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In the previous chapters, you have studied a number of important electronic devices. These devices, such as the diode and transistor, are separate devices that are individually packaged devices are referred to as discrete components. and interconnected in a circuit with other devices to form a complete functional unit. Such
Now you will begin the study of linear integrated circuits (IC’s) where many transistors diodes packaged in a single case to form a functional circuit. An integrated circuit, such as an operational amplifier (op-amp), is treated as a single device.
resistors and capacitors are fabricated on a single tiny chip of semi conductive material and
Generally, an amplifier is a device for increasing the power of a signal by use of an external energy source. Signal can be a sound, image or video In popular use, the term usually describes an electronic amplifier, in which the input "signal" is usually a voltage or a current. In this course we are only concern with audio signal .
EXAMPLE: AUDIO APPLICATION
In audio applications, amplifiers drive the loudspeakers used in PA systems to make the human voice louder or play recorded music.
to perform with an electric guitar) The device they are intended to drive (such as a headphone amplifier) The frequency range of the signals e. FET amplifiers. Audio. a guitar amplifier. and guitar and other instrument amplifiers. RF. BJT amplifier TYPES OF ELECTRONIC AMPLIFIER There are many types of electronic amplifiers. microcomputers and other electronic digital equipment. high-fidelity ("hi-fi") stereo equipment. and VHF amplifiers whether they invert the signal (inverting amplifiers and non-inverting amplifiers) Type of device used in the amplification (valve or tube amplifiers. commonly used in radio and television transmitters and receivers. IF. such as transistor or vacuum tubes. A brief introduction to the many types of electronic amplifier follows.g.AMPLIFIER CLASSIFICATION: Amplifier may be classified in to many different ways (will help you to select the desired amplifier according to your need) According to the input source they are designed to amplify e.g. Critical components include active devices. .
Applications are numerous. or communications equipment" Electric guitar amplification Russian military aircraft. Valve amplifiers are mainly used in high power applications such as "radar. countermeasures equipment. to RF and Microwave applications such as radio transmitters OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (OP-AMPS) The term (op amp) commonly applied to integrated circuits. and audiophile equipment for sound quality improvement TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS Many common active devices in transistor amplifiers are bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). such as for transmitter final stages (see also: Linear amplifier). some common examples are Audio amplifiers in a home stereo or PA system. An operational amplifier is an amplifier circuit with very high open loop gain and differential inputs which employs external feedback for control of its transfer function or gain . VACUUM-TUBE (VALVE) AMPLIFIERS Semiconductor amplifiers have largely displaced valve amplifiers for low power applications. for their EMP tolerance Recording. where linearity is not important.POWER AMPLIFIER Audio power amplifiers RF power amplifier. RF high power generation for semiconductor equipment. Servo motor controllers.
usually referred to as an 'FDA' is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with Differential inputs and Differential outputs. It is similar to the operational amplifier but it also has differential output pins. We may call these parameter figure of merits . These are usually constructed using BJTs or FETs.FULLY DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER A fully differential amplifier. HDTV 720p or 1080i/p etc. Certain requirements for step response amplifier are and overshoot are necessary in order for acceptable TV images to be presented.alias filters for ADCs with differential inputs and low voltage applications VIDEO AMPLIFIERS These deal with video signals and have varying bandwidths depending on whether the video signal is for SDTV. Many applications require that a single-ended signal be converted to a differential A major application of fully-differential amplifiers is in low-pass ant-i. Types of video Oscilloscope vertical amplifiers Distributed amplifiers Switched mode amplifiers Negative resistance devices MUSICAL INSTRUMENT (AUDIO) AMPLIFIERS Guitar amplifier Other audio amplifier There are parameters/constraints/variable that must be considered for designing manufacturing and purchasing an electronic device. EDTV. signal.
This is therefore also known as the −3 dB bandwidth.FIGURES OF MERIT The quality of an amplifier can be characterized by number of specifications GAIN: The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of output to input power or amplitude. in the range of 10–20% with a max efficiency of 25% maximum of 50%. In practical design. "satisfactory performance". Inductive coupling of the output can raise their efficiency to a Class B amplifiers have a very high efficiency but are impractical for audio work because of high levels of distortion. . Bandwidth Therefore bandwidth can be defined as the difference between the lower and upper half power points.5%. The bandwidth of an amplifier is the range of frequencies for which the amplifier gives is the half power points (i. systems and 50-70% in radio frequency systems with a theoretical maximum of 78. frequency where the power goes down by half its peak value) on the output vs. for direct coupling of the output. Amplifiers of Class C-F are usually known to be very high efficiency amplifiers.e. and is usually measured in decibels. Class A amplifiers are very inefficient. Modern Class AB amplifiers commonly have peak efficiencies between 30–55% in audio Commercially available Class D switching amplifiers have reported efficiencies as high as 90%. the result of a tradeoff is the class AB design. frequency curve. (A common and well-accepted metric for satisfactory performance Efficiency Efficiency is a measure of how much of the power source is usefully applied to the amplifier's output.
this is called clipping. Many amplifiers are ultimately slew-rate limited which sometimes limits the full power bandwidth to frequencies well below the amplifier's small-signal frequency response. Noise is an undesirable but inevitable product of the electronic devices and components.Linearity An ideal amplifier would be a totally linear device. Slew rate Slew rate is the maximum rate of change of the output. and results in distortion. the output also increases until a point is reached where some part of the amplifier becomes saturated and cannot produce any more output. post distortion. which (if the amplifier is an audio amplifier) sounds much less power (or output power) where the gain is 1 dB less than the small signal gain. the result is a compression effect. Linearization is an emergent field. unpleasant to the ear. and there are many techniques. pre distortion. Noise This is a measure of how much noise is introduced in the amplification process. Much noise results from intentional economies of manufacture and design time. such as feed forward. hard clipping under overload. Noise figure is a comparison between the output signal to noise ratio and the thermal noise of the input signal. In most amplifiers a reduction in gain takes place before hard clipping occurs. but real amplifiers are only linear within limits. . For these amplifiers. The metric for noise performance of a circuit is noise figure or noise factor. usually quoted in volts per second (or microsecond). When the signal drive to the amplifier is increased. in order to avoid the undesired effects of the non-linarites. the 1 dB compression point is defined as the input Sometimes this nonlinearity is deliberately designed in to reduce the audible unpleasantness of Effects of nonlinearity can be reduced with negative feedback.
amplifying stages.Rise time The rise time. condition that must be met for the absolute stability of an amplifier in terms of its two-port . the rise time is approximated by: tr * BW = 0. whether that feedback is added intentionally or results unintentionally. For a Gaussian response system (or a simple RC roll off). Stability Stability is an issue in all amplifiers with feedback. There are several different stability factors. where tr is rise time in seconds and BW is bandwidth in Hz.35. It is especially an issue when applied over multiple Stability is a major concern in RF and microwave amplifiers. The degree of an amplifier's stability can be quantified by a so-called stability factor. of an amplifier is the time taken for the output to change from 10% to 90% of its final level when driven by a step input. such as the Stern stability factor and the Linvil stability factor. tr. which specify a parameters.
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