or above). Psychologically, the mathematical intuition of the West World mind is slightly more advanced than the human minds of the other world because it can grasp six items easily in one go and also has a slightly larger short-term memory capacity. As a result, the likes of telephone numbers in West World can be slightly longer. The reason for this difference appears to be innate social adaptations, namely the need to deal with three-person sexual relationships and the tendency to have larger intimate social groups. In the dominant West World language, number is expressed by changing the vowel of the stem of nouns. Personal pronouns are also richer, as there are eighteen first person pronouns depending on inclusivity, number and gender mix. The second person has eighteen pronouns and the third person is organised in a way which breaks World Zero linguistic universals. In fact, West World languages have many of their own universals and routinely violate those of World Zero. Object always precedes subject in declarative sentences. Genitive is before/after governing noun and positional words opposite. Y/N intonational pattern is distinctive reckoned from the start of the sentence (if it exists). Question particles are in the opposite position as pre-/postpositions. Subordinate verb forms to the main verb are after the verb but the object precedes it. Conditional clause follows conclusion. Demonstrative, numeral, descriptive adjectives before the noun are never in that order or the reverse. Pronominal and nominal objects are in different positions (implying that the dominant word orders are OVS and OSV i think) No tense-mode categories despite person-number and gender categories. Noun always agrees with verb in gender but the adjective is unmarked for gender. Plural is always expressed by the zero morpheme, singular never. Trial is often expressed by zero. The case including the subject is never unmarked. Expression of number is never between noun base and the case, i.e. vowels change for case and number together. Adjectives follow nouns but are uninflected. The second and third persons are the same. Gender distinctions only present in non-singular pronouns. "I" and "it/you" are both common gender. From Realistic World Mental health issues in Realistic World A major discernible difference between World Zero and Realistic World is that particular individuals and meticulous observers will notice remarkable phenomena which are sometimes not generally acknowledged or shared by received opinion, and for which mainstream thought has not attempted to account. Therefore, standard theories, hypotheses and explanations show a greater discrepancy with observable phenomena in this world than they would in World Zero. As a result, mental health is different than in World Zero, partly because particular phenomena generally regarded not to exist are in fact real, partly because this disbelief is encouraged or advocated by the establishment and partly because a minority have certain abilities not shared by most people. There is also prejudice against them. Schizophrenia: This is seen as including at least two of the following features: delusions,

hallucinations, disorganised speech, grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour and the negative symptoms of the absence of strong emotions, speech and motivation. Only one of these features is necessary for the diagnosis of schizophrenia if the delusions are bizarre or involve a voice keeping up a running commentary on behaviour and thoughts, or more than one voice conversing with another. The problem for this diagnosis in Realistic World is that bizarre things often happen and it is in fact possible to insert thoughts and make a victim hear voices. Therefore, schizophrenia is overdiagnosed in Realistic World, and the distinction between it and paranoia is more blurred. Just as depressive realism is a feature of depression in World Zero, in Realistic World many diagnosed schizophrenics experience schizophrenic realism and the mentally healthy population tend to ignore, discount or fail to notice bizarre occurrences. The majority of people in this world cope with subconscious suspicions that things are not as they seem superficially by self-deception, that the world is more prosaic than some claim. Schizophrenics and people suffering from a delusional disorder are more likely to be correct because there really is a global conspiracy. However, schizophrenics and otherwise delusional people can often still be seen as mentally ill partly due to society's attitudes towards them, the fact that their belief systems are isolated and not part of the mainstream, and because of the mental and emotional difficulties arising from the discrepancies between their perception of the world and those of the establishment. Moreover, their beliefs are often inaccurate and mixed, and they may cope poorly with their suspicions emotionally. Finally, there still are genuinely psychotic people in World Zero whose beliefs bear no relation to reality. The passive features of schizophrenia are different. Thought insertion, withdrawal and external control of the will, movements or speech are all real risks in Realistic World. However, other features such as thoughts being heard aloud or broadcast are not usually real phenomena there, though similar things would take place if the sufferer were in a group of people capable of perceiving the mental states of others. In the area of special powers, the likes of premonition are never real, so there are still characteristics which would be genuinely diagnostic of schizophrenia. Due to the confusion of realist and psychotic schizophrenia, medicine recognises two major categories of the condition. One is like our Type I and Type II, and many schizophrenics are lumped in with those conditions, but there is a third type whose features are clearly different. People diagnosed with it show normal-sized and relatively symmetrical brains without enlarged ventricles, do not have increased numbers of dopamine receptors, have no seasonal peak of birth date in the early part of the year and have a genetic element, which is however independent of the genetic element of the other types. However, all types of schizophrenia are more common in lower social classes, have an onset in the mid to late twenties and respond to anti-psychotic medication. Delusional disorder (Paranoia) Erotomanic and jealous types of paranoia are the same as in World Zero. Grandiose and persecutory types are more often realistic. Folie a deux, though it is a psychosis, is more common in Realistic World than in World Zero because people with the psionic trait are more likely to empathise and therefore be persuaded of the truth of delusions.

Animal magnetism Magnetism is more significant in the biology of Ancient and Realistic World organisms than in World Zero and Midgard. This has been seen as animal magnetism, and the Atlanteans saw it as a fluid which was separate from mineral magnetism, a view shared in the early modern period in both worlds and present in World Zero. It was later established that animal and mineral magnetism were two manifestations of the same force. The Realistic World establishment denies the significance of magnetism in biology or medicine on the whole although they use it secretly, while it is openly known in Ancient World. Hypnosis in both worlds is a state of consciousness rather than a non-state. It is neurologically distinct from the brain's normal working and can be induced by magnetic fields generated by certain people. It can also be generated by a machine. While hypnotised, a subject has no willpower and their brain can be programmed. Anyone can be hypnotised. Ancient World hypnosis can also be induced by sensory stimuli which somewhat resemble the scitalis pattern visually, and auditory and tactile analogues also exist there. In Realistic World, the stimuli are different and hypnosis is harder to induce by such means because humans there lack the basilisk vulnerability, although patterns do exist. Hence the establishment of rapport between a hypnotist and their subject, although it makes the process easier, is completely unnecessary. Hypnosis is more effective than here, and can be used for the likes of pain relief, psychotherapy and relieving addiction. In Realistic World it is also used for social control and assassination, and there is a crowd control device which induces the state in groups of people to disperse riots, demonstrations and the like, and in battlefield situations. This device is disguised as a sonic/strobe technique. For further information, consult the book!