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La Haule Books

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This collection copyright Aung San Suu Kyi, 1993
The moral right of the author has been asserted.
ISBN 0 86120 049 7

This first edition of


Freedom from Fear and Other Writings
in the Burmese language
first published in 1993 by
La Haule Books
West Lodge
La Haule
Jersey
Channel Islands
United Kingdom
The Buddhist symbol on the title and spine
is the abhayamudra, the "gesture of fearlessness"

Printed in England by Biddles Ltd., Guildford

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aexdkifvsuf&Sdonf?

* * *

p=wmpfabmufrd (Strasbourg) Y (12) EkdifiHyg0ifaom Oa&myygvDrefonf 1991 ckESpf Zlvkdifv


(19) &ufaewGif wnf+idrfoduQm&Sdaom txl;pnf;a0;yJGusif;yum jrefrmEkdifiHrS a':atmifqef;pk=unftm;
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(Anatoly Marchenko) ESifh csufudkqvdkAufuD;,m;EdkifiHrS tvufZENm;'kAfcsuf (Alexander Dubcek)
wdktm; tvm;wl *k%fycJhygonf? ygvDrefOuUXjzpfol bmGifc&uf(pf)ydk (Baron Crespo) u
cefnm;x,f0gaom pydefbmompum;ESifh rGuf=um;vdu
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("gwfyHkatmufrSpmom;rsm;)
tay: - rdcifudk,fpm; om;i,fuifrf (xdefvif;)u vGwfvyfpGmawG;ac:r_qkdif&m qmcga&mhqkudk 1991 ckESpf
Zlvkdifv 10 &ufaewGif vufcH&,lpOf
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b,fvdkrsm; jrifygvdrfh? olronf xdkZmwfuGif;xJodk 1988 ckESpfY EdkifiHa&;ygwDw&yf wnfaxmifpOfu
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twkta,mifvGwfvyfa&;umv aemufydkif;Y jrefrmjynfudk jyefvnfodrf;ydkuf&ef 0ifa&mufvmaom


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Hotel)
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tay:
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(San Francisco) odkoGm;I ,ck AGDtdkat (VOA) ac: xdkpOfu tar&duefjynfaxmifpk
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tay:
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oGm;a&mufpka0;aeygonf? usrwdktm;vHk; 0dkif;xkdifpum;ajym=uygonf? c%=umaomtcg AdkvfcsKyfu
t*Fvdyfrsm;t=um;rS xvm+yD; usrwdkESifh pum;ajymygonf? usrudk yH;+yD; usaemfwdkESifh Armjynfudk

vdkufcJhygvm; [k ajymygonf? xdkaemuf usrwdk taygif;tazmfwpk ESif;cJrsm;t=um;&yf+yD;


udk,fpm;vS,ftzJG av,mOf&Sd&modkav#mufI xGufcmG oGm;aeonfudk ai;ar#mf=unfh&if; vufrsm;a0S&rf;
E_wfquf=uygonf? aqmif;aeuav;. vGrf;zG,fhtoGifESifh rdwfaqGrsm;ESifh cJGcGm&jcif;/ txl;ojzifh
AdkvfcsKyfESifh cJGcGm&jcif;wdka=umifh usrwdkwawG 0rf;enf;woo jzpfae=uygonf? AdkvfcsKyfcrsm
wdkawmif;vSaom b0oufwrf;av;r#om usefawmhonfudkum; usrwkd rnfuJhodkr# rrSef;qrdcJh=uyg?
*syefacwfESifh ppf'%fwdka=umifh ysufpD;,k,
d Gif;aeaom wkdif;jynfudk jyefvnfxlaxmifI
jrefrmjynfwGif acwfopfxGef;aprnf [lonfh AdkvfcsKyf o,faqmifoGm;aom ar#mfrSef;csufrsm;rSm
EdkifiHa&;ydifbufwOD;. ya,m*a=umifh xdkESpfwGifyif yduJGcJh&ygawmhonf? bk&ifcH. tvkyftr_aqmiftzJG
tpnf;ta0;usif;yaepOf tcef;twGif;odk vlowform;rsm; twif;0ifa&mufvmum ppfaoewfrsm;jzifh
tv,fwGifxkdifaeaom AdkvfcsKyfudk OD;pGmypfcwf+yD; tjcm;yk*~Kdvf &SpfOD;udkyg vkyf}uHowfjzwfoGm;ygonf?
ESpfpOfESpfwkdif; wEkdifiHvHk; owdw&,lusKH;r&jzpf&aom tmZmenfae/ 19 Zlvdkif 1947 ckESpf jzpfygonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. usef&pfol ZeD; a':cif=unfonf rdrdtwGufomru wrsKd;om;vHk;twGufyg
a=uuJGzG,f&m Ttjzpfqdk;}uD;aemufydkif;Y olrb0udk jyefvnfysKd;axmif&ygawmhonf? jrefrmjynf
vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;aemuf rdcifESifh uav;apmifha&Smufa&;Xme/ xdkaemuf vlr_0efxrf;Xmewdk.
t}uD;tuJtjzpf
wm0efxrf;aqmif.?
rtm;rvyf
tvkyfwm0efrsm;txJ
epfryfaepOfyif
uH=urRm.'%fudk aemufwzefcH&jyef.? 'kwd,om;jzpfol atmifqef;vif;crsm &efukeaf etdrf+cH0if;twGif;&Sd
a&uefabmifdk;ay: upm;aepOf vdrfhusum a&epfaoqHk;oGm;&Smonf? atmifqef;vif;onf pk
txl;cspfjrwfEdk; tm;udk;aomtudkjzpfI pktzdk xdktjzpfqdk;}uD;a=umifh pdwfwkefv_yfxdcdkufcJh&r_onf
tawmfESifh aysmufuG,foGm;jcif; r&SdEkdifcJhyg? pkonf olr. tudkudk rnfonfhtcgr# rarhEkdifouJhodk olr.
zcifudkvnf; rnfonfhtcgr# rarhEkdifcJhyg? zcif. b0Zmwfa=umif;/ pmayta&;tom;/
wkdif;oljynfom;rsm;tm; aqmf=ocsufrsm;ESifh (32) ESpfwm oufwrf;twGif; jzpfajrmufcJhaom tHh=ozG,f&m
pGrf;aqmifcsufrsm;udk avhvmjcif;rSm pktwGuf tqufrjywfEdkifaom pJGvrf;csufw&yfjzpfygonf?
a':cif=unfonf om;orD;rsm;tm; i,fpOfuyif olwdk. zcifay;cJhaom tarGtESpfudk
t+rJowd&aeap&ef ud;yrf;cJh.? AdkvfcsKyf. &Jabmf&Jzufrsm;ESifh olxlaxmifcJhaom wyfrawmfrS
tzJG0ifrsm;u AdkvfcsKyf. rdom;pktay: xm;&Sdaom oHa,mZOfrSm ysufuGufoGm;jcif; r&SdcJhyg? xdka=umifh pk
u
wyfrawmfom;rsm;vufay:
}uD;jyif;vmcJhonf[k
yuwd&Sd&if;twkdif;
ajymEkdifygonf?
t&nftcsif;uG,f0/ tawGtuHrsm;jym;/ &mxl;&mcHjrifhrm;aom jrefrmvl}uD;vlaumif; trsm;tjym;
a':cif=unfESifh &if;ESD;cifrifpGm qufqHjcif;onfvnf; om;orD;rsm;tay: =oZmoufa&mufr_&SdcJh.?
ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm EdkifiHawmf0efxrf;wOD;tjzpf ajymifajrmufpGm wm0efxrf;&GufcJhaom w&m;ol}uD;csKyf
OD;jrifhodef;qdkv#if woufwm &if;ESD;cifrifaom rdwfaqGaumif;wOD;jzpfygonf? dkaoav;pm;r_/ =unf!dkr_/
cspfcifr_ paom t&Sdeft0grsm;u olESifh olr. rdom;pkwdktay: v$rf;cHxm;ygonf?
a':cif=unfonf rdrd. om;orD;rsm;tm; jrefrmhvlr_a&;ESifh udk,fusifhoDv. wefzdk;udk
tav;xm;+yD;/ Ak'<bmomw&m;udk ,Hk=unfudkif;_dif;&ef oGefoifqHk;rcJh.? usr. tjrift& 0wfpm;/
oGm;vm/ aexdkifr_t&yf&yfESifh pyfvsOf;I vltrsm;jrifuGif;wGifif;/ tdrfwGif;todkif;t0dkif;wGifif;/ pk onf
jrefrmh,Ofaus;r_t& pHwifavmufygonf? Oyrmwck ay;&rnfqdkv#if rdrdxuf wESpf/ w&uf/
wreuf}uD;olrSefor#udk
udk,ftrlt,m/
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vl}uD;rsm;a&SrS jzwfoef;oGm;aomtcg cg;nGwfjcif;/ vl}uD;rsm;xHyg;wGif usKHusKH,Hk,Hk aexkdifjcif;/
,Ofaus;av;pm;aom toHaetoHxm;ESifh pum;vHk;rsm;udk a&G;cs,foHk;jcif;/ ponfwdkrSm pk twGuf
tdk;pJGaeaom trltusifhrsm;jzpfygonf? TuJhodk xif&Sm;vSaom jrefrmqefr_wdka=umifh pk udk
jrefrmrsm;u cspfjrwfEkd;=u+yD; EkdifiH&yfjcm;wGif ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm aexkdifaomfvnf; pk . jrefrmyDor_rSm
arS;rSdef,drf;,dkifoGm;onf[lI r&SdcJhyg? jrefrmEdkifiHvlxk}uD;tm; pJGaqmifI if;wdk. twufuGqHk;/

tlv_dufonf;v_duf axmufcHr_udk pk &,lEkdifjcif;. t"duta=umif;&if; wcsufrSm olr. jrefrmyDor_yif


jzpfygonf?
1960 ckESpfwGif OD;Ektpdk;&onf a':cif=unftm; tdENd,EkdifiHqkdif&m jrefrmoHtrwf}uD;tjzpf
ceftyfvdkufygonf? xdk&mxl;ae&mwGif 1962 ck OD;ae0if;u ppftm%modrf;ydkuf+yD; aemufydkif;Yyif
a':cif=unf qufvufwm0efxrf;aqmifEkdifjcif;onf olrtm; dkaoav;pm;r_twdkif;twm rnfr#
}uD;rm;a=umif;udk jyoygonf? tvkyfoufwrf;+yD;qHk;I t+idrf;pm;,laomtcg a':cif=unfonf
tif;vsm;uefabmif&Sd rdrdtdrfY jyefvnfaexdkifygonf? tif;vsm;uefabmifwavsmufwGif jrefrmEkdifiHa&;ESifh
pD;yGm;a&;avmurS
txifu&yk*~Kdvftrsm;tjym;
aexkdif=uygonf?
,ck
pk
vnf;
xdktif;vsm;uefaetdrfwGifyif tus,fcsKyfb0ESifh txdef;odrf;cHae&ygonf?
e,l;a'vDrdodk rdcifESifhtwl a&mufvmpOfu pk onf uspfqH+rD; wkwfwkwf&Snf&Snf}uD;rsm;ESifh
(15) ESpft&G,f uav;rav;jzpfygonf? a,_ESifhar&D uGefbifhausmif; (Convent of Jesus and Mary)
ESifh av'D&S,f&D&rfaumvdyf (Lady Shri Ram College) wdkY qufvufynmoifygonf? olr.
tdENd,rdwfaqGtodkif;t0dkif;rSm us,fjyefvmygonf? r[wWr*ENDESifh *s0g[mvmael;wdk. wdkif;jynfudk
pl;prf;avhvm em;vnfEkdif&ef pk tzkd tcGifhaumif;jzpfygonf? pk . zcifvnf; Twdkif;jynfudk
a&mufzl;+yD; ael;ESifh awGqHkaqG;aEG;um &if;ESD;cifrifaom em;vnfr_ &&SdcJhygonf? pk . rdcif
oHtrwftjzpf ceftyfjcif;cH&csdefwGif ael;u 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifqJjzpfygonf?
pk A[kokw tawGtuH us,fjyefap&ef olr.rdcif pDpOfay;aom udpPrsm;teuf
*syefyef;tvSjyifenf;/ tEkynmoifjcif;ESifh jrif;pD;oifjcif;wdk yg0ifygonf? tdENd,EkdifiH orRw}uD;.
udk,f&HawmfwyfzJGavhusifh&m jrif;pD;uGif;Y tdENd,t&m&Sd}uD;rsm;. om;orD;rsm;/ EkdifiHwum oHtrwfrsm;.
om;orD;rsm;ESifh yef'pfael;. ajr;/ tif'D&m*END. om;jzpfol qefa*s;wdkESifh pk awGqHkavh&Sdygonf? eHygwf
(24) tuUbmvrf; (24 Akbar Road) &Sd aetdrfwGif pEN,m; qufoif&ygonf? xdkoHtrwfaetdrfonf
}uD;rm;I tvGefcefnm;wifhw,faom yef;O,sOfysK;d xm;onfh +cH0if;us,f}uD;twGif; wnf&Sdygonf?
tqifhtjrifhqHk;
tdENd,t&m&Sd}uD;rsm;twGuf
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tdrfrsKd;jzpf+yD;
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a':cif=unfudk
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pk txl;ESpfoufrufarmaom 0goemrSm pmzwfjcif;yif? olr. pmtkyfpmayjrwfEdk;r_udk
tm;ay;cJhaom OD;tkef;udk pk tpOf cspfcifaus;Zl;wifpGm owd&avh&Sdygonf? owif;pmq&mwOD;
jzpfcJhaom OD;tkef;onf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh tu|rf;0ifcJholwOD;jzpf+yD; ppf+yD;acwfY vef'efwGif
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jrefrmEkdifiHqkdif&m oHtrwf}uD;tjzpf ceftyfjcif;cH&ygonf? olonf pk tm; zwfoifh ("gwfyHkvmonf)
("gwfyHk)
tay:
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atmuf
a':cif=unfESifh pk a'vDrdwGif
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
zwfxdkufonfh jrefrmESifh t*Fvdyfpmtkyf pm&Sif;&Snf}uD;rsm; ay;olrsm;teuf wOD;tygt0ifjzpfygonf? pk
. todynm tawG;tac:ydkif; zHGzd;wdk;wufr_udk ydkIowdyrd+yD; pdwf0ifpm;cJholrSm tvGefemrnf}uD;cJhaom

&efukefwuUodkvf tdk;a0r*~Zif;. wcsdefu t,f'DwmjzpfcJh+yD; pk . zcifESifhtwl wuUodkvfwGif&SdcJhaom


OD;!dkjryif jzpfygonf? aemufydkif;wGif OD;!dkjrudk pme,fZif;orm;wOD;ESifh tvGefemrnf&aom
pmtkyfrsm;pGmudk a&;om;onfh pma&;q&mwOD;tjzpf vlodrsm;vmygonf? olu wjcm;olrsm;xufyifydk+yD;
pk zwf&ef t*FvdyfESifh jrefrmpmtkyfaygif;rsm;pGmudk vrf;n$efay;cJhygonf? OD;!dkjr vufaqmifay;cJhaom
tvGeftzdk;wefonfh [m;Auf*EW0if pmtkyfwJG wpHkvHk; (Harvard Classics) udk tvGefwefzdk;xm;+yD;
r=umc% zwfcJha=umif;vnf; pk u ,ckxd owd&aeygonf? Tpmtkyfrsm;u pk udk pmayavmuwHcg;
zGifhay;cJhygonf? pk . pmzwf0goemrSm tdENd,ra&mufrDuyif tjrpfwG,f+yD;jzpfygonf?
(Mehrauli)
&yfuGufwGif
e,l;a'vDrd
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ara&mfvD
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trnfwGifaom Ak'<bmomXmewck&Sdygonf? xdkXme jyefvnf&SifoefvmEkdifap&ef a'vD&Sd Ak'<bmom0ifrsm;
txl;ojzifh Ak'<bmomudk;uG,faom EkdifiHrsm;rS oHtrwfrsm;. tultnDudk a':cif=unf &,lcJhygonf?
Tvkyfaqmifr_a=umifh
a'vD&Sd
Ak'<bmom0ifrsm;ESifh
tdENd,EkdifiH
tjcm;a'orsm;rS
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Ak'<bmomyJGawmf}uD;rsm; usif;y&m/ bk&m;0wfy&m urRmef; bm0empD;jzef;&mXme jzpfvmygonf?
trsKd;om;a&;udpPrsm;qdkif&m/
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tcrf;tem;
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Ak'<omoembkef;awmf}uD;rsm;tm; rSefrSefyifhzdwf qGrf;uyfw&m;emavh&Sd.? pk . tudkvnf;
ausmif;ydwf&ufrsm;twGif; t*FvefrS a&mufvmaomtcg TudpPrsm;wGif yg0ifaqmif&Gufygonf? tarESifh
orD;udk jrefrmrsm; cspfcifav;pm;onfhtwdkif; a':cif=unf. vkyfazmfudkifzuf oHwrefrsm;ESifh yef'pfael;rS
tpcsDI tdENd,tpdk;&tzJG0iftaygif;wdkuvnf; cspfcifav;pm;=uygonf? tdENd,wGif &&SdcJhaom
tawGtuHrsm;onf pk twGuf tifrwef ta&;yg pdwftm;xufoefzG,f&mjzpfcJhygonf? ,ckwdkif olr
tdENd,EdkifiHtay: xm;&SdaomarwWmESifh oHa,mZOfwdkrSm ckdifrmvsuf&Sdygonf?
xdktcsdefu a'vD&Sd +Adwdo#r[mrif;}uD;rSm qmayg(vf)*dk;bl(of)(Sir Paul Gore-Booth)
aemiftcg avm('f)*dk;bl(of)/ (Lord Gore-Booth) jzpfygonf? ,cif jrefrmEkdifiHwGif oHtrwftjzpf
wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhpOfu olESifh ol. ZeD; yuf}wD&Sm (Patricia) wdkonf a':cif=unfESifh
aumif;pGmodu|rf;cJh.? xdkcifrif&if;ESD;r_rSm tdENd,Y jyefvnfqef;opf&Sifoefvmygonf? odkESifh pk
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=unfh_apmifha&Smuf&ef wm0ef,lcJh.? pk onf olwdk. rdom;pk0ifwOD;uJhodk/ olwdk om;ESpfa,mufESifh
orD;ESpfa,mufwdk. nDtr&if;csmwOD;uJhodk jzpfvmygonf? xdkrdom;pktdrfwGifyif if;wkd.
rdwfaqGrsm;tjyif
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EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifh
tpdk;&t&m&Sdrsm;udk
pk
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"avhpdkufuav;rsm;udk pk pdwf0ifpm;pGm avhvmcJh.? xdkyk*~Kdvfrsm;rSm olr 0if&awmhvkqJjzpfonfh
us,f0ef;vSaom urBmavmurS yk*~Kdvfrsm;yif r[kwfygvm;?
aEG&moDausmif;ydwf&ufrsm;twGif; pk onf rdcif&Sd&m e,l;a'vDodk jyefavh&Sd.? odkaomf
wESpfwGif usrESifh tJ(vf)*sD;,m;(pf)rd (Algiers) wGif vmaeygonf? usronf e,l;a'vD
ukvor*~jyef=um;a&;XmerS t,f(vf)*sD;&D;,m;EkdifiH (Algeria) . rdawmfodk ajymif;a$um
tvm;wlXmewckzGifh&ef wm0efay;jcif; cH&ygonf? t,f(vf)*sD;&D;,m;onf 1962 ckESpfwGif csm;(vf)'D*dk;(vf)
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vGwfvyfa&;&cJhonfrSm r=umao;yg? jyifopfxHrS vGwv
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wjznf;jznf; emvefxlqJEdkifiHjzpfygonf? xdka=umifh t,f(vf)*sD;,m;(pf)rdwGif ae&mxkdifcif;
tvGef&Sm;yg;aejcif;/ ysufpD;,kd,Gif;aeaom &yfuGufa'orsm; aygrsm;aejcif;/ tajctaeaumif;rGefaom

[dkw,frsm;enf;yg;aejcif;ESifh 0efaqmifr_vkyfief;rsm; vGefpGmrS uefowfxm;jcif;wdkrSm tHh=ozG,f&mr[kwfyg?


zGifhvSpfpoHHk;rsm;/
ukvor*~Hk;rsm;ESifh
0ifa&mufvmqJ
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tJ(vf)*sD;&D;,ef;vlrsKd;rsm;uyg tdrfae&mrsm;ESifh vkyfief;cGifae&mrsm;&&Sd&ef oJoJrJrJ vHk;yrf;&SmazGae&ygonf?
tJ(vf)*sD;&D;,m;wGif =umjrifhpGm tajccsaexdkifcJhaom jyifopfvlrsKd;ajrmufjrm;pGmrSm Twkdif;jynfrS
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ausmif;q&m/ q&mrrsm;/ axmufyHha&; pDrHudef;tvkyform;rsm;ESifh tvnftywfoufoufvmolrsm;
jzpf=uygonf?
pk a&mufvmcsdefrSm [Gm&DblrD'D,ef (Houari Boumedienne) u tmrufbifbJvm;
(Ahmed Ben Bella) tm; pHerlemxm;avmufatmif ("gwfyHkvmonf)
("gwfyHk)
tay:
pkESifh a':oef;at;
t,fvf*sD;&D;,m;
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(aqmif;yg;tquf)
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zdwf=um;cH&aom {nfhcHyJGrsm;pGmodk oGm;&rnfxuf pk u tJ(vf)*sD;&D;,ef;vlrsKd;rsm;ESifh awGqHkum
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pmtkyfwaowWmvnf; ygvmygonf? ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm vGwfvyfa&;kef;uefr'_ %fudk cHcJh&olrsm;tm;
ulnDaxmufyHh&ef pDrHudef;rsm;udk uGyfuJaeaom tzJGtpnf;wckESifh usrwdk qufoG,fygonf?
pDrHudef;w&yf. wm0efcHjzpfol vli,fwOD; vma&mufI if;wdkvkyfief;ta=umif; &Sif;jyygonf?
vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJGwGif
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zdwfac:udqdka=umif; ajymygonf? pk vnf; xdkaqmufvkyfa&;pcef;wGif &ufowWywftawmf=um
oGm;a&mufaexdkifum
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b0opfw&yf pygawmhonf? TtcsdefrSpaom jzpfpOfrsm;rSm trsm;od+yD;jzpfygonf? cifyGef;jzpfol


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a&;xm;aom t*FvdyfESifh jrefrmpmtkyfrsm;/ *syefjynfta=umif; a&;xm;aom t*FvdyfESifh *syefpmtkyfrsm;
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ta&Swdkif;ESifh tmz&duqdkif&mausmif;Y yg&*lbJG,l&efvnf; pwifpDpOfygonf? xdktcsdefu olr.
vkyfudkifv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;onf vHkv}uD;jcif;ESifh oEMdmefcdkifjcif;udk jyoonf[k qdk&ayrnf?
1985 ckESpfwGif *syefESifhqufpyfaom olr zcif. b0tpdwftydkif;ESifhywfoufI okawoey&ef
wdkusKdwuUodkvfu urf;vSrf;aom ynmoifqkukd pk vufcHvdkufygonf? *syef-jrefrm
tpnf;tHk;0ifrsm;udk awGqHkum/ if;wdkrSwqifh olrzcifESifh odu|rf;cJhaom touf&SifqJ&Sdaeonfh
*syefrsm;ESifh tquftoG,fycJhygonf? awGqHkolwkdif;u olrtm; xdkpOfu tjzpftysufrsm;ta=umif;
wckr[kwfwck ajymjy=uygonf? *syefrsm;ta=umif; A[kokwwdk;yGm;vm+yD; tquftoG,f ("gwfyHkrsm;
vmonf)
("gwfyHk)
pk vufxyfxdrf;jrm;aomae/ ZEM0g&Dv 1 &ufae 1972 ckESpf
tay: - blwefEkdifiH awmifay:c&D; 1971 ckESpf
atmuf cifyGef; rdkufu,ftJ&pfESifhtwl/ armfvrdifrdwGif 1973 ckESpf
om;OD; tvufZENm;
(jrifhqef;atmif)
ESifhtwl
1973
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
rsm;vnf; us,fjyefvmygonf? xdktcsdefY rdkufu,fonf tdENd,jynfajrmufydkif; qif;rvm;rd&Sd tdENd,EkdifiH
tqifhjrifhpmayavhvma&;XmeY
okawoeynm&SifwOD;tjzpf
a&muf&Sdaeygonf?
om;}uD;u
atmufpzdk'fwGif ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm;tjzpf aecJh+yD;/ om;i,fu pk ESifh wdkusKdrdodk ygvmygonf? 1986

ckESpfwGif usrudk wdkusKdwuUodkvf tjynfjynfqdkif&m &dyfomY olwdkESifhtwl vmae&ef pk u


zdwfac:ygonf? usrvnf; oHk;vcefoGm;aejzpfygonf? *syefrsm;ESifhif;/ bmom&yftrsKd;rsKd;avhvm&ef
*syefynmoifqkrsm; &&Sdxm;aom EdkifiHwumrS ynm&Sifrsm;ESifhif; pk cifcifrifrif &if;&if;ESD;ESD;&Sdygonf?
*syefY jzpfajrmufr_tawmf&Sdonf[k pk ,lqygonf? aemufESpfESpfwGif qif;rvm;&Sd rdkufu,fxHodk pk/
om;i,fESifh t*FvefrS om;}uD;yg a&mufvmum rdom;pktm;vHk; jyefqHk=uygonf? rdkufu,f
tvkyfvkyfaeaomXmeY pk vnf; okawoeynm&Siftjzpf ceftyfjcif;cH&ygonf? 1987 ckESpfwGif usr
tdENd,Y &Sdonfjzpf&m okawoe&Sd olwdkwkdufcef;Y wvcef aysmfaysmfyg;yg; oGm;vnfEkdifcJhygonf?
Xmewnf&Sd&m taqmuftOD;}uD;onf vGwfvyfa&;r&rD tcsdefumvu +Adwdo#bk&ifcHcsKyfrsm;ESifh if;wdk.
Hk;tzJGrsm; aEG&moDwGifaexkdif&mtdrfawmfjzpfygonf?
xdkESpfwGifyif a':cif=unfonf rsufaphrSwdrfukd cJGpdwfuko&eftwGuf vef'efodka&mufvmygonf?
cJGpdwfr_rsm; atmifatmifjrifjrif&Sdojzifh aq;ukor_a=umifh roufrom&Sd&aomfvnf; a':cif=unftwGuf
pdwf&$ifvef;csrf;ajrzG,ftcsdefjzpfygonf? pk onf qif;rvm;rS olr. tvkyfudk &yfxm;cJhum rdcifudk
ypk&ef a&mufvmygonf? tar&duefjynfaxmifpkwGif aexkdiftvkyfvkyfaeom olrtudkvnf; q,f&ufcef
tvnfa&mufvmygonf? usrvnf; vef'efY &Sdonfhtavsmuf a':cif=unfudk aewkdif;vdkvdkyif
awGjzpfygonf? tjcm;rdwfaqGa[mif;rsm;/ rdwfaqGopfrsm;vnf; vmIowif;ar;=uum &,f&,farmarm
a&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpfrsm;ta=umif;
ajymvdkuf=uESifh
&$ifvef;csrf;ajrzG,fjzpfygonf?
a':cif=unf
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qkawmif;ydkoaom
u'frsm;ESifh
jynfhaeygonf?
pk
onf
tdrfaxmifryrDuif;/
tdrfaxmify+yD;aomtcgYif; jrefrmjynf&Sd rdcifxH rSefrSeftvnfoGm;cJhygonf? a':cif=unfonf
om;ajr;rsm; }uD;jyif;vmonfudk jrifcJh&+yD; rsuaf phrcJGrDESpfwGif rdrd.&efukeftdrfY uav;rsm;.
&Sifyr*FvmyJGudk udk,fwkdif}uD;=uyf+yD; usif;ycJhygonf? vef'efwGif ESpfESpf=umae+yD;aemuf a':cif=unfonf
rsufpdrsm; tawmf tajctaeaumif;vm+yDjzpfI jrefrmjynfokd &$ifvef;pGmjyefoGm;ygonf? vef'efudk
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tay: - pk/ om;i,f uifrf (xdefvif;)ESifh rdcif}uD;wdk tmZmenfaetcrf;tem; wufa&mufpOf 1986 ckESpf
atmuf om;rsm;udk 1987 ckESpfwGif &SifypOfu (0JrS,m) uifrf (&SifawZ)/ OD;yOif;/
a&$=uuf,ufq&mawmf-ysHvGef/ OD;yOif;/ tvufZENm; (&Sifynm)
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
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odkaomf &efukefjyefa&mufIrS q,fvrjynfhrD aemufESpf 1988 rwfvukefydkif;wGif jyif;xefaom
avjzwfjcif;'%fudk cH&ygonf? pk/ rdkufu,fESifh om;ESpfa,mufonf tdENd,rS atmufpzdk'fodk 1987
pufwifbmvtwGif; jyefa&mufvmcJh=u+yD; wuUodkvfynm&Sifrsm;avmuwGif jyefvnfaeom;usptcsdefY
a':cif=unf avjzwfa=umif;owif; a&mufvmygonf? pk vnf; csufcsif;yif &onfhav,mOfjzifh rdciftm;
ypk&ef &efukefodk vdkufoGm;ygonf?
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qENjyausmif;om;rsm; aoewfypfcwfjcif; cH=u&pOfupI jy\emrsm;/ ay:aygufrnfhtvm;tvmrsm;
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TqENjycsDwufyJGrsm;udk
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tpdk;&wyfrsm;u
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usqHk;'%f&m&olrsm;ta&twGufrSm aemifwESpf=umwGif yDuif;rd wD,Htmrif&ifjyifY aoa=uysufpD;rnfh

wkwfjynfolOD;a&xuf rsm;pGmydkrdkygonf? pk acgif;a&SmifaeI rjzpfawmhyg? Tvufopf


t=urf;zuftm%m&Sifpepfudk wkdufzsuf&ef jynfolvlxkudk acgif;aqmifay;Edkifrnfh olr.zcifum;
r&Sdawmh+yD? tazhorD;yDopGm olr yg0ifv_yf&Sm;&ayawmhrnf?
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pk u t*Fvdyfa&m/ jrefrmyg bmompum;ESpfrsKd;vHk;wGif Ekdifeif;u|rf;usifygonf?
jrefrmbmompum;udk toHk;yum olr.zcifuJhodkyif jrefrmjynfolvlxk. &ifxJtawG;xJodka&mufatmif
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pk ESifh udk,fusifhw&m;ajzmifhrwfjcif;/ wnfhrwfaom &nf&G,fcsufyef;wdkif&Sdjcif;/ ravsmhaom


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atmifqef;pk=unf. &JpGrf;owWdESifh jrifhrm;aom ar#mfrSef;csufwdkonf usaemfwdkwGif&Sdaom
taumif;qHk;pGrf;&nfudk ay:xGufvmaprnf[k usaemfwdkuJhodkaom omrefyk*~Kdvfwdku cHpm;=u&onf[k
usaemf,Hk=unfygonf? tem*wfwGif ,Hk=unfr_&Sdaeao;&eftwGuf olruJhodkaomyk*~KdvfrsKd;udk usaemfwdk
vdktyfonf[k cHpm;rdygonf? ,if;tcsufonf olr ud;yrf;r_. pGrf;tm;}uD;aom oauFww&yfjzpf+yD;
olrudk rw&m;vkyfwkdif; usaemfwdkESvHk;om;wGif tjrwfwEdk; apmifha&Smufxdef;odrf;xm;onfht&mudk
csKd;azmufcH&ouJhodkyif cHpm;=u&ygonf? aetdrfwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHae&ol TtrsKd;orD;onf
ar#mfvifhcsufa&mifjcnfjzpfygonf? olr xdkae&mY&Sdaejcif;jzifh aumif;r_ukodkvf. tiftm;udk usaemfwdk ydkI
,Hk=unfudk;pm;vm=uygonf?
atmifqef;pk=unfudk 1945 ckESpfwGif arG;zGm;ygonf? olr.zcif vkyf}uHowfjzwfcH&pOfu olronf
(2) ESpforD;jzpfygonf? zcifudk rSwfrdEdkifaomt&G,fr[kwfyg? rdcifjzpfolrSm oHwrefjzpfojzifh
atmifqef;pk=unfonf i,fpOfumvuif;/ aemufydkif;umvrsm;wGifif; EdkifiHjcm;Y aexdkifcJhygonf? 1967
ckESpfwGif olronf atmufpzdk'fwuUodkvf pdef[lpfaumvdyfrS EdkifiHa&;ynm/ '\eduaA'/ abm*aA'
bmom&yfrsm;jzifh bJG&cJhygonf? 1969 ckESpfrSpI e,l;a,mufrd ukvor*~XmecsKyfwGif (2) ESpfr#
tvkyfvkyfygonf? 1972 ckESpfwGif olronf wdbufa&;&m +Adwdo#ynm&Sifjzpfol rdkufu,ftJ&pfESifh
vufxyfygonf? blwefEkdifiHwGif acwWaexdkif+yD;aemuf atmufpzdk'fwGif 1975 ckESpfavmufY
jyefvnfaexdkifygonf?
olronf
uav;i,f (2)
a,muf&Sdaom
tdrf&Sifrwm0eftjyif
ynma&;bufwGifvnf; qufvufud;pm;+yD; jrefrmhorkdif;ESifh pmayukd t"duxm;avhvmygonf? olronf
*syefjynf usKdwdkwuUodkvfESifh tdENd,EkdifiH tqifhjrifhokawoeXmewdkwGif {nhfonfawmfynm&Siftjzpf
avhvmcJhygonf? 1988 ckESpf jrefrmjynfodk jyefvmaomtcgwGif vef'efwuUodkvf ta&Swdkif;ESifh
tmz&duavhvma&;XmewGif avhvmjcif;udk &yfem;vdkuf&ygonf? Todkaom jyifytjzpftysufrsm;u
1988 ckESpfY olr pwifrnfh tcef;uudk &nfn$ef;cJhjcif;r&Sdyg? odkaomf olronf aumif;pGm tqifoifh
jyifqifxm;+yD;olyif jzpfygonf?
jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdk. uH=urRmESifhywfoufI tpOfojzifh olr &ifav;aecJh&aom
om"ursm;&Sdygonf? olronf waewGif jrefrmjynfodk jyef&zG,f&m&Sdonf/ ,if;odkaomtcgwGif
cifyGef;onf. axmufcHtm;ay;r_vdka=umif; olru ajymcJhonfudk olr.cifyGef;u ajymcJhzl;ygonf? olr
avhvmqnf;yl;aom
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jrefrmEdkifiH.
acwfopforkdif;udkom
ydkI
t"duxm;avhvmonfudk awG&ygonf? zcifESifh jrefrmhorkdif;wGif zcifjzpfol yg0ifcJhaom tcef;uudk
avhvmjcif;tm;jzifh olr. EkdifiHa&;wm0ef,lr_ESifh zcif. tdkuft&m qufcH&rnf[laom oabmudkvnf;
ydkrdkckdifrmvmapygonf?

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'kwd,urBmppftwGif; atmifqef;onf *syef&Sd ppfpcef;wckwGif ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfudk
wnfaxmifjcif;yif
jzpfygonf?
jrefrmjynfudk
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wdkufcdkufae&mu *syefudk awmfvSefykefuef+yD; r[mrdwfrsm; jrefrmjynfudk jyefvnfodrf;ydkuf&mwGif
tultnDay;=uygonf? ppf+yD;onfhtcgwGif if;uOD;aqmifI +Adwdo#wdkESifh aphpyfaqG;aEG;EkdifcJhojzifh
aemufqHk; vGwfvyfa&;&&Sdygonf? vGwfvyfaom jrefrmEkdifiHb0odk a&muf&SdvmaomjzpfpOfudk
avhvm&efESifh EkdifiHa&;udkxdef;uGyfxm;onfh tjrifhqHk;ar#mfrSef;csufrsm;udk em;vnfoabmayguf&ef
ta&;w}uD;vdktyfaeonf[k atmifqef;pk=unfu cHpm;aeyHk&ygonf? tdENd,ESifh jrefrmEkdifiHwdk.
udkvdkeDacwftawGtuHudk E_dif;,SOfxm;onfh ajymifajrmufaom pmwrf;wapmifwGif jrefrmjynf,Ofaus;r_
dk;&mtarGtESpf. xl;jcm;aom vuQ%m&yfrsm;udk olru a&;om;azmfjyxm;ygonf?
orkdif;onf
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trsKd;om;,Ofaus;r_ dk;&mtarGtESpf. taumif;qHk;t*FgvuQ%mrsm;[k olru ,lqaomt&mrsm;udk
*kyvmap&ef ud;pm;I olrudk,fwkdifvnf; ,if;t*FgvuQ%m&yfrsm;ESifh xyfwlxyfr#jzpfap&ef
ud;yrf;tm;xkwfygonf?
Todk
av;eufaomtodynmjzifh
rdrd.tcef;uudk
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xl;jcm;onf[kqdkEkdifaomfvnf; 1988 ckESpfY atmifqef;pk=unf jrefrmjynfodkjyefoGm;&onfh
ta=umif;rSm EkdifiHa&;tajctaea=umifh r[kwfbJ rdciftdk}uD; aexdkifraumif;jzpfaeaoma=umifhyif
jzpfygonf? odkaomfvnf; EdkifiHa&;rkefwkdif; pwifwdkufcwfae+yDjzpfygonf? qENjyyJGrsm;/ &JESifh&ifqkdif
xdyfwdkufawGr_rsm; jzpfyGm;cJh+yD; vlaygif; (200) cef aoqHk;cJh&+yD;jzpfygonf? aeraumif;ol
rdcif}uD;tm;ypkaepOf r+idrfroufjzpfr_rsm; qufvufjzpfyGm;ygonf? ,if;odkaom tajctaewGif
'kwd,ajrmuf trsKd;om;vGwfvyfa&;ud;yrf;r_ [k olrudk,fwkdifac:qdkaom wdkufyJGwGif wufwufuGuG
yg0if&ef qHk;jzwfvdkufjcif;yifjzpfygonf?
jrefrmjynfwGif ppfwyfu 1962 ckESpfY tm%modrf;,lygonf? 1988 ckESpfwGifjzpfyGm;aom
qlylr_rsm;rSm ydkrdkwdk;yGm;vmaom zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk wefjyefjcif;yif jzpfygonf? xdkESpf aEG&moDtajctae
ra&&mao;onfhtcsdefwGif
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pnf;urf;pepf&Sd=u&efESifh
tiftm;oHk;r_udk
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vdktyfa=umif;
tav;xm;Iazmfjy+yD; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;udk v$wfay;&ef awmif;qdkxm;ygonf?
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vlxkpnf;a0;yJGY olr rdefcGef;ajymqdkI vltcGifhta&;/ 'Drkdua&pDESifh t=urf;rzufa&;tay:wGif rlwnfaom
EkdifiHa&;tpDtpOfw&yfudk
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EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;udkrl ydwfyifwm;jrpfjcif;r&Sdyg? (tpnf;ta0;rsm;rvkyf&ef ydwfyifxm;+yD;jzpfI
ydwfyif&efrvdkawmh[k
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e0wzJGpnf;+yD;
&ufowWwywft=umwGif
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tpnf;ta0;rsm; ydwfyifxm;onfudkif;/ ppfwyfu +cdrf;ajcmufonfudkif; vGefqefI vlaygif;rsm;pGm


wufa&mufaom EkdifiHa&;pnf;a0;yJGrsm;udk wjynfvHk;wGif usif;yEkdifcJhygonf? olr EkdifiHa&;
pnf;Hk;a&;qif;&mwGif xl;jcm;xif&Sm;aom vuQ%mw&yfrSm tpOftvmt& wOD;ESifhwOD; rwnfh=uaom
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olr.*k%foduQma=umifh ppftpdk;&onf tawmf=umwGefqdkif;aecJh+yD;rS 1989 ckESpf ZlvdkifvrSmyif
olrtm; aetdrfwGif xdef;odrf;vdkufjcif;jzpfayonf? 1990 ckESpf arvwGifusif;yaom a&G;aumufyJGwGif
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJGcsKyf t}uD;tus,ftEdkif&&Sd+yD; v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,fOD;a& (80) &mcdkifE_ef;ausmf
tEkdif&&SdoGm;ygonf?
TonfrSm
atmifqef;pk=unf.
atmifyJGyifjzpfonf[k
vlwkdif;u
oabmwl=uygonf?
e0w onf rnfonfhtwGuf vGwfvyfaoma&G;aumufyJGudk usif;ycGifhyygoenf;? if;wdku
qefusifzuf&v'fwrsKd; xGufvmrnf[k ar#mfvifhxm;yHk&ygonf? if;wdk tm%mqufvuf&,l&eftwGuf
w&m;Oya't& vkyfydkifcGifhay;rnfh a&G;aumufyJG&v'fudk ar#mfvifh=u[efwlygonf? Todkaom tpdk;&rsKd;.
t=uyftwnf;rSm rdrd.vdrfvnfajymqdkcsufwGif rdrdyg jyefydwfrdaejcif;yifjzpfygonf? rnfodkyifjzpfap e0w
onf a&G;aumufyJG&v'fudk vufcH&efjiif;qefvdkufygonf? a&G;aumufyJGudk zsufodrf;vdkuf&onfh
oabmyifjzpfygonf? odkaomf e0w url w&m;0ifonfhoabm ydkrdkenf;yg;aomfvnf;
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vltcGifhta&;rsm; t}uD;tus,f qufvufazmufzsufaeonfudk tifrepfwD (Amnesty)
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vGefcJhaom
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todtrSwfyonfhtaejzifh aemfa0; EdkbJvfaumfrwDonf +idrf;csrf;a&;qktcsKdudk csD;jrifhcJhygonf?
+idrf;csrf;a&;. tajccHvdktyfcsufonf vlom;tm;vHk;. b0&Sifoefr_ESifh dkaoav;pm;cH&r_qkdif&m
tcGifhta&;wdkukd
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tajccHjzpfonf[laom tcsufudk jiif;qdk=urnfjzpfygonf? jrefrmwdkonf +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh
vHkcHa&;oabmudk at;jraomt&dyfESifh wJGzufxm;=uygonf?
opfyif.t&dyfonf at;jrayonf
xdkxuf rdb.t&dyfonf ydkI at;jr.
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xdkxuf rif;.t&dyfrSm ydkIyifom at;jrayonf?
odkaomf tat;jrqHk;rSm Ak'<jrwfpGmbk&m;.
t&dyfyif jzpfayonf?

xdka=umifh
jynfolvlxkudk
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at;jraom
t&dyftm0goay;Ekdif&eftwGuf tkyfcsKyfolwdkonf Ak'<&Sifawmf. tqHk;tr=o0g'rsm;udk
vdkufem&rnfjzpfygonf? ,if;=o0g'rsm;xJwGif opPmw&m;&Sdjcif;/ w&m;"rR apmifhpnf;jcif;ESifh
*k%mxm;jcif;wdkonf t"dujzpfygonf? Todkaom t&nftcsif;rsm;ay:wGif tajcyaom
tpdk;&udk &&Sd&ef&nf&G,fI jrefrmjynfom;wdku 'Drkdua&pDwkdufyJG0ifae=ujcif;yif jzpfygonf?
jynfwGif;Y EdkifiHa&;tzdESdyfcHae&ojzifh EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk&Sifudk,fwdkif rvma&mufEkdifonfrSm
Tt}udrfonf yxrt}udrf r[kwfyg? [pfwvm. wckaom tusOf;pcef;wGif zsm;emaeol umvf;AGef
atmfpDtufpuD (Carl Von Ossietzky) onfvnf; 1936 ckESpfu rvma&mufEkdifcJhyg?
tif'a&qmcga&mAfh (Andrei Sakharov) ESifh vufbdk0ifpm (Lech Walesa) wdkonfvnf;
xdkenf;wlyifjzpfcJh&ygonf? atmfpDtufpuDonf emZDtpdk;&rywfusrD aoqHk;oGm;&+yD; qmcga&mhAfESifh
bdk0ifpmwdkrSmrl if;wdk. ud;yrf;r_rsm; atmifyJGcHonfudk awGjrif=u&ygonf? atmifqef;pk=unfonfvnf;
olr. ud;yrf;r_atmifyJGcHonfudk jrif&rnf[k usaemfwdk ar#mfvifhygonf?
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jzpfrnf[laom tvm;tvmudkvnf; usaemfwdk od&Sdxm;&rnfjzpfygonf? usaemfwdkaexdkif&m
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usaemfwdk. pHowfrSwfcsufrsm;udkvnf; edrfhusoGm;atmif yvkyfEkdifrnfr[kwfyg? xdkodkrvkyfbJ
ydkrdkaumif;rGefaomavmuudk vdktyfygu usaemfwdk ydkI Edk;=um;zswfvwf&ef a=umuf&GHr_rS ydkI uif;&Sif;&ef
,ckESpfqk&SifajymouJhodk euf_dif;aom dk;om;r_ &Sd=u&ef usaemfwdk ud;pm;=u&rnfjzpfygonf?
TonfrSm usaemfwdktm;vHk; wOD;pDyvkyf&rnfh udpPjzpfaomfvnf; tm%m&mxl;tqifh&Sdolrsm; usifhoHk;&ef
txl;vdktyfygonf? atmifqef;pk=unfuJhodkyif dk;om;ESdrfhcsr_ESifh a=umuf&GHjcif;uif;r_udk jy=uyg? ydkI
aecsifzG,faumif;aom urBmavmu ay:aygufvmrnf jzpfygonf?
(wrsufESmpm a':pk"gwfyHkvmonf)
(wrsufESmvHk;wGif wyf&rnfhacgif;pOf}uD;)

tydkif;-u

1984 ckESpf 1993 ckESpftwGif;


a&;om;aom
pmwrf;rsm;ESifh taxGaxGrdefcGef;rsm;
(aemufxyfwrsufESm aqmif;yg;)
atmifqef;

t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh 1991 ckESpfwGif yHkESdyfxkwfa0aom pmtkyfrS pmrsufESm 3-37 udk jrefrmjyefonf?

* * *

usr rSwfrdEkdifaom t&G,fra&mufrDuyif usr.zcif uG,fvGefoGm;ygonf? xdka=umifh azaz[m


b,fvdkvlpm;rsKd;ygvdrfh [laom odcsifpdwfjzifh zcif. b0vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;ESifhywfoufaom
pmaytaxmuftxm;rsm;udk usr pwifpkaqmif; avhvmzwf_jcif;yifjzpfygonf? atmufwGif azmfjyyg
txky`wWdpmwrf;udk a&;om;&mY yHkESdyfxkwfa0jcif; taxmuftxm;rsm;udk t"dutajccHxm;ygonf?
ta=umif;t&mESpf&yfESifhywfoufIomv#if usrwdkrdom;pkESifh azazhtm; aumif;pGmodu|rf;cJholrsm;xHrS
od&Sd&aomtcsuftvufrsm;tay:wGif
tawmftoifh
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aoG;om;eD;uyfpGm
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tpGyfpJGcH&Edkifygonf? wu,fwrf;wGifvnf; txky`wWda&;olwdkonf rdrdwdk &SmazGpkaqmif;&&Sdaom
taxmuftxm;rsm;jzifh rdrdwdk. udk,fydkifqHk;jzwfOm%fudk yHkpHoGif;ay;cJhaom tjzpftysuf/
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usrjrifonfhtwkdif; rSefuefpGm ay:vGifap&ef ud;yrf;a&;om;xm;ygonf[kom ajymEkdifygonf?
* * *
atmifqef;udk jrefrmEkdifiH tnma'o&Sd ewfarmufrduav;Y 1915 ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv 13
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udkatmifqef;wdkvlpkonf tm%mydkiftvdkawmf&drsm; v$rf;rdk;xm;aom wuUodkvfausmif;om;or*~udk
xdk;xGif;0ifa&mufEkdif&ef ud;yrf;jcif;jzifh pwifv_yf&mS ;.? yxrwGif atmifjrifr_odyfr&SdcJhay? if;wdktxJrS

udkausmf+idrf;ESifh udkodef;azwdkom or*~tr_aqmifrsm;tjzpf ta&G;cs,fcH&onf? odkaomf aemufydkif;wGif


xufoefaom
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pdwfaepdwfxm;vnf;
ajymif;vm.?
v_yf&Sm;wufuGaom
jynfcspfpdwfv$rf;rdk;vm.? 1935-36 pmoifESpftwGif; ausmif;om;or*~tr_aqmif a&G;aumufyJGwGif
t"duae&mtm;vHk; trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwf xufoefaomvli,frsm;u &&SdoGm;=u.? udkatmifqef;onf
tr_aqmiftzJG0ifwOD;tjzpf ta&G;cH&+yD; or*~ r*~Zif;. t,f'Dwmvnf; jzpfvmygonf?
or*~ r*~Zif; tdk;a0 wGif i&JacG;}uD; vGwaf e+yD [laom aqmif;yg;udk xnfhoGif;cJhjcif;onf
us,fjyefpGm xda&mufr_&SdcJhonfh 1936 ckESpf wuUodkvfausmif;om;oydwfudk oG,f0dkufaomenf;jzifh
v_Haqmfay;jcif;yif jzpfygonf? Taqmif;yg;onf wuUodkvft&m&SdwOD;tm; ykyfcwfwdkufcdkuf
a&;om;xm;jcif;jzpfonf[k tm%mydkifrsm;u ,lqum aqmif;yg;&Siftrnfudk azmfxkwf&ef
t,f'Dwmudkatmifqef;tm; awmif;qdkvmawmh.? udkatmifqef;uvnf; ,if;uJhodk azmfxkwfjcif;onf
owif;pmq&musifh0wfESifh udkufnDrnfr[kwf[kqdkum jiif;qefvdkuf.? tm%mydkifrsm;u ,ckuJhodk
jiif;qefr_udk tcGifhaumif;,l+yD; udkatmifqef;tm; ausmif;rSxkwfy,fvdkufawmh.? r=umao;rDuyif
udkEkonfvnf;
ausmif;tkyf}uD;tm;
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ausmif;xkwfcHcJh&aoma=umifh
ausmif;om;rsm;xJwGif rauseyfr_/ a'goxGufr_ ydkIrsm;jym;vmavonf? odkjzifh oydwfarSmuf&ef
qHk;jzwf=uygawmhonf? wuUodkvfpmar;yJGrsm;ppfcsdef jzpfav&m TqHk;jzwfcsufrSm txl;av;eufonfh
udpPw&yfjzpfygonf? oydwfowif;rSm csufcsif;yif [dkav;wausmfjzpfoGm;avonf? owif;pmrsm;ESifhwuG
wEdkifiHvHk;u oydwfarSmufausmif;om;rsm;udk =uifempGm axmufcH=uygonf? TuJhodk trsm;axmufcHr_ukd
&,lEkdifjcif;/ av;pm;avmufatmif pDrHuGyfuJEkdifjcif;/ pnf;urf;&Sdjcif; ponfwdka=umifh ausmif;om;rsm;.
vkyf&nfudkif&nfESifh ausmif;om;tiftm;. wefcdk;tmedoifudk vl}uD;ydkif; EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;
todtrSwfyvm=u&onf? tpdk;&taejzifhvnf; oydwfarSmufolrsm;. rauseyfcsufrsm;udk av;eufpGm
rpOf;pm;I rjzpfawmhyg? aemufqHk;Y Edkifvlrif;xufywwfaom ausmif;tkyf}uD;rSm t+idrf;pm;,lvkduf&.?
wuUodkvftufOya'wGif
ausmif;om;rsm;xnfhoGif;vdkaom
jyifqifcsufrsm;udk
avhvm&ef
aumfrwDw&yfudkvnf; zJGpnf;vdkuf&+yD; ta&;rygvSaom awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udkrl vdkufavsmvdkufavonf?
vli,ftrsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm;. EdkifiHa&;zHGzd;wdk;wufr_wGif ta&;}uD;onfh rSwfwdkifwwdkifjzpfaom 1936
ckESpfoydwfa=umifh udkatmifqef;onfvnf; ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifwOD;tjzpf vlodrsm;vmygonf?
ol*k%foduQmvnf; t&SdefrSefrSefjrifhrm;vm+yD; &efukefwuUodkvfausmif;om;or*~ESifh oydwfarSmuf+yD;aemuf
wnfaxmifcJhaom
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ausmif;om;or*~wdk.
tr_aqmiftzJGrsm;wGifvnf;
wqifhxufwqifh ydkrdkta&;ygaom tr_aqmifae&mrsm;wGif wm0efxrf;aqmif&.? 1938 ckESpfwGif
or*~ESpf&yfpvHk;. OuUXjzpfvmygonf? xdktcsdefY udkatmifqef; wuUodkvfrS 0dZmbJG&+yD;I
Oya'0dZmwef;wGif wufa&mufae.? xdkuJhodk Oya'wef;qufwufaejcif;rSm wuUodkvfwGif
qufvufaexdkif v_yf&Sm;EkdifcGifh&&Sd&ef[laom ta=umif;vnf; yg0ifygonf? ajzmifhrwfwnf=unfjcif;/
ZJGvHkv}uD;jcif;/ tvkyfvkyfEdkifpGrf;&Sdjcif; ponfwdka=umifh udkatmifqef;taejzifh av;pm;jcif;cH&aomfvnf;
tjcm;ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;uJhodk ,Ofaus;odrfarGI qufqHa&;ajyjypfjcif;r&Sdaom vl*GpmwOD;yif
jzpfygonf? okefokefr_efr_efaewwfjcif;/ royf&yfjcif;/ pdwfrygv#if olwyg; tae&=uyfavmufatmif
wHk%Sdbma0aewwfjcif;/ pdwfygjyefawmhvnf; olwyg; rcHEkdifavmufatmif pum;azmifzJGjcif;ESifh tjcm;
axmifhrusKd;aom trltusifhwdka=umifh udkatmifqef; r=umc%ta0zefcH&ygonf? oludk,fwkdifvnf;
&Hzef&Hcg vl,Ofaus;rsm;ESifh tom;ruscJhacs/ rsufaphaemuf jrifjyif;uyfvmonf? xdktcg
vl,Ofaus;rsm;ESifh ig vldkif;[k ZmwdcJGypfcsifonfh ("gwfyHkvmonf)
("gwfyHk)

atmifqef;
jrefrmEdkifiHvHk;qkdif&m ausmif;om;or*~OuUX 1937
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
pdwfrsm;&Sdvmonf [k a&;om;cJhzl;.? odkaomf vldkif;rsm;udk atmifqef;jrifyHkrSm pdwful;,Ofqef.?
dk;ajzmifhwnf=unf/
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tr$ef;wifxm;jcif;yifjzpfygonf?
1938 ckESpfwGif udkatmifqef;onf 1930 ckESpf ukvm;-Armt"duk%f;rSjrpfzsm;cHaom
'dkArmtpnf;tHk;xJodk 0ifa&mufv_yf&Sm;Ekdif&ef wuUodkvfrS xGufvdkufygonf? xdktpnf;tHk;onf
trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwfjyif;jyI EkysKdwufuGonfh tajccHvuQ%m&Sd+yD; tpnf;tHk;acgif;aqmifrsm;onf
ouf}uD;EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;ESifhrwl
wrlxl;jcm;=uygonf?
rsKd;cspfta&;awmfyHkY
b0udkjrKyfESH&ef
tmoDojyif;xefaeaom
acwfopfynmwwfvli,frsm;u
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&Joifhonfavmufr&J/
jrefrmqefoifhonfavmufrqef/
tajccHrS
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qEN&Sdoifhonfavmufr&Sd/
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ri,f&G,f[k
,lq=uygonf?
'dkArmtpnf;tHk;0ifrsm;udk vlwkdif;u uduf=uonfawmhr[kwfyg? tcsKdu olwdkudk uavuacs
jy\em&Smaeaom vlrdkufvlqdk;av;rsm;[lI txifao;+yD;/ trnfa&SwGif ocif wyfI ac:a0:jcif;udk
}uD;us,fonf/
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vufatmufcHjzpfaeaom Armwdku ocif [k ac:avhac:x&Sd&m/ Armrsm;onf u|efrsKd;r[kwf
udk,fhudkudk,f tkyfpdk;Edkifonfh arG;&mygtcGifhta&;&Sdolrsm;jzpfa=umif;udk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; &J&Jwif;wif;
az:jyonfhtaeESifh tpnf;tHk;0ifrsm;u ocif bJGudk oHk;pJGjcif; jzpfygonf?
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rwdkufqkdifr_rsm;a=umifh
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ociftrsm;pkyg0ifonfhtydkif;udk
acgif;aqmifolrSm
jrefrmhpmayESifh
EdkifiHa&;avmuwGif
txifu&yk*~Kdvf}uD;jzpf+yD; rlvu tpnf;tHk;. em,ujzpfaom q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;jzpfygonf?
udkatmifqef;vnf; ocifudk,fawmfr_dif; OD;aqmifonfh 'dkArmtpnf;tHk;0ifwOD; jzpfvmygonf?
r_dif;ocif rsm;teuf udkEk/ udkvSazESifh udkodef;azwdktjyif ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm; r[kwfcJhaomfvnf;
jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;wGif xif&Sm;ta&;ygvmrnfh ocifoef;xGef;ESifh ocifpdk;wdkvnf; yg0ifygonf? r=umrD
ocifatmifqef;onf 'dkArmtpnf;tHk; taxGaxGtwGif;a&;r; jzpfvm+yD;aemuf tpnf;tHk;.
a=unmpmwrf;udk pD&ifa&;om;cJhygonf?
1938-1939 ckESpfrsm;wGif 1300 jynfh ta&;awmfyHk [k trnfwGifrnfh ta&;tcif;rsm;
jzpfay:cJhygonf? a&eHajrtvkyform;rsm; csDwufyJG/ awmifolv,form;rsm; csDwufyJG/ &J.
eHygwfwkwf'%fjzifh Adkvfatmifausmf usqHk;cJh&aom ausmif;om;qENjyyJG/ xdkjzpf&yfa=umifh ay:ayguf&aom
EkdifiHt0Srf; ausmif;om;oydwfrsm;/ ArmwdkESifh tdENd,tEG,f rlqvifrsm;t=um; jzpfyGm;cJhaom t"duk%f;/
tvkyform;rsm;oydwf/ &J. vufcsufjzifh tmZmenf (17) OD; usqHk;cJhaom rEWav;qENjyyJG/
a'gufwmbarmftpdk;&
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ponfwdk
woDwwef;}uD;
jzpfay:cJhygonf?
Tta&;tcif;rsm;a=umifh
EdkifiHtwGif;
ruHpzl;
r+idrfrouf
qlqlyGufyGufjzpfvm+yD;
trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; t&Sdeft[kefjyif;xefvmonf? odkaomf Tr#pdwfv_yf&Sm;zG,fjzpf&yfrsm;
t=um;uyif jrefrmhEdkifiHa&;. uyf}uD;ESpfyg;jzpfaom *dk%f;*%0g'ESifh remvdkrkef;wD;a&;0g'wdk. qdk;0g;aom
t&Sdef=oZmrsm; v$rf;rdk;vm.? tkyfpkwtkyfpk/ vlwOD;csif;wdktaeESifh rdrdwdkomv#if txda&mufqHk;/
rsKd;cspfpdwftxufoefqHk;/ tawmfqHk;[lI *k%fwk/ *k%fydifvkyfvdkaom pdwfl;rsm;0ifum/ tjyeftvSef
pGyfpJGykwfcwfr_rsm;/ cg;oD;r_rsm; ysHESHvmavonf?

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remvdk0efwdkpdwfrsm;rS
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ay:aygufvmaom
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jrefrmuGefjrLepfuvyfpnf;[lIvnf;if;/ ac:a0:onfh tkyfpkudkwnfaxmifcJholwOD;jzpf+yD;/ xdktkyfpk.
taxGaxGtwGif;a&;r;tjzpf
wm0efxrf;aqmifcJh.?
odkaomf
ocifatmifqef;onf
uGefjrLepf0g'udkaomfif;/ tjcm;wif;=uyfaom 0g'rsm;udkaomfif;/ rqifrjcif tpGef;a&muftjrifjzifh
,Hk=unfvufcHjcif; r&SdcJhyg? us,f0ef;axGjym;aom qdk&S,fvpfoDtkd&D t,ltqtrsKd;rsKd;teuf oltm;
qJGaqmifEkdifaom oabmw&m;rsm; tawmftwef&SdcJhygonf? odkaomf ol. t"du&nfrSef;csufrSm
olwkdif;jynftwGuf vGwfvyfa&;ESifh pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&; pGrf;aqmifay;Edkifrnfh tawG;tac:rsm;/
enf;AsL[mrsm;udk avhvmoHk;pJG&efomjzpfygonf?
1939 ckESpf Oa&mywkdufwGif 'kwd,urBmppfrD; pwifavmifu|rf;+yD; rsm;r=umrD udkvdkeD0g'tcuf/
vGwfvyfa&;tcsuf [kjrifum xGuf&yf*dk%f;}uD; wnfaxmifEkdif&ef ocifatmifqef; ulnDay;cJhygonf?
a'gufwmbarmf. qif;&Jom;ygwD/ 'dkArmtpnf;tHk;/ ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh yk*~vduEdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;
pkaygif;zJGpnf;vdkufaom xdk xGuf&yf*k%f;}uD; onf ocifatmifqef;. wDxGifr_jzpfonf[k ocifEku
owfrSwfcJh.? xGuf&yf*dk%f;}uD; . jynfolvlxu
k dk wdkufwGef;aqmf=ocsufrSm ppf+yD;onfESifh
vGwfvyfa&;ay;&ef oabmwlaom uwd&rSomv#if +Adwdo#ppfa&;ud;yrf;csufrsm;udk ulnDyHhydk;&rnf?
+Adwdo#tpdk;&taeESifh xdkuJhodk uwda=unmcsufryygu ppfa&;ud;yrf;csufrsm;udk tifwkduftm;wdkuf
qefusif&rnf? wHkjyefonfhtaeESifh +Adwdo#tpdk;&onf trsKd;om;a&;v_yf&Sm;aeol trsm;tjym;udk
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axmifxJa&mufae=uay+yD?
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*syefESifh r[mrdwfzJGjcif;
ocifatmifqef;onf vufeufudkifwdkufyJGqifEJ$&ef vdktyfaumif;vdktyfrnf[k ,lqcJhonfrSm
umvtwef=umuyif jzpfygonf? uav;b0u wdkufcdkufawmfvSef&ef pdwful;,OftdyfrufcJhaomfvnf;
vGwfvyfa&;udk tajccHOya'abmiftwGif;rS EkdifiHa&;enf;jzifh &,lEkdifrnfh tvm;tvmudk tpOfwpdkuf
y,fxm;cJholr[kwfyg? wuUodkvfausmif;om;b0u tpdk;&0efxrf; (xdkpOfu tkdifpDtuf/ bDpDtuf)
pmar;yJGajzqdkum if;wdk. ynm&SifyDopGm EkdifiHa&;vkyfudkifr_ESifh rsKd;cspfpdwfxufoefr_wdka=umifh
oludk,fwkdifav;pm;aom tdENd,EkdifiHa&;orm;tcsKd. erlemtwdkif; vkyfudkif&efudkvnf; ocifatmifqef;
pOf;pm;cJhzl;.? trsm;od ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifwOD; jzpfvm+yD;aemufydkif;Y &efukefwuUodkvf
t*FvdyfpmygarmuQtm; ay;ydkaom pmwapmifwGif olonf +idrf;csrf;aom awmfvSefa&;orm; om
jzpfonf[k a&;om;cJha=umif; =um;od&ygonf? odkaomfvnf; jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; ta&;tcif;rsm;.
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&Sif;jyxm;ygonf?
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trsKd;om;a&;wkdufyJGtwGuf jynfolvlxkudk pnf;Hk;&efjzpfonf[k ,lqcJhonf? usaemfhrSmvnf;
t=urf;rsOf;tpDtpOfwck&SdcJhonf? if;tpDtpOfrSm +Adwdo#e,fcsJpepfudk wjynfvHk;wGif qefusif&ef/
Tv_yf&Sm;r_udk urBmhtajctae ArmhtajctaeESifhtnD wqwqwdk;csJ&ef/ rdaetvkyform;

awmaetvkyform;wdk.
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+Adwdo#ukefypPnf;rsm;udk oydwfarSmuf&mrSpI vlxkESifhcsDI tcGefray;a&;wdkufyJGtxd qifEJ$&ef
ppfzuftkyfcsKyfa&;zufESifh ykvdyfzufuif;pcef;rsm; qufoG,fa&;vrf;a=umif;rsm;udk ajymufusm;enf;ESifh
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tpDtpOfyifjzpfonf? +Adwdo#tpdk;&. vufeufudkifwyfrsm;/ txl;ojzifh +Adwdo#vlrsKd;r[kwfaom
wyfrsm;onf usaemfwdkzufodk ul;ajymif;vm=uvdrfhrnf[kvnf; usaemfwGufcJhonf? TtpDtpOfwGif
*syefrsm; 0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufr_udkvnf; rSef;qcJhonf? odkaomf Tae&mwGif usaemfrSm &Sif;vif;aomtjrif
r&SdcJhay?
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aqmif=urnf?)
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0efcHcJhygonf? ol. &Jabmf&Jbufrsm;wGif xdkpDrHudef;udk axmufcHol rrsm;vSyg? xdkuJhodkraxmufcHjcif;rSm
ocifatmifqef;tjrift& usaemfwdkrSm "e&Sifaygufp Zmwd&Sdolrsm;jzpf&m pOf;pm;p&m ajymqdk&mwGif
&J&ifhoavmuf/ jywfom;aom aqmif&Gufcsufudkvkyf&mY wGefqkwfavh&Sd=uavonf? jynfolvlxkudk
E_d;qG&rnfhvkyfief; =um&SnfcufcJrnfudkvnf; pdwfr&Snf=uay? usaemfwdktrsm;pkrSm vlxkwdkufyJGta=umif;
ajyma[m=uaomfvnf; vlxkwdkufyJG tusKd;tmedoifukd oabmrayguf=u ponfwdka=umifhyif
jzpfygonf? odkaomf ocifatmifqef;onf trsKd;om;a&;0g'Drsm; ajymufusm;wkdufyJG qifEJ$Ekdif&ef
vufeufrsm;&Sd&efvdkonf [laom xifjrifcsufudk tcdkiftrmqufvufqyk fudkifxm;ygonf? aemufqHk;wGif
if;wdkteufrS wOD;OD; jrefrmjynfjyifyodkoGm;+yD; tultnD/ taxmuftyHhESifh vufeufrsm;&Sm&ef
qHk;jzwfvdkufygonf? xdktcgu usaemfwOD;wnf;om ajratmufY aeae&aoma=umifh xdkodkoGm;&ef
usaemfhudka&G;cs,fcJh=uavonf [k ocifatmifqef; rSwfwrf;wifcJhygonf?
1940 ckESpf =o*kwfvwGif ocifatmifqef;ESifh ocifvSrdif (aemiftcg Adkvf&efatmif[kxif&Sm;ol)
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jzpfaom ulvefpkodk a&mufoGm;=uygonf? xdkae&mY olwdkESpfOD; vtenf;i,fr# aomifwifae+yD;
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a'gufwmbarmfae&mY
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tvnfa&mufpOfu a'gufwmodrf;armifESifh awGcJh.? TawGqHkqufoG,fr_rSwqifh *syefrsm;u
trdGKifa&muf
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jzpfygonf?
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zufqpf*syefESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;udk qefusif=uonf? ocifatmifqef;uawmh tultnDudk
&onfhae&mrS,l+yD; tajctaersm; rnfuJhodk ajymif;vJjzpfay:vmrnfudk apmifh=unfhoifhonf[k
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ocifatmifqef;.
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jyefa&mufvmavonf? olrSwqifh *syefwdkurf;vSrf;vdkufonfh oabmwlnDcsuft&/ awmfvSefykefuef&ef
vufeufrsm;ESifh aiGa=u;axmufyHhrnf[k jrefrmwdku em;vnfcJh.? xdkjyif vufa&G;pifvli,fwpkudk
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&JabmfoHk;usdyf . a&Sajy;wyfOD; jzpfygonf? aemif ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf. rdKifozG,fjzpfvmrnfh
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ocifatmifqef;/ ocifvSaz (AdkvfvuFsm)/ ocifatmifoef; (Adkvfp}uFm) ESifh ocifxGef;tkyfwdkudk
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ocifatmifqef;onf &JabmfoHk;usdyf. acgif;aqmiftjzpf xifxif&Sm;&Sm; ay:xGufvmonf?
ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf zJGaomtcgYvnf; wyfrawmf. ydifzufr&Sdacgif;aqmifjzpfvmavonf?
ocifatmifqef;onf
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vli,fppfoifwef;om;rsm;onf
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("gwfyHk)
tay: - Adkvfvufsm/ Adkvfp}uFm/ Adkvfatmifqef; 1941 ckESpf *syefjynf
atmuf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh &JabmfoHk;usdyftzJG0iftcsKd 1943
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
[dkifeefoifwef;ausmif;qif;rsm;/
xdkif;EkdifiHae
jrefrmrsm;ESifh
rDemrDtzJG0ifrsm;yg0ifaom
ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfukd 1941 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif befaumufrdY w&m;0ifzJGpnf;vdkuf.?
plZluD;onf AdkvfcsKyf}uD;&mxl;jzifh wyfrawmft}uD;tuJjzpfvm+yD; atmifqef;onf AdkvfcsKyf&mxl;ESifh
ppfOD;pD;csKyfjzpfvmygonf? tysHoifp wyfrawmftzJG0ifrsm;onf opPma&aomuf+yD; t&m&Sdrsm;u
ol&Jaumif;qefaom ygVdtrnfrsm;udk cH,l=uygonf? plZluD;onf Adkvfrdk;ud;jzpfvm+yD;/ atmifqef;onf
AdkvfawZjzpfvmonf? rdrdwdktrnfopfrsm;ESifh xif&Sm;vmrnfh &JabmfoHk;usdyf0ifrsm;teuf AdkvfvuFsm/
Adkvfp}uFm/ AdkvfaZ,s/ Adkvfae0if;/ Adkvf&efEkdif/ AdkvfausmfaZm ponfwdk yg0ifygonf? AdkvfcsKyfawZ url
ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifESifh ocifacgif;aqmiftjzpf wkdif;jynfuodcJhaom atmifqef;trnfudkom
jyefvnfoHk;pJGum AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; [lI jynfolwdk tjrwfwEdk;xm;aom tmZmenfol&Jaumif;tjzpf
xifay:vmygonf?
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jrefrmrsm;twGuf *k%f,lzG,f/ aysmf&$ifzG,fjzpfygonf? usqif;aeaom rdrdwdk. trsKd;om;*k%foduQmudk
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tm&Swdkufom;csif;. zaemifhatmufom a&muf&a=umif; odvmaomtcg ta=uuJG}uD; a=uuJGcJh&.?
trsm;u vGwfvyfa&;ay;rnfh u,fwif&Sifrsm;tjzpf udqdkcJhaom edyGefppfom;rsm;onf vludufrrsm;aom
+Adwdo#wdkxufyif qdk;0g;onfudk awG&awmh.? waewjcm; pufqkyfzG,f&mjzpf&yfrsm; wkd;yGm;vmav
("mwfyHkvmonf)
("gwfyHk)
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a&muf&SdoGm;cJh+yD;aemuf 1941 ckESpf azazmf0g&DvwGif atmifqef;tm;

jrefrmEkdifiHodk v#Kd0SufpGm jyefvnfac:aqmifvmcJhol rdqkkpl*D;ESifh


4-3-42 Y twlawG&pOf/ &efukef
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
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tpterusef
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jzpfwwfaom txiftjrifvJGr_rsm; ponfjzifh 'kuQtaygif;udkvnf; xyfavmif;cH&ygao;onf?
jrefrmjynfa&muf
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rdrdwkduwdopPm wnf=unfEkdif&ef jrefrmEkdifiHudk vGwfvyfa&;ay;oifhonf[k ,Hk=unfaom
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OD;pD;OD;aqmifcefvdkufygonf?
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ppf_H;e,fajrwckuJhodk udkifwG,fvmavonf? ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf. taetxm;onfvnf;
ra&r&mESifh tm;uszG,f&mvHk;0r&Sday? wyfrawmfonf csDwufvm&mvrf;wav#muf pdwftm;xufoefpGm
0ifvmolrsm;ESifh azmif;yGae.? xdkppfom;opfrsm;udk xda&mufonfh wdkuf&nfckduf&nf&Sdaom
wyfrsm;jzpfvmap&ef pepfwus/ pnf;urf;&Sd&Sd avhusifhay;&ayOD;rnf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;um; rdrdwyfrsm;udk
trdefay;tkyfcsKyfydkifcGifhr&Sd? olonf Adkvfrdk;ud;. vufaxmuft&m&Sdrsm;teuf tqifhjrifhqHk;r#omjzpf.?
Adkvfrdk;ud;udk,fwkdifvnf; jrefrmjynf. tem*wfta&;rsm;wGif olESifh ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfwdk
rnfonfhtcef;uu
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jy\emwufaeyHk&.? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh ol. &Jabmf&Jbufrsm;url ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfonf
jrefrmt&m&Sdrsm;vufatmufwGifom &Sdoifhonf[k ,lq=uonf? xdkudpPESifhywfoufI AdkvfvuFsmu ol/
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh
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ppfOD;pD;tjzpfif;
ceftyfvdkufjcif;jzpfygonf? ("mwfyHkvmonf)
("gwfyHk)
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;
ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmf 1942 ckESpf
(aqmif;yg;tquf)
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf
ol.taetxm;ESifhywfoufIif;/
jrefrmEkdifiHtajctaeESifh
ywfoufIif;/ pdwful;,Of+yD; xifa,mifxifrSm;rjzpfcJhyg? vGwfvyfa&;kef;uefr_um; qHk;cef;wkdif&ef
rsm;pGmvdkao;onfukd olodem;vnfonfhtavsmuf wyfrawmf awmifhwif;ckdifrm&efESifh pnf;urf;&Sd&efudk
tmHkpdkufcJh.? Armhwyfrawmfudk ygwDEkdifiHa&;rS uif;uif;&Sif;&Sif;ae&efESifh t&yfom;tkyfcsKyfa&;zufwGif

0ifa&mufpGufzufjcif; ry&efudkvnf; olud;yrf;cJh.? odkaomfvnf; EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;udk A[dkrdKifyum


zJGpnf;cJhaom wyfrawmftaeESifh EkdifiHa&;ESifh uif;uif;&Sif;&Sif; aeEdkifzdk&efrSm tcsdefrsm;pGmrS
aESmif;oGm;+yDjzpfa=umif; ol {uefod&SdcJhrnfjzpfonf?
1942
ckESpf
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ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmfukd ArmhumuG,fa&;wyfrawmftjzpf jyefvnfzJGpnf;vdkuf+yD; atmifqef;onf
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tqifhqifhY *syeft}uHay;t&m&Sdrsm; wJGceftyfxm;+yD; jrefrmt&m&Sdrsm;. vufawGtm%mrsm;udk
wif;usyfpGm
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jrefrmhtkyfcsKyfa&;udk
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a'gufwmbarmftm;
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ceftyfvdkufygonf?
tay:,Htm;jzifh
jrefrmtpdk;&tm%monf
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ypk&ygonf? rcif=unfonf pJGrufzG,f&mkyf&nfESifh cspfpzG,ftrlt,m&Sd+yD; rdrd. olemyvkyfief;udk
apwemjynfh0pGmjzifh txl;wm0efodod aqmif&Gufjcif;a=umifh vlemrsm;ESifh vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;u
av;pm;cspfcif=uygonf? q&mr rcif=unfonf AdkvfcsKyfudk ypk&mY wif;oifhonfhae&mwGif
wif;aomfvnf;/ ,k,=unfompGm pdwf&SnfpGm qufqHygonf? tvGefa=umufrufzG,faumif;ygonf[laom
ppfaoemywd}uD;vnf; tpJG}uD;pJGoGm;ygawmhonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf &SufwwfIif;/ ol.
b0&nfrSef;csuftay:
wm0efodpdwfjyif;xefIif;
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tusifhoDvESifhywfoufI wif;wif;=uyf=uyf awG;ac:olwOD;jzpf&um; wdkusKdrdY plZluD;u trsKd;orD;
tvdk&Sdygu pDpOfay;rnf[k urf;vSrf;aomfvnf; AdkvfcsKyf tHh=owkefv_yfoGm;ygonf? plZluD;taeESifh
*syef,Ofaus;r_t& {nfh0wfausap&ef ajymcJhyHk&ygonf? odkaomf AdkvfcsKyfuawmh oltm; tusifhpm&dwW
ysufjym;,kwfnHhoGm;atmif ud;pm;aeava&mhvm; [k oHo,pdwf0ifcJh.? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf
olpdwfudkol aumif;pGmodonfhtjyif yGifhvif;jywfom;pGm vkyfwwfolvnf; jzpfygonf? odkjzifh
&Snf&Snfa0;a0; vlysKdvSnfhjcif;rsKd; rvkyfaebJ/ 1942 ckESpf pufwifbmv 6 &ufaewGif q&mr rcif=unfESifh
vufxyfxdrf;jrm;vdkufygonf?
a':cif=unfonf atmifqef;udk vufxyf&mY vlyk*~KdvfwOD;udkom vufxyfvdkufonfr[kwf/
uHta=umif;w&m;w&yfudkyg vufxyfvdkufjcif;jzpfonf [k tajym&SdcJhygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;uvnf;
ol. b0=uifazmftaeESifh &SdtyfaomowWdESifh aEG;axG;aom arwWmwdkudk ydkifqkdifEkdifHkomru
oluG,fvGefoGm;+yD;aemuf ol. pHwifxm;r_rsm;udk *k%foa&&Sd&Sd/ }uH}uHckdifckdif xdef;odrf;oGm;rnfh
trsKd;orD;wOD;udk vufxyfvdkufjcif; jzpfygonf? AdkvfcsKyfwdk. tdrfaxmifa&;um; om,matmifjrifygonf?

olwdkav;pm;jrwfEdk;vSaom vli,fAdkvfcsKyf tdrfaxmifyoGm;ojzifh ueOD;wGif pdwfrcsrf;omjzpfcJhaom


&Jabmfrsm;vnf; vsifjrefpGmyif oabmwlauseyfvmavonf? tdrfaxmifonfjzpfvm+yD;aemuf
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. El;nHhaysmhajymif;aom toGifvuQ%mrsm; ydkrdkawmufajymifvmonf? olonf
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&Sdaejcif;onf ta&;}uD;aomvkyfief;rsm; aqmif&Guf&mY oludk tm;jynfhaponf[k ,HkrSm;oHo,&SdzG,f
r[kwfacs?
1943 ckESpf rwfvwGif atmifqef;tm; AdkvfcsKyftqifhodk wkd;jrifhceftyfvdkuf+yD;
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wdkusKdodkoGm;aomtzJGudk
a'gufwmbarmfOD;aqmif+yD; xdktzJGwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tjyif a'gufwmodrf;armifESifh ocifjrwdk
yg0ifygonf? ZEM0g&DvtwGif;u *syef0ef}uD;csKyfwdk*sKdonf jrefrmEkdifiH r=umrD vGwfvyfa&;&awmhrnf[k
a=unmxm;+yD;jzpfygonf?
jrefrmtzJG
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vGwfvyfa&;&rnfjzpf+yD; u|EkfyfwdkawG pmcsKyftcsKd udk csKyfqdk&ef pojzifh jzpfygonf? pmwrf;udk
tvGeftrif; ta&;xm;jcif;r&SdcJhyg? tpDtpOftwdkif; =o*kwfv (1) &ufaewGif jrefrmjynfudk vGwfvyfaom
tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifEkdifiHtjzpfif;/ r[mta&Stm&S omwlnDr# }uD;yGm;a&;e,fajr .
wef;wlnDwltzJG0ifEkdifiHtjzpfif; a=unmvdkufygonf? a'gufwmbarmftm; t"dywd[laombJGESifh
EkdifiHacgif;aqmif 0ef}uD;csKyftjzpf ceftyfvdkuf+yD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;um; ppf0ef}uD;jzpfvmygonf?
jrefrmhtrsKd;om;wyfrawmf[k trnfopfajymif;xm;aom Armhwyfrawmf xda&mufr_r&Sdap&ef *syefwdk
enf;y&d,m,frsKd;pHk oHk;pJGygawmhonf? yxrwGif wyfrsm;udk EdkifiHt0Srf;jzef}uJxm;onf? xdkaemuf
ae&mtcsKdwGif pkyHxm;jyefonf? ppf0ef}uD;XmeESifh wyfrsm;t=um; qufoG,fa&;cufcJap&ef jzpfygonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;um; rwkefrv_yf? *syefawG t}uHay;or#udk oabmwlvdkufum olxifjrifcsufrsm;udk
vlodray;bJ oltpDtpOfEiS fhol qufvkyfoGm;ygonf?
wdkusKdrS jyefa&mufvmcsdefavmufwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf AdkvfvuFsm/ AdkvfaZ,s/
Adkvfae0if;ESifh AdkvfausmfaZmwkdtygt0if ol. t&m&SdtcsKdudkac:I awmfvSefa&;pwif&ef tcsdefudk
wdkifyifaqG;aEG;ygonf? t&m&Sdrsm;u tajctae ydkrdkpdwfcs&onftxd apmifhqkdif;&ef t}uHay;ygonf? wzef
ocifoef;xGef;ESifhwkdifyif&m if;uvnf; awmfvSefa&;p&ef tcsdefrwefao;[k wifjyojzifh AdkvfcsKyfvnf;
pdwfygvufygr&SdvSaomfvnf; apmifhqkdif;&ef oabmwlvdkufygonf? tjcm;uGefjrLepfrsm;/ txl;ojzifh
ocifpdk;ESifh ocifodef;azwdkonf +Adwdo#wdk qkwfcGmoGm;ojzifh olwdk axmifrSvGwfonfh tcsdefrwdkifcifuyif
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ocifodef;azonf AdkvfcsKyfatmiffqef;ESifh Adkvfae0if;wdkudk a&$bdkY c%awG+yD; +Adwdo#wyfrsm;ESifh
tquftoG,f&a&; ud;yrf;&ef tdENd,odk xGufcGmoGm;ygonf? 1943 ckESpf Ekd0ifbmva&mufcsdefwGif
awmfvSefa&;tpDtpOfrsm; tawmfyif c&D;a&mufae+yDjzpf&um;/ jrefrmEkdifiH awmawmifrsm;xJwGif
ajymufusm;wyfrsm;zJGpnf;&ef ud;pm;aeaom Adkvfr; pD*&if; ac: +Adwdo#wyfrawmft&m&Sdonf/
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ppfrSefaom vGwfvyfa&;&&Sd&ef kef;uef&rnfjzpfa=umif;udk ol. rdefcGef;rsm;wGif jynfolwdktm; today;cJh.?

1942 ckESpfukefydkif;wGif u&ifrsm;ESifh ArmhvGwfvyfa&;wyfrawmftwGif;rS wm0efrJholwdkt=um;


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aumif;pGmoabmaygufcJh.? plZluD;twGuf ocifatmifqef;a&;qJGcJhaom jrefrmEkdifiH pDrHudef; wGif
,QKtcgY
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ocifoef;xGef;ESifh AdkvfvuFsmwdkonf TvlrsKd;pkESpfpkt=um; +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh em;vnfr_&&Sdap&ef tyef;w}uD;
aqmif&GufcJhygonf? if;wdk. pkaygif;ud;yrf;r_rS oD;yGifhvmaomtusKd;um; u&ifacgif;aqmifrsm;
jrefrmacgif;aqmifwdktm;
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AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; tapmwvsif udkifwG,f&efvdkaeaom aemufudpPw&yfrSm uGefjrLepfrsm;ESifh
jynfolta&;awmfyHkygwDtwGif;rS qdk&S,fvpfrsm;t=um; waewjcm;}uD;xGm;aeaom tmCmwrsm;yif
jzpfygonf? uGefjrLepfacgif;aqmifrsm;rSm *syefacwfwav#mufvHk; awmcdkaecJhaom ocifpdk;/ opfawmESifh
v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;0ef}uD;jzpfaeaom ocifoef;xGef;ESifh ocifA[def;wdk jzpf=uygonf? OD;ausmf+idrf;ESifh
OD;baqGwdkonfum; xif&Sm;aom qdk&S,fvpfacgif;aqmifESpfOD; jzpfygonf? AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf
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ocifpdk;onf zufqpfqefusifa&; pnf;Hk;aqmf=o&mwGif wyfrawmfudk xdcdkufepfemapaom
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a'goxGuf&ygonf? vaygif;rsm;pGm oabmxm;csif; zvS,f+yD;aemuf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;onf ocifpdk;/
ocifoef;xGef;/ ocifA[def;wdkESifh 1944 ckESpf =o*kwfvwGif &uftenf;i,f=um v#Kd0Sufpnf;a0;ygonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;. zufqpfqefusifa&;tzJG wnfaxmif&eftqdkukd aqG;aEG;=u+yD; tzJG.
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a=unmpmwrf;udk zwfum awmfvSefa&;udk w&m;0if taumiftxnfazmfvdkufygonf? tzJGY ocifpdk;onf
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rcsifhr&Jjzpfae=uygonf? if;wdkonf awmfvSefa&;w&yfudk rdrdwdkzmom pwif&ef }uHpnf=uygonf?
TudpPudk AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; odoGm;aomtcg if;wdktm; zufqpfqefusifa&;tzJG. v_yf&Sm;r_xJY
wdusaom tcef;ursm; pDpOfay;jcif;jzifh tajctaeudk ajyvnfapcJhygonf?
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AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh taygif;tazmfrsm;onf jynfytultnD &onfjzpfap/ r&onfjzpfap *syefudk
awmfvSef&ef qHk;jzwfcsufcs+yD;jzpfaomfvnf; atmifjrifr_rsm; ydkIydkI &aeaom r[mrdwfwyfrsm;ESifh

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EdkifiHt0Srf; jrefrmwyfrsm; *syefwdkudk pwifawmfvSefaom 1945 ckESpf rwfv 27 &ufaea&mufonfhwkdif
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ppfavhusifhcef;qif;&ef[k ta=umif;jyum rdawmfrS xGufcGmcJhygonf? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;pvif;. wyfr (14) onf
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r[mrdwfppfOD;pD;wOD;tjzpf todtrSwfy&ef &J&Jwif;wif; awmif;qdkvdkufygonf? +Adwdo#AdkvfcsKyf}uD;xHrS
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wckckvkyfygrnf[k oabmwlcJhv#ifawmh pum;wnfrnfhol[k usaemf jrifygonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ESifh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;pvif;wdk awGqHk+yD;aemuf/ jrefrmwyfrsm;ESifh +Adwdo#wyfrsm;
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&efukefrd atmifyJGppfcsDtcrf;tem;rsm; usif;y&mY +Adwdo#tifykdif,mwyfrsm;/ r[mrdwfwyfrsm;ESifhtwl
jrefrmhwyfrawmfuvnf;
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tcsdefumvjzpfygonf? 1945 ckESpf =o*kwfvwGif us,fjyefaom vlr_a&;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tiftm;pkrsm;udk
udk,fpm;yaom yk*~Kdvfrsm;ESifh tzJGtpnf;rsm;yg0ifEkdif&ef zufqpfqefusifa&;tzJGudk wkd;csJzJGpnf;+yD;
zufqpfqefusifa&;/ jynfolvGwfajrmufa&;tzJGcsKyf (zqyv) [lI trnfopfay;vdkufygonf?
+Adwdo#ESifh aphpyfaqG;aEG;jcif;?
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tdENd,wGif
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yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_rSefor#ukd vHk;0qefusifI +Adwdo#wdk jrefrmEkdifiHudk jyefvnfodrf;ydkuf+yD;p
ppftkyfcsKyfa&;umvtwGif;
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taetxm;wGif &Sdaeaom armifhbufwifurl jrefrmEkdifiHudpPrsm;udk +idrf;csrf;pGm ajz&Sif;Ekdif&mwGif/
jrefrmvlxk}uD;u rdrdwdkvGwfajrmufa&;udk aqmifusOf;ay;cJhol[lI todtrSwfyxm;aom yk*~Kdvf.
yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_udk &,l&ef vdktyfrnfudk em;vnfonf? vlxk. pdwfaeoabmxm;ESifh uif;uGmaeaom

ppftkyfcsKyfa&;acgif;aqmif t&yfom;t&m&Sd.ae&mwGif vsifjrefpGmyif 0g&ifhwyfrawmft&m&SdwOD;jzpfol


AdkvfcsKyf&efpftm; ceftyfvdkufygonf?
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2
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1991 ckESpf t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh xkwfa0aom pmtkyfrS pmrsufESm 167-179 udk jrefrmjyefonf?
* * *
1
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udpPr[kwf[k ajz&rnfjzpfygonf? odkaomfvnf; usrwdktm;vHk; ,ckud;yrf;ae=uaom 'Drkdua&pDpepfudk
axmufcHumuG,f&eftwGuf vdktyfvmonf[k usr ,Hk=unfvmygu usr a&Smif&Sm;vdkaom
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usrudk r=umc%ar;vmaom tjcm;ar;cGef;wckrmS usr jrefrmjynfY rnfr#=umatmif aexkdif&ef
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jynfolpm=unhfwkdufrsm; wnfaqmuf&efESifh ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf ynmoifqkrsm; pDpOfay;rnf[k usr
t+rJojzifh &nf&G,fcJhygonf? xkda=umifh 'Drkdua&pDpepfodk ul;ajymif;+yD;onfhaemufydkif;Y usr
EkdifiHa&;qufvkyfonfjzpfap/ rvkyfonfjzpfap ,if;rlv&nf&G,fcsufrsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf&ef
ar#mfvifhygonf?
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,Hk=unfygovm;[laom ar;cGef;jzpfygonf? ,Hk=unfonf[k jywfjywfom;om; ajzygrnf? ,ae
jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd
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usr ,Hk=unfygonf?
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ausmif;om;rsm;.
tcef;uudk usr ajymvdkygonf? ausmif;om;trsm;pkonf &J&ifhI jzwfxkd;Om%f&SdHkwifruao;bJ
oabmxm;}uD;+yD; t,ltqopfrsm;udkvnf; cH,lwwfa=umif; awG&Sd&ygonf? if;wdk. tzJGtpnf;ESifh
if;wdk.
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awG;rdaomtcg rsm;pGm tm;wufrdygonf? jrefrmEdkifiH. tem*wfta&; pdwfat;&+yD[lIom usr
cHpm;rdygawmhonf?

ukvor*~vltcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifodk tdwfzGifhay;pm
t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh 1991 ckESpfwGif xkwfa0aom pmtkyfrS pmrsufESm 222-224 udk jrefrmjyefonf?

* * *
1?
urBmhvltcGifhta&; a=unmpmwrf;wGif azmfjyyg&Sdaom vltcGifhta&;rsm;udk Oya't&
tumtuG,fay;rnfh +idrf;csrf;wnf+idrf wdk;wufaom vltzJGtpnf;jzpfay:&ef tmrcHrnfh vlr_a&;ESifh
EkdifiHa&;tajymif;tvJrsm;udk
ay:aygufap&efrmS
jrefrmjynfY
'Drkdua&pDtpdk;&wnfaxmif&ef
vkyfaqmifaeaom trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJGcsKyf (NLD) ESifh tjcm;tzJGtpnf;rsm;. t"duOD;wnfcsufyif
jzpfygonf?
2?
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tjyeftvSef
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3?
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4?
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vlwkdif;u
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tajccHtjzpf vdktyfa=umif; ukvor*~ todtrSwfyxm;aom tcGifhta&;rsm; qHk;_H;ysufpD;&onfudk
wGef;vSefaeolrsm;tm;
jrefqefpGm
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trdefa=unmcsufrsm;onf tpdk;&trdefr#omjzpf+yD; w&m;aom Oya'tqifhodk jrifhwif&efvdktyfaom
oDv/ pGrf;tm;ESifh Oya'qkdif&m vkyfydkifcGifhrsm;. axmufcHr_r&Sd[k qdk&rnfjzpfonf?
5?
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ta&;,lvkyfaqmifr_rsm;udk
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6?
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trSefpifppfrSm
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urBmhvltcGifhta&;a=unmpmwrf;tydk'f 19/ 20 ESifh 21 wdkudk axmufcHumuG,f&ef


ud;yrf;tm;xkwf=ujcif;a=umifh ta&;,lcHae&jcif;jzpfygonf? xdktjyif tydk'f 5/ 6/ 7/ 8/ 9/ 10/ 11 ESifh 12
wdkESifh qefusifI if;wdktm; udkifwG,fqufqHaeygonf?
7?
EkdifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;tcuftcJrsm;a=umifh twd'kuQa&mufae=u&onfh jynfoljynfom;wdktm;
xyfrHIom 'kuQay;Ekdifaom ydyuQrsKd; &ifqkdifawGr_rsKd;ukd trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJGcsKyfESifh if;tm;
axmufcHa=umif; &Sif;vif;pGmjyaeaom jynfolwdku rvdkvm;=uyg? trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJGcsKyfonf 1988
ckESpfwGif pwifay:aygufvmonfrSpI aqG;aEG;aphpyfndE_dif;jcif;jzifh em;vnfr_&,laom 'Drkdua&pDtpOftvm
rl oabmw&m;udk ckdif+rJpGm vufcHusifhoHk;cJhygonf?
8?
vlom;wdktm; if;wdk. tcGifhta&;udk ray;bJ jiif;qdkaejcif;onf vlr_a&;/ EdkifiHa&;
rjidrfoufr_jzpfay:ap&ef
vrf;cif;ay;vdkufjcif;jzpfonf
[laom
azmfjycsuf
cdkifvHkonfudk
'Drkdua&pDtpdk;&pepfodk apmapmpD;pD; +idrf;csrf;pGm ul;ajymif;vdkolrsm;u vufcHtodtrSwfy=uygonf?
xdka=umifhvnf; vlr_a&;ESifh EkdifiHa&;r+idrfroufr_rsm;udk a&Smif&mS ;rnfh tajctaersm; ay:aygufvm&ef
OD;wnfI if;wdku ud;yrf;ae=ujcif;jzpfygonf? odkaomfvnf; vlrsm;pk. pdwfqENudk dkaoav;pm;&ef
tm%mydkifwdku jiif;qefaeojzifh ,if;odk udf;yrf;tm;xkwfr_rsm;onf [efwm;jcif; cHae&ygonf?
9?
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif vltcGifhta&;jrifhwifvdkolrsm; (txl;ojzifh EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;) taejzifh
if;wdktay:wGifif;/ if;wdk.rdom;pk odkr[kwf taygif;toif;tay:Yif; &efwHkjyefr_rsm; yvkyfvmrnfh
ab;tEW&m,fudk ra=umufr&GH&bJ if;wkd. t,ltqrsm;udk yGifhvif;pGm xkwfazmfEkdifaprnfh
tajctaersm;udk ukvor*~ vltcGifhta&;aumfr&Siftaejzifh awmif;qdk&ef jzpfEkdifvdrfhrnf[k
ar#mfvifhygonf?
10?
vltcGifhta&;rsm;udk tmrcHrnfh EkdifiHa&;pepf&&Sd&ef ud;yrf;kef;uef&mY atmifjrifr_&&ef if;wdk.
udk,fydkifowWd/ ZJG/ vHkvESifh cHEkdif&nfpGrf;tm;rsm;udkom tm;udk;&rnfudk em;vnfoabmayguf=uaomfvnf;
jrefrmjynfoljynfom;wdkonf if;wdk. w&m;r#waom OD;wnfcsufudk ukvor*~aumfr&Sifu
axmufcHrnf[k ar#mfvifhygonf?

8
jynfolvlxku vGwfvyfa&;udk vdkcsifonf
atmifqef;pk=unfonf if;.aetdrfY txdef;odrf;rcH&rD 19 &uftvdkjzpfaom Zlvkdifv 1 &ufae 1989 ckESpfY
at;&Sm;0dcf (AsiaWeek) rS a'grepfazgvf'g (Dominic Faulder) ESifh atmufygtwdkif; tar;tajz
vkyfxm;ygonf?

ar;?
ajz?

* * *
vuf&Sdtajctaeudk b,fvdk&Sdw,fvdk qdkEkdifrvJ?
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tckawmh ajAmifvkyfvm+yDaygh? usrwdkudk jynfolawGu taxmufcHqHk;rdkvdk usrwdkudk OD;wnf+yD;

wkdufcdkufae=uwmygyJ? usrwdk +idrf+idrfav;xkdif+yD; apmifh=unfhaeHkeJ ta&G;cH&rSm aocsmw,fvdk


wcsKdu xif=uygw,f? 'gayrJh tJ'Davmuf rvG,fygbl;? usrwdkrSm&SdwJh tajccH
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wnfaqmufa&;tzJG) [m usrwdk wkdifxm;wJh rw&m;r_awG/ wzufowfusr_awG tm;vHk;udk
vHk;0*krpdkufygbl;? 'ga=umifhrdkvdk b,fvdktrSefwu,fjzpfysufaew,fqdkwmudk usrwdku
ajymae&wmyg?
ar;?
ajz?

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tm;vHk;udk vspfv#L_xm;wm awG&ygw,f? tm%mvJ$ajymif;a&;eJqdkifwJh txl;pnf;rsOf;awG
xnfhoGif;ay;bdk usrwdk ajymxm;wmawGudk vHk;vHk; razmfjyxm;ygbl;?

ar;?
ajz?

a&G;aumufyJGusif;yjzpfw,fqdk&if a&G;aumufyJG+yD;&if bmjzpfr,fxifygovJ?


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b,fvdktwnfy&r,fqdkwmudkvnf; ajymao;wmr[kwfygbl;? vlxkqENaumuf,lyJGvkyf+yD;awmh
twnfy&rSmvnf; jzpfEkdifygw,f? 'Denf;uawmh ESpfeJr[kwf&ifawmif veJcsD+yD; =umEkdifygw,f?
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b,fvdkvJ$ajymif;ay;r,fqdkwmudk usrwdk rodrjcif; e0w u 'Drdkua&pDenf;vrf;t&
a&G;aumufwifajrmufxm;wJh tpdk;&udk zJGpnf;ay;r,fvdkqdkwmudk usrwdk ,Hk=unfvdk
rjzpfao;ygbl;?

ar;?

'gayrJh
twdkuftcHawGtaeeJuvnf;
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oabmwlcsufr&Edkifao;bJ jzpfaew,fr[kwfvm;?
ygwD (200) ausmf&Sdaeawmh vlwkdif;vufcHEkdifavmufwJh zJGpnf;yHktajccHOya'udk a&;qJGzdkqdkwmu
vG,fwJhudpP r[kwfygbl;? 'gtpm; e0w ua&m aqG;aEG;yJGawG rpEkdifbl;vm;? 'g[m
EkdifiHa&;jy\emawGudk EkdifiHa&;enf;eJ&Sif;wJh enf;vrf;jzpfygw,f? olwdk raqG;aEG;Edkifao;wmu
OD;ae0if;u trdefray;ao;vdkbJ jzpfr,fvdk usr xifrdygw,f? e0w u b,foleJaqG;aEG;wmudkrS
OD;ae0if; =um;csifr,f r[kwfygbl;? tJ'Dawmh e0w u olwdkudk wdkufaewJhygwDawGeJ
pum;rajymEkdifbl;/ rwdkufwJhygwDeJyJ ajymr,fvdk qdkvmjyefygw,f? tJ'gudk tpuawmh
bma=umifhrajym=uovJ? 'g[m qifajcoufoufygyJ? usrwdku e0w [m 'D[mawG
[dk[mawG rvkyfbl;? aus;Zl;yI vkyfzdkud;pm;yg vdk ajym&ifawmif oem;p&maumif;vSwJh e0w
crsmrSm bmrS vkyfydkifcGifh&Sdwm r[kwfygbl;?

ajz?

ar;?
ajz?

oem;p&maumif;wJh e0wwJhvm;?
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vHk;0jzpfae&if oem;p&mvdk ajymEkdifygw,f? olckdif;wJhtwkdif; vkyf=uwmygyJ? OD;ae0if;u
tm%mudk ud;udkifaeor#awmh vGwfvyf+yD; w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyJGqdkwmvnf; &SdEkdifr,f
rxifygbl;?

ar;?
ajz?

tm%mydkifawGu cifAsm;bufudk OD;wnfwdkufcdkufvmr,fvdk xifovm;?


olwdkud;pm;r,fxifygw,f? usrta=umif; r[kwfwmawG/ t"dy`m,fr&SdwmawG 0g'jzefzdk olwdk
t+rJwrf; ud;pm;ae=uwmygyJ? usrrSm tdrfaxmifav;quf/ oHk;quf/ ESpfquf&Sdw,f
pojzifhayghav? aemufawmh usr[m uGefjrLepfvdkvnf; ajym=uw,f? wcsKdtodkif;t0dkif;rSmawmh
usru pDtkdifat vdk qdkygw,f? usru Ak'<&Sifawmfudk apmfum;aeygw,fvdk xif&Sm;ausmf=um;wJh
bkef;awmf}uD;awGu rdefqdkatmifvnf; olwdk ud;pm;aewmygyJ? usr EkdifiHjcm;om;eJ
vufxyfxm;w,fvdkawmh olwdk ajymEkdifygw,f? 'gudkvnf; usru &Sif;&Sif; 0efcHxm;wmygyJ?
zHk;uG,fzdk ud;pm;aewmrSr[kwfbJ?

ar;?
ajz?

cifAsm;ajymwmudk jynfolvlxk em;axmifatmif vkyf&wm cufovm;?


rcufygbl;? jynfolvlxku vGwfvyfa&;udk vdkcsifwmyg? jy\emuawmh vlawG[m
a=umuf&GHxdwfvefwwfwJh tusifhawG pJGaeygw,f? ZGefv (19) &ufae 1989 ckESpfu
EkdifiHjcm;"gwfyHkq&mwOD;[m usrudk "gwfyHkdkufaewkef; taESmuft,SufcH&wJhtcgrSm olu
jyefajymawmh usreJtwl&SdwJh vlwcsKd[m awmfawmf tHhtm;oifhoGm;=uygw,f? tJ'Dvdk
vkyfwm[m vGwfvyfwJh vltzJGtpnf;u vmwJhvlawGtzdk yHkrSefyJjzpfw,f qdkwmudk usru
&Sif;jy&ygw,f? a=umuf&GHw,fqdkwmuvnf; wjcm;tytrlawGvdk tavhtxyJ jzpfygw,f?
a=umufa=umuf&GH&GHeJ aexdkifvm=uwm =umvm&if a=umufwwfvmwmygyJ? 'ga=umifhrdk usrudk
vlawGu odyfowWdaumif;w,fvdk ajym=uwm xifygw,f? usru a=umufvefae&wJhtusifh
r&cJhvdkom jzpfrSmyg?

ar;?

cifAsm;[m EkdifiHa&;yjyifr_udk pD;yGm;a&;zHGzd;r_xuf ydk+yD; OD;pm;ay;xm;ygvm;? e0w owfrSwfxm;wJh


a&G;aumufyJGrvkyfcif &Sd&r,fh tajctaeawGxJrSm kyfydkif;qkdif&m uG,f0r_[mvnf; wcktygt0if
jzpfw,fav?
usrajymwmu 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJGuae vlawG tmHkajymif;oGm;atmif pD;yGm;a&;yjyifr_qdkwmrsKd;eJ
rqG,foifhbl;qdkwJhtcsufygyJ? EkdifiHa&;pepfudk usrwdk rajymif;bl;qdk&if pD;yGm;a&;rSmvnf;
wdk;wufzHGzd;rSm r[kwfygbl;? tajccHvltcGifhta&;udk tmrcHcsuf ray;EkdifwJh tpdk;&[m
pD;yGm;a&;&m tcGifhta&;awGudk tmrrcHEdkifrSmuawmh aocsmygw,f?

ajz?

ar;?
ajz?

trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJGcsKyf tm%m&vm&if cifAsm; bmvkyfrvJ?


tpdk;&tzJGxJrSm usryg0ifvm&r,fvdk xifygw,f? 'guvnf; usrvkyf&r,fh udpPwck
jzpfaeygw,f? aemufwufr,fh tpdk;&awmh oufomr,fr[kwfbl;vdk usr ajymEkdifygw,f?
ESpfaygif; 26 ESpf/ 27 ESpfavmuf wdww
f qdwf 'kuQcHvmcJh=u&wJh jynfolawG[m
&ifzGifh=uawmhrSmygyJ?
vlwkdif;udk
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jrefqefwJh
yjyifa&;vkyfief;awGudkvnf; b,ftpdk;&urS vkyfEkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? jynfolawGuawmh
aemufwufvmr,fh tpdk;&udk aumif;aumif;}uD; uoduatmufjzpfatmif vkyf=uawmhrSmygyJ?

9
EdkbJvfqk&Sifudk,fpm;ajymaomrdefcGef;
atmifqef;pk=unfudk 1991 ckESpf EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk csD;jrifhaomtcgwGif rvma&mufEkdifojzifh olrudk,fpm;
om;}uD;jzpfol armifjrifhqef;atmif (Alexander Aris tvufZENm;tJ&pf) u atmufygrdefcGef;udk
zwf=um;ygonf?

* * *
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usaemfwdk ,ae tcrf;tem; qif,ifusif;yjcif;yif jzpfygonf?

10
EdkbJvfaumfrwDodkay;pm
56/ wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf;
&efukef
14 ar 1992
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1991 ckESpftwGuf EdkbJvf+idrf;csrf;a&;qk usrudk ay;tyf&efqHk;jzwfvdkufa=umif; usr yxr
=um;od&aomtcgwGif csufcsif;jzpfay:vmaom cHpm;csufrsm;rSm av;eufaom ed0gwpdwfESifh
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atmifqef;pk=unf

11
tjynfjynfqkdif&m vltcGifhta&; Oya'tzJGrS ay;aom
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tjynfjynfqdkif&m vltcGifhta&;Oya'tzJGrS csD;jrifhaomqkudk vufcH&mwGif a':atmifqef;pk=unfa&;om;I
olrudk,fpm; om;}uD; tvufZENm; (jrifhqef;atmif) u 1992 arv 14 &ufaewGif 0g&SifwefrdawmfY
zwf=um;aom rdefcGef;jzpfygonf?

* * *
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&efukef 12 arv 1992
12
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* * *
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13
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1993 ckESpf ar 19 &ufae atmufpzdk'fwuUodkvfY zwf=um;aompmwrf;?

* * *
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* * *
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qdkAD,ufjynfaxmifpka[mif; vsifjrefpGm yduJGI vlrsKd;a&;udk t"duOD;pm;ay;=uonfh EdkifiHtrsm;tjym;
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vmaomtcsdeftcgYrl qifjcifwHkw&m;udk jyefvnfusifhoHk;&ef rvG,fulawmhaom tajctaeodk
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vlr_pD;yGm;a&;ESifh EkdifiHa&;rnDr#r_wdkudk oufqdk;&Snfaponfh pepfrsm;u yHkoGif;ay;vdkufolwdkonf
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oabmwlnDcsuf[laom t,ltqudk jrefqefpGm ndEd_if;vufcHjcif; ryEkdif=uyg? odkr[kwf vHk;0


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obm0w&m;a&;&m ta=umif;rsm;a=umifh cGifhv$wfxm;cJh=uygonf? xdka=umifh ay:xGufvmaom
&v'frsm;rSm auseyfzG,f&mr&Sdyg? ,cktcgwGif w&m;r#wr_ESifh vltcGifhta&;udk t"duxm;
tav;ay;vmaomfvnf; EdkifiHa&;ESifh pD;yGm;a&; (txl;ojzifh pD;yGm;a&;) tjrwf&r_udkom
xdyfwef;wifvdkonfh yk*~Kdvfrsm; &SdaeqJyif jzpfygonf? odkaomfvnf; umv=um&SnfpGm
uG,f0csrf;omvmcJhaom vltzJGtpnf;rsm;wGifvnf; vlr_a&;a&m*g}uD;rsm; pJGuyfae=uI tem*wftwGuf
&ifav;ae=u&ygonf? csrf;omp EkdifiHrsm;uvnf; if;wdk. OpPm"etawmfrsm;rsm;udk vufeufESifh
ppfwyftwGuf toHk;yae=uyHk &ygonf? xdka=umifh ydkI csrf;omuG,f0jcif;ESifh ydkI
+idrf;csrf;om,mjcif;wdkonf tajccH obm0tm;jzifh tquftoG,f r&SdonfrSm &Sif;vSygonf?
vlavmuwckvHk; om,m=unfEl;a&;twGuf csrf;omuG,f0r_ESifh +idrf;csrf;r_ ESpfckpvHk; vdktyfygonf?
csrf;omuG,f0r_u udk,fqif;&Jjcif;udk pdwfoufomapI +idrf;csrf;r_u pdwfwnf+idrf at;csrf;jcif;udk
jzpfay:apygonf? TESpfcsufudk tnDtr# OD;pm;ay;aom vrf;pOfrsm;onfomv#if udk,fpdwfcsrf;omr_udk
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cufcJvSawmhrnf r[kwfyg?
kyfydkif;qkdif&m taxmuftulrSefor# qHk;_H;cJh&olwdkwGif tm;udk;tm;xm;yp&m[lI rdrdwdk.
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*k%mw&m;wdkrS aygufzGm;vmaom a0iSay;urf;vdkpdwfrsm;a=umifh/ tdk;rJhtdrfrJhjzpfae&ol qif;&Jom;uyif
rdrd. &SdpkrJhpk &duQmav;udk tv#Hy,fuG,f0oluJhodk olwyg;tm; =unfEl;pGm ay;urf;jcif;rsm;vnf; &Sdygonf?
wzef udk,fusKd;udkom t"duxm;onfh obm0udk =umjrifhpGm arG;jrLtm;ay;I ay:aygufvmaom tbdZm
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pifppfrSmrl urBmh'kuQonftrsm;pkonf vlrqefr_ESifh ynmOm%fuif;rJhr_a=umifh jzpfay:vm&aom
rcHomawmhonfh tajctaersm;rS uif;vGwf&m vHkcH&mudk &Smae=uolrsm;jzpfygonf?
arwWmw&m;/
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pdwful;,Oftdyfruf jzpf&rnfavm/ 'kuQrsm;ajrmif Tvlabmifudk t+rJwrf; taumif;bufrSjrifaom
umvfayghyg; u tarSmifonf ,cifuwnf;u &SdaecJhaomfvnf; tvif;a&mif ay:aygufvmonfrSm
r=umao;[k qdkygonf? ay:xGef;pjzpfaom tvif;a&mifudk w,kw, =unfh_apmifha&Smuf&rnf jzpfygonf?
tao;i,fqHk;aom tvif;a&mifudkyif urBmwcGifvHk;&Sd tarSmifxku uG,faysmufatmif rvkyfEkdifyg?
tarSmif[lonfrSm vHk;0uif;rJhjcif;oabmudk aqmifygonf? tarSmif[lonfrSm tvif;a&mifr&Sdjcif;om
jzpfygonf? odkaomfvnf; ao;i,faom tvif;a&mifonf us,fjyefpGm 0dkif;&Hxm;aom tarSmifxkudk
rzdcGif;Ekdifyg? Ttvif;a&mifav; ydkrdk xGef;vif;awmufyvmEkdif&eftwGuf tm;aumif;&ef vdktyfygonf?
Ttvif;a&mifudk cspfjrwfEdk;vmEkdif&eftwGuf 'kuQa0'em[k oabmrxm;bJ aumif;r_r*Fvmtjzpf
ESvHk;oGif;I usifhom;&atmif=unfhzdk vdktyfygonf? urBmay:wGif rSDwif;aexkdifol tm;vHk;tm; vHkcHr_
tvHktavmufay;Ekdifaom ydkrdkxGef;vif;onfh urBmavmuudk usrwdk tvGefyif vdktyfvsuf&Sdygonf?

(a':atmifqef;pk=unf "gwfyHkvmygonf?)
(pmrsufESmwckvHk; wif&rnfacgif;pOf)

tydkif;-c
1988 =o*kwfvrS 1989 Zlvkdifvtxd
ajym=um;cJhaom
rdefcGef;ESifh owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGrsm;
14
a&$wd*kHapwDawmf taemufrkcf vlxkpnf;a0;yJG
&efukefrdY =o*kwfv 26 &uf 1988 ckESpfwGif ajym=um;onf?

* * *
&[ef;&Sifvl jynfolvlxktaygif;wdk/ tck vlxktpnf;ta0;yJG}uD;[m jynfolvlxk&J qENudk
wurBmvHk;uodap&ef xkwfazmfjyovdkufwmygyJ? tJh'Dawmh 'Dvlxk tpnf;ta0;yJG}uD;rSm jynfolvlxk[m
pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ nDnDnGwfnGwf quf+yD; vkyfoGm;=uyg&ap? tck 'Dtpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; wem&DeD;yg;
aemufuswmudkvnf; usr awmif;yefygw,f? 'DudkvmwJhtcgrSm vrf; tifrwef ydwfaewma=umifhrdkvdk
ra&mufvmEdkifcJhjcif;jzpfygw,f?
'Duae usif;ywJh tpnf;ta0;}uD;uawmh jynfolvlxkw&yfvHk;[m ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepfudk
&csifaewJhqEN jyif;jyaewma=umifhrdkvdk usif;y&wJh tpnf;ta0;}uD;jzpfygw,f? tck tpnf;ta0;yJG}uD;
jzpfEkdifwJhtajctaeudk
b,folawGup+yD;
OD;aqmifwmvJqdkawmh
Armjynfu
ausmif;ol/
ausmif;om;taygif;
jzpfygw,f?
'Dausmif;olausmif;om;taygif;&J
OD;aqmifr_a=umifh
'Dausmif;olausmif;om;taygif;[m
touftaocH+yD;
OD;aqmifay;wma=umifhrdk
usrwdk
'Dvdktpnf;ta0;}uD;vkyfEkdifwJh tajctaea&mufcJhygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdkvdk toufaysmufoGm;wJh
ausmif;olausmif;om;tm;vHk;udk wrdepfcef *k%fy+yD;aemuf tr#a0wJhtaeeJ tm;vHk; wdwfwdwfqdwfqdwf
+idrf+idrf wrdepfcef aeapcsifygw,f?
tcrf;tem;r;. toH (usqHk;oGm;aom ausmif;om;rsm;udk tav;yaomtm;jzifh wrdepf
+idrfoufyg&ef arwWm&yfcHygonf cifAsm;)
tckqdkvdk&Sd&if tm;vHk; 'DrSma&mufaewJh vlxky&dowf}uD;[m 'Drdkua&pDpepfudk ar#mfrSef;+yD;awmh
'DrSma&mufaew,fvdk xifygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'Drdkua&pDyef;wdkifudk a&mufzdk&mrSm vlxktm;vHk;u
pnf;pnf;vHk;vHk;/ nDnDnGwfnGwf/ pnf;urf;&Sd&SdeJ csDwufrSyJ a&mufEdkifrSmyg?

("gwfyHkrsm; vmygonf)
tay: - armifaomfu (OD;baomf-uG,fvGef)/ atmifqef;pk=unfESifh cifoDwmxGef;
=o*kwfv 24 &uf 1988 ckESpfY &efukefaq;Hk}uD;a&SwGif rdefcGef;ajym=um;pOf
atmuf - 1988 ckESpf =o*kwfv 26 &uf a&$wd*HkapwDawmfY rdefcGef;ajym=um;pOf
(rdefcGef;tqufvmygonf)
'DudpPrSm usr tcef;uudkvnf; eJeJ&Sif;jyyg&ap? bmjzpfvdkvJqdkawmh vltaygif;u
usrta=umif; odyf+yD;awmh rod=uygbl;? rod=uwJhtcgusawmh odcsifwJhqENawGvnf; &Sdygw,f? 'guvnf;
rSefwJhtwdkif;ygyJ? odawmhvnf; odxdkufygw,f? tJh'Dawmh wcsKduvnf; ajym=uw,f? usr[m EdkifiHjcm;rSm
aew,f? EkdifiHjcm;om;eJ tdrfaxmifusaew,f? ArmjynfEkdifiHa&;ta=umif; bmodovJvdk ajym=uygw,f?
yxr usr 'Duaep+yD;awmh jynfolvlxkeJ yGifhyGifhvif;vif; qufqHyg&ap? usr EkdifiHjcm;rSm
aecJhw,fqdkwmvnf; rSefygw,f? EdkifiHjcm;om;eJ tdrfaxmifusw,fqdkwmvnf; rSefygw,f? 'gayr,fh
'gav;twGufa=umifheJ usr wkdif;jynftay:rSmxm;wJh arwWm[m b,fvdkeJrS usqif;roGm;Ekdifygbl;?
aemufwck ajymcsifwmuawmh usr[m ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;ta=umif; bmrS em;rvnfbl;wJh?
wu,fawmh em;vnfvGef;vdk cufaewmyJ? ArmEdkifiHa&; b,favmuf_yfaxG;w,f/ 'D_yfaxG;r_'%fudk azaz
b,favmufcHcJh&w,fqdkwm usrwdk rdom;pk todqHk;ygyJ? azaz[m pdwfyef;udk,fyef;eJ 'DEkdifiHa&;udk
vkyfaqmifvmwm[m
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'ga=umifhrdkvdkvnf;
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twdtvif; ajymoGm;ygw,f?
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tJh'Dvdk a0;a0;uif;uif; aecsifcJhvsufom;eJ tckrS 'Dta&;tcif;rSm yg0ifaeovJvdk ar;p&m&Sdygw,f?
tJh'D[muawmh 'Dta&;tcif;[m wwdkif;jynfvHk;eJqdkifwJh ta&;tcif;jzpfaeygw,f? usrrSmvnf;
azazh&JorD;vkyf+yD;awmh acgif;a&Smif+yD;awmh aevdkrjzpfawmhbl;? 'Dta&;tcif;[m wu,fawmh
'kwd,vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJG}uD;vdk ac:&ifvnf; jzpfygw,f? 'Drdkua&pDvGwfvyfa&;udk wrsKd;om;vHk;
vdkcsifwJhqEN jyif;jyvGef;vdk jzpfay:vmwJh wdkufyJG}uD; jzpfygw,f?
'Drdkua&pDeJywfouf&if azazajymcJhwJh tcsufuav;wckudk usr zwfjycsifygw,f?
'Dtcsufuawmh usaemfwdk[m 'Drdkua&pD0g'udo
k m acwfpm;atmifvkyf&r,f? tJh'D 0g'rsKd;t&om
vGwfvyfwJh ArmEkdifiH xlaxmifEkdifatmif ud;pm;&r,f? 'grsKd;rvkyfEkdif&if usaemfwdkjrefrmjynfu
vlawGvnf; epfemr,f? usaemfwdkjynfudkvnf; urBmu =unfhaevdk r&wJhwae *syefeJ *smr%D 0dkif;+yD;
tESdrfcH&ovdk tESdrfcH&r,fqdkwmudk owd&Sd=u&r,f? 'Drdkua&pD0g'uom vGwfvyfa&;eJ qDavsmfw,f? 'D
0g'om +idrf;csrf;a&;udk tm;ay;w,f tJh'g[m azazajymcJhwJh pum;awGyg?
("gwfyHkvmygonf)
1988 ckESpf =o*kwfv 26 &ufae a&$wd*HkapwDawmfY rdefcGef;ajym=um;pOf
(rdefcGef;tqufvmygonf)
'ga=umifhrdkvdk usr[m usr&Jtaz tpOftvmtwdkif; 'Drdkua&pD vGwfvyfa&;wdkufyJGudk
0ifvdkEJ$cJh&ygw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'Drkdua&pD&zdk&ef jynfolvlxktm;vHk; pnf;vHk;nDnGwzf dk vdkygw,f? nDnGwf&if
bmrqdk jzpfEkdifygw,f? rnDnGwf&if bmrS rwwfEkdifbl;?

jynfolvlxk[m nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ r&SdEkdifvkd&Sd&if b,f0g'yJjzpfjzpf wkdif;jynfudk tusKd;ray;Ekdifbl;?


tJh'D[mudk tm;vHk;pJGrSwfxm;zdk vdkygw,f? pnf;urf;r&Sdvdk&Sd&ifvnf; b,f0g'rS ratmifEkdifygbl;? tJh'Dawmh
usrwdk wkdif;oljynfom;awG[m nDnGwfzdk/ pnf;urf;&Sdzdk t+rJvdkygw,f?
'DnDnGwfzdkta=umif;awG
ajymaewkef;rSm
usrwdk
wckyJajymcsifygw,f?
,ck
usrajymoGm;wJhpum;awGxJrSm wcsKduvnf; oabmusr,fhpum;vnf; ygr,f/ rusr,fh pum;awGvnf;
ygr,f? 'gayr,fh usrtaeeJuawmh jynfolvlxkudk rSefrSefuefuefajymoifhw,fvdk ,Hk=unfw,f?
usrpdwfxJrSm&Sdovdk rSefrSefuefuef ajymoGm;rSmyJ? uduf&ifvnf; axmufcH=uyg/ ruduf&ifvnf;
usrpdwfxJrSm rSefwJhtwdkif;vkyfwmyJ? rudufwmawmh b,fvdkrS rwwfEkdifbl;? usr wckajymcsifwm[m
tcktcsdefrSm wyfrawmfeJ jynfolvlxkt=um;xJrSm pdwf0rf;uJGae=uygw,f? 'Dpdwf0rf;uJGr_}uD;[m
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tqdkycsuf (1)
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(axmufcHygw,f) 3
tqdkycsuf (2)
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(axmufcHygw,f) 3
tqdkycsuf (3)
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(axmufcHygw,f) 3
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15
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a':atmifqef;pk=unf a[majymrdef=um;csuf 3-12-88

* * *
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trsKd;om;aeeJywfoufvdkawmh tcrf;tem;r;u ajymoGm;wJhtwkdif; trsKd;om;aeqdkwm 1920
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ckcHzdzsufjcif;rSwyg; tjcm;aomenf;jzifh wkdif;jynfudk u,fq,fzdk&ef enf;vrf;r&Sd[k ,Hk=unfygonf?
usaemfwdkonf jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd vltrsm;wdk. ynmtqDtESpfESifhjynfhpHkaom ausmif;om;rsm;jzpfrnfudk
&nfoefI ulnDapmifr&ef awmif;yefajym=um;ygonf? usaemf
("gwfyHkrsm; vmygonf?)
1989 ckESpfwGif pnf;Hk;a&;qif;aepOf
(rdefcGef;tqufvmygonf)
wdkpdwfxJ pJG+rJpGm ,Hk=unfaom Tvkyfief;}uD;onf wkdif;jynfY vdktyfaom tcsuf}uD;wckudk
xkwfazmfajymqdkjcif;yif rnfygonf? Tum; tjcm;r[kwf? trsKd;om;ody`Hausmif;}uD;aywnf;?
xdkausmif;}uD;rS jrefrmEdkifiH. om;orD;rsm;ESifh oifhavsmfaom ynm&yfrsm;udk &Ekdifayonf? tdENd,EkdifiHY
trsKd;om;ausmif;awG tvdktavsmuf ay:aygufvm=uay&m jrefrmEdkifiHuvnf; aemufrus&atmif
jrefrmwdkonf EkdifiHom;ppfI cspfcJhygv#if b,feHa&mtcgr# rwnfaxmifEkdifbJ &Sdvdrfhrnfr[kwfyg?
pdwfygvufygvkyfv#if rkcsjzpfygvdrfhrnf?
'Dwkef;uawmh ajymwmuawmh 'DwuUodkvfudpPeJywfouf+yD;awmh ajymwmyJ? 'gayrJh
ajymoGm;wJhtoHk;tE_ef;awGu tck 'Drdkua&pDwkdufyJGtwGuf oHk;r,fqdk&ifvnf; tifrwef oifhavsmfygw,f?
'D[m aemifb,fvdkjzpfr,f rodayr,fhvnf; udk,fwwfEkdifor# rSefuefa=umif;udk aumif;rGefpGm/ cdkif+rJpGm
od&SdI vkyfygonfqdkwm/ tck 'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJGvnf; 'Dtwkdif;yJ? aemif b,fvdkjzpfr,fqdkwmvnf; rodbl;?
aemifb,fvdkjzpfr,fqdkwm rodbJeJ 'DwkdufyJG0if&jcif;[m rSefuefw,f/ oifhavsmfw,fqdkwm ,Hk=unfvdk
tm;vHk;0ifcJh=uwmyJ? 'ga=umifh 'DudpPeJywfoufvdk 'Drdkua&pD&rSmvm;/ taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJG
vkyfrSmvm;vdk ar;&ifvnf; usr 'Dtwdkif;yJ ajymw,f? jzpfrSm/ rjzpfrSmudk rpOf;pm;aeygeJ/ udk,f
rSefwmuefwmudkvkyfwm vkyfvdkufyg? 'D aemuftusK;d qufawG[m olzmomol jzpfvmygvdrfhr,f? tJh'DrSm
udk,fh&Jwm0efuawmh rSefwJhudpPudkvkyfzdkyJ? 'D 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_xJrSm tm;vHk;0ifvm+yDqdkuwnf;u
usrwdk atmifyJGcHEdkifw,fqdkwJh ar#mfvifhcsuf&Sdvdkom 0ifvmwmyJ? Oyrmtm;jzifhqdkvdk&Sd&if ydifyJGwck
0ifydifwJhvl[m Ekdifr,fxifvdk ydifwmyJ? xDxdk;wJhvlqdkwmvnf; xDaygufEkdifwJhudef; &Sdw,fxifvdk
xdk;vdkufwmyJ? b,folurSawmh rEdkifbl;xifvdk&Sd&if 0ifydifrSmr[kwfbl;? rjzpfEkdifbl;qdkvdk&Sd&if

ud;pm;+yD;vkyfrSmr[kwfbl;? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk 'Drdkua&pD[m atmifjrifEkdifvm;vdkar;&if usruawmh


rSefrSefuefuefyJ atmifjrifEdkifw,fvdk jyefajz&rSmyJ? atmifjrifEdkifw,fxifvdkom 'DwkdufyJGrSm ygaewmyJ?
'Dtwdkif;yJ
ausmif;om;vli,ftm;vHk;[mvnf;
'Drkdua&pDwkdufyJGxJ
0ifaewJhtcgus&if
atmifjrifEkdifr,fqdkwJh pdwfawGxm;+yD;awmh qufvuf+yD; vkyfoGm;apcsifygw,f? usrwdk quf+yD;awmh
tifrwefrS kef;uefzdk&Sdygao;w,f? ud;pm;zdk &Sdygao;w,f? quf+yD;awmh kef;uefud;pm;&r,fqdkwm[m
tckvydkif;udk ajymwmr[kwfygbl;? ESpfydkif;eJudk quf+yD;awmh kef;uefud;pm;oGm;&rSmyg? 'Da&G;aumufyJGjzpfvdk
a&G;aumufyJG0ifydifvdk 'Drdkua&pDbufu tEkdif&&ifawmifrS 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;[m r+yD;ao;ygbl;?
kef;uefoGm;&r,fh
tcsdef[m
rukefao;ygbl;?
quf+yD;awmh
kef;uefoGm;&rSmygyJ?
tJh'Dausmif;om;vli,frsm;qdkvdk&Sd&if touf (20) 0ef;usif&Sd=urSmaygh? touf (20) 0ef;usif&SdwJh
vlrsm;[m ArmawG&J oufwrf;qdk&if tck 60 avmuf&Sdr,f? usrwdk 'Drkdua&pDpepfatmufrSm
usef;rma&;awGbmawG aumif;oGm;vdk (70) avmuftxd &SdoGm;r,fqdkygawmh/ 'Dvdkqdk&if aemiftESpf (50)
avmufudk quf+yD;awmh kef;uefoGm;&r,f? 'Drkdua&pDqdkwm woufvHk;xdef;odrf;oGm;rS &Sifoefr,fhudpPyg?
vlwa,muf&J usef;rma&;vdkaygh? i,fi,fwkef;u udk,fhtaztaru aumif;aumif;au|;arG;xm;vdk/
aumif;aumif;=unfhxm;vdk
usef;usef;rmrm&Sdayr,fh
udk,fu
touf}uD;vmwJhtcgusawmh
jzpfovdkaer,f/
jzpfovdkpm;r,fqdk&if
usef;rma&;u
csKdwJhoGm;rSmyJ?
tJh'Dawmh
'Drdkua&pDpepf&Sifoefa&;qdkwm woufvHk;vkyfoGm;&rSmyJ? vlwkdif;vlwkdif;[m udk,fhwoufwmrSm
udk,fhwkdif;jynftusKd;
aqmif&GufoGm;r,fqdkwJh
pdwf"gwfeJvkyfoGm;r,fqdk&if
usrwdkwkdif;jynfrSm
bmrSqkwf,kwfEkdifp&mta=umif; r&Sdygbl;? 'Dvdk 'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf vufwJGvkyfaewJhvlrSefor#udk
usrwdku vufwJG+yD;awmh ac:oGm;csifygw,f? vufwJGw,fqdkwmvnf; rwJGcsif/ wJGcsif wJGenf;rsKd;udk
ajymwmr[kwfygbl;? udk,faygif;pdwfcGmr[kwfygbl;? pdwfwloabmwlvufwJG+yD; csDwufoGm;wJhenf;rsKd;udk
usrwdk ajymvdkygw,f? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk 'Daeuaep+yD;awmh 'Dae[m trsKd;om;aejzpfw,f/
trsKdom;aerSm trsKd;om;a&;twGuf tm;vHk;uae aqmif&GufoGm;ygr,fqdkwJh qHk;jzwfcsufudk
csapcsifygw,f? trsKd;om;a&;qdkwm wkdif;jynf&Jaumif;usKd;/ jynfaxmifpk}uD; wnfwHhckdif+rJa&;/
jynfaxmifpkom;tm;vHk;&J
trsm;pk}uD;&J
aumif;usKd;
vkyf&r,fhudpPjzpfygw,f?
tJh'Dawmh
'DvdktrsKd;om;a&;udk
vkyfwJhtcgusvdk&Sd&if
'Dyk*~KdvfpJGwdk/
qENpJGwdk
r&Sdzdkqdkwm
usrwdk&J
tajccHpnf;rsOf;Oya'xJrSmvnf; ygygw,f? tJh'Dawmh yk*~KdvfpJGawG rxm;=uygeJ/ 'g aumif;wJh
tpOftvmawG r[kwfygbl;? usrwdk qufoGm;&r,fh c&D;rSm tifrwefrS apwemoefoef/ pdwfoefoefeJ
vkyfoGm;apcsifygw,f? tJh'Dawmh vlwkdif;udk usrajymw,f? jrifhjrifh}uHyg? tjrifhqHk;}uHyg? ud;pm;&if
bk&m;jzpfEkdifw,fvdk usrwdk qdkdk;&Sdyga&mvm;? bmhvdk r}uHEkdif&rSmvJ? ud;pm;&if kd;kd;omrefvl/
jrwfpGmbk&m;qdkwmvnf; omrefvlygyJ? jrwfpGmbk&m;awmifrS 'Dvdk bk&m;jzpfatmif usifh}uHEkdif&if
vlawG[m jrifhjrifh}uHEdkifygw,f? udk,f[m woufvHk; trSefw&m;t& vkyfoGm;r,fqdkwJhudpP[m
rjzpfEkdifwJhudpP r[kwfygbl;? jzpfEkdifwJhudpPyg? wcsKdu xifw,f? vlyJuGm/ trSm;awmh&SdrSmyg? ykxkZOfyJ?
'gawGudk usrawmh vufrcHbl;? ykxkZOfvlom;rdkvdkudk ud;pm;+yD;awmh trSefw&m;eJ ae&r,f? owW0gawGrS
r[kwfbJ? wd&p>mefawGawmifrS trSm;/ trSefukd odygw,f/ [kwfvm;? opPm&SdwJhae&mrSmqdk&if
acG;vdkwd&p>mefudk vlawGu rvdkufEkdifbl;? acG;[m vlxufydk+yD; opPm&Sdw,fqdkwm vlwkdif;odw,f? acG;vdk
wd&p>mefwaumifawmif opPm&SdEkdifw,fqdk&if vlrsm;[m bmjzpfvdk opPmr&SdEdkif&rSmvJ? opPmrJhwm
vlawGyJ? vlawGxJrSmqdk&if opPmw&m;[m tifrwefeJw,fvdk ajymvdk&Sd&if rSefvnf;rSefw,f/
opPmw&m;[m pOf;pm;=unfh&if opPmqdkwJhpum;[m pum;vHk;u tifrwefvSovdk t"dy`m,fvnf;
tifrwefvSw,f? tJh'Dvdk opPm&Sd&SdeJ tm;vHk;u vkyfoGm;rS usrwdkwdkif;jynf wdk;wufvmrSmyg? 'Dvdk
wdkif;jynfwdk;wufrS aemifvmaemufom;rsm;[m *k%foduQm&Sd&SdeJ urBmhtv,frSm &yfwnfEkdifr,f?
tJh'Dawmh 'D[mudk ar#mfudk;+yD;awmh 'Daeup+yD;awmh 'Dae (68) }udrfajrmuf trsKd;om;aeup+yD;awmh

usrwdktm;vHk;[m trsKd;om;a&;twGuf udk,fwwfEdkifor# aqmif&GufoGm;=ur,fvdk oEMdmefcs=uygvdk


usr arwWm&yfcHcsifygw,f? 'Drkdua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf vkyfaewJhvlrSefor#udk usrwdku vufwJG+yD;
ac:oGm;csifygw,f?
16
owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJG trSwf 3
&efukefrdY 26-3-1989 ckESpfwGif ajym=um;onf?

* * *
'Dowif;pm&Sif;vif;yGJvkyf&wJh
ta=umif;uawmh
tckwavm
vkyfom;jynfolaepOfeJ
jrefrmhtoHrSm a=unmaewJh owif;awGeJywfoufvdkyJ jzpfygw,f? wevFmaeu vSnf;wef;/
urm&GwfrSmjzpfwJh udpPeJywfoufvdk vkyfom;jynfolaepOfeJ jrefrmhtoHu owif;t&qdkvdk&Sd&if
uav;rsm;u oGm;+yD;awmh qlylatmifvdk wcsKdEdkifiHa&;tzJGtpnf;awGu vkyfaqmifw,fvdk
qdkwJhoabmrsKd;eJ a&;vdkufygw,f? aemuf+yD;awmhvnf; usrwdk&J tzJGcsKyfemrnfudk odyf+yD;
xifxif&Sm;&Sm;}uD; a&;xm;w,f/ apmif;+yD;awmh tift,f'Duae+yD;awmh v_Haqmfvdk uav;rsm;u
oGm;+yD;awmh qlylw,fvdk/ 'DoabmrsKd;eJ a&;oGm;wmudk jrif&ygw,f?
'geJywfoufvdk usr b,fvdkjrifvJqdkawmh tJh'Daeutjzpftysufudk usr wcsdefvHk; odygw,f?
pjzpfuwnf;u usr 'Duae=um;aew,f? uav;awG [dkrSmeJeJqlqlylyljzpfw,fqdkwmeJ usrwdktzJGcsKyfu
+idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf; +yD;oGm;atmifvdk vdkuf+yD;awmh vkyfwmyJ? uav;awGudk usrwdkudk,fwkdifvnf;
vdkufxdef;w,f? vli,ftcsif;csif;vnf; vdkufxdef;w,f? aemuf+yD;awmh +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf;eJ vlpkcJGzdkqdkwm
tJh'DrSmvm+yD;awmh
wm0ef,lwJhwyfrawmft&m&Sdudk
trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJGcsKyfxJu
wm0ef&SdwJhyk*~Kdvfrsm;u oGm;a&muf+yD;awmh at;at;csrf;csrf; jzpfa&;twGuf aqG;aEG;cJhw,f?
tJh'Dvkdvkyfwmudk wm0ef&SdwJh wyfrawmfyk*~Kdvfrsm;u od&Sdvsufom;eJ bmjzpfvdk vkyfom;jynfolaepOfeJ
jrefrmhtoHuae+yD;awmh v_Haqmfw,fqdkwJh oabmeJ a&;vJqdkwm trsm;}uD;ar;p&mudk jzpfaeygw,f?
wyfrawmfu wm0ef&SdwJhyk*~KdvfeJ usrwdktzJGcsKyfu wm0ef&SdwJh yk*~Kdvfuae oGm;+yD;awmh
+idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf;eJ vlpkcJGa&;twGuf ud;pm;wm[m trsm;todyJ? tJh'Dawmh wrifoufouf
usrwdktzJGcsKyfudk tjypf&SmcsifwJhoabm[m tifrwefudk xif&Sm;aeygw,f? 'gwifruao;bl;?
raeujzpfwJh udpPawGrSmvnf; xdkenf;if;ygyJ?
raeujzpfwJhudpP[m usrwdktzJGcsKyf0if;xJrSm ausmif;om;vli,frsm; tpnf;ta0;vkyfaew,f?
tpnf;ta0;vkyfaewkef;rSm jyifyuvli,frsm; vma&muf+yD; qENjyzdk &nf&G,fw,fqdkwJh owif;=um;w,f?
=um;wmeJ usrwdktzJGcsKyfHk;uvnf; *dwf0udk ydwfxm;w,f? usrwdktdrfuvnf; *dwf0udk ydwfxm;w,f?
'gayr,fhvnf; 0kef;/ 0kef; qdk+yD;awmh vlpkvla0;a&mufvmw,f? tjyifu vli,fcsnf;yJ/ vlpdrf;awGcsnf;yJ?
'Dvdkjzpfvnf;jzpfa&m wyfuvnf; w0kef;0kef;eJ a&mufvmwmyJ?
wyfom;rsm;u 0g;&if;wkwfrsm;udk oHql;ud;rsm;ywf+yD;awmh udkifxm;w,f? tJh'gvnf;
trsm;}uD;ar;p&myJ?
jynfolvlxkudk
0g;&if;wkwf
oHql;ud;ywf+yD;awmh
ESdrfeif;csifwJhpdwfawG
bmjzpfvdk&Sd&ovJqdkwmukd usrwdk ar;p&mar;cGef;wck jzpfaeygw,f?
owif;pmxJrSm
b,fvdka&;vdkufovJqdkawmh
'D(44)wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf;
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJGcsKyfHk;a&SrSm
jzpfw,f?
aemuf+yD;awmhvnf;
a':atmifqef;pk=unf
tdrf0if;xJajy;w,fvdk ajymygw,f? trSeftm;jzifhawmh 'Dem;rSm&SdwJhtdrf0if;awG tm;vHk;txJudk

0ifajy;=uwmcsnf;yJ? usrwdk tdrf0if;txJwif 0ifajy;wmr[kwfygbl;? [dkbuftdrfxJvnf; 0ifajy;ygw,f?


tzJGcsKyfxJvnf; 0ifEkdifwJhvlawGu 0ifzdk ud;pm;=uygw,f? 'gudk usrwdktdrfwtdrfxJudkyJ uGuf+yD;awmh
0ifajy;w,fqdkwm b,fvdkt"dy`m,feJ/ b,fvdk&nf&G,fcsufeJ ajymwmvJ? usrwdkvnf; trsm;}uD;
ar;p&mjzpfygw,f?
usr&J tdrf0if;xJrSm ausmif;om;vli,frsm; tpnf;ta0;vkyfaew,fqdkwm rSefw,f?
ausmif;om;rsm;[m usr&Jtdrf0if;xJ 0ifajy;vmw,fqdkwmvnf; rSefw,f? 'gvnf; usrwdk 0efcHygw,f?
'gayr,fh usrwdktdrf0if;xJwif r[kwfbl;? tjcm;tdrf0if;xJawGvnf; 0ifajy;w,f?
usrwdktzJGcsKyfu vl}uD;rsm;u xGuf+yD;awmh ajyajyvnfvnfjzpfatmif ud;pm;w,f? 'gudkvnf;
wyfrawmfu t&m&SdawGu odwmyJ? odayr,fhvnf; bmrS todtrSwfrybl;? 'gudk bmrSrajymbJeJ 'D
qlylr_jzpfatmif usrwdktzJGcsKyfu vkyfw,fqdkwJh oabmxm;eJa&;wm[m tifrwefrS r&Sif;wJhudpPvdkyJ
usrwdk ,lq&rSmyJ? 'g wrifoufouf tzJGcsKyfukd &r,f&Sm+yD;awmh tjypf,lcsifvdk vkyfaeovdk
oabmoufa&mufw,fvdk usrjrifygw,f? 'Dvm+yD;awmh qENjywJh uav;rsm;[m usrwdkeJ rqkdifygbl;?
tzJGcsKyfvli,fxJrSmygwJh vli,fawG vHk;vHk;r[kwfygbl;?
'DudpPeJywfoufvdk usrwdktzJGcsKyfu OD;atmifa&$eJ OD;cspfckdifwdk raeu w0w Hk;udk
oGm;cJhygw,f? w0w Hk;rSmawGcJhwJh Adkvfr;wifarmif0if;udk pHkprf;csifwm&Sd&if pHkprf;yg? ar;p&m&Sd&if ar;yg?
aqG;aEG;p&m&Sd&if aqG;aEG;yg? tzJGcsKyfeJ vHk;vHk;oufqkdifwJh qENjyr_ ("gwfyHkrsm;vmygonf)
1989 ckESpf o}uFefa&obifqifEJ$pOf
(aqmif;yg;tqufjyefvmygonf?)
r[kwfygbl;qdkwm ajymcJhygw,f? 'gudkvnf; bmrSpHkprf;jcif; r&Sdbl;? bmrS ar;jref;jcif;r&Sdbl;? bmrS
aqG;aEG;jcif;r&Sdbl;? olwdk owif;pmeJ a&'D,dkrSm ajymcsifwmudk ajymoGm;w,f? 'g[m odyf+yD;awmh
rSefuefwJh vrf;r[kwfbl;vdk usrxifygw,f?
usrwdkuae+yD; qlylapcsifvdk vkyfw,fvdkajymw,f? rSefrSefuefuef +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf;
vkyfcsifwJhtzJGtpnf;udk qlylatmifv_Haqmfay;ygw,fvdk ajymwmudku +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf;eJ rjzpfapcsifwJh
pdwfoabmrsKd;ygovdk jzpfaeygw,f? 'ga=umifh usrwdktzJGcsKyftaeeJ 'gudk jyif;jyif;xefxef
uefuGufygw,f?
aemuf+yD;awmh armifzkef;armfudpP? armifzkef;armfae &ufowWywfa[majymyJGawGeJywfoufvdk
owif;pmxJrSm ygygw,f? b,fae&mawGrSm b,folawGu a[majymoGm;w,f/ wyfrawmfqefusifa&;awG
a[majymoGm;ygw,fayghav? a[majymoGm;wJh ae&mawGxJrSm usrwdk tzJGcsKyfHk;awG ygw,fqdkwm
rSefygw,f?
usrwdk
0efcHygw,f?
'g
rjiif;ygbl;?
usrwdk&J
tift,f'Dvli,fxJu
a[majymoGm;w,fqdkwmvnf; rSefw,f? usrwdk rjiif;ygbl;? 'Dvdkvli,frsm;udk usrwdk tzJGcsKyfHk;awGrSm
a[majymcGifhay;wm[m kef;&if;qefcwf rjzpfoGm;atmifvdkqdkwJh qENeJ usrwdk vkyfoGm;wmyg? usrwdkeJ
aqG;aEG;r,fqdk&if tajz[m ay:rSmyg?
armifzkef;armfudpPeJywfoufvdk
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m
txdrf;trSwftcrf;tem;rsm;
vkyfcsifw,fqdkuwnf;u usrwdkudk wdkifyifygw,f? ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udk xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf; vkyf=uyg/
wwfEkdifor# at;at;csrf;csrf;jzpfatmif vkyf=uyg? jyifyrSm qENjyr_awG vkyfvdk&Sd&if kef;&if;qefcwf
jzpfrSmpdk;vdk/
a[majymyJGawG
olwdku
odyfvkyfcsifw,f/
'Dawmh
uJ
'Dvdkqdk&ifawmh
taqmuftODawGtwGif;rSm vkyfyg? usrwdk xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf;jzpfatmif trsKd;rsKd;ud;pm;cJhygw,f?
'gudkvnf; wu,fyJodcsifw,fqdkvdk&Sd&if odzdk&m rcJ,Of;ygbl;? b,fum;eJ b,fvlawG b,ftcsdefrSm
oGm;w,fqdkwm odEkdifwJholrsm;[m usrwdkb,fvdk xdef;odrf;w,fqdkwm wu,fyJodcsifw,fqdk&if

odEkdifzdkta=umif; trsm;}uD;&Sdygw,f? wdwdusus odcsifw,fqdk&if usrwdkudk vm+yD;awmh ar;vdk&ygw,f?


usrwdk ajymzdktqifoifhygyJ? vli,fawGudk usrwdk xdef;zdk ud;pm;w,fqdkwm usrwdkudk b,ftcsdefar;ar;
ajymEkdifygw,f?
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usrwdktzJGcsKyfxJu awmifolv,form;rsm;u ajymw,fqdkwm vHk;vHk;r[kwfygbl;? tzJGcsKyftjyifbufu
awmifolv,form;rsm;u
wcsdefvHk;ajymaewmyg?
usrwdk
wu,fyJ
qlylaomif;usef;r_
jzpfapcsifw,fqdkvdk&Sd&if e0w udk bmjzpfvdk ta=umif;=um;rvJ? ta=umif;r=um;ygbl;? ta&;r,lapeJ?
ta&;r,lwmawmifrS aumif;ao;w,f? ydk+yD;awmh jynfolvlxk tHkuGrSmyJqdk+yD; usrwdk aoG;xkd;ay;rSmaygh?
jynfolvlxk 'kuQa&mufaewmudk rjrifcsifvdk e0w udk wifjyygw,f? 'DvdkyJ 'kuQa&mufaeygw,f? 'DvdkyJ
jy\emawG jzpfaeygw,f? =unfh+yD;awmh vkyfay;ygqdk+yD;awmh usrwdk wifjyygw,f?
jynfolvlxkodatmifvdk 'Dvdkawmifolv,form;rsm; 'kuQa&mufaew,fqdkwm/ usrwdk
ajymygw,f? 'Dvdkajym&jcif;rSm usrwdkjynfolvlxk[m udk,fh&JtcGifhta&;awGudk udk,fumuG,f&r,fqdkwm
usrwdk ,Hk=unfvdkajymcJhwmyJ? tzJGcsKyftaeeJ n$ef=um;csufwckxkwfxm;ygw,f? awmifolv,form;rsm;
'kuQa&mufaevdk&Sd&if usrwdktzJGcsKyfu wwfEkdifor# ulnD&r,f? 'g[m vlr_a&;t&yJ? 'g EkdifiHa&;y&d,m,f
r[kwfygbl;? usrwdk EdkifiHa&;y&d,m,fqdkwmudk t,Hkt=unfr&Sdbl;qdkwm usr ajym+yD;om;yJ? usr vHk;vHk;
t,Hkt=unfr&Sdbl;?
usr
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awmifolv,form;rsm;
'kuQa&mufaewmudk usrwdktzJGcsKyfu ulnDcsifvdk vkyfwJhudpPyJ jzpfygw,f?
usr cH+yD;awmh ajym&r,fqdkvdk&Sd&if ckwavmrSm usrwdktzJGcsKyfeJ 'Drdkua&pDvdkvm;wJh
tzJGtpnf;rsm;udk oufouftjypf&Smaew,fqdkwm usr jrif&ygw,f? oufoufwdkufcdkufvmw,f?
usrwdku qlylr_jzpfatmifvdk v_Haqmfaew,fqdk+yD;awmh xyfwvJvJajymaeygw,f? 'Dvdkajymaewm[m
b,fvdk&nf&G,fcsufeJ ajymaeovJqdkwm usr trsm;}uD;pOf;pm;&ygw,f?
raeujzpfwJh
udpPawGuvnf;
wrifoufouf
tuGufqif+yD;awmh
usrwdkudk
vufnKd;xdk;wmvm;qdkwm usrwdk ar;p&mjzpfvmygw,f? wyfrawmfaetwGuf pdk;&drfvdkvm;?

wyfrawmfaetwGuf pdk;&drfw,fqdk&if usrwdkeJ aqG;aEG;Ekdifygw,f? wyfrawmfae ysufpD;&mysufpD;a=umif;


b,fvdkrvkyfapcsifbl;qdkwm
ajymyg?
usrwdk
aqG;aEG;zdk
tqifoifhyJ?
usrwdktaeeJ
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udk trsm;}uD;xdef;ygw,f? usrwdk tzJGcsKyfvli,frsm;udk wyfrawmfaerSm
pDwef;vrf;av#mufwmwdk/ qENjywmwdk rvkyf&bl;qdkwm usrwdk ajym+yD;om;yg? 'Dwyfrawmfaeudk
wyfrawmfaetaeeJ vufrcHbl;qdk&if b,folrSroGm;=ueJ? b,folrS xGufr=unfh=ueJ? tJh'Dvdkenf;eJ
oydwfarSmuf&if arSmuf=uaygh? usrwdk ajym+yD;om;yg? usrwdktaeeJ rwfv (27) &ufaeudk
awmfvSefa&;aetaeeJ vufcHw,fqdkwm usrwdk ajym+yD;om;yg? 'g jynfolvlxk&J awmfvSefa&;aeyg?
1945 ckESpfwkef;u jrefrmEkdifiH[m jynfolvlxku tm;vHk;uGvm+yD;awmh zufqpf0g'udk rvdkcsifvdk
awmfvSefa&;udk pwifcJhwJhae jzpfygw,f?
usrwdktzJGcsKyftaeeJawmh (27) &uf rwfv[m awmfvSefa&;aevdk vufcHygw,f?
awmfvSefa&;aetaeeJvnf; azazu todtrSwfycJhw,f? usrvnf; awmfvSefa&;aetaeeJyJ
quf+yD;awmh todtrSwfyygw,f? usrwdk tzJGcsKyfuvnf; 'Dtwkdif;yJ? jynfolvlxkuvnf;
jynfolvlxkudk ESdyfpufwJhzufqpf0g'udk awmfvSefwJhaetjzpf todtrSwfyygw,f?
usrwdktaeeJ tm;vHk;udk ajyajyvnfvnf jzpfapcsifw,f? +idrf;+idrf;csrf;csrf; jzpfapcsifw,f? e0w
eJ ndE_dif;wkdifyif&rvm;? ndE_dif;wdkifyifr,f? wyfrawmfeJ aqG;aEG;&rvm;/ aqG;aEG;r,f? tqifoifhyJqdkwm
usr xyfwvJvJ ajymygw,f? 'DvdkajymaewJhtxJu bmrS aqG;aEG;wkdifyifr_r&SdbJeJ tzJGcsKyfudk oufouf
vufndK;xdk;vmwmuawmh usrwdkudk jynfolvlxku axmufcHwmudk r_pdrfhvdkvm;qdk+yD;awmh usrwdk
ar;&awmhrSmjzpfygw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm usrwdk trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJGcsKyfudk wdkufcdkufw,fqdkwm[m
jynfolvlxk&J 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_udkvnf; wdkufcdkufwmeJ twlwlygyJ? wu,fyJ ppfrSefwJh/ w&m;r#wwJh
a&G;aumufyJGawG jzpfapcsifw,f qdkvdk&Sd&ifawmh 'Dvdkrawmfrw&m; wkdufcdkufr_awGudk &yfwef;u
&yfzdkvdkr,fvdk usr xifygw,f? 'g usrtaeeJ ajymcsifwmuawmh 'gygyJ? ar;p&m&Sdvdk &Sd&if ar;=uyg?
17
wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nDnGwfa&;
jrpf}uD;em;rdY 28-4-1989 aewGif ajym=um;onf?

* * *
wem&Davmuf apma&mufzdkyg? cyfcsKduxGufwm
aemufuswm awmif;yefygw,f?
pnf;Hk;a&;c&D;xGufwJhtcg wcgwav usrwdk tpDtpOftwdkif;rjzpfygbl;? vrf;rSmqdkvdk&Sd&ifvnf;
wcgwav tcuftcJav;awG awGwwfygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdkvdk 'Dvdk aemufus&jcif;jzpfygw,f?
jrpf}uD;em;udk rvmcifwkef;uqdk&if =um;&wmawmh jrpf}uD;em;rSm 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_&J tajctae
odyfraumif;bl;vdk ajym=uygw,f? jynfolvlxku odyf+yD; wufwufuGuG r&Sd=ubl;vdk qdkygw,f?
tJh'Dawmh usru enf;enf;tm;i,frdygw,f? 'gayrJh tckvmwJhtcgusawmhvnf; jynfolvlxku
ydk+yD;wufuGw,fqdkwmjrif&vdk trsm;}uD;yJ tm;&SdoGm;ygw,f? *k%fvnf; *k%fyygw,f?
ucsifjynfe,frSm&SdwJh awmifwef;om; vlrsKd;pkrsm;[m owWd&Sdw,fqdkwm usrwdktm;vHk;yJ tpu
odxm;+yD;jzpfygw,f?
'ga=umifhrdkvdk
'DvdkowWd&Sd&SdeJ
quf+yD;awmh
trsKd;om;a&;twGuf
vkyfoGm;r,fqdkwmvnf; usrwdk ,Hk=unfygw,f? i,fi,fuwnf;u usrwdk em;vnfwmuawmh

awmifwef;om;rsm;[m tifrwefrS owWd&Sdw,f/ tifrwefrS dk;om;ajzmifhrwfw,f/ vkyf&nfudkif&nf


&Sdw,fvdk em;vnfcJhygw,f?
tck 'Drdkua&pD v_yf&Sm;r_xJrSmvnf; 'Dtwdkif;yJ kd;dk;om;om;/ ajzmifhajzmifhrwfrwf/ owdW&Sd&SdeJ
quf+yD;awmh vkyfoGm;=ur,fqdkvdk&Sd&if usrwdkvdkcsifwJh tcGifhta&;rsm;udk tjrefqHk;&EdkifrSmyg?
tcktcsdefrSmqdkvdk&Sd&if wkdif;&if;om;vlrsm;pk trsm;pk}uD;[m awmfawmfrSyJ yifyifyef;yef;/ qif;qif;&J&J
ae=u&ygw,f?
'Dvdktajctaeuae+yD;awmh wdk;wuf+yD; csrf;omwJh jynfaxmifpk}uD;wck xlaxmifzdkqdkwm
tm;vHk;&J wm0efjzpfygw,f? wcgwavusvdk&Sd&if usrwdkudk wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;u ar;ygw,f?
'Drdkua&pDtpdk;& &vdk&Sd&if usaemfwdkvlrsK;d pkawGtwGuf bmvkyfay;rSmvJ/ jynfaxmifpktwGuf
bmvkyfay;rSmvJ qdk+yD;awmh ar;ygw,f? usrwdk trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJGcsKyf taeeJuawmh
a=unmxm;+yD;om;jzpfygw,f? 'Drdkua&pD&vdk&Sd&if ppfrSefwJh 'Drdkua&pDjynfaxmifpk}uD; xlaxmifa&;twGuf
wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk;eJ wkdifyifndE_dif;+yD;awmh usrwdk[m tajccHpnf;rsOf;Oya'[m jynfaxmifpk
wnfwHhckdif+rJa&;twGufvnf; vkyf&r,f/ wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;&J arG;&mygtcGifhta&;rsm;udkvnf;
todtrSwfy&r,f? vlwkdif;vlwdkif; vltcGifhta&;rsm; cHpm;ydkifcGifhvnf; OD;wnf&r,fqdkwmvnf; usrwdk
a=unmxm;+yD;om;jzpfygw,f? 'gayr,fhvnf; 'Drdkua&pD jynfaxmifpkxlaxmifzdkqdkwm[m usrwdk
tzJGcsKyfwckwnf;&J wm0efvnf; r[kwfygbl;? wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk;&J wm0efjzpfygw,f?
'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_ atmifjrifzdkqdkwm[m vlwkdif;vlwkdif;&J wm0efjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdkvdk usr c%c%
ajym&ygw,f? 'Drdkua&pD&zdkqdk&if usaemfwdkudk bmtcGifhta&;awG ay;rvJvdk ar;r,fhtpm;
'Drkdua&pD&zdktwGuf usaemfwdk b,fvdk0dkif;0ef;ulnD&rvJqdkwm tcktcsdefrSm ar;&r,fhar;cGef;jzpfygw,f?
'Dar;cGef;udk ar;+yD;awmh rSefuefwJh tajzudk &SmEkdifr,fqdkrS udk,fvdkcsifwJh 'Drkdua&pDudk &r,f/
'Drdkua&pD&w,fqdkrS vlwkdif;vlwkdif;&J tcGifhta&;udk tmrcHr,fh pepfwckudk xlaxmifEkdifr,f? 'Dvdk
vlwkdif;vlwkdif;&J vltcGifhta&;udk tmrcHr,fh tkyfcsKyfr_pepfwckudk tajccH+yD;rS wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk;
auseyfr_&Ekdifr,fh jynfaxmifpkyHkomefudk usrwdk azmfxkwf&rSmjzpfygw,f? 'Dvdk jynfaxmifpkyHkomef
azmfxkwfzdkqdkwm[m wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk;u oabmxm;}uD;}uD; xm;&r,f/ tjrifus,fus,f
&Sd&r,f?
jynfaxmifpktusKd;udk udk,fha'otusKd;xuf ydkxm;&r,f? Armrsm;[m ArmtusKd;twGuf
r[kwfbl;? ucsifrsm;[m ucsifawG&JtusKd;twGuf r[kwfbl;? wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk;u
jynfaxmifpktusKd;twGufqdkwJh pdwf"mwfawGeJ vkyfzdkvdkygw,f? usrwdk vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;wJhacwfrSm
'Dwkdif;jynf rwdk;wufwm[m nDnGwfr_ r&SdvdkbJ? usrwdkrSm&SdwJh EkdifiHolEkdifiHom;rsm;[m udk,fhtusKd;xuf
wkdif;jynftusKd;udk a&Srxm;vdk usrwdk wkd;wufr_ r&SdcJhbl;vdk xifygw,f?
wygwD
tm%m&Sifpepf
pdk;rdk;oGm;&w,fqdkwmvnf;
jynfolvlxk[m
rSefuefwJh
EdkifiHa&;todtjrifawG r&SdvdkbJ jzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh aemufwcg xyf+yD;awmh tm%m&Sif rjzpfapcsifbl;?
usrwdkEkdifiHudk 'Drdkua&pDpepft& tm;vHk; pdwfcsrf;oma&;twGuf xlaxmifapcsifw,fqdkvdk&Sd&if
EkdifiHolEdkifiHom;tm;vHk;[m udk,fhrSm&SdwJh EdkifiHa&;wm0efawGudk xrf;aqmifzdk vdkygw,f?

("gwfyHkrsm;vmygonf?)
tay:
ucsifwkdif;&if;om;
0wfpHkwrsKd;udk
0wfqifxm;pOf
atmuf
yifvHkY 1989 ckESpfwGif
pnf;Hk;a&;qif;cJhpOfu
tay: - ucsifwkdif;&if;om;rsm;ESifhtwl
atmuf - u&ifacgif;aqmifwOD;ESifhtwl
EkdifiHa&;qdkwm vlwkdif;vlwdkif;eJqdkifwJh udpPyg? EdkifiHwEkdifiH wdk;wufzdk/ wnfwHhckdif+rJzdkqdkwm
tm;vHk;0dkif;+yD; ud;pm;zdkvdkygw,f? vlwkdif;vlwkdif;[m wkdif;jynftay:rSm ppfrSefwJh apwemxm;&ygvdrfhr,f?
udk,fhtzJGtpnf;tusKd;udkyJ vkyfaer,f/ udk,fhtodkif;t0kdif;tusKd;yJ vkyfaer,f qdkvdk&Sd&ifawmh
ppfrSefwJhapwemvdk rac:Edkifygbl;?
usrwdkEdkifiH (26) ESpftwGif;rSm usqif;cJh&wm[m wkdif;jynfudk ppfrSefwJh apwemeJ rtkyfcsKyfvdkbJ?
wkdif;jynfudk ppfrSefwJhapwemeJ tkyfcsKyfcJhw,fqdk&if 'DEkdifiH[m trsm;}uD; wdk;wufEdkifygw,f? ucsifjynfe,f
wckwnf;rSmyifv#if o,HZmwypPnf; b,favmufaygrsm;w,fqdkwm od+yD;om;yg? wEdkifiHvHk;udk cH+yD;awmh
=unfhvdkufr,fqdk&if usrwdkEdkifiH[m tifrwefrS csrf;omygw,f? 'Davmufcsrf;omvsufeJ jynfolvlxk[m
qif;&Jae&w,f/ pdk;&drfae&w,f/ a=umifh=uae&w,fqdkwmawmh rrSefuefwJh tkyfcsKyfa&;pepfa=umifhyJ?
pD;yGm;a&;atmifjrifr_qdkwm rSefuefwJhtkyfcsKyfa&;pepf&SdrS jzpfrSmyg? 'DtcsdefrSm pD;yGm;a&;ukd OD;rwnfbJeJ
EdkifiHa&;udk OD;wnfzdkvdkygw,f?
EkdifiHa&;atmifjrifr_awG&rS pD;yGm;a&;bufudk wcgjyef+yD;awmh usrwdk udk,fvdkcsifwJh yjyifr_awG
vkyf&rSmjzpfygw,f? 'Dawmh jynfolawGtaeeJ tcktcsdefrSm ppfrSefwJh 'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf
0dkif;0ef;ulnD=uygvdk usr arwWm&yfcHcsifygw,f? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pktm;vHk;[m vufwJG+yD;awmh
wnDwnGwfwnf;eJ/ owWd&Sd&SdeJ udk,fh&Jwkdif;jynfaumif;usKd;twGuf rSefreS fuefuef vkyfoGm;r,fqdkvdk&Sd&if
vlwkdif;vlwkdif;[m ydk+yD;awmh csrf;om+yD; wdk;wufwJh jynfaxmifpk}uD;rSm aeEkdifrSmjzpfygw,f?
'DvdkOD;wnfcsufeJ 0dkif;+yD;awmh ud;pm;oGm;=uygvdk usr arwWm&yfcH&if;eJ ed*Hk;csKyfygw,f?

18

'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm; nDnGwfa&;
TrdefcGef;udk 1989 ckESpfwGif &efukefrdY ajym=um;onf[k ,lq&aomfvnf; ajym=um;onfh ae&ufESifh
ae&mudk pmwnf;taejzifh odEkdifpGrf; r&Sdyg?
* * *

usrudk 'Drkdua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;&J udk,fpm;vS,fvdk owfrSwfvdkufwJhtcgusawmh 'gudk


*k%f,lygw,fvdk ajym&rvm;vdk usr pOf;pm;ygw,f? 'gayrJh wu,fpOf;pm;vdkufwJhtcgusawmh 'g
usrtwGuf *k%f,lp&mr[kwfygbl;? usrwdk a&G;xkwfvdkufwJhtiftm;pkrsm;twGuf *k%f,lp&mvdk usr
jrifygw,f? bmjzpfvdkvnf;qdkawmh usrudk a&G;xkwfvdkufwJhtiftm;pkrsm;[m nDnDnGwfnGwfeJ
udk,fhtzJGtpnf;twGuf&,fvdk rpOf;pm;bJeJ 'Drkdua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_atmifjrifa&;twGuf ydk+yD;awmh
aumif;zdktwGuf
vlwa,mufudk
udk,fpm;vS,fa&G;vdkufr,fqdk+yD;awmh
vkyfEkdifwJhtajctae
a&mufvmwm[m tifrwefrS *k%f,lp&myJvdk usr jrifygw,f? usr&,fvdkr[kwfygbl;/ b,foludkyJjzpfjzpf
'Dvdktiftm;pk}uD;rsm;[m udk,fpm;vS,fwa,muftaeeJ a&G;xkwfvdkufEkdifw,fqdkwm[m tifrwefrS
aumif;wJhvuQ%myg? 'gudkvnf; vlwkdif;uae+yD;awmh todtrSwfyw,fqdkwm[m AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif&J
rdefcGef;xJrSmudk ygoGm;ygw,f? usreJ tckvdk aqG;aEG;&r,f/ wkdifyif&r,fqdkvkd&Sd&if &Spfq,feJ wa,muf
jzpfaewmayghvdk
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmifu
ajymoGm;ygw,f?
'g[m
nDnGwfr_&Jtiftm;udk
todtrSwfyoGm;wmygyJ? 'DndE_dif;aqG;aEG;r_qdkwm[m usrwdktm;vHk; vdkvm;aeygw,f? ckewkef;u
OD;wifarmif0if;ajymoGm;wJh 'DudpPxJrSm 1962 ckEpS fwkef;uvnf; ausmif;om;rsm;[m ppftm%m&Sifrsm;eJ
ndE_dif;aqG;aEG;ydkifcGifhawmif;cJhw,f? ndE_dif;aqG;aEG;jcif;tm;jzifh ajyvnfr_udk &SmcJhw,f? 'gayrJh r&cJhygbl;?
Aid to Civil Power vnf; roHk;bJeJ? Aid to Civil Power qkdwmvnf; usru
'Dvdkt*Fvdyfpum;ajymcsifvdk r[kwfygbl;? AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif ajymcJhwJh toHk;tE_ef;twdkif; usr
oHk;vdkuf&wmjzpfygw,f? Aid to Civil Power t&vnf; rvkyfbJeJ ausmif;om;rsm;udk ESdrfeif;vdkufwm
OD;ae0if;&JvufxufrSm pcJhygw,f? 'Dawmh usrwdk ("gwfyHkrsm;vmygonf)
tay: - 0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif;OD;Ek/ AdkvfcsKyfa[mif; OD;wifOD;wdkESifhtwl 13 pufwifbm 1988
atmuf vkyfazmfudkifzuf ausmif;om;rsm;ESifhtwl 1989 ckESpfY awG&pOf
(tquf jyefvmygonf)
bmudk =unfh&rvJ? b,fvdkpOf;pm;&rvJ? tcktcsdefrSmvnf; usr xyfwvJvJajymaeovdkyJ OD;ae0if;&J
trdeftm%mt& usrwdk wkdif;jynfudk qufvuf+yD;awmh tkyfcsKyfaeygw,f? 'gudk usrwdk
a&Smifvdkrjzpfygbl;? usrwdk 'Drdkua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;tm;vHk;wdk[m 'gudk rsufESmcsif;qdkif&ygvdrfhr,f?
1962 ckESpfu ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udk owfjzwfcJhw,f? 'Drdkua&pDtaqmuftODjzpfcJhwJh
ausmif;om;or*~udkvnf; zdcJGcJhw,f? tJ'Dvdk zdcJGcJhwm/ owfjzwfcJhwm[m OD;ae0if;&J trdeft&yJ?
OD;ae0if;&J trdeft&/ OD;ae0if;&J oabmxm;t& ndE_dif;aqG;aEG;r_qdkwmvnf; rjzpfcJhbl;? OD;ae0if;&J
oabmxm;t&/ OD;ae0if;&J trdeft& Aid to Civil Power qdkwmudkvnf; oHk;cGifhr&bJeJ
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udkvnf; owfjzwfcJhw,f? tckqdkvdk&Sd&ifvnf; (2) &ufavmufuae+yD;awmh
AdkvfcsKyf}uD;apmarmif[m Aid to Civil Power t& vkyfwm[m u|ef oabmxm;a&mufw,f
qkdovdkyJ ajymcJhygw,f? 'DvdkajymcJhwJhtjyif ndE_dif;aqG;aEG;zdkqdkwmvnf; rjzpfbl;qdkwJh oabmxm;udkvnf;
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*k%f,lp&myg? usrtaeeJ azazhorD;rdkvdk ae&may;wmqdkvdk remygbl;? 'g[m usr&J pdwf"mwf/
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19

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20

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ajymcsifygw,f?

23

jynfolvdkcsifwm atmifqef;vrf;pOf
1989 ck ZlvkdifwGif ajym=um;aom tmZmenfae tudrdefcGef;

* * *

usrwdktzJGcsKyfudk 'Dvdktm;ay;wJhtwGuf trsm;}uD;yJ aus;Zl;wifygw,f? tcktcsdefrSmqdkvdk&Sd&if


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24

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* * *
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(a&$wd*HkapwDtaemufbufrkcf vlxktpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; 26-8-88)
v_yf&Sm;r_}uD;udk OD;aqmifcJhwJh ausmif;om;awGeJywfoufvdk usr ajymp&mav;awG&Sdygw,f?
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m tifrwefrS awmfygw,f? olwdk&J vufkef;&nfudkvnf; jy+yD;yg+yD? tckvnf;
quf+yD;awmh olwdk&J ESvHk;&nfudk jyr,fqdkwm usr ,Hk=unfygw,f? (a&$wd*HkapwDtaemufbufrkcf
vlxktpnf;ta0;yJG}uD; 26-8-88)
tpdk;&qdkwm jynfolvlxkqENeJudkufnDr,fh wkdif;jynftusKd;udk aqmif&Gufzdk tcsdefuefowf apckdif;xm;wJh
opPmt&SdqHk; jynfol0efxrf;yJjzpf&r,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ ewfarmufrd 1-11-88)
tzJGcsKyf&nf&G,fcsufudkuvnf; a&G;aumufyJG0ifa&muf,SOfydifzdk oufoufrSr[kwfbJ? 18 &uf
pufwifbmv
ppftm%modrf;+yD;wJhaemufydkif;rSm
jyef}uJoGm;wJh
'Drkdua&pDtiftm;awGudk
wpkwkef;wnf;jzpfatmif pkpnf;+yD;/ tJh'Dpkpnf;xm;wJh tiftm;awGudk pepfwusjzpfatmif aygif;+yD;awmh
vGwfvyf+yD; w&m;r#wwJh a&G;aumufyJGawG usif;yEkdifr,fhf tajctaersKd;udk zefwD;ay;zdkygyJ? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/
yk*Hrd 2-11-88)
jrefrmrif;awGxJrSm usefppfom;eJ bk&ifhaemif[m odyfcsD;usL;zdkaumif;w,f? olwdkESpfa,mufpvHk;[m
usefppfom;qdk&if taemf&xm/ bk&ifhaemifqdk&if wyifa&$xD;udk ykefuefjcm;em;EkdifwJh t&nftcsif;&Sdw,f?
'gayrJh usefppfom;a&m/ bk&ifhaemifyg opPm&Sd=uygw,f? vlawmfwa,muf/ t&nftcsif;&SdwJh
vlwa,muf[m opPm&Sdzdk odyfta&;}uD;w,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ yk*Hrd 2-11-88)
ppf_H;+yD;p *syefbk&ifajymcJhwJh pum;wck&Sdygw,f? usKyfwdk[m rcHEdkifwJhudpPawGudk cHEkdif&nf&Sdatmif
vkyf&r,f? rjzpfEkdifwJhudpPawGudk jzpfEkdifatmifvkyfEdkifwJh t&nftcsif;&Sd&r,fwJh? tJh'DvdkyJ usrwdk
jynfolvlxkuvnf; 'kuQqif;&JcH+yD; ZJG&Sd&Sd/ owWd&Sd&SdeJ rjzpfrae ud;pm;vkyfaqmif=ur,fqdk&if bmrS
ratmifjrifEkdifp&mr&Sdygbl;? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ ausmufyef;awmif; 2-11-88)
tqdk;qHk;tpdk;&qdkwm jynfolvlxk &GH&Smrkef;wD;wJhtpdk;&/ 'Dxuf eJeJaumif;wmu jynfolvlxku
a=umufwJhtpdk;&/ 'Dxufydk+yD; aumif;wmuawmh jynfolvlxku csD;rGrf;wJhtpdk;&/ taumif;qHk;uawmh
jynfolvlxku &SdrSef;awmif rodwJhtpdk;&wJh? usrwdk tdrfwtdrfrSmqdkvdk&Sd&if tarvdkaygh? tar&SdrSef;awmif

owdrxm;rdbl;? pm;csdefwef pm;&r,f? 0wfcsdefwef 0wf&r,f? tm;vHk; tqifoifhyJ? tJh'Dvdk jzpfae&r,f?


em;vnfxm;&r,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ jrif;+cH 3-11-88)
("gwfyHkrsm;vmygonf)
tay: - rdwDvmrde,fwGif pnf;Hk;a&;qif;aepOf
atmuf uav;rsm;cspfwJh tefwDpk

'Drkdua&pDpepfrSm trwfvkyfcsifolawG[m tyifyef; tqif;&J cHEdkif&r,f? tpGrf;ukef tvkyfvkyf&r,f?


udk,fusKd;riJhbJ trsm;tusKd;udk yDyDjyifjyif ausausyeG fyGef xrf;aqmifEkdif&r,f? (jrawmifausmif;wdkuf/
rEWav; 6-11-88)
EdkifiHa&;todtjrifqdkwm vlr_a&;todtjrifyJjzpfygw,f? udk,f[m tdrfeD;em;csif;wa,muf yDovdk&Sd&if
wajz;ajz;eJ vlr_a&;uae p+yD;awmh EdkifiHa&;orm;aumif;wa,muf yDoaerSmyJvdk usr jrifygw,f?
(ajrmufOuUvmyrde,f 10-12-88)
'Drdkua&pDpepfqdkwm vlwkdif; wa,mufeJwa,muf av;pm;wJhpepfygyJ? (ajrmufOuUvmyrde,f 10-1288)
trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJGcsKyfudk xlaxmifcJhwm[m jynfolvlxk vdkcsifwJh 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_
atmifjrifa&;twGuf xlaxmifcJhwmyJjzpfw,f? jynfolvlxkeJ usrwdk wpnf;wHk;xJ rvkyfEdkifvdk&Sd&if
usrwdk tzJGcsKyf}uD;[m zsufzdkyJ &Sdawmhw,f? tJ'Dawmh tzJG0ifrsm;[m jynfolvlxk&J oabmxm;udk
em;vnf&r,f? jynfolvlxk&J oabmtwdkif; vkyf&r,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ oxHkrd 14-12-88)
vltcGifhta&;qdkwm vlwkdif;vlwkdif; ydkifqdkifcGifh&Sdw,f? udk,fwifr[kwfbl;? udk,fh&efolrsm;yifv#if
vltcGifhta&;&Sd&r,f? tJh'Dawmh wae usrwdk&J 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_}uD; atmifjrifoGm;wJhtcgus&if
_H;wJhvlawG[m
olwdktcGifhta&;awGudk
jynfhjynfh00
cHpm;Ekdif&r,f?
'g[m
usrwdk&J
'Drdkua&pDwm0efjzpfw,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ oxHkrd 14-12-88)
rufvHk;ay;+yD;awmh pnf;Hk;r_rsKd;udk usr rvdkcsifbl;? igwdktpdk;&wuf&if 'gawG vkyfay;r,fqdkwJh
pnf;Hk;r_rsKd;awmh rvkyf=uygeJ? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ oxHkrd 14-12-88)
'Drdkua&pDpepf xlaxmifwJhtcgus&if ausmif;wdkif;/ ausmif;wkdif;rSm udk,fhwkdif;jynfrSm&SdwJh bmomxJu
tenf;qHk; bmomESpf&yfudk vlwkdif;vlwdkif; oifr,f? ArmeJ &Srf;jzpfjzpf/ ArmeJ u&ifjzpfjzpf/ ArmeJ rGefjzpfjzpf
oifoifhw,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ usKdufxdkrd 14-12-88)
rGef/ Arm/ u&if/ ucsif/ &Srf; ponfjzifh cJGjcm;+yD;awmh rawG;ygeJ? igwdktm;vHk;[m
jynfaxmifpkwkdif;&if;om;rsm;jzpfw,f qdk+yD;awmh pdwfxJrSm xm;+yD; twlwlvkyfoGm;apcsifw,f?
'Drkdua&pDEkdifiHwck jzpfoGm;w,fqdkvdk&Sd&if wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;tm;vHk;&J tcGifhta&;rsm;udk usrwdk
jynfhjynfhpHkpHk ay;csifw,f? wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;&J bmoma&;/ ,Ofaus;r_ ponfjzifh usrwdk

tm;ay;csifw,f? bmjzpfvdkvnf;qdkawmh trsm; tawG;tac:/ trsm; ,Ofaus;r_awGeJ


wnfaqmufxm;wJh EkdifiH}uD;[m b,folawG&J tawG;tac:eJ b,folawG&J ,Ofaus;r_eJ wnfaqmufcJhwJh
EdkifiH}uD;xuf trsm;}uD; ckdifcHhvmayr,f/ trsm;}uD;vnf; wdk;wufEkdifr,f/ trsm;}uD;vnf; usrwdktwGuf
tzdk;wefEkdifr,fvdk ,Hk=unfygw,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ usKdufxdkrd 14-12-88)
wcsKdu ck 'DrSmwrsKd;ajym/ [dkrSmwrsKd;ajym/ 'DrSm 'D[mvkyfr,fajym/ ck 'DrSm [dk[mvkyfr,fajym/ pdwfawGu
ajymif;vdkuf/ tajymawGu ajymif;vdkuf/ 'gawGudk olwdku 'g EkdifiHa&;yJvdk ajymw,f? usruawmh 'g
EdkifiHa&;yJvdk em;rvnfbl;? 'g uvdrfuuspfvkyfwmyJvdk em;vnfw,f? 'DvdkEkdifiHa&;awGudk usrwdk
vufcHvdk rjzpfbl;? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ aygifrd 14-12-88)
EdkifiHa&;y&d,m,fqdkwm
wu,f
aocsm=unfhvdkufawmh
uvdrfuuspfvkyfwmcsnf;yJ?
'D
EkdifiHa&;y&d,m,fqdkwmvnf; txifr}uD;ygeJ? y&d,m,fqdkwm pum;vHk;udk usr rudufbl;? udk,fhudk
xdyg;vm&ifvnf; cHEkdif&nf&Sd&r,f? rSefrSefuefuefyJ vkyfyg? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ aygifrd 14-12-88)
aemuf wdkif;jynfaumif;usKd;twGufqdk&if ckuaep+yD;awmh usrwdkvufcHr,fh acgif;aqmifrsm;[m
pum;wnf&r,f? pum;rSef&r,f? trsm;oabmudk vdkufem&r,f? tJh'Dvdk acgif;aqmifrsKd;om usrwdk
vdkcsifygw,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ aygifrd 14-12-88)
ArmvlrsKd;rsm;[m vlrsm;pk}uD;jzpfaevdk wdkif;&if;om;rsm;udk av;pm;yg? wkdif;&if;om;rsm;&J ,Ofaus;r_udk
av;pm;yg? pdwf0ifpm;=uyg? avhvm=uyg? tJh'Dvdk wa,mufeJwa,muf&J ,Ofaus;r_/
wa,mufeJwa,muf&J
,Hk=unfcsufrsm;udk
avhvmem;vnfrS
usrwdktcsif;csif;
wu,fh
oabmxm;wlawGtjzpfeJ &EdkifrSmyg? (rGeftrsKd;om; 'Drkdua&pDtzJGcsKyfHk;/ armfvrdifrd)
wkdif;jynfwjynfudk tkyfcsKyfwJh acgif;aqmif[m jynfolvlxk&J axmufcHr_eJ tkyfcsKyfwmyJjzpf&r,f?
vufeuftm;udk;eJ tkyfcsKyfw,fqdkwm rjzpfoifhbl;qdkwm arG;uwnf;u usrudk oifxm;wJh/ odcJhwJh
oifcef;pmygyJ? (rde,ftzJGcsKyfHk;/ atmufvrf;r}uD;/ armfvrdifrd)
rSefuefwJh EkdifiHa&;pepfrSm usrwdk vdkcsifwJh acgif;aqmifawGudk usrwdku azmfxkwf&r,f? vdkcsifwJhyHk
oGif;&r,f? udk,fvdkcsifwJhyHk udk,froGif;vdk&Sd&if acgif;aqmifvkyfwJholrsm;u wkdif;jynfudk olwdkvdkcsifwJhyHk
olwdk oGif;oGm;vdrfhr,f? t"dy`m,fu bmjzpfrvJqdkawmh tm%m&Sifpepf}uD; jzpfoGm;rSmyJ?
(rde,ftzJGcsKyfHk;/ atmufvrf;r}uD;/ armfvrdifrd)
'D
jrefrmjynf}uD;[m
bmjzpfvkd
'DavmufawmifrS
ESpfq,fhajcmufESpfvHk;vHk;
wygwDtm%m&SifpepfatmufrSm aecJh&vJ? bmjzpfvdk 'Dvdkqif;&J'kuQawGudk cHcJh&ovJqdkwm usr
pOf;pm;w,f? wcgjyef+yD;awmh pOf;pm;vdk&Sd&if jynfolvlxk}uD;u tcsif;csif; rnDvdkyJ? (rGeftrsKd;om;
'Drkdua&pDtzJGcsKyf/ oHjzLZ&yf 16-12-88)
tpdk;&[m rw&m;ojzifhvkyfovm;/ r[kwfrrSefwJhudpPawGudk vkyfovm;? udk,frvkyfbJeJ olrsm;awGudk
vkyf&ifvnf; rcH&bl;? udk,fh&efoludkyif rw&m;vkyfvdk&Sd&if rcH&bl;? 'Dae udk,fh&efoludkvkyfw,f/ aemufae
udk,fhudkvkyf&if vkyfvdrfhr,f? (rGeftrsKd;om; 'Drdkua&pDtzJGcsKyf/ oHjzLZ&yf 16-12-88)

rw&m;ojzifh vkyfwJholawGudk rkef;zdkqdkwm uav;av;awGudk oifxm;&r,f? rw&m;wJhudpPrSefor#udk


uefuGuf&r,f? rw&m;wJhudpPrSefor#udk igwdk toufay;+yD;awmh ckcHr,fqdkwJh pdwfawGudk
uav;vli,fawGxJrSm
oGif;xm;yg?
usrwdkudk,fwkdifuvnf;
'DvdkpdwfawGarG;yg?
(rGeftrsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJGcsKyf/ oHjzLZ&yf 16-12-88)
'Drkdua&pDtyif}uD;[m &Sifoefvdk&Sd&if 'DtyGifhawG toD;awG[m usrwdk vlvwfykdif;/ vl}uD;ydkif;awGu
cHpm;csifrS cHpm;&r,f? 'gayrJh vli,fydkif;eJ uav;av;awG }uD;vmvdk&Sd&if toD;tyGifhawG
cHpm;Ekdif&r,fqdk&if usrwdk auseyfygw,f? (urm0uf 16-12-88)
vlwa,muf[m arG;vm+yD;awmh udk,fhtwGuf udk,fvkyf+yD;awmh udk,fyJpm;+yD;awmh aooGm;+yDqdk&if
bmvkyfawmhrSmvJ? vljzpf&usKd;reyfbl;? tJh'Dawmh wudk,faumif; r}uH=uygeJ? trsm;twGuf vkyf=uyg?
trsm;tusKd;aqmifwJhvlrsm;[m vlomaooGm;r,f? b,fawmhrS emrnfraobl;? (urm0uf 16-12-88)
vli,fawG&Jb0udk om,mygap? vli,frsm;&Jb0 om,mrS usrwdk&J wdkif;jynf[m wdk;wufEdkifrSmyg?
vli,frsm;&Jb0 om,matmif zefwD;ray;Ekdif&if aemufacwftqufquf usrwdkvlrsKd;rsm; om,mr_
&EkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? (vlabmifopf'Drkdu&ufwpfygwD/ rk'Hkrd 16-12-88)
t&if vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyJGwkef;uqdkvdk&Sd&if vlrsKd;jcm;wa,mufudk wdkufcJh&wm? vlrsKd;jcm;udk
wkduf&wmxuf udk,fhtcsif;csif; jyef+yD;wdkuf&wmu tifrwefrS pdwfnpfp&maumif;w,f? rjzpfoifh
rjzpfxkdufwJh udpP}uD;yJ? (urmau; 17-12-88)
wkdif;jynfwjynfrSm tpdk;&,f/ wyfrawmf&,f/ jynfolvlxk&,f waygif;wpnf;wnf; rjzpfEkdifvdk&Sd&if
b,fenf;eJrS
wdk;wufr_r&SdEkdifygbl;?
jynfolvlxkudkvnf;
ESdyfpufnif;yrf;r,f/
wyfrawmfeJ
jynfolvlxk=um;rSmvnf; pdwf0rf;uJGatmifvkyfr,fqdk&if 'Dwkdif;jynftay:rSm apwem enf;enf;rS r&Sdbl;vdk
usrwdk owfrSwf&rSmyJ? (urmau; 17-12-88)
jynfolvlxkeJ wyfrawmf=um;rSmvnf; pdwf0rf;uJGatmifvkyfaew,f? 'Dvdk pdwf0rf;uJGatmif vkyfaewm[m
jynfolvlxku vkyfaewmr[kwfbl;? usrwdk EkdifiHa&;vkyfwJholawGuvnf; vkyfaewmr[kwfbl;?
wyfrawmfudk udk,fusKd;twGuf oHk;csifwJholrsm;u vkyfaewmyJjzpfw,f? tJh'Dawmh 'DvdkpepfrsKd;udk
usrwdktm;vHk;uae+yD;awmh twdkuftcHvkyf&r,f? (urmau; 17-12-88)
'Drkdua&pDpepfatmufrSm qdkvdk&Sd&if trsm;pk&J oabmwlnDcsuft& tenf;pku vkyf&w,fqdkayr,fh
tenf;pkudk
trsm;pku
twdkuftcHvkyfw,f/
ESdyfpufw,f/
nOf;yrf;w,f/
trsKd;rsKd;
taESmifht,Sufay;w,fqdkwm vHk;vHk;r&Sd&bl;? (urmau; 17-12-88)
EkdifiHa&;orm;trsKd;rsKd;&Sdw,f? wcsKduawmh wkdif;jynftusKd;twGuf vkyfcsifwJh EkdifiHa&;orm;rsm;&Sdygw,f?
wcsKduawmh rdrdtusKd;twGuf vkyfcsifwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;&Sdygw,f? wcsKduawmh EkdifiHa&;oufouf
vkyfpm;csifwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;&Sdygw,f? EdkifiHa&;vkyfpm;wm tusifhjzpfae+yD;awmh EdkifiHa&;yJ
vkyfpm;awmhr,fqdkwJh EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;vnf;&Sdygw,f? 'D EkdifiHa&;orm;trsKd;rsKd;xJrSm wdkif;jynftusKd;udk
aqmifEkdifr,fh EkdifiHa&;orm;rsKd;udk a&G;apcsifygw,f? tJh'Dvkd EkdifiHa&;orm;rsKd;[m Avig;wefeJ jynfhpHk&ygr,f?
(trsKd;om;+idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDygwD/ acsmif;qHk 17-12-88)

acgif;aqmifwa,muf&J
t&nftcsif;udk
cefrSef;csifvdk&Sd&if
t&ifwkef;u
'Dacgif;aqmif[m
b,fvdkvkyfcJhovJ? wu,fyJ o,fydk;cJhovm;? wkdif;jynfuyJ 'Dacgif;aqmifudk o,fydk;cJhwmvm;?
'Dacgif;aqmifu wkdif;jynfudk o,fydk;cJhwmvm;qdkwm[m trsm;}uD;pOf;pm;zdk vdkygw,f? (acsmif;qHk 17-1288)
trSefudkvkyf&wm trSm;udkvkyf&wmxuf tifrwefrSudk cufygw,f? 'gayrJhvnf; aemufqHk;usawmh
trSefvkyfwJholuom atmifjrif&rSmyg? trSefw&m;vkyfwJholawGuom _H;&ifvnf; Ekdif&r,f/ Ekdif&ifvnf;
Ekdif&r,fqdkwm ajymvdk&ygw,f? trSefw&m;t& rvkyfwJholawGuawmh _H;&ifvnf; _H;&r,f/ Ekdif&ifvnf;
_H;&r,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ rtlyif 14-1-89)
usrwdk 1988 u usqHk;oGm;wJh ausmif;om;av;awGqdk&if toufomaysmufoGm;w,f/ olwdkudk
qHk;_H;w,fvdk rqdkEdkifygbl;? olwdk[m atmifjrifjcif;yJ? tJh'D[mudk pdwfxJrSm pJGxm;=uyg? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ rtlyif
14-1-89)
'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;vdkcsifw,fqdkwm b,foludkrS wdkufcdkufcsifvdk r[kwfbl;? b,foludkrS pJGzwfcsifvdk
r[kwfbl;? jynfolvlxktrsm;}uD;[m pdk;&drfa=umifh=ur_uif;a0;pGmeJ udk,fhtoufarG;0rf;ausmif;udk
vGwfvGwfvyfvyf v_yf&Sm;EkdifatmifvdkqdkwJh pdwfrsKd;eJ 'Drkdua&pDtwGuf wdkufae=uwmyJ? tm;vHk;u
'DtcGifhta&;vdkcsif&if tm;vHk;u 0if+yD;awmh v_yf&Sm;&rSmyJ? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ rtlyif 14-1-89)
usrwdkacwfrSm usrwdk ukodkvfuHa=umifhrdkvdk 'Dwkdif;jynf jynfolvlxkudk ta=umufw&m;uae+yD;awmh
vGwfajrmufatmif vkyfay;EkdifwJhtcGifhta&;awG &vmw,f? 'DtcGifhta&;udk vufv$wfqHk;_H;rcHygeJ?
'Dvdkjynfaxmifpktopf wnfaxmifzdk tcGifhta&;awGudk vufv$wfvdkuf&if usrwdk[m orkdif;ay;wm0ef
rausyGefolawGtjzpf orkdif;rSm tifrwefrS tjypfwifp&mjzpfrSmyJ? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ rtlyif 14-1-89)
usrwdku jynfolvlxkudk tm;udk;w,f? jynfolvlxkuvnf; udk,fhudkudk,f tm;udk;=uyg? udk,fhudkudk,f
txifrao;=uygeJ? vlxk&J tiftm;qdkwm tifrwefrS }uD;ygw,f? vlxk&J tiftm;qdkwmudk rav;pm;bJ
raeEkdifygbl;? usrwdkuvnf; av;pm;w,f? aemifvnf; tpdk;&tqufqufu av;pm;oifhw,f?
jynfolvlxkudk av;pm;wJh tpdk;&rsKd;udk usrwdku jzpfapcsifygw,f? 'grS wkdif;jynfrSmvnf; tusKd;jzpfapr,f?
jynfolvlxkvnf; pdwfcsrf;omvmr,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ rtlyif 14-1-89)
'DtcsdefrSm owWd&Sd&SdeJ vkyfvdkufvdk&Sd&if aemifus&if usrwdk[m ra=umuf=u&wJhacwfudk
a&mufoGm;Edkifygw,f? 'DtcsdefrSm a=umuf+yD;awmh vkyfoifhoavmuf rvkyfcJhvdk&Sd&if aemuf quf+yD;awmh
a=umufae&wJhpepfudk &Sifoefatmif vkyfay;ovdk jzpfoGm;ygr,f? vlwa,muftaeeJvnf; trsm;}uD;
*k%foduQmusygw,f? tJh'Dawmh tm;vHk;u rSefwmvkyf&vdk&Sd&if a=umufaevnf; vkyf&rSmyg?
(jrwfarwWmoabFm/ a&$'*Fg;aus;&Gm 14-1-89)
'Drkdua&pDvdkcsifwJhvlrsm;[m rkef;wJhpdwfeJ wdkufaewmr[kwfbl;? arwWmpdwfeJ wdkufaewmyJ?
jynfolvlxktay: arwWm&Sdvdk/ wkdif;jynftay: arwWm&Sdvdk/ jynfolvlxkcHae&wm/ wkdif;jynfcHae&wm/
jynfaxmifpk}uD; epfemaewmudk r=unfh&ufvdk arwWmpdwfeJ 'Drkdua&pDwkdufyJGudk 0ifaewmjzpfw,f?
(jrwfarwWmoabFm/ a&$'*Fg;aus;&Gm 14-1-89)

usrwdk tck 'Drkdua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_txJrSm yg0ifvmwm[m tm%mvdkcsifvdk yg0ifvmwmr[kwfbl;?


wm0efudk xrf;aqmifcsifvdk yg0ifvm=uwmyJ? usrwdk tzJGcsKyftwGufa&m/ v_yf&Sm;r_txJrSm yg0ifae=uwJh
jynfolvlxktwGufa&m/ t"dupum;vHk;[m tm%mr[kwfygbl;? wm0efyg? jynfaxmifpkeJ
jynfolvlxktay:rSm&SdwJh wm0eft& 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_xJrSm tm;vHk;yg0ifae=uwmyg? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ usKHrai; 15-189)
usrwdk[m rSefuefwJhenf;eJ vdkcsifwmudk vkyfEkdifwJh t&nftcsif;awG &Sdatmifvdk udk,fhudkudk,f
ypkysKd;axmif&r,f? wjcm;vlawGudkvnf; 'Dvdkt&nftcsif;awG&Sdatmif ypkysKd;axmifay;&r,f? 'Dvdkqdk&if
usrwdk[m tqifhjrifhwJhEkdifiHa&; vkyfEkdifr,f? tqifhjrifhwJhEdkifiHa&;vkyfEdkifrS tqifhtwef;jrifhwJh
EkdifiHwckjzpfvmr,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89)
wcsKdu 'Drkdua&pDqdkwm tm;vHk;u Adkvfcsnf;yJvdkxifw,f? wu,fawmh 'Drkdua&pDqdkwm
tm;vHk;wef;wl&nfwlvdk
ajymwmr[kwfbl;?
tm;vHk;[m
wef;wlnDwltcGifhta&;&Sdw,fvdk
ajymwmyJjzpfw,f? tm;vHk;rSm&SdwJh wef;wlnDwl tcGifhta&;eJ trsm;tusKd;aqmifr,fh olawGudk
a&G;xkwfydkifcGifhqdkwm &Sdw,f? 'gudk ajymwmyJ? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89)
&yfuGufnDvmcHawG vkyfwJhtcg tusifhpm&dwWaumif;wJhvludk a&G;cs,fyg? ynmtajrmftjrif&SdwJhvludk
a&G;cs,fyg? tusifhpm&dwWeJ t&nftcsif; ESpfck=um;rSm a&G;&r,fqdk&ifawmh usruawmh yGifhyGifhvif;vif;
ajym&&if tusifhpm&dwWaumif;wJhvludk a&G;=uyg? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89)
tpdk;&[m jynfolvlxk qif;&JaewJhtcgrSm ZdrfeJ aezdk rpOf;pm;oifhbl;? aemufwufr,fh tpdk;&[m
tifrwefrS kef;uef&r,fh tpdk;&yg? tJh'Dawmh aemufwufr,fhtpdk;&xJrSm 0dkif;0ef;+yD; ulnDyg0ifvdkwJh
olrsm;[m ae&mvdkcsifvdkr[kwfbJ/ tm%mvdkcsifvdkr[kwfbJ/ csrf;omcsifvdkr[kwfbJ/ jynfoltusKd;zdk
tepfemcHvdkwJhvlrsKd; jzpfzdkvdkygw,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89)
olrsm; rSm;vdk/ olrsm; r[kwfwmvkyfvdk udk,fvnf; vkdufvkyf&r,fqdk&if udk,fvnf; olwdkeJtwl
wef;wljzpfoGm;rSmyJ? uav;u idkvdk vl}uD;uyg vdkuf+yD; ajcaqmifhidkvdk&Sd&if vl}uD;om oduQmusrSmaygh?
uav;uawmh uav;rdkvdk idkw,fqdk+yD; ab;uae cGifhv$wf=u&rSmaygh? vlrsm;awG *k%foduQmr&Sdvdk udk,fu
*k%foduQmr&SdwJhtvkyfudk vkyf&r,fqdkwm rjzpfap&bl;? rjzpfoifhbl;? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk
pnf;Hk;a&;vkyfwJhtcg b,foludkrS ykwfcwfwm/ rrSefuefwJhenf;eJ wdkufcdkufwm rvkyf=uygeJ? rlawGudkyJ
wkdufcdkuf=u&yghr,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ usKHrai; 15-1-89)
'Drdkua&pDwdkufyJG0ifwJhtcgrSm yxrOD;qHk; usrwdkvdkcsifwmu vGwfvyfpGmawG;awmydkifcGifhyJ? vludkom
csKyfxm;Ekdifr,f? pdwfudkawmh rcsKyfxm;Ekdifbl;? 'Dvdk rcsKyfxm;EkdifwJhpdwfa=umifh 'DavmufawmifrS 26
ESpfvHk;vHk; vGwfvyfpGm awG;awmydkifcGifhr&SdwJhtxJu jynfolvlxk[m 'Drkdua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;xJudk owWd&Sd&SdeJ
0ifcJh+yD/ pcJh+yD? 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;udk qHk;cef;wkdifatmif/ atmifjrifatmif vkyfoGm;&r,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ vyGwWm
15-1-89)
azazu ajymcJhw,f? vkyf&Jwm owWdr[kwfbl;? cH&Jwm[m owWdwJh? cH&Jw,fqdkwmvnf;
trSefw&m;twGuf cH&Jwmudk ajymwm/ rrSefuefwJhudpPtwGuf cH&Jwm owWdr[kwfbl;? 'g[m vlrdkuf&J

xHk;yJ? usrwdk[m vlrdkufawGr[kwfbl;? tifrwefrS ynmtajrmftjrif&SdwJh vlxkqdkwm usr jzpfapcsifw,f?


'Dvdk tajrmftjrif&SdwJh jynfolvlxkurS acwfopf jrefrmEkdifiHawmf}uD;udk wnfaxmifEkdifrSmyg? (tzJGcsKyf/
vyGwWm 15-1-89)
udk,fhwkdif;jynftwGuf toufudkay;&w,fqdkwm tifrwefrS =unfEl;p&maumif;w,f? tifrwefrS
oifhawmfw,f? bmjzpfvdkvnf;qdkawmh vlwkdif;vlwkdif;[m rdrd&Jwdkif;jynfudk tm;vHk;xufydk+yD;awmh
cspf&r,f? rdrd&J udk,fxufydk+yD; cspf&r,f? rdrd&J rdom;pkxufydk+yD; cspf&r,f? rdrd&J rdbrsm;xufvnf;
ydk+yD;cspf&r,f? bmjzpfvdkvnf;qdkawmh 'Dwkdif;jynfu 'Drdom;pk/ 'Drdbtm;vHk;udk arG;xkwfvdkufwJh wkdif;jynfyJ?
tm;vHk;&J
aus;Zl;&SifyJjzpfw,f?
jynfolvlxktm;vHk;&J
aus;Zl;&SifjzpfwJh
EkdifiHudk
t+rJyJ
txGwftjrwfxm;&r,f? 'DEkdifiHtwGufqdk&if bmyJpGef&/ pGef&
pGefEkdifwJh owWd&Sd&r,f?
vlwdkif;vlwkdif;twGuf tpGefEdkifqHk;/ wefzdk;t&SdqHk;t&muawmh rdrd&J toufyJ? tJh'Dawmh
udk,fh&Jwefzdk;t&SdqHk; toufudk pGefv$wfoGm;wJh 'Drdkua&pD&JabmfawGudk axmufxm;aomtm;jzifh
usrwdk[m 'Drdkua&pDatmifjrifwJhtxd csDwufoGm;&r,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ vyGwWm 15-1-89)
'Dacwfu 'Drkdua&pDtkwfjrpfcswJh acwfyJ? tkwfjrpfcs+yD;awmhrS tay:u taqmuftOD}uD;udk
wnfaqmuf&rSm? usrwdk[m tkwfjrpfcswJh vlawGqdkawmh yifyifyef;yef;eJ vkyf+yD;awmh
wu,fhtESpfom&udk cHpm;oGm;&csifrS cHpm;oGm;&r,f? udpPr&Sdygbl;? aemifvmaemufom;awG/ jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEkdifiHolEkdifiHom;rsm;[m usrwdk cscJhwJh tkwfjrpfay:rSm 'Drdkua&pDEkdifiH}uD;udk wnfwnfwHhwHh
wnfaxmif+yD; 'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&;awGudk cHpm;oGm;&r,fqdk&if usrwdktwGuf trsm;}uD;
*k%f,lp&mjzpfygw,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ vyGwWm 15-1-89)
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;[m b,fvdkyJ zdESdyfr_awG&Sd&Sd/ b,fvdkyJ olrsm;awG b,fvdkvkyfvkyf/ b,fvdkyJ
olrsm;awG npfywfnpfywf/ wddkwawGuawmh oefoef&Sif;&Sif; pifpif=u,f=u,feJ wkdif;jynftusKd;aqmifwJh
vli,fawGjzpfatmifaer,f?
aemifwacwfusvdk&Sd&ifvnf;
wkdif;jynftusKd;
quf+yD;aqmifr,fh
vl}uD;awGjzpfatmif aer,fqdkwJh &nf&G,fcsufawG xm;=uyg? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ vyGwWm 15-1-89)
'Dwkdif;jynf/ 'Dajr}uD;[m tifrwefrS csrf;omw,f? jynfolvlxk[m tifrwefrS qif;&Jaew,f? 'g
rjzpfoifhwJh udpPyJ? 'Dwkdif;jynf/ 'Dajr}uD;[m 'DavmufawmifrS csr;f omae&if rSefrSefuefuef vrf;eJ
jynfolvlxktwGuf tusKd;aqmifoGm;r,fh tpdk;&rsm;[m jynfolvlxkudkvnf; csrf;omatmif
vkyfay;Ekdif&r,f? (vGwfvyfa&;ausmufwkdifa&S/ bDwGwfaus;&Gm 15-1-89)
a0\EW&m[mqdk&if tvGefw&mrS jrifhjrwfwJh tavmif;awmfrif;w&m;jzpfayr,fhvnf; jynfolvlxkudk
qefusif+yD;
qifjzLawmfudk
vvdkufwJhtcg
jynfESif'%fcH&w,f?
jynfolvlxk&J
qENudk
rvdkufavsmwJhrif;qdkwm
rif;usifhw&m;q,fyg;eJvnf;
rudkufnDbl;?
jynfolvlxkuvnf;
vufrcHbl;qdkwm usrwdk Ak'<bmomw&m;t&vnf; vufcHcJhw,f? c&pf,mefw&m;rSmvnf;
rif;aumif;rif;jrwfrsm;[m *k%meJ arwWmeJ qufqH&r,fqdkwm ygygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdkvdk
b,fbmomyJjzpfjzpf/ bmomra&G;/ vlrsKd;ra&G; rif;aumif;rSef&if jynfolvlxkudk rqefusifoifhygbl;?
(tzJGcsKyfHk;/ ajrmif;jr 16-1-89)
trsm;jynfol pdwf'kuQa&mufaewJh wdkif;jynfrSm pdwfcsrf;omwJhvlqdkwm tifrwefrS &Sufp&maumif;w,f?
'DavmufawmifrS udk,fhab;uvltrsm; qif;&J'kuQa&mufaevsufom;eJ udk,fu pdwfcsrf;csrf;omomeJ

aeEkdifw,fqdkwm udk,fhrSm vlESvHk;om;r&SdvdkbJvdk owfrSwf&ygr,f? udk,fwa,mufxJ/ udk,fhrdom;pk/


udk,fhtodkif;t0dkif;yJ pdwfcsrf;om&if awmf+yDvdkqdkwJh olrsm;[m vlrqefygbl;? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ 0g;c,fr 16-189)
usr[m wyfrawmfeJ jynfolvlxk=um;rSm vHk;vHk; pdwf0rf;ruJGapcsifbl;? tcktcsdefrSm wyfrawmf[m
azazjzpfapcsifwJh jynfoludk umuG,fr,fh/ jynfoludk apmifha&Smufr,fh/ EkdifiH&J *k%foduQmudk xdef;odrf;r,fh
wyfrawmf}uD;&,fvdk jzpfapcsifw,f? rjzpfwmudkawmh usr 0rf;enf;w,f? 'Dvdk wyfrawmf}uD;yJ
jyef+yD;awmh jzpfoGm;apcsifw,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ 0g;c,fr 16-1-89)
azaz t+rJyJrSmcJhw,f? uav;awGudk bmudkrS ra=umufapeJ? olwdka=umufzdk&m ESpfckyJ&Sdw,f?
rw&m;wJhudpPudkvkyfzdk a=umuf&r,f? rrSefwJhudpPudkvkyfzdk a=umuf&r,f? avmurSm a=umufzdkqdkwm
'DESpfckyJ &Sdygw,fwJh? tJh'Dawmh usrwdk&J rdbjynfolrsm;udkvnf; tJh'DvdkyJ em;vnfapcsifygw,f?
(vlabmifopf'Drkdu&ufwpfygwDHk;/ 0g;c,fr 16-1-89)
usrwdkvlrsKd;awGudk opPm&SdwJh vlrsKd; jzpfapcsifw,f? wa,mufeJwa,muf wdkufcdkufwJh ae&mrSmawmifrS
jrifhjrifhjrwfjrwf wdkufcdkufwJhenf;rsm;eJ wdkufcdkufEdkifygw,f? &efolqdkwm jrifhjrwfwJh&efoleJ ,kwfrmwJh&efol
ESpfrsKd;&Sdygw,f? jrifhjrwfwJh &efolqdkwm ,kwfrmwJh rdwfaqGxuf trsm;}uD;ydk+yD;awmh wefzdk;&Sdygw,f?
'ga=umifhrdkvdk usrwdk[m &efoljzpfaewJh olawGtay:rSmvnf; jrifhjrwfwJh pdwfxm;&Sd&r,f?
(vlabmifopf'Drkdu&ufwpfygwDHk;/ ykodrf 17-1-89)
aemif wkdif;jynfacgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfr,fh vli,frsm;[m tckuaep+yD;awmh udk,frSm;ovm;/ rSefovm;qdkwm
oHk;oyf&JwJh owWdvnf;&Sd&r,f? rSm;wJhtcg udk,fhudkudk,f jyef+yD;awmh yjyifEdkifwJh t&nftcsif;vnf; &Sd&r,f?
'Dvdk usrwdkwdkif;jynfrS vli,frsm;[m udk,fhudkudk,f rSm;vdk&Sd&if oHk;oyfEkdifr,f/ 0efcHEkdifr,f/ rrSm;atmif
yjyifEkdifr,fqdk&if ESpfq,fhajcmufESpftwGif;u ysufpD;cJhwJhudpPrSefor#udk usrwdk jyef+yD;awmh jyifoGm;EkdifrSm
jzpfygw,f? (vlabmifopf'Drkdu&ufwpfygwDHk;/ ykodrf 17-1-89)
tck 'Drkdua&pDvdkcsifwJh pdwfqENrsm;[m jrpf}uD;ozG,fyJ pD;qif;aeygw,f? 'Djrpfa&awGudk b,folrS
wm;EkdifrSm r[kwfygbl;? tJh'Dawmh usrwdktzJGcsKyf[m 'Djrpfa&awGudk rSefwJhuefwJh vrf;uae+yD;awmh
oGm;Ekdifatmifvdk/ jrpfa&awG[m v#H+yD;awmh tEW&m,frjzpfEkdifatmifqdkwJh wm0efawG&Sdygw,f?
jynfolvlxk&J tifrwefrS wufuGwJh pdwfqENawGudk xdef;xdef;odrf;odrf;vkyzf dk vdkygw,f? 'ga=umifhrdkvdk
'Dv_yf&Sm;r_xJrSm nDnGwfr_eJ xyfwlta&;}uD;wmuawmh pnf;urf;&Sdr_yJvdk usrwdk twefwef
ajymaewmjzpfygw,f? (taemufrde,fHk;/ ykodrf 17-1-89)
tckwkdufyJG[m
jrefrmEkdifiHol
EkdifiHom;tcsif;csif;
wkdufyJGoabmrsKd;jzpfvdk
tifrwefrS
&ifemp&maumif;ygw,f? 'gayrJhvnf; 'Drdkua&pDtwGuf v_yf&Sm;w,fqdkwm trSefw&m;udk
atmifjrifapcsifvdk/ trsm;tusKd;twGuf jzpfapcsifvkd v_yf&Sm;wmyJ? udk,fusKd;tjrwfxGufcsifvdkvnf;
r[kwfbl;? b,foludkrSvnf; rqHk;_H; repfemapcsifbl;? tJh'Dawmh trSefw&m;udk atmifjrifapcsifwJh
pdwfapwemoefoefeJ usrwdktm;vHk; qufvkyfoGm;zdk vdkygw,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ acsmif;0 18-1-89)
jrefrmEkdifiHvdk qif;&JwJhEdkifiHrSm csrf;omae&wm tifrwef &Sufzdkaumif;ygw,f? usrwdk
EdkifiHolEdkifiHom;awG[m r&SufoifhwJhae&mrSm &Sufae=uygw,f? awmifolv,form; aus;vufvlxku

xrif;ESpfeyfudk tEkdifEkdifpm;ae&wJhcsdefrSm wcsKdu ig;eyf/ ajcmufeyfpm;aewm &Sufp&myg? wu,f


tusifhpm&dwWaumif;+yD; pdwfoabmxm; jrifhjrwfwJhvlrsm;taeeJawmh jrefrmEdkifiHrSm rdrdcsrf;omzdk
ud;pm;&wm[m &Sufp&m b,favmufaumif;rvJvdk awG;xif=urSmyg? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ [oFmw 24-1-89)
ae&mvdkcsifw,fqdkwm udk,fhwa,mufxJtwGufyg? ae&may;csifw,fqdkwm trsm;tusKd;twGufyg?
tJh'Dawmh ae&mrvdkcsif=uygeJ? ae&may;csif=uyg? t&nftcsif;&Sd+yD; tusifhpm&dwWaumif;wJholawGudk
ae&may;=uyg? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ [oFmw 24-1-89)
rdbawGu 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_xJrSmygwJh vli,fawGudk [efwm;ae=uw,fqdkwm od&ygw,f?
r[efwm;=uygeJ? udk,fa=umufvdk udk,fhom;orD;awGyg a=umufzdk oifay;w,fqdk&if odyf+yD;qdk;wmaygh?
(tzJGcsKyfHk;/ [dkyHk; 12-2-89)
acgracwfu pygwmEkdifiHrSm ajymavh&Sdw,f? ppfwdkufoGm;zdk 'dkif;udkif+yD; xGufoGm;wJhtcg tdrfuae
tarawG/ trawGu t+rJyJrSmvdkufw,f? 'dkif;udkif+yD;awmh jyefvm&ifvm/ 'dkif;ay:tdyf+yD;awmh jyefvm&ifvm/
ao+yD;awmh jyefvm&ifvm/ 'grSr[kwf ppfudkEkdif+yD;awmh jyefvm&ifvm/ ppf_H;+yD;awmh jyefrvmygeJqdkwJh
t"dy`m,feJ ajymwmyJ? usrwdktm;vHk;[m 'Dvdkpdwfxm;rsKd; &Sd&r,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ [dkyHk; 12-2-89)
usrwdk[m aemif 'Drdkua&pDjynfaxmifpkopf xlaxmifa&;twGufudk yifvHknDvmcHvdk wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;
tm;vHk;yg0ifwJh nDvmcH}uD;wck ac:zdkvdktyfw,fvdk xifygw,f? 'D nDvmcHuae+yD;awmh
jynfaxmifpkwnfwHhcdkif+rJa&;twGuf
wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkrsm;&J
&oifh&xkdufwJh
tcGifhta&;rsm;/
udk,fydkifjymef;csufrsm; pwJhudpPawGudk aoaocsmcsm aqG;aEG;+yD;awmh tm;vHk;&J oabmwlnDcsuft&
taumif;qHk;tajzudk &Smr,fqdkwJh &nf&G,fcsuf&Sdygw,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ yifvHk 12-2-89)
jrefrmEkdifiHrSm ESpfaygif;av;q,fausmf vufeufudkifenf;eJ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;udk &SmcJhygw,f? 'gayrJh
ckxufxd r&ao;ygbl;? 'ga=umifhrdkvdk usrwdktaeeJ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;&zdkqdkwm EdkifiHa&;enf;eJ
&Sm&r,fvdk ,Hk=unfygw,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ yifvHk 12-2-89)
usrwdk[m tEkdif,lcsif&if tEkdif,lEkdifwJhpdwfawG arG;&ygr,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ awmif}uD; 13-2-89)
q,fh&Spf&uf
pufwifbmrSm
ppftpdk;&uae+yD;awmh
tm%mt&yf&yfudk
odrf;+yD;wJhaemuf
wkdufyJGyHkpHajymif;&r,fvdk ,Hk=unfvdk trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJGcsKyf zJGcJhwm jzpfygw,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ awmif}uD;
13-2-89)
b,fpepfrsKd;rqdk atmifjrifzdkqdkwm acgif;aqmifaumif;vnf; &Sd&r,f? aemufvdkufaumif;vnf; &Sd&r,f?
tJh'Dawmh aemufvdkufaumif;wa,muf&J t&nftcsif;[m bmvJqdk&if ta&;t}uD;qHk;uawmh
acgif;aqmifaumif;rsm; azmfxkwfEkdifwJh t&nftcsif; &Sd&r,f? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/ awmif}uD; 13-2-89)
vlwa,muf&Jwefzdk;udk 'Dvl&Jtoufudk =unfh+yD;awmh rqHk;jzwfEkdifygbl;? 'ga=umifh usrwdk[m
vlwkdif;vlwkdif;&J wefzdk;udk rSefrSefuefuef a0zef+yD;awmh ay;oifhay;xkdufwJh ae&mudkay;=uyg? (tzJGcsKyfHk;/
awmif}uD; 13-2-89)

'DtzJGcsKyf}uD; zsufodrf;ay;rS trsKd;om;a&;jzpfwJh 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_}uD; atmifjrifr,fqdkvdk&Sd&if usrwdk


zsufodrf;ay;zdk tqifoifhygyJ? 'DtzJGcsKyfu a&Su aeay;rS/ umuG,fay;rS 'Dv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;[m
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ausmif;om;or*~qdkwm EkdifiHa&;ygwD t&Sdeft0geJvnf; uif;a0;&r,f? ygwD=oZmeJvnf; uif;a0;&r,f?
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jynfaxmifpkwck
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(arGawmf"mwfqifapwD/ rdk;+AJ 16-2-89)

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(arGawmf"mwfqifapwD/ rdk;+AJ 16-2-89)
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("gwfyHkvmygonf)
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rsufESmzHk;yef;csD OD;ay:odrf;
(Tae&mwGif pmtkyfwtkyfvHk; tqkHk;owfygonf)