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Chapter 8, Solution 1.

FBD Block B: Tension in cord is equal to W A = 25 lb from FBDs of block A and pulley. Fy = 0: N WB cos 30 = 0,

N = WB cos 30

WB min = 31.1 lb (b) For largest WB , slip impends down the incline, and F = s N = 0.35 WB cos30 Fx = 0: Fs + WB sin 30 25 lb = 0

W B max = 127.0 lb

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics and Dynamics, 8/e, Ferdinand P. Beer, E. Russell Johnston, Jr., Elliot R. Eisenberg, William E. Clausen, David Mazurek, Phillip J. Cornwell 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Chapter 8, Solution 2.

FBD Block B:

Fy = 0: N ( 52 lb ) cos 25 = 0,

N = 47.128 lb

So, for equilibrium, Feq = 18.024 lb Since Feq > Fmax , the block must slip (up since F > 0)

There is no equilibrium

(b) With slip, F = k N = 0.25 ( 47.128 lb )

F = 11.78 lb

35

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics and Dynamics, 8/e, Ferdinand P. Beer, E. Russell Johnston, Jr., Elliot R. Eisenberg, William E. Clausen, David Mazurek, Phillip J. Cornwell 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Chapter 8, Solution 3.

FBD Block:

Tension in cord is equal to P = 40 N, from FBD of pulley.

W = (10 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 98.1 N

F y = 0 : N (98.1 N ) cos 20 + (40 N ) sin 20 = 0

For equilibrium: Fx = 0:

Equilibrium exists F = 4.04 N 20

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics and Dynamics, 8/e, Ferdinand P. Beer, E. Russell Johnston, Jr., Elliot R. Eisenberg, William E. Clausen, David Mazurek, Phillip J. Cornwell 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Chapter 8, Solution 4.

Tension in cord is equal to P = 62.5 N, from FBD of pulley. W = (10 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 98.1 N Fy = 0:

For equilibrium: Fx = 0:

so no equilibrium, and block slides up the incline

F = 19.00 N 20

Chapter 8, Solution 5.

Tension in cord is equal to P from FBD of pulley. W = (10 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 98.1 N

Fy = 0: Fx = 0:

(1) (2)

For impending slip down the incline, F = s N = 0.3 N and solving (1) and (2), PD = 7.56 N

For impending slip up the incline, F = s N = 0.3 N and solving (1) and (2), so, for equilibrium P = 59.2 N U 7.56 N P 59.2 N

Chapter 8, Solution 6.

FBD Block: W = ( 20 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 196.2 N

For min motion will impend up the incline, so F is downward and F = s N Fy = 0: N ( 220 N ) sin (196.2 N ) cos 35 = 0 F = s N = 0.3 ( 220 sin + 196.2 cos 35 ) N Fx = 0: (1) (2)

( 220 N ) cos

F (196.2 N ) sin 35 = 0

(1) + ( 2 ):

or

Solving numerically:

= 28.9

For Pmin motion will impend down the incline, and the reaction force R will make the angle

with the normal, as shown.

Note, for minimum P, P must be to R, i.e. = s (angle between P and x equals angle between R and normal). (b) then P = (160 N ) cos ( + 40 ) = (160 N ) cos 59.29 = 81.71 N (a) Pmin = 81.7 N

= 19.29

Chapter 8, Solution 8.

FBD block (impending motion downward)

PR

= = 90 ( 30 + 14.036 ) = 45.964

P = ( 30 lb ) sin = ( 30 lb ) sin ( 45.964 ) = 21.567 lb P = 21.6 lb

(b)

= 46.0

Chapter 8, Solution 9.

FBD Block:

s = 21.801

10 lb 15 lb = sins sin1,2

1,2 = sin 1

55.655 So 1,2 = 1,2 + s = 167.947 So (a) (b) equilibrium for equilibrium for 0 55.7 167.9 180

FBD A with pulley:

Tension in cord is T throughout from pulley FBDs

Fy = 0:

2T 20 lb = 0,

T = 10 lb

For max , motion impends to right, and

20 lb 10 lb = , sin ( s ) sin s 2sin s = sin ( s )

max = 60.6

FBD top block:

Fy = 0:

N1 196.2 N = 0

N1 = 196.2 N

(a) With cable in place, impending motion of bottom block requires impending slip between blocks, so F1 = s N1 = 0.4 (196.2 N )

F1 = 78.48 N

FBD bottom block:

Fy = 0:

N 2 196.2 N 294.3 N = 0

N 2 = 490.5 N

F2 = s N 2 = 0.4 ( 490.5 N ) = 196.2 N

Fx = 0: P + 78.48 N + 196.2 N = 0

P = 275 N

FBD block:

(b) Without cable AB, top and bottom blocks will move together Fy = 0:

N 490.5 N = 0,

N = 490.5 N

Impending slip: Fx = 0:

P + 196.2 N = 0

P = 196.2 N

Note that, since s = tan 1 s = tan 1 ( 0.40 ) = 21.8 > 15, no motion will impend if P = 0, with or without cable AB. (a) With cable, impending motion of bottom block requires impending slip between blocks, so F1 = s N Fy = 0:

N1 W1 cos15 = 0,

N1 = W1 cos15 = 189.515 N

Fx = 0:

N 2 = 457.74 N

F2 = s N 2 = ( 0.40 )( 457.74 N ) = 183.096 N Fx = 0: P + (189.515 N ) + ( 75.806 N ) cos15 + 126.586 N + 183.096 N = 0

FBD block:

P = 361 N

(b) Without cable, blocks remain together Fy = 0: N W1 W2 = 0 N = 196.2 N + 294.3 N = 490.5 N F = s N = ( 0.40 )( 490.5 N ) = 196.2 N Fx = 0: P + 196.2 N = 0

P = 196.2 N

FBD A:

Note that slip must impend at both surfaces simultaneously. Fy = 0: N1 + T sin 16 lb = 0 N1 = 16 lb T sin Impending slip: F1 = s N1 = ( 0.20 )(16 lb T sin ) (1) (2) N 2 = N1 + 24 lb = 30 lb T sin Impending slip: F2 = s N 2 = ( 0.20 )( 30 lb T sin ) = 6 lb 0.2 T sin Fx = 0: 10 lb F1 F2 = 0

10 lb = s ( N1 + N 2 ) = ( 0.2 ) N1 + ( N1 + 24 lb )

FBD B:

Fy = 0:

N1 = 13 lb

(1): ( 2 ):

3 , 2.6

Dividing tan =

= tan 1

3 = 49.1 2.6

= 49.1

FBDs: A:

Fy = 0:

N1 20 lb = 0,

N1 = 20 lb

Impending slip: Fx = 0: Fy = 0:

F1 = s N1 = ( 0.25 )( 20 lb ) = 5 lb

T + 5 lb = 0,

T = 5 lb

B:

Impending slip: Fx = 0:

F2 5 lb ( 5 lb ) cos + ( 20 lb + 40 lb ) sin = 0 20cos + 58.75sin 5 = 0

Solving numerically,

= 23.4

FBD:

For impending tip the floor reaction is at C.

For impending slip = s = tan 1 s = tan 1 ( 0.35 )

= 19.2900

tan = 0.8 m , EG EG = 0.4 m = 1.14286 m 0.35

s = tan 1

s = 58.1

(b) P W = sin19.29 sin128.820 P = ( 392.4 N )( 0.424 ) = 166.379 N P = 166.4 N Once slipping begins, will reduce to k = tan 1 k . Then max will increase.

First assume slip impends without tipping, so F = s N FBD

Fy = 0:

N + P sin 40 W = 0,

N = W P sin 40

F = s N = 0.35 (W P sin 40 ) Fx = 0:

F P cos 40 = 0

Ps = 0.35317 W

Next assume tip impends without slipping, R acts at C. (1)

M A = 0:

=0

)

(a)

Pmax = 138.6 N

For maximum M, motion impends at both A and B FA = A N A; Fx = 0: N A FB = 0 FB = B N B N A = FB = B N B

FA = A N A = A B N B

Fy = 0: or and

N B + FA W = 0 NB = 1 1 + A B W

N B (1 + A B ) = W

FB = B N B =

B W 1 + A B A B W 1 + A B

M = Wr B 1 + A 1 + A B

FA = A B N B =

M C = 0: M r ( FA + FB ) = 0 (a) For

A = 0

and

B = 0.36

M = 0.360Wr

(b) For

A = 0.30

and

B = 0.36

M = 0.422Wr

FBDs: (a) FBD Drum:

M D = 0:

10 ft F 50 lb ft = 0 12

F = 60 lb

Impending slip: N = FBD arm:

60 lb = 150 lb 0.40

M A = 0:

=0

C = 60 lb + 3 (150 lb ) = 390 lb

Ccw = 390 lb

(b) Reversing the 50 lb ft couple reverses the direction of F, but the magnitudes of F and N are not changed. Then, using the FBD arm:

M A = 0:

=0

C = 60 lb + 3 (150 lb ) = 510 lb

Cccw = 510 lb

FBDs: For slipping, F = k N = 0.30 N (a) For cw rotation of drum, the friction force F is as shown. From FBD arm:

M A = 0:

600 lb + F 3 F =0 0.30

=0

F =

600 lb 9

M cw = 55.6 lb ft

(b) For ccw rotation of drum, the friction force F is reversed

M A = 0:

600 lb F 3 F =0 0.30

=0

F =

600 lb 11

M ccw = 45.5 lb ft

FBD: (a)

M C = 0:

r ( F T ) = 0,

T = F

Impending slip: F = s N or N =

Fx = 0:

F + T cos ( 25 + ) W sin 25 = 0

T 1 + cos ( 25 + ) = W sin 25

Fy = 0: N W cos 25 + T sin ( 25 + ) = 0

(1)

Dividing (1) by (2):

(2)

= 17.53

(b) From (1)

T = 0.252W

FBD ladder: Note: slope of ladder =

4.5 m 12 13 = , so AC = ( 4.5 m ) = 4.875 1.875 m 5 12 AD = 1 L 2

L = 6.5 m, so AC =

4.875 m 3 = L, 6.5 m 4

and DC = BD =

1 L 4

FC = s NC

FA W sin15 + FC cos NC sin = 0

FA = W sin15 s

10 10 W cos + W sin 39 39

= ( 0.46192 0.15652 s )W Fy = 0:

N A = W cos15 s 10 10 W sin W cos 39 39

= ( 0.80941 0.20310 s )W

But FA = N A :

2 0.46192 0.15652 s = 0.80941 s 0.20310 s 2 s 4.7559 s + 2.2743

FBD ladder:

Slip impends at both A and B, FA = s N A , FB = s N B Fx = 0: Fy = 0:

FA N B = 0,

N B = FA = s N A N A + FB = W

N A W + FB = 0, N A + s N B = W

2 N A 1 + s = W

M O = 0:

(6 m) NB + 6 s N A +

2 s +

5 5 m W m N A = 0 4 2

5 5 2 N A 1 + s N A = 0 4 2

24 s 1 = 0 5

s = 2.4 2.6

s min = 0.200

(a) Geometry:

BE =

L cos 2

L DE = cos tan 2

EF = L sin

So or Also, or

DF =

L cos 2 tan s

tan + 2 tan =

(1)

L sin + L sin = L

sin + sin = 1 (2)

1 = 4.62

1 = 66.85

2 = 48.20 2 = 14.75

Therefore, (b) Now and

T W = sin s sin ( 90 + s )

T =W sin s sin ( 90 + s )

or For

= 4.62 = 48.2

T = 0.526W T = 0.374W

Assume the weight of the slender rod is negligible compared to P. First consider impending slip upward at B. The friction forces will be directed as shown and FB,C = s N B,C M B = 0: ( L sin ) P

a sin

NC = 0

NC = P

Fx = 0:

L 2 sin a

so Fy = 0:

NB = P

P + NC cos FC sin FB = 0

P = NC cos s NC sin s N B

so P = P

(1)

To consider impending slip downward at B, the friction forces will be reversed. This can be accomplished by substituting s = 0.20 in L = 3.46. equation (1). Then solve for a Thus, equilibrium is maintained for 3.46

L 13.63 a

FBD ABC:

M C = 0:

+ 0.030 m + ( 0.30 m ) cos 30 ( 400 N ) cos 30

12 5 ( 0.03 m ) FBD ( 0.045 m ) FBD = 0 13 13

FBD = 3097.64 N

FBD Blade:

Fx = 0:

25 ( 3097.6 N ) = 0 65

N = 1191.4

Fy = 0: P+F 60 ( 3097.6 N ) = 0 65

Force by blade

P = 2620 N

FBD CD: Note: The plate is a 3-force member, and for minimum s , slip impends at C and D, so the reactions there are at angle s from the normal. From the FBD, and OCG = 20 + s ODG = 20 s

Equating, tan ( 20 + s ) = 3.5540 tan ( 20 s ) Solving numerically,

s = 10.5652

FBD pin A: From FBD Whole the force at A = 750 lb

Fx = 0: Fy = 0:

FBD Casting:

Fx = 0:

Impending slip

N D N D = 0, N D = N D = N

FD = FD = N D , or N D =

FD

Fy = 0:

ND = 375 lb

FBD ABCD:

M C = 0:

= ( 6 in.)( 375 lb ) + ( 42.75 in.) 4 ( 625 lb ) = 0 5

4 5

(12 in.)

375 lb

s = 0.1900

From FBD Whole, and neglecting weight of clamp compared to 550 lb plate, P = W Since AB is a two-force member, B is vertical and B = W .

FBD BCD:

M C = 0:

( 0.3 in.) D sin 40 = 0,

D = 0.94642W

FBD EG:

M E = 0: Impending slip:

FG = s NG

(1)

FBD Plate:

By symmetry NG = NG , Fy = 0:

FG = FG = s NG FG = W , 2 NG = W 2 s

2 FG W = 0,

W = 0.94250W 2 s

sm = 0.283

FBD table + child:

2

M E = 0:

33cos 46.2sin = 53.955

=0

= 36.3

and

= 72.6

72.6 36.3

FE = s N E = 0.2 N E

FF = s N F = 0.2 N F

Fx = 0: FE + FF P cos = 0

or

0.2 ( N E + N F ) = ( 66 N ) cos

So Solving numerically, Therefore,

330 cos = 66sin + 333.54

= 3.66

and

= 18.96

18.96 3.66

Geometry of four-bar:

Considering the geometry when = 0,

2 2 LCD = ( 60 mm 52 mm ) + ( 36 mm + 22 mm ) 1/ 2

= 58.549 mm

In general, 52 mm ( 36 mm ) sin = 60 mm ( 58.549 mm ) sin 36sin + 8 so = sin 1 58.549 (a) FBD ACE:

=0

= 7.8533, note that the links at E and K are prevented from pivoting downward by the small blocks FE FCD sin FE = 0, FCD = Fy = 0: sin 7.8533

M A = 0:

( 60 mm )

212 435.00 32 FE = 0 s

, so

s = 0.526

Eliminating FAB , M A = 0:

212 32 s 53.759 = 1 s 0.12634

=0

s = 0.277

FBD ABD:

D = 0:

Impending slip: So

(15 mm ) N A (110 mm ) FA = 0

FA = SA N A 15 110 SA = 0 SA = 0.136364

SA = 0.1364

FBD Pipe:

Fx = 0:

FA Dx = 0, Dx = FA = SA N A

r = 60 mm

Fy = 0:

FBD DF:

NC N A = 0,

NC = N A

M F = 0:

Impending slip: So,

FC = SC NC = SC N A

SC = 0.1512

FBD Plate:

Fx = 0:

FA = s N A ,

FB = s N B

Fy = 0:

N A N B P cos = 0,

P ( 2.5sin + cos ) , 2

N A N B = P cos

NB = P ( 2.5sin cos ) (1) 2

Solving: N A =

M B = 0:

P 16 in. 0.4 (1 in.) ( 2.5sin + cos ) = 0 2 (2)

4sin 7.8cos = 0,

= 62.9

For > 62.9, the panel will be self locking, motion for 62.9. As decreases, N B will reverse direction at 2.5sin cos = 0, (see equ. 1) or at = 21.8. So for 21.8

Fx = 0 :

Fy = 0:

N A + N B P cos = 0,

N A + N B = P cos

2.5sin = cos ,

= 21.8

FBD Plate:

FA = s N A , FB = s FB N A + N B = 2.5 P sin N A N B P cos = 0, NA = P ( 2.5sin + cos ) , 2 N A N B = P cos NB = P sin s ( N A + N B ) = 0

(1) (2)

P ( 2.5sin cos ) 2

Note that, for < 21.8, N B becomes negative, so we must change equ. 2 to N A + N B = P cos , ( 2 ) but equ. (1) does not change. Solving (1) and ( 2 ) gives P cos = 2.5P sin , or = 21.8, so the lower limit for impending slip is = 21.8. For 21.8, the forces are as shown, and M B = 0:

or

P + x P cos + 0.4 (1 in.) (16 in.) ( 2.5sin + cos ) = 0 2 x 4sin ( 7.8 in.) x cos = 0, tan = 1.950 4 in.

(a) For x = 4 in., tan = 1.950, = 43.5. For > 43.5 self locking

(b) As x increases from 4 in., the upper bound for decreases, becoming 21.8 ( tan = 0.4000 ) when x = ( 4 in.)(1.950 0.400 ) = 6.2 in. Thus xmax = 6.20 in. at which must equal 21.8.

FBD Collar:

Stretch of spring x = AB a =

a a cos

1 = ( 0.75 kN ) 1 cos Fx = 0:

Impending slip:

= ( 0.3 kN )(1 cos )

+ down, up

Fy = 0:

Fs sin F W = 0

sin ) ( 0.3 kN )(1 cos ) W = 0

( 0.75 kN )( tan

or with = 30:

Wup = 0.01782 kN Wdown = 0.0982 kN

( OK )

( OK )

Geometry:

1 m ( 0.5 m ) cos tan = ( 0.5 m ) sin

= 30 = 60

then LAB = (1 m ) cos 30 =

FBD B:

3 m 2

1 kN 3 m m Fs = k ( LAB L0 ) = 1.5 m 2 2

Fs = 0.75

3 1 kN = 549.04 N

Fx = 0:

3 W 2

Fy = 0:

N W cos 60 = 0,

W 3 W, = 0.40 2 2

Wmin = 648.61 N

m=

W 3 W, = 0.40 2 2

so

Wmax = 3575 N

66.1 kg m 364 kg

( 9.81 m/s )

2

FBD Collar:

Note: BC is a two-force member, and for M max , slip will impend to the right. Fy = 0: Impending slip: Fx = 0:

FBD AB:

N = FBC cos

M A = 0:

M ( 2l ) FAB cos = 0

M = 2l cos P sin s cos M max =

2 Pl tan s

For s = tan , M max = self locking For s > tan , M max < 0

Geometry:

= cos 1

L L L + 2 4 2 = 60 L 2

For min

FBD AB:

Note: AB is a three-force member

a L

6.1449 =

L 1 a

FBD A:

Note: Rod is a two force member. For impending slip the reactions are at angle

Consider first impending slip to right 9 lb FAB = = 3.8572 lb tan 66.801 Fy = 0: N B ( 3.8522 lb ) sin 30 ( 6 lb ) cos 30 = 0 N B = 7.1223 lb, Fx = 0: FB = s N B = 0.40 ( 7.1223 lb ) FB = 2.8489 lb 2.8489 lb + ( 3.8572 lb ) cos 30 ( 6 lb ) sin 30 P = 0 Pmin = 2.508 lb

FBD A:

FBD B:

FBD B:

Fy = 0:

N B = 15.6959 lb

Fx = 0:

FBD AB:

M A = 0:

8 in 2 + 4 in 2 ( N ) M A = 0

N =

Impending motion:

8.9443 in.

= 16.100 lb

Note: For max MC, need F in direction shown; see FBD BC. FBD BC + collar:

M C = 0:

or

M C (17 in.)

MC =

( MC )max

= 24.5 lb ft

FBD yoke:

Fx = 0:

P N = 0,

N = P = 8 lb F = s N = 125 ( 8 lb ) F = 2 lb

FBD wheel and slider:

M B = 0: M B ( 3 in.) sin 65 ( 8 lb ) ( 3 in.) cos 65 ( 2 lb ) = 0

(b) For M min the 2 lb force is reversed, and

M B = 0: M B ( 3in .) sin 65 ( 8 lb ) + ( 3 in.) cos 65 ( 2 lb ) = 0

FBD Rod:

M A = 0:

N1 = 7.5 lb.

FBD Cylinder:

Fy = 0: F1 = s N1 .

N 2 7.5 lb 36 lb = 0,

N 2 = 43.5 lb

since 1 = 2 and N1 < N 2 , slip will impend at top of cylinder first, so F1 = 0.35 ( 7.5 lb ) = 2.625 lb M D = 0:

N 2 36 lb 7.5 lb = 0 N 2 = 43.5 lb

FBD pulley: Note that SA = tan 1 SA = tan 1 ( 0.5 ) = 26.565 < 30, Cable is needed to keep A from sliding downward.

Fy = 0:

2T WB = 0,

T =

WB , 2

WB = 2T

(1)

FBD block A: (a) For minimum WB , there will be impending slip of block A downward, and FA = SA N A as shown.

Fy = 0:

N A WA cos 30 = 0,

N A = WA cos 30

WA = ( 2.4 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 23.544 N

FBD block C:

Fx = 0:

T WA sin 30 + FA = 0

From (1)

WB = 2T = 3.154 N,

mB =

= 0.322 kg,

mB min = 322 g

Fy = 0:

NC WC = 0,

NC = 58.86 N

Since T = 1.577 N < FC max , block B doesnt slip and above answer for

mB min is correct.

Fx = 0:

T + FC = 0,

T = FC = FC max = 17.658 N

mB =

Fx = 0:

T WA sin 30 + FA = 0,

FA = WA sin 30 T

Since FA < FA max , A does not slip

FAmax = 10.195 N

M B max = 3.6 kg

FBD A:

For impending motion A must start up and C down the incline. Since the normal force between A and B is less than that between B and C, and the friction coefficients are the same, Fmax will be reached first between A and B, and B and C will stay together.

Fy = 0:

N1 ( 4 lb ) cos 30 = 0,

N1 = 2 3 lb

Impending slip: Fx = 0:

F1 = s N1 = 2 3 s lb

T ( 4 lb ) sin 30 2 3 s lb = 0

T = 2 1 + 3 s lb

FBD B and C:

Fy = 0:

(1)

N 2 2 3 lb ( 3 lb + 8 lb ) cos 30 = 0

N2 =

Impending slip: Fx = 0:

15 3 lb 2

15 3 s lb 2 15 3 s lb ( 3 + 8) lbsin 30 = 0 T + 2 3 + 2

F2 = s N 2 =

11 19 3 s lb T = 2 2

(2)

FBD B:

4 1 + 3 s lb = 11 19 3 s

s min = 0.1757

N3 =

7 3 lb 2

N3 2 3 lb ( 3 lb ) cos 30 = 0, F3max = s N3 =

7 3 s 2

Fx = 0:

( 3 lb ) sin 30 + 2 3 s lb F3 = 0

F3 = 2 3 ( 0.1757 ) lb

3 lb = 0.891 lb 2

F3 < F3max , OK

FBD rod:

M A = 0: or Impending motion: 3 in. N B ( 4.5 in.) cos W = 0 cos

N B = (1.5cos 2 )W

FB = s N B = (1.5 s cos 2 )W

N A N B sin + FB cos = 0

N A = (1.5cos 2 )W ( sin 0.2 cos )

FA = s N A

= ( 0.3cos 2 )W ( sin 0.2 cos )

Fy = 0: FA + N B cos + FB sin W = 0 or

Equating FAs 0.3cos 2 ( sin 0.2cos ) = 1 1.5cos3 0.3cos 2 sin 0.6cos 2 sin + 1.44cos3 = 1 Solving numerically

= 35.8

FBD pin A:

Fx = 0: Fy = 0: Solving:

FBD B:

Fx = 0:

NB

12 13 P = 0, 13 21

NB = 11 NB 20

12 P 21

FBD C:

11 12 5 13 P P 18 lb = 0, 20 21 13 21

Pmin = 236.25 lb

Fy = 0:

NC 80 lb

3 20 P FC = 0, 5 21

s = tan 1 s = tan 1 ( 0.4 ) = 21.801, slip impends at wedge/block wedge/wedge and block/incline

FBD Block:

R2 = 487.84 lb

FBD Wedge:

s = tan 1 s = tan 1 ( 0.40 ) = 21.801, and slip impends at wedge/lower block, wedge/wedge, and upper

block/incline interfaces.

FBD Upper block and wedge: R2 530 lb = sin 41.801 sin 38.398 R2 = 568.76 lb

WD = (18 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 176.58 N Fs = kx = ( 3.5 kN/m )( 0.1 m ) = 0.35 kN = 350 N

FBD Lever:

M C = 0:

( 0.525 m ) RA cos 4.0362 + ( 0.05 m ) RA sin 4.0362 = 0 RA = 66.070 N

Fx = 0:

Cx = 4.65 N

Fy = 0:

FBD Wedge:

C x = 4.65 N C y = 461 N

WD = (18 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 176.58 N Fs = kx = ( 3.5 kN/m )( 0.1 m ) = 0.35 kN = 350 N

FBD Lever:

M C = 0:

( 0.525 m ) RA cos 24.036 ( 0.05 m ) RA sin 24.036 = 0 RA = 68.758 N

Fx = 0: Fy = 0:

Cx = 28.0 N

FBD Wedge:

P 68.758 N = sin 38.072 sin 75.964

(a) (b)

P = 43.7 N

C x = 28.0 N C y = 464 N

For steel/steel contact,

Fy = 0:

N 90 kN = 0, F = 90 kN

Impending slip: Fx = 0:

F = s1 N = 0.3 ( 90 kN ) = 27 kN F Q = 0, Q = F = 27 kN

Fy = 0: Fx = 0:

P = 72.265 kN, Rw cos 26.699 90 kN = 0, Rw = 100.74 kN

(a) (b)

P = 72.3 kN Q = 27.0 kN

To check above assumption; note that bottom wedge is a two-force member so the reaction of the floor on that wedge is Rw, at 26.699 from the vertical. This is less than s2 = 30.964, so the bottom wedge doesnt slip on the concrete.

For steel/steel contact, s1 = tan 1 s1 = tan 1 ( 0.30 ) = 16.6992 For steel/concrete contact, s2 = tan 1 s2 = tan 1 ( 0.60 ) = 30.964

Q = 90 kN tan 26.6992 = 45.264 kN Rw =

(a) (b)

P = 99.3 kN Q = 45.3 kN

FBD Wedge:

By symmetry RB = RC Fy = 0: 2RC sin ( 29.801 ) P = 0,

P = 0.9940 RC

FBD Block C:

RC 175 lb , = sin 41.801 sin18.397 lb P = 367.3 lb

(a)

P = 367 lb

b) Note: That increasing friction between B and the incline will mean that block B will not slip, but the above calculations will not change.

(b)

P = 367 lb

FBD Block C:

Fx = 0: Fy = 0: so

RCFy RCFx RACx RCFx = 0 RCFy RACy 175 lb = 0

RACy RACx

175 lb RACx

so block C does not slip (or impend)

FBD Block B:

(a) B = tan 1 B = tan 1 ( 0.4 ) = 21.8014

RB 175 lb , = sin 41.8014 sin 46.3972 RB = 161.083 lb

RB 175 lb , = sin 50.9638 sin 37.2330 RB = 224.65 lb

FBD Wedge:

P RB = , sin 59.6028 sin 52.1986 P = 1.09163 RB P = 175.8 lb P = 245 lb

(a) (b)

Since vertical forces are equal and s ground > s wood, assume no impending motion of board. Then there will be impending slip at all wood/wood contacts, s = tan 1 s = tan 1 ( 0.35 ) = 19.2900

R1 =

8 kN = 8.4758 kN cos19.29

R1 P = sin 52.710 cos 56.580 P = 8.892 kN

F1 = 1 8 kN = 0.35 ( 8 kN ) = 2.8 kN

Fy = 0:

NG 8 kN = 0,

NG = 8 kN

Fx = 0:

FG F1 = 0,

OK

P = 8.89 kN

Assume no impending motion of board on ground. Then there will be impending slip at all wood/wood interfaces.

Wedge is a two-force member so R 2 = R1 and = 2s = 2 tan 1 s = 2 tan 1 ( 0.35 )

= 38.6

F1 = 1 8 kN = 0.35 ( 8 kN ) = 2.8 kN

Fy = 0:

NG 8 kN = 0,

NG = 8 kN

Fx = 0:

FG F1 = 0,

OK

P = 8.89 kN

FBD Cylinder:

Slip impends at B

M A = 0:

r RC cos (12 + 19.29 )

4r W =0 3

RC = 0.49665, W = 124.163 lb

FBD Wedge:

P 124.163 lb = sin 58.855 sin 63.435 P = 117.5 lb

FBD tip of screwdriver:

by symmetry R1 = R2

Fy = 0:

R1 = R2 = 6.8315 N

If P is removed quickly, the vertical components of R1 and R2 vanish, leaving the horizontal components

Side forces = 6.60 N This is only instantaneous, since 8 > s , so the screwdriver will be forced out.

s = tan 1 s = tan 1 0.2 = 11.31. As decreases, the minimum angle at the contact approaches 12.5 > s = 11.31, so the wedge will slide up and out from the slot. s = tan 1 s = tan 1 0.3 = 16.70. As decreases, the angle at one contact reaches 16.7. (At this time the angle at the other contact is 25 16.7 = 8.3 < s ) The wedge binds in the slot.

(b)

FBD Wedge:

by symmetry R1 = R2 Fy = 0: 2 R1 sin 22.29 60 lb = 0

R2 = 79.094 lb

When P is removed, the vertical component of R1 and R2 will vanish, leaving the horizontal components

H1 = H 2 = ( 79.094 lb ) cos 22.29

= 73.184 lb Final forces H1 = H 2 = 73.2 lb Since these are at 3 ( < s ) from the normal, the wedge is self-locking and will remain in place.

FBD Cylinder:

W = ( 80 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 784.8 N

M G = 0:

M D = 0:

FA FB = 0,

FA = FB

N A = NB + W 3

(1) (2)

dN B dN A + rW = 0,

so

N A > NB,

r = note d = tan 30 N B = 1.01828W = 799.15 N

3r

FB = 0.25 N B = 199.786 N

784.8 N = 1252.25 N 3

Fy = 0:

FBD Wedge:

Fx = 0:

(1252.25 N ) sin10 = 0

P = 714 N

20.0

W = ( 80 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 784.8 N

For impending slip at B, M A = 0:

FB = sB N B = 0.30 N B

r sin 30W = 0

A min =

A min = 0.203

FBD plank + wedge:

M A = 0:

(8 ft ) N B (1.5 ft )( 48 lb/ft )( 3 ft )

( 2 ft ) 1 ( 48 lb/ft )( 3 ft ) 2

5 1 3 + ft ( 96 lb/ft )( 5 ft ) = 0 3 2

N B = 185 lb

Fy = 0: 48 + 96 NW + 185 lb lb/ft ( 3ft ) 2 + 1 ( 96 lb/ft )( 5 ft ) = 0 2 NW = 271 lb Since NW > N B , and all s are equal, assume slip impends at B and between wedge and floor, and not at A. Then FW = s NW = 0.45 ( 271 lb ) = 121.95 lb FB = s N B = 0.45 (185 lb ) = 83.25 lb Fx = 0: P 121.95 lb 83.25 lb = 0, P = 205.20 lb

Fy = 0: Fx = 0: so tan =

(a)

P = 205 lb

(b)

impending slip at B

FBD plank + wedge:

M A = 0:

(8 ft ) N B (1.5 ft )( 48 lb/ft )( 3 ft )

( 2 ft )

1 ( 48 lb/ft )( 3 ft ) 2 5 3 + ft ( 96 lb/ft )( 5 ft ) = 0 3

NW = 185 lb

Fy = 0:

Since N A > NW , and all s are equal, assume impending slip at top and bottom of wedge and not at A. Then FW = s NW = 0.45 (185 N ) FW = 83.25 lb

FBD Wedge:

Fy = 0: Fx = 0: 185 lb RB cos ( 24.228 + 9 ) = 0 RB = 221.16 lb P = 204.44 lb Check assumption using plank/wedge FBD Fx = 0: FA + FW P = 0,

(a)

(b)

P = 204 lb

no impending slip at A

WA = (10 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 98.1 N, WB = ( 50 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 490.5 N Slip must impend at all surfaces simultaneously, F = s N

FBD I: A + B

Fy = 0:

N B = 738.6 N

impending slip: Fx = 0:

FBD II: A

Fy = 0:

FAB = 233.14 ( 252.62 ) s N

Fx = 0:

s =

s2 = 0.48623 s 0.33591 = 0

s = 0.24312 0.62850

Positive root

s = 0.385

WA = (10 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 98.1 N, WB = ( 50 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 = 490.5 N Slip impends at all surfaces simultaneously

FBD I: A + B

Fx = 0: Fy = 0:

N A FB = 0,

N A = FB = s N B

(1)

s N A + N B = 738.6 N

Solving (1) and (2) N B =

FBD II: B

(2) 738.6 s N 2 1 + s

738.6 N , 2 1 + s

FB =

Fx = 0:

N AB + ( 490.5 N ) cos 70 N B cos 70 FB sin 70 = 0 N AB = 738.6 N cos 70 + s sin 70 ) ( 490.5 N ) cos 70 (1) 2 ( 1 + s

Fy = 0:

FAB ( 490.5 N ) sin 70 + N B sin 70 FB cos 70 = 0 FAB = 738.6 N sin 70 s cos 70 ) ( 490.5 N ) sin 70 = 0 2 ( 1 + s

Setting FAB = s N AB ,

3 2 s 6.8847 s 2.0116 s + 1.38970 = 0

s = 0.332

FBD jack handle:

FBD block on incline:

aP rQ = 0 or P =

r Q a

(a)

Raising load

Q = W tan ( + s )

P=

r W tan ( + s ) a

continued

(b) Lowering load if screw is self-locking ( i.e.: if s > )

Q = W tan (s ) P=

(c)

r W tan (s ) a

Q = W tan ( s ) P= r W tan ( s ) a

FBD large gear:

M C = 0:

(12 in.)W

W = 0.600 kips

= 600 lb

Block on incline:

= tan 1

Q = W tan ( + s )

= ( 600 lb ) tan 9.1213 = 96.333 lb

FBD worm gear:

r = 1.5 in.

M B = 0:

=0

M = 144.5 lb in.

FBD large gear:

M C = 0:

(12 in.)W

Block on incline:

= tan 1

Q = W tan ( s )

= ( 600 lb ) tan 4.5643 = 47.898 lb

FBD worm gear:

r = 1.5 in.

M B = 0:

Block/incline analysis:

= tan 1

Couple =

Couple = 7.37 lb ft

FBD joint D:

By symmetry:

FAD = FCD

Fy = 0: 2FAD sin 25 4 kN = 0

FBD joint A:

By symmetry:

FAE = FAD

Fx = 0: FAC 2 ( 4.7324 kN ) cos 25 = 0

FAC = 8.5780 kN

Block and incline A:

= tan 1

2 mm = 4.8518 ( 7.5 mm )

= 2.0408 kN Couple at A:

M A = rQ

7.5 = mm ( 2.0408 kN ) 2 = 7.653 N m

By symmetry: Couple at C:

M C = 7.653 N m

Total couple M = 2 ( 7.653 N m )

M = 15.31 N m

FBD joint D:

By symmetry:

FAD = FCD

Fy = 0: 2FAD sin 25 4 kN = 0

FBD joint A:

By symmetry:

FAE = FAD

Fx = 0: FAC 2 ( 4.7324 kN ) cos 25 = 0

FAC = 8.5780 kN

Block and incline at A:

= tan 1

2 mm = 4.8518 ( 7.5 mm )

s = 8.5308

s = 3.679

Q = ( 8.5780 kN ) tan 3.679 Q = 0.55156 kN

Couple at A: M A = Qr 7.5 mm = ( 0.55156 kN ) 2 = 2.0683 N m By symmetry: Couple at C : M C = 2.0683 N m Total couple M = 2 ( 2.0683 N m )

M = 4.14 N m

FBD lower jaw:

A = 1080 N

(a) since A > B when finished, adjust A first when there will be no force

Block/incline at B:

(b) = tan 1

4 mm = 6.0566 12 mm

Couple = rQ = ( 6 mm )( 255.80 N ) = 1535 N mm

M = 1.535 N m

FBD lower jaw:

A = 1080 N

since A > B, A should be adjusted first when no force is required. If instead, B is adjusted first,

Block/incline at A:

= tan 1

4 mm = 6.0566 12 mm

Couple = rQ = ( 6 mm )( 511.59 N ) = 3069.5 N mm

M = 3.07 N m

Note that this is twice that required if A is adjusted first.

Block/incline:

= tan 1

Couple = rQ = ( 0.9375 in.)(143.048 lb ) = 134.108 lb in.

M = 134.1 lb in.

FBD Bucket:

= ( 0.18 m ) sin tan 1

M A = 0:

) 0.30 ) = 0.05172 m

=0

T = 0.031314W

kN = 0.031314 ( 50 Mg ) 9.81 Mg

= 15.360 kN

T = 15.36 kN !

Note to instructors: In this manual, the simplification sin tan 1 is NOT used in the solution of journal bearing and axle friction problems. While this approximation may be valid for very small values of , there is little if any reason to use it, and the error may be significant. For example, in Problems 8.768.79, s = 0.50, and the error made by using the approximation is about 11.8%.

FBD Windlass:

M A = 0:

P = 123.797 lb

P = 123.8 lb

Note to instructors: In this manual, the simplification sin tan 1 is NOT used in the solution of journal bearing and axle friction problems. While this approximation may be valid for very small values of , there is little if any reason to use it, and the error may be significant. For example, in Problems 8.768.79, s = 0.50, and the error made by using the approximation is about 11.8%.

FBD Windlass:

M A = 0:

P = 104.6 lb

Note to instructors: In this manual, the simplification sin tan 1 is NOT used in the solution of journal bearing and axle friction problems. While this approximation may be valid for very small values of , there is little if any reason to use it, and the error may be significant. For example, in Problems 8.768.79, s = 0.50, and the error made by using the approximation is about 11.8%.

FBD Windlass:

M A = 0:

P = 79.9 lb

Note to instructors: In this manual, the simplification sin tan 1 is NOT used in the solution of journal bearing and axle friction problems. While this approximation may be valid for very small values of , there is little if any reason to use it, and the error may be significant. For example, in Problems 8.768.79, s = 0.50, and the error made by using the approximation is about 11.8%.

FBD Windlass:

M A = 0:

P = 94.5 lb

Note to instructors: In this manual, the simplification sin tan 1 is NOT used in the solution of journal bearing and axle friction problems. While this approximation may be valid for very small values of , there is little if any reason to use it, and the error may be significant. For example, in Problems 8.768.79, s = 0.50, and the error made by using the approximation is about 11.8%.

(a) FBD lever (Impending CW rotation): M C = 0:

rf = 0.0029268 m = 2.9268 mm

sin s = rf rs

= 0.34389

s = 0.344

(b) FBD lever (Impending CCW rotation):

M D = 0:

( 0.20 m 0.0029268 m )( 75 N )

( 0.12 m + 0.0029268 m ) P = 0

P = 120.2 N

Note to instructors: In this manual, the simplification sin tan 1 is NOT used in the solution of journal bearing and axle friction problems. While this approximation may be valid for very small values of , there is little if any reason to use it, and the error may be significant. For example, in Problems 8.768.79, s = 0.50, and the error made by using the approximation is about 11.8%.

Pulley FBDs: Left:

rp = 30 mm

rf = raxle sin k = raxle sin tan 1 k

Left: Right: or M C = 0:

( rp rf ) ( 600 lb ) 2rpTAB = 0

TAB = 30 mm 0.98058 mm ( 600 N ) = 290.19 N 2 ( 30 mm )

TAB = 290 N

Fy = 0:

or Right:

TCD = 309.81 N TCD = 310 N

M G = 0:

or

( rp + rf ) TCD ( rp rf ) TEF

TEF =

=0

TEF = 331 N

Note to instructors: In this manual, the simplification sin tan 1 is NOT used in the solution of journal bearing and axle friction problems. While this approximation may be valid for very small values of , there is little if any reason to use it, and the error may be significant. For example, in Problems 8.768.79, s = 0.50, and the error made by using the approximation is about 11.8%.

Pulley FBDs: Left:

rp = 30 mm

rf = raxle sin k = raxle sin tan 1 k

M C = 0: or

( rp + rf ) ( 600 N ) 2rpTAB = 0

TAB = 30 mm + 0.98058 mm ( 600 N ) = 309.81 N 2 ( 30 mm )

TAB = 310 N

Right: or

Fy = 0:

TCD = 600 N 309.81 N = 290.19 N TCD = 290 N

M H = 0:

or

( rp rf ) TCD ( rp + rf ) TEF

TEF =

=0

TEF = 272 N

Note to instructors: In this manual, the simplification sin tan 1 is NOT used in the solution of journal bearing and axle friction problems. While this approximation may be valid for very small values of , there is little if any reason to use it, and the error may be significant. For example, in Problems 8.768.79, s = 0.50, and the error made by using the approximation is about 11.8%.

FBD link AB: Note: That AB is a two-force member. For impending motion, the pin forces are tangent to the friction circles. r = sin 1 f 25 in. where

Then

= sin 1

(b)

= 1.349

Rvert = R cos

Rhoriz = R sin

(a) Rhoriz = 1.177 kips

Note to instructors: In this manual, the simplification sin tan 1 is NOT used in the solution of journal bearing and axle friction problems. While this approximation may be valid for very small values of , there is little if any reason to use it, and the error may be significant. For example, in Problems 8.768.79, s = 0.50, and the error made by using the approximation is about 11.8%.

FBD gate:

M C = 0:

P=

P = 253 N !

= 253.2 N

Note to instructors: In this manual, the simplification sin tan 1 is NOT used in the solution of journal bearing and axle friction problems. While this approximation may be valid for very small values of , there is little if any reason to use it, and the error may be significant. For example, in Problems 8.768.79, s = 0.50, and the error made by using the approximation is about 11.8%.

It is convenient to replace the ( 66 kg ) g and ( 24 kg ) g weights with a single combined weight of

right of B.

located at a distance x =

(1.8 m )( 24 kg ) ( 0.6 m )( 66 kg )

90 kg

= 0.04 m to the

= tan 1

= sin 1

rf OB = sin 1

OB =

then

= + = 15.800

Note to instructors: In this manual, the simplification sin tan 1 is NOT used in the solution of journal bearing and axle friction problems. While this approximation may be valid for very small values of , there is little if any reason to use it, and the error may be significant. For example, in Problems 8.768.79, s = 0.50, and the error made by using the approximation is about 11.8%.

FBD gate:

W2

2

( )

*

P=

0.15235 m

= 218.19 N P = 218 N !

Note to instructors: In this manual, the simplification sin tan 1 is NOT used in the solution of journal bearing and axle friction problems. While this approximation may be valid for very small values of , there is little if any reason to use it, and the error may be significant. For example, in Problems 8.768.79, s = 0.50, and the error made by using the approximation is about 11.8%.

It is convenient to replace the ( 66 kg ) g and ( 24 kg ) g weights with a single weight of

right of B. FBD pulley + gate:

located at a distance x =

(1.8 m )( 24 kg ) ( 0.15 m )( 66 kg )

90 kg

= 0.04 m to the

rf = 0.0023534 m

= tan 1

= sin 1

rf OB = sin 1

OB =

then

= = 14.062

Note to instructors: In this manual, the simplification sin tan 1 is NOT used in the solution of journal bearing and axle friction problems. While this approximation may be valid for very small values of , there is little if any reason to use it, and the error may be significant. For example, in Problems 8.768.79, s = 0.50, and the error made by using the approximation is about 11.8%.

FBD Each wheel:

Fx = 0: Fy = 0:

P R sin = 0 4 R cos W =0 4 P W

rf rw

tan =

sin =

or =

P = W tan

sin = 0.5 in. sin tan 1 0.12 5 in.

= 0.68267

P = 5.96 lb

(b) For constant speed, use k = 0.08

sin =

= 0.45691

P = 3.99 lb

Note to instructors: In this manual, the simplification sin tan 1 is NOT used in the solution of journal bearing and axle friction problems. While this approximation may be valid for very small values of , there is little if any reason to use it, and the error may be significant. For example, in Problems 8.768.79, s = 0.50, and the error made by using the approximation is about 11.8%.

FBD Each wheel:

For equilibrium (constant speed) the two forces R and and opposite, tangent to the friction circle, so rf sin = where = tan 1 ( slope ) rw

W must be equal 2

rB sin tan 1 k rw

rw = (12.5 mm )

1

( sin ( tan

) = 49.666 mm 0.03)

d w = 99.3 mm

Note to instructors: In this manual, the simplification sin tan 1 is NOT used in the solution of journal bearing and axle friction problems. While this approximation may be valid for very small values of , there is little if any reason to use it, and the error may be significant. For example, in Problems 8.768.79, s = 0.50, and the error made by using the approximation is about 11.8%.

M O = 0:

(8 in.) Q M

= 0,

Q=

M 8 in.

M =

Eqn. 8.8 gives M =

3 3 2 R3 R1 1 D3 D1 s P 2 = s P 2 2 2 3 3 R2 R12 D2 D12

so

M = 1.596 N m

Let the normal force on A be N , and As in the text The total normal force

N k = r A

F = N , M = r F

2 R k P = lim N = 0 0 rdr d A 0 r

or

k =

P 2 R

R

R2 P R2 = 2 2 2 R 2

1 PR 2 2 PR 3 [Eq. (8.9)]

1 2 2 3

Now

Thus

M worn = M new

PR 3 = = 75% PR 4

Let normal force on A be N , and As in the text The total normal force P is

N k = A r

F = N , M = r F

2 R k P = lim N = 0 R 2 rdr d 1 r A 0

P = 2 R 2 kdr = 2 k ( R2 R1 )

R

1

or

k =

P 2 ( R2 R1 )

R2 R1

M worn = 2 k

( rdr ) = k (

2 R2

R12

)=

2 P R2 R12

2 ( R2 R1 )

M worn =

1 P ( R2 + R1 ) 2

N = k, A s = r sin

so

A = r s

where is the azimuthal angle around the symmetry axis of rotation Fy = N sin = kr r Total vertical force P = lim Fy

A 0

P = 0

R2 krdr R1

) d = 2 k

or k =

R2 rdr R1

2 P = k R2 R12

P

2 R2

R12

F = N = k A M = r F = r kr r sin

Total couple

M = 2

k R2 2 2 P R1 r dr = 3 sin 2 2 sin R2 R3

(R

3 2

3 R3

M =

3 3 2 P R2 R1 2 3 sin R2 R12

If normal force per unit area (pressure) of the center is PO , then as a function

r of r, P = PO 1 R r 2 R FN = W = PdA = 0 0 PO 1 rdrd R

2 R3 R2 2 R W = PO 0 d = 2 PO 2 3R 6

3W R2

3 R4 R3 2 R d = 2 k PO = k PO 0 3 4R 12

so M = 2 k M O = 0:

3W R3 1 = k WR R 2 12 2

(8 in.) Q M

=0

FBD pipe:

= sin 1

P = W tan for each pipe, so also for total P = ( 2000 lb ) tan (1.00257 ) P = 35.0 lb

FBD disk:

b = r tan = ( 60 mm )( 0.02 ) b = 1.200 mm

FBD wheel:

r = 230 mm b = 1 mm

= sin 1

b r

P = 42.7 N

FBD wheel:

rw = rf sin + b tan

s or k

tan , so tan

rf + b rw

Fy = 0: Fx = 0:

R cos

W =0 4 P =0 4

R sin + P W

rf + b rw

Solving: tan =

so P = ( 500 lb )

P = 56.0 lb

so P = ( 500 lb )

2.5 in.

= 53.99 lb

P = 54.0 lb

FBD wheel: For equilibrium (constant speed), R and and tangent to the friction circle as shown

rf = 1.48932 mm

From diagram, rw = For small , sin

rf sin

b tan rf + b tan

tan , so rw

tan = slope

rw =

d w = 216 mm

Two full turns of rope (a)

= 4 rad

s = ln

T2 T1 or

s =

ln

T2 T1

s =

s = 0.329

(b)

=

=

ln

T2 T1

= 16.799 rad

= 2.67 turns

FBD A:

Fx = 0:

TA WA sin 30 = 0,

TA =

WA 2

FBD B:

Fx = 0:

WB sin 30 TB = 0,

TB =

WB 2

TA = es , TB

s =

= 1

ln

TA 1 W = ln A TB WB

ln

mA 3 10 kg = ln 8 kg mB

s = 0.21309 s = 0.213

(b) For maximum mB , motion of B impend down incline

TB = es , TA

TB = TAe

0.21309

= 1.250TA

mB max = 12.50 kg

FBD A:

Fx = 0:

TA WA sin 30 = 0,

TA =

WA 2

FBD B:

Fx = 0:

WB sin 30 TB = 0,

TB =

WB 2

0.50 TA = e 3 = 1.68809 TB

But

m A WA T = = A = 1.68809 mB WB TB

so mB min = 5.9238 kg

From hint, is not dependent on shape of C For mB max , motion of B impends down incline so

0.50 mB W T = B = B = e s = e 3 = 1.68809 mA WA TA

5.92 kg mB 16.88 kg

For impending motion of W up

P = We s = (1177.2 N ) e(

= 4839.7 N

0.15 )3

0.15 3 P = We s = (1177.2 N ) e ( )

= 286.3 N

For equilibrium

286 N P 4.84 kN

Horizontal pipe: Vertical pipe

Contact angles H =

Contact angle V =

sH = 0.25

For P to impend downward,

sV = 0.2

P = e sH 2 Q = e sH 2 e sV R = e sH 2 e sV e sH 2 (100 lb )

+ Pmax = e ( sH sV ) (100 lb ) = (100 lb ) e0.45 = 411.12 lb

100 lb = Pe0.45 ,

Pmin = 24.324 lb

So, for equilibrium,

24.3 lb P 411 lb

Horizontal pipe Vertical pipe

Contact angles H =

Contact angle V =

sH = 0.30

For Pmin , the 100 lb force impends downward, and

sV = ?

(a) For Pmax the force P impends downward, and the ratios are reversed, (b) ( 0.30 + sV ) = ln 5

sV =

ln 5 0.30 = 0.21230

Hs

Vs

Vs

Hs

Hs

100 lb = e

R = e

)Q = e

) e

so

sV = 0.212

FBD motor and mount: Impending belt slip: cw rotation

2100 lb = ( 7 in.)( 3.5136 ) + 13 in. T1

T2 = 3.5136 T1 = 196.263 lb

T1 = 55.858 lb,

FBD drum at B:

M B = 0:

M B ( 3 in.)(196.263 lb 55.858 lb ) = 0

M B = 421 lb in.

r = 3 in.

FBD motor and mount: Impending belt slip: ccw rotation

T1 = 3.5136 T2 = 140.072 lb

=0

T2 = 39.866 lb,

FBD drum at B:

M B = 0:

( 3 in.)(140.072 lb 39.866 lb ) M B

=0

M B = 301 lb in.

FBD lower portion of belt:

Fy = 0:

48 N N D = 0,

N D = 48 N

FD = kD N D = 0.10 ( 48 N ) = 4.8 N FE = kE N E = ( 48 N ) kE

FBD Drum A (assume free to rotate)

Fx = 0:

TA TB 4.8 N kE ( 48 N ) = 0 TB = TA + 4.8 N + kE ( 48 N )

(1) (2)

M A = 0:

rA (TA TT ) = 0,

TT = TA

M B = 0:

M B + r (TT TB ) = 0

TB = TT + 2.4 N m = TT + 96 N 0.025 N

TB = 143.932 N

From (2) above, TA = TT , so From (1) above, 143.932 N = 47.932 N + 4.8 N + kE ( 48 N ) So (b) (a)

kE = 1.900

FBD Flywheel:

M C = 0:

TB TA = 56 N, TB = TA + 56 N

Also, since the belt doesnt change length, the additional stretch in spring B equals the decrease in stretch of spring A. Thus the increase in TB equals the decrease in TA. Thus TB + TA = ( 70 N + T ) + ( 70 N T ) = 140 N

(TA + 56 N ) + TA

= 140 N,

TA = 42 N

TB = 42 N + 56 N = 98 N

(a)

TA = 42.0 N

TB = 98.0 N

For slip TB = TAe k , or k =

ln

TB TA

k =

ln

98 = 0.2697 42

(b)

k = 0.230

FBD Flywheel: Slip of belt: TB = TA e k = TA e0.20 Also, since the belt doesnt change length, the increase in stretch of spring B equals the decrease in stretch of spring A. Therefore the increase in TB equals the decrease in TA , and the sum is unchanged, so TA + TB = 80 N + 80 N = 160 N

TB = 104.337 N

(a)

TA = 55.7 N TB = 104.3 N

M C = 0:

( 0.225 m )(TB

TA ) M C = 0

(b) M C = 10.95 N m

FBD Lever:

M E = 0:

FBD = 415.69 N

FBD Drum: Belt slip:

T2 = T1 e k

0.25( 5.5851)

= ( 415.69 N ) e

= 1679.44 N

M C = 0:

r (T2 T1 ) M = 0

=0

M = 101.1 N m

FBD Drum: (a) With M E = 125 lb ft

M E = 0:

0.30 76

TA TC = 214.29 lb

Belt slip: TA = TC e k = TC e so 2.0028 TC = 214.9 lb,

( )

= 3.0028 TC

TC = 106.995 lb

TA = 321.28 lb

FBD Lever:

M B = 0:

P=

17 in.

(1)

P = 129.2 lb

(b) With M E = 125 lb ft , the drum analysis will be reversed, and will yield TA = 106.995 lb,

TC = 321.28 lb

Eqn. (1) will remain the same, so

P=

17 in. P = 9.41 lb

FBD Lever: If brake is self-locking, no force P is required

M B = 0:

TC = 3.75 TA

e s = 3.75, or s =

With =

ln 3.75

7 , 6

s = 0.361

FBD Lever:

M B = 0:

( 40 mm ) TC (100 mm ) TA = 0,

TC = 2.5 TA

TA =

TC = 1.8 kN 2.5

M D = 0:

M D = 0.432 kN m M D = 432 N m

(b) For impending slip ccw, TC = TA e s or s =

ln

TC 3 ln 2.5 = 0.21875 = TA 4

s = 0.219

(a) For minimum mC with blocks at rest, impending slip of A is down/left. Note: s = tan 1 s = tan 1 0.30 = 16.7 < 30, so mC min > 0 FBD A:

N A WA cos 30 = 0,

N A = WA cos 30

Fx = 0:

FBD Drum:

= 14.1377 N

0.2 0.87266 ) 14.1377 N = TA = TC e k = TC e ( = 1.19069 TC

so FBD C:

TC = 11.8735 N

Fy = 0:

NC WC cos 20 = 0,

NC = WC cos 20

Fx = 0:

WC = 19.0302 N,

mC =

mC = 1.940 kg

continued

(b) For motion of A to impend up/right FBD A: As in part (a) N A = WA cos 30, FA = 0.30WA cos 30

Fx = 0:

TA WA ( sin 30 + 0.30cos 30 ) = 0

TA = 44.722 N

44.722 N 1.19069

TC = 37.560 N

Fx = 0:

WC = 624.83 N,

mC =

mC = 63.7 kg

(c) For uniform motion of A up and B down, and minimum mC , there will be impending slip of the rope on the drum. FBD A is same as in (b) but FA = k N A = 0.20WA cos30 and

Fx = 0:

TA WA ( sin 30 + 0.20cos 30 ) = 0,

TA = 39.625 N

39.625 N = TC e

0.30( 0.87266 )

= 1.29926 TC

Fx = 0:

WC = 30.498 N = 197.933 N, 0.154082 mC = 197.934 N 9.81 m/s 2

mC = 20.2 kg

Geometry and force rotation: Let

EBC = = cos 1 50 mm = 60 = 100 mm s DBE , FAE , GAE

Then contact angles are B = 360 120 = 240 = upper cylinder, and A = 30 = contact on lower cylinder. Let the force in section FC = TF Let the force in section DG = TG With A fixed and the cord moving,

0.25 6

TG = We k A = We

( )

= 1.13985W

TB = TF e s B or TF = TG e s B

TF = 1.13985We

For slip at F

0.30 43

( )

= 0.32441W

W1 = TF e k A = 0.32441We

0.25 6

( )

= 0.36978W

= 2.7043 ( 75 kg )

m = 203 kg

Geometry and force notation:

Note: = sin 1

C = D =

2 , 3

E =

(a) For all pulleys locked, slip impends at all contacts If WA impends downward, T1 = (16 lb ) e s E , T2 = T1e s D , WA = T2e s C

0.20( 73 ) + + so WA = (16 lb ) e s ( C D E ) = (16 lb ) e = 69.315 lb

0.20 73

( )

= 3.6933 lb For equilibrium, (b) If pulley D is free to rotate, T1 = T2 while the other ratios remain as in (a)

0.20( 53 ) + For WA impending down WA = (16 lb ) e s ( C E ) = (16 lb ) e

3.69 lb WA 69.3 lb

0.2 53

( )

Geometry and force notation:

= sin 1

C = D =

2 , 3

E =

(a) D and E fixed, so slip on these surfaces. For maximum N A , slip impends on pulley C

so

(16 lb ) = T1e k E

k ( E + D ) s C

WA = (16 lb ) e

= (16 lb ) e

0.15 53

( )e0.20( 23 )

= 11.09 lb

(b) C and D fixed, so slip there. For maximum WA , slip impends on E so T1 = (16 lb ) e s E , T1 = T2e k D , T2 = WAe k C so WA = (16 lb ) e s E e

k ( C + D )

= (16 lb ) e0.20 e

0.15 43

( )

= 16 lb WA = 16.00 lb

Geometry and force notation:

= sin 1

C =

5 2 = , D = + , 6 2 6 3

E =

(a) All pulleys locked with impending slip at all. If WA impends upward, T1 = WAe s C ,

T2 = T1e s D ,

WA = (16 lb ) e

(16 lb ) = T2e s E ,

s ( C + D + E )

so

3 0.20 5 + 4 + 6 6 6

= (16 lb ) e

WA = 4.5538 lb

If WA impends downward all ratios are inverted so WA = (16 lb ) e For equilibrium, (b) Pulley D is free to rotate so T1 = T2 , other ratios are the same If WA impends upward, WA = (16 lb ) e

s ( C + E ) +0.20( 2 )

= 56.217 lb

4.55 lb WA 56.2 lb

= (16 lb ) e

0.20 43

( )

WA = 6.9229 lb

+0.20 43

( )

WA = 36.979 lb

For equilibrium

6.92 lb WA 37.0 lb

Geometry and force notation:

= sin 1

C =

5 2 = , D = + , 6 2 6 3

E =

(a) D and E fixed, so slip at these surfaces, For maximum WA , slip impends on C.

so WA = (16 lb ) e

k ( D + E ) s C

= (16 lb ) e

0.15 76

( ) e0.20( 56 )

T1 = WAe k C , T2 = T1e k D ,

so WA = (16 lb ) e

k ( C + D ) s E e

T2 = (16 lb ) e s E

= (16 lb ) e

0.15 32

( ) e0.20( 2 )

WA max = 10.80 lb

WA = 10.8037 lb,

FBD drum B:

M B = 0:

TA T = 0.30 N m = 15 N 0.02 m

T = 5.9676 N

If C is free to rotate P = T

Pmin = 5.97 N

FBD drum B:

M B = 0:

TA T = 15 N

Impending slip:

TA = Te s B = Te0.40

Solving, T e0.40 1 = 15 N

T = 5.9676 N

If C is frozen, tape must slip there, so

P = Te k C = ( 5.9676 N ) e

0.30 2

( )

= 9.5599 N

Pmin = 9.56 N

(a) By symmetry:

2 Fy = 0: B 2 T =0 2 1

T1 = T2

or B= 2T1 = 2T2

(1)

Drum:

For impending rotation : T3 > T1 = T2 > T4 , so T3 = Tmax = 5.6 kN Then or and or T1 = T3e s L = ( 5.6 kN ) e T1 = 4.03706 kN = T2 T4 = T2e s R = ( 4.03706 kN ) e T4 = 2.23998 kN

0.25 34

0.25 + 4 6

( )

Lever:

(b) Using Equation (1) B= 2T1 =

M 0 = 538 N m

2 ( 4.03706 kN )

= 5.70927 kN M D = 0:

P = 1.142 kN

(a) By symmetry:

2 Fy = 0: B 2 2 T1 = 0

T1 = T2

or B= 2T1

(1)

FBD Drum:

For impending rotation : T4 > T2 = T1 > T3 , so T4 = Tmax = 5.6 kN Then or and or T2 = T4e s R = ( 5.6 kN ) e T2 = 3.10719 kN = T1 T3 = T1e s L = ( 3.10719 kN ) e T3 = 2.23999 kN

0.25 + 4 6

0.25 34

( )

M F = 0: M 0 + r (T2 T1 + T3 T4 ) = 0

FBD Lever:

M 0 = 538 N m

(b) Using Equation (1) B= 2T1 = 2 ( 3.10719 kN )

B = 4.3942 kN M D = 0:

P = 879 N

FBD wrench:

Note: EC =

( 0.2 m ) ,

sin 65

EA = EC 0.03 m

= 65

so = 295 = 5.1487 rad

0.20 m 0.20 m 0.03 m F cos 65 0.03 m T = 0 sin 65 sin 65

T = 3.01408F N sin 65 + F cos 65 T = 0

sin 65 , so F = + cos 65 = T s s

M E = 0:

Fx = 0:

Impending slip: N =

or

sin 65

+ cos 65 = 3.01408

s = 0.3497

Must still check slip of belt on pipe

Fn = 0:

N1 N 2 = 0 F2 = s N 2 F1 = F2 = F

ln

s = 0.350

FBD wrench

Note: EC =

( 0.20 m ) ,

sin 75

EA = EC 0.03 m

= 75

so = 285 = 4.9742 rad

M E = 0: 0.20 m 0.20 m 0.03 m F cos 75 0.03 m T = 0 sin 75 sin 75 T = 7.5056 F Fx = 0: N sin 75 + F cos 75 T = 0

sin 75 , so F = + cos 75 = T = 7.5056 F s s

Impending slip: N =

sin 75

+ cos 75 = 7.5056

s = 0.1333

Must still check impending slip of belt on pipe

Fn = 0: N1 N 2 = 0 F2 = s N 2 Impending slip F1 = s N1, so Ft = 0: F1 = F2 = F 2 F TA = 0, TA = 2 F

ln

s min = 0.267

Fn = 0:

or

N T + (T + T ) sin =0 2

N = ( 2T + T ) sin Ft = 0:

(T + T ) T cos F = 0 2 F = T cos

F = s N

or Impending slipping: So

T cos

sin = s 2T sin + s T 2 2 2

or dT = s d T

In limit as

0: dT = sTd , dT

So

T2 T1 T = 0 s d ;

and

ln

T2 = s T1

or T2 = T1e s

Note: Nothing above depends on the shape of the surface, except it is assumed to be a smooth curve.

Small belt section: Side view: End view:

Fy = 0: Fx = 0: Impending slipping:

N sin T + (T + T ) sin =0 2 2 2

(T + T ) T cos F = 0 2

F = s N T cos 2T + T = s sin 2 2 sin 2

In limit as 0:

dT =

sTd

sin 2 dT

or

dT s = d T sin 2

So

T2 s T1 T = 0 d sin

or

ln

T2 = s T1 sin 2 T2 = T1e

s /sin 2

or

FBD motor and mount: Impending belt slip, cw rotation

s

T2 = T1e

sin 2

( 0.40 )

M D = 0:

2100 lb = 13 in. + ( 7 in.)( 58.356 ) T1

T2 = 58.356T1 = 290.75 lb

=0

T1 = 4.9823 lb,

FBD drum at B:

M B = 0:

M B = 857 lb in.

Geometry:

= sin 1

A = 2 = 2.8909 rad

Since B > A , impending slip on A will control the maximum couple transmitted FBD A:

M A = 0:

60 lb in. + ( 2 in.)(T1 T2 ) = 0

T2 T1 = 30 lb

sin 2

T1 = 1.17995 lb T2 = 31.180 lb

FBD B:

Fx = 0:

P = 32.1 lb

FBD block:

Fn = 0:

Assume equilibrium:

Ft = 0:

But

Fmax = s N = ( 0.3) 966 N = 290 N Feq. > Fmax impossible Block moves

and

F = k N = ( 0.2 )( 966.03 N )

F = 193.2 N

P W = sin s sin ( s )

sin ( s ) =

W sin s P

W = mg

(a)

= 36.499

= 36.499 + 14.036

(b)

m = 40 kg: s = sin

1

or = 50.5

( 40 kg ) 9.81 m/s 2 120 N

) sin14.036

(a) Note: With the cable, motion must impend at both contact surfaces. Fy = 0: Impending slip: Fx = 0: N1 40 lb = 0 N1 = 40 lb

F1 = s N1 = 0.4 ( 40 lb ) = 16 lb T F1 = 0 T 16 lb = 0 T = 16 lb

Bottom block:

Fy = 0: Impending slip:

N 2 40 lb 60 lb = 0

N 2 = 100 lb

F2 = s N 2 = 0.4 (100 lb ) = 40 lb P + 16 lb + 16 lb + 40 lb = 0

Fx = 0:

FBD blocks:

P = 72.0 lb

(b) Without the cable, both blocks will stay together and motion will impend only at the floor. Fy = 0: Impending slip: Fx = 0: N 40 lb 60 lb = 0 N = 100 lb

F = s N = 0.4 (100 lb ) = 40 lb 40 lb P = 0

P = 40.0 lb

a W =0 2

2.5 W 13 2.5W 13

FB = s N B = s FA +

5 12 FB NB = 0 13 13

s N A +

NA Fy = 0:

12.5

(13)

2

sW

30

(13)2

W =0

a = 7.5 ft l = 19.5 ft a 5 = l 13 b 12 = l 13

( 30 12.5s )

s

12 5 FB + NB = 0 13 13

(13)

NA W +

or

2 s 5.6333 s + 1 = 0

s = 2.8167 2.6332

or

s = 0.1835

and

s = 5.45

The larger value is very unlikely unless the surface is treated with some non-skid material. In any event, the smallest value for equilibrium is s = 0.1835

FBD window:

W 2

Fx = 0: Impending motion:

M D = 0:

N A ND = 0

N A = ND

FA = s N A

FD = s N D

=0

W = 3 N A + 2 s N A 2

2W 3 + 4 s

W = ( 4 kg ) 9.81 m/s

) = 39.24 N

Fy = 0:

NA =

FA W + T + FD = 0 FA + FD = W T = W 2

Now Then or

FA + FD = s ( N A + N D ) = 2 s N A W 2W = 2 s 2 3 + 4 s

s = 0.750

FBD Collar:

Stretch of spring x = AB a =

a a cos

a 1 a = (1.5 kN/m )( 0.5 m ) 1 Fs = k cos cos 1 = ( 0.75 kN ) 1 = ( 750 N )( sec 1) cos Fy = 0: or Impending slip:

F = s N (F must be +, but N may be positive or negative)

Fx = 0: or (a) = 20:

N > 41.156)

But

F = ( 750 N )( tan 30 sin 30 ) = 58.013 N N = F

(b) = 30:

Impending motion:

W = N + ( 750 N )(1 cos 30 ) = N 145.03 N = 44.55 N ( impossible ) , 245.51 N Equilibrium for W 246 N

FBD pin C:

FBD block A:

or Fx = 0: or

: W + 0.086824 P = P = 2.413W

FBD block B:

Fx = 0:

P = 1.268W

Pmax = 1.268W

s = tan 1 s = tan 1 0.25 = 14.036

FBD block A:

R2 = 2499.0 lb

FBD wedge B:

Block on incline:

= tan 1

Couple on each side

FBD pulley:

Fy = 0:

M O = 0:

rf = 0.0023529 m = 2.3529 mm rf rs

s = sin 1

s = tan s = tan sin 1

s = 0.0787

FBD wheel:

M E = 0: or

FBD lever:

M C = 0: or Impending slipping: or So

T1 + T2 = 100 lb T2 = T1e s

T2 = T1e

0.25 32

( )

= 3.2482T1

and

Changing the direction of rotation will change the direction of M E and will switch the magnitudes of T1 and T2 . The magnitude of the couple applied will not change.

FBD block:

Fn = 0: Ft = 0:

FBD Drum:

where the upper signs apply when FC acts (a) For impending motion of block , FC , and

FC = s NC = 0.35 100 3 lb = 35 3 lb

TC = 100 35 3 lb

TC = WAe k

0.25( WA = 100 35 3 lb e

2 3

)

WA = 23.3 lb

(b) For impending motion of block , FC From Equation (1): Belt still slips, so

and FC = s NC = 35 3 lb

TC = 100 + 35 3 lb

0.25( WA = TC e k = 100 + 35 3 lb e

2 3

WA = 95.1 lb

continued

(c) For steady motion of block , FC Then, from Equation (1): , and FC = k NC = 25 3 lb

T = 100 + 25 3 lb.

0.35( WA = TC e s = 100 + 25 3 lb e

2 3

WA = 68.8 lb

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