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Class -11th .

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and it is usually seen in agriculture.” Insulin crystals” . food production and medicine production. Biotechnology (sometimes shortened to "biotech") is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make useful products. Modern use of similar terms includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies.

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biochemistry. microbiology. biorobotics). cell biology) .) dependent on knowledge and methods from outside the sphere of biology (chemical engineering. information technology. bioprocess engineering. embryology. molecular biology. animal cell culture.  biological sciences (genetics.

“LIFE SCIENCE INDUSTRIES” .

highest yields. used to fertilize. crops through introducing them to new environments and breeding them with other plants . to produce enough food to support a growing population. the crops and fields became increasingly large and difficult to maintain. Agriculture has been theorized to have become the dominant way of producing food since he Neolithic Revolution. Biotechnology is not limed to medical/health applications agriculture cultivation of plants may be viewed as the earliest biotechnological enterprise. and control pests. restore nitrogen.

. Egypt. In this process the carbohydrates in the grains were broken down into alcohols such as ethanol.  . Egypt. It is still done by the same basic method of using malted grains (containing enzymes) to convert starch from grains into sugar and then adding specific yeasts to produce beer. . and India developed the process of brewing beer. It is still done by the same basic method of using malted grains (containing enzymes) to convert starch from grains into sugar and then adding specific yeasts to produce beer. and India developed the process of brewing beer. Cultures such as those in Mesopotamia. In this process the carbohydrates in the grains were broken down into alcohols such as ethanol. Cultures such as those in Mesopotamia.

crop production and agriculture non food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e. . environmental uses. Four major industrial areashealth care (medical). biodegradable plastics.g. biofuels). vegetable oil.

Green biotechnology .Bioinformatics Red biotechnology Blue biotechnology i White biotechnology.

To test the developing fetus for Down syndrome. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling can be used. Human Genome . Cloning .      drug production pharmacogenomics gene therapy genetic testing (or genetic screening): techniques in molecular biology detect genetic diseases.

DNA microarray chip – some can do as many as a million blood tests at once Main article: Pharmacogenomics .

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bacterium Escherichia coli .

Adenovirus .