Chapter 
Quadratic 
equations 
Contents:
_{A}
B
Quadratic equations of the form
x
^{2} =
k
The Null Factor law
C Completing the square
D Problem solving (Quadratic equations) The quadratic formula (Extension) More difficult equations (Extension)
E
F
318
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
(Chapter 13)
Equations of the form
ax + b = 0
are called linear equations and have only one solution.
For example,
3x ¡ 2=0 solution, x =
is a linear equation (a = 3 and b = ¡2) and has the one
2
3 ^{.}
Quadratic equations can be written in the form
ax ^{2} + bx + c = 0.
Quadratic equations may have two, one or zero solutions. We can demonstrate this with some examples.
Equation 
ax ^{2} + bx + c = 0 form 
a 
b 
c 
Solutions 
x ^{2} ¡ 4=0 
x ^{2} + 0x ¡ 4=0 
1 
0 
¡4 
x = 2 or x = ¡2 two 
(x ¡ 2) ^{2} = 0 
x ^{2} ¡ 4x +4=0 
1 
¡4 
x = 2 

x ^{2} +4=0 
x ^{2} + 0x +4=0 
1 
0 
none as x ^{2} is always > 0

Now consider the example, x ^{2} + 3x ¡ 10 = 0
if x = 
2, 
x ^{2} + 3x ¡ 10 
and if 
x = ¡5, 
x ^{2} + 3x ¡ 10 

= 2 ^{2} 
+ 3 £ 2 ¡ 10 
= 
(¡5) ^{2} 
+ 
3 £ ¡5 
¡ 10 

=4+6 ¡ 10 = 0 
25 ¡ 15 ¡ 10 = 0 = 

Because 
x = 2 
and 
x = ¡5 both satisfy the equation x ^{2} +3x ¡ 10 = 0 
we say that they 
are solutions of it. But, how do we find these solutions without using trial and error?
OPENING 
PROBLEM 
Acme Leather Jacket Co. makes and sells
x leather jackets each day and
their revenue function is given by
R = 12:5x ^{2} ¡ 550x + 8125 dollars.
How many jackets must be made and sold each week in order to obtain income of $3000 each week?
Clearly we need to solve the equation:
i.e.,
12:5x ^{2} ¡ 550x + 8125 = 3000 12:5x ^{2} ¡ 550x + 5125 = 0
How can we solve this equation?
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
(Chapter 13)
319
Consider the equation x ^{2} ¡ 7=0 

i.e., 
x ^{2} = 7 
(adding 7 to both sides) 

Notice that 
^{p} 7 £ ^{p} 7=7, 
so 
x = ^{p} 7 
is one solution 

and 
(¡ ^{p} 7) £ (¡ ^{p} 7) 
= 7, 
so 
x = ¡ ^{p} 7 
is also a solution. 

Thus, if 
x ^{2} 
= 7, 
then 
x = § ^{p} 7: 

§ ~`7 is read as
‘plus or minus the
square root of
7
’


SOLUTION OF x ^{2} = 
k (REVIEW) 

8 
> x = § ^{p} k 
if k > 0 

If 
x ^{2} = k 
then < 
x = 0 
if k = 0 

> : 
there are no real solutions if k < 0 

Example 1 

Solve for x: 
a 
2x ^{2} + 1 = 15 
b 2 ¡ 3x ^{2} = 8 

a 
2x ^{2} + 1 = 15 

) 2x ^{2} = 14 
ftake 1 from both sidesg 

) x ^{2} = 7 
fdivide both sides by 2g 

) x = § ^{p} 7 

b 
2 ¡ 3x ^{2} = 8 

) ¡3x ^{2} = 6 
ftake 2 from both sidesg 

) x ^{2} = ¡2 
fdividing both sides by ¡3g 

which has no solutions as x ^{2} cannot be < 0: 

EXERCISE 13A 

1 Solve for x: 

a 
x ^{2} = 16 
b 
2x ^{2} = 18 
c 
3x ^{2} = 27 

d 
12x ^{2} = 72 
e 
3x ^{2} = ¡12 
f 
4x ^{2} = 0 

g 
2x ^{2} + 1 = 19 
h 
1 ¡ 3x ^{2} = 10 
i 2x 
^{2} 
+ 7 = 13 
320
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
(Chapter 13)
Example 2 

Solve for x: 

a 
(x ¡ 3) ^{2} = 16 
b 
(x + 2) ^{2} = 11 

a 
(x ¡ 3) ^{2} = 16 
b 
(x + 2) ^{2} = 11 

) x ¡ 3 = § ^{p} 16 
) x +2= § ^{p} 11 

) x ¡ 3 = §4 
) x = ¡2 § ^{p} 11 

) x = 3 § 4 

) x = 7 or ¡1 

2 
Solve for x: 

a 
(x ¡ 2) ^{2} 
= 9 
b 
(x + 4) ^{2} 
= 25 
c 

d 
(x ¡ 4) ^{2} = 2 
e 
(x + 3) ^{2} = ¡7 
f 

g 
(2x + 5) ^{2} = 0 
h 
(3x ¡ 2) ^{2} = 4 
i 
Example 3 

Solve for x using the Null Factor law: 

a 
3x(x ¡ 5) = 0 
b 
(x ¡ 4)(3x + 7) = 0 

a 
3x(x ¡ 5) = 0 
b 
(x ¡ 4)(3x + 7) = 0 

) 3x = 0 or x ¡ 5=0 
) x ¡ 4=0 or 3x +7=0 

) 
x = 0 or 5 
) x = 4 or 3x = ¡7 

) x = 4 or ¡ 
7 

3 

EXERCISE 13B 



a 
3x = 0 
b 5y = 0 
c 
a £ 8=0 
d b £ ¡2=0 

e 
¡7y = 0 
f ab = 0 
g 
2xy = 0 
h abc = 0 

i 
x ^{2} = 0 
j a ^{2} = 0 
k 
pqrs = 0 
l a ^{2} b = 0 



a 
x(x + 3) = 0 
b 
2x(x ¡ 5) = 0 
c (x ¡ 1)(x ¡ 3) = 
0 

d 
4x(2 ¡ x)=0 
e 
¡3x(2x + 1) = 0 
f 5(x + 2)(2x ¡ 1) = 0 

g 
x ^{2} = 0 
h 
2(x ¡ 3) ^{2} = 0 
i ¡4(2x ¡ 1) ^{2} = 0 
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
(Chapter 13)
321
To use the Null Factor law when solving equations, we must have one side of the equation
equal to zero.
STEPS FOR SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
Step 1: 
If necessary rearrange the equation with one side being zero. 
Step 2: 
Fully factorise the other side (usually the LHS). 
Step 3: 
Use the Null Factor law. 
Step 4: 
Solve the resulting linear equations. 
Step 5: 
Check at least one of your solutions. 
From this example we conclude that:
We must never cancel a variable that is a common factor from both sides of an
equation unless we know that the factor cannot be zero.
3 Solve for x:
a 
x ^{2} 
¡ 7x = 0 
b 
d 
x ^{2} = 4x 
e 

g 
4x ^{2} ¡ 3x = 0 
h 
x ^{2} ¡ 5x = 0
3x ^{2}
+ 6x = 0
4x ^{2} = 5x
c
f
i
x ^{2} = 8x
2x
^{2}
+ 5x = 0
3x ^{2} = 9x
322
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
(Chapter 13)
Example 5 

Solve for x: 
x ^{2} + 3x = 28 

x ^{2} + 3x = 28 

) x ^{2} + 3x ¡ 28 = 0 
fone side must be 0g 

) (x + 7)(x ¡ 4) = 0 
fas sum = +3 and product = ¡28 

gives +7 and ¡4g 

) x +7=0 or x ¡ 4=0 
fNull Factor lawg 

x = ¡7 or 4 
fsolving linear equationsg 
) 



a 
x ^{2} ¡ 1=0 
b 
x ^{2} ¡ 9=0 
c 
(x ¡ 5) ^{2} = 0 

d 
(x + 2) ^{2} = 0 
e 
x ^{2} + 3x +2=0 
f 
x ^{2} ¡ 3x +2=0 

g 
x ^{2} + 5x +6=0 
h 
x ^{2} ¡ 5x +6=0 
i 
x ^{2} + 7x +6=0 

j 
x ^{2} + 9x + 14 = 0 
k 
x 
^{2} 
+ 11x = 
¡30 
l 
x 
^{2} 
+ 2x = 15 

m 
x ^{2} + 4x = 12 
n 
x ^{2} = 11x ¡ 24 
o 
x ^{2} = 14x ¡ 49 



a 
x 
^{2} + 9x + 14 = 0 
b 
x ^{2} 
+ 11x + 30 = 0 
c 
x 
^{2} 
+ 2x = 15 

d 
x 
^{2} + x = 12 
e 
x ^{2} +6=5x 
f 
x ^{2} +4=4x 

g 
x 
^{2} = x + 6 
h 
x ^{2} 
= 7x + 60 
i 
x 
^{2} 
= 3x + 70 

j 
10 ¡ 3x = x ^{2} 
k 
x ^{2} + 12 = 7x 
l 
9x + 36 = x ^{2} 

Example 6 

Solve for x: 
5x ^{2} = 3x + 2 

5x ^{2} = 3x + 2 

) 5x ^{2} ¡ 3x ¡ 2=0 
fmaking the RHS = 0g 

) 5x ^{2} ¡ 5x + 2x ¡ 2=0 
fac = ¡10, 
b = ¡3 

) 5x(x ¡ 1) + 2(x ¡ 1) = 0 
) 
numbers are ¡5 and +2g 

) (x ¡ 1)(5x + 2) = 0 
ffactorisingg 

) x ¡ 1=0 or 5x +2=0 
fNull Factor lawg 

) 
x = 1 
2 or ¡ _{5} 
fsolving the linear equationsg 



a 
2x ^{2} +2=5x 
b 
3x 
^{2} 
+ 8x = 3 
c 
3x 
^{2} 
+ 17x + 20 = 0 

d 
2x ^{2} + 5x = 3 
e 
2x 
^{2} 
+ 5 = 11x 
f 
2x ^{2} + 7x +5=0 

g 
3x ^{2} + 13x +4=0 
h 
5x ^{2} = 13x + 6 
i 
2x 
^{2} 
+ 17x = 9 

j 
2x ^{2} + 3x = 5 
k 
3x ^{2} + 2x = 8 
l 
2x 
^{2} 
+ 9x = 18 
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
(Chapter 13)
323
Example 7 

Solve for x: 
10x ^{2} ¡ 13x ¡ 3=0 

10x ^{2} ¡ 13x ¡ 3=0 
fac = ¡30, 
b = ¡13 

) 10x ^{2} ¡ 15x + 2x ¡ 3=0 
) numbers are ¡15 and 2g 

) 5x(2x ¡ 3) + 1(2x ¡ 3) = 0 
ffactorising in pairsg 

) (2x ¡ 3)(5x + 1) = 0 
fcommon factor factorisationg 

) 2x ¡ 3=0 or 5x +1=0 
fusing the Null Factor lawg 


1 
fsolving the linear equationsg 

) x = 
¡ _{5} 
7 Solve for x:
a 
6x ^{2} 
+ 13x = 5 
b 
6x ^{2} = x + 2 
c 
6x ^{2} + 5x +1=0 
d 
21x ^{2} = 62x + 3 
e 
10x ^{2} + x = 2 
f 
10x ^{2} = 7x + 3 



a 
x(x + 5) + 2(x + 6) = 0 
b 
x(1 + x) + x = 3 

c 
(x ¡ 1)(x + 9) = 8x 
d 
3x(x + 2) ¡ 5(x ¡ 3) = 17 

e 
4x(x + 1) = ¡1 
f 
2x(x ¡ 6) = x ¡ 20 
Try as much as we like, we will not be able to solve quadratic equations such as
x ^{2} + 4x ¡ 7=0 by using the factorisation methods already practised. This is because the
solutions are not rationals.
To solve this equation we need a different technique.
Consider the solution to 
the equation 
(x + 2) ^{2} = 
11 

) x +2= 
§ ^{p} 11 

) x = ¡2 § ^{p} 11 

However, 
if 
(x + 2) ^{2} 
= 11 

then 
x 
^{2} 
+ 4x + 4 = 11 

and 
x 
^{2} 
+ 4x ¡ 7=0 

and so the solutions to 
x 
^{2} 
+ 4x ¡ 7=0 
are the solutions to 
(x + 2) ^{2} = 11: 

Consequently, an approach for solving such equations could be to reverse the above argument. 

Consider 
x ^{2} 
+ 4x ¡ 7=0 

) x ^{2} + 4x 
= 7 

) x ^{2} 
+ 4x + 4 
= 
7 + 4 

) (x + 2) ^{2} = 
11 

) x +2= 
§ ^{p} 11 
) x = ¡2 § ^{p} 11
Hence the solutions to x ^{2} + 4x ¡ 7=0 are x = ¡2 § ^{p} 11.
324
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
(Chapter 13)
From the above example it can be seen that a perfect square needs to be created on the left
hand side. The process used is called completing the square.
From our previous study of perfect squares we observe that:
(x + 3) ^{2} 
= 
x 
^{2} 
+ 2 £ 3 £ x + 3 ^{2} 
notice 
that 
3 
^{2} = µ ^{2} ^{£} ^{3} 2 
¶ 2 
(x ¡ 5) ^{2} 
= 
x 
^{2} 
¡ 2 £ 5 £ x + 5 ^{2} 
notice 
that 
5 
^{2} = µ ^{2} ^{£} ^{5} 2 
¶ 2 
(x + p) ^{2} 
= x ^{2} 
+ 2 £ p £ x + p ^{2} 
notice 
that 
p ^{2} = µ ^{2} ^{£} ^{p} 2 
¶ 2 
i.e.,
the constant term is “the square of half the coefficient of x”.
EXERCISE 13C
1 For each of the following equations:
i find what must be added to both sides of the equation to create a perfect square on the LHS
ii write each equation in the form (x + p) ^{2} = k
a
d
g
x
^{2}
+ 2x
= 5
x
^{2}
¡ 6x = ¡3
x
^{2}
+ 12x = 13
b
e
h
x
^{2}
¡ 2x = ¡7
x
^{2}
+ 10x = 1
x
^{2}
+ 5x = ¡2
c
f
i
x
^{2}
+ 6x
= 2
x
^{2}
¡ 8x
= 5
x ^{2} ¡ 7x = 4
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
(Chapter 13)
325
Example 9 

Solve for x by completing the square, leaving answers in surd form: 

a 
x ^{2} + 2x ¡ 2=0 
b x ^{2} ¡ 4x +6=0 

a 
x ^{2} + 2x ¡ 2=0 

) x ^{2} + 2x = 2 
fmove constant term to RHSg 

) x ^{2} + 2x + 1 ^{2} = 2 + 1 ^{2} 
fadd ( _{2} ^{2} ) ^{2} = 1 ^{2} to both sidesg 

) (x + 1) ^{2} = 3 
ffactorise LHS, simplify RHSg 

) x +1= § ^{p} 3 

) x = ¡1 § ^{p} 3 

So, solutions are x = ¡1 + ^{p} 3 
or ¡1 ¡ ^{p} 3: 

b 
x ^{2} ¡ 4x +6=0 

) x ^{2} ¡ 4x = ¡6 
fremove the constant term to the RHSg 

) x ^{2} ¡ 4x + 2 ^{2} = ¡6 + 2 ^{2} 
fadd (¡ ^{4} ) ^{2} = 2 ^{2} to both sidesg 2 

) (x ¡ 2) ^{2} = ¡2 
ffactorise the LHS, simplify the RHSg 

which is impossible as no perfect square can be negative 

) no real solutions exist. 
2 If possible, solve for x using ‘completing the square’, leaving answers in surd form:
a
d
g
x
^{2}
¡ 4x +1=0
x
^{2}
+ 2x ¡ 1=0
x
^{2}
+ 6x +3=0
b
e
h
x
^{2}
¡ 2x ¡ 2=0
x ^{2} + 2x +4=0
x ^{2} ¡ 6x + 11 = 0
c
f
i
x
^{2}
¡ 4x ¡ 3=0
x ^{2} + 4x +1=0
x
^{2}
+ 8x + 14
= 0
3
Using the method of ‘completing the square’ solve for x, leaving answers in surd form.
a
d
x
^{2}
+ 3x +2=0
x
^{2}
+ x ¡ 1=0
b
e
x ^{2} = 4x + 8
x ^{2} + 3x ¡ 1=0
c
f
x ^{2} ¡ 5x +6=0
x ^{2} + 5x ¡ 2=0
4 3x ^{2} + 6x ¡ 1=0
a
To solve
by
‘completing the square’ our first step must be to
divide both sides by 3, and this results in x ^{2} + 2x ¡
statement is true.
1
_{3}
= 0.
Explain why this
b
Use ‘completing the square’ to solve
i
2x ^{2} + 4x ¡ 1=0
ii
3x ^{2} ¡ 12x +7=0
iii
5x ^{2} ¡ 10x +3=0
326
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
(Chapter 13)
Contained in this section are problems which when converted to algebraic form result in a
quadratic equation.
It is essential that you are successful at solving these equations using
‘completing the square’.
factorisation
or
PROBLEM SOLVING METHOD
Step 1: 
Carefully read the question until you understand the problem. 
A rough sketch may be useful. 

Step 2: 
Decide on the unknown quantity, calling it x, say. 
Step 3: 
Find an equation which connects x and the information you are given. 
Step 4: 
Solve the equation using one of the methods you have learnt. 
Step 5: 
Check that any solutions satisfy the equation and are realistic to the problem. 
Step 6: 
Write your answer to the question in sentence form. 
Example 10 

The sum of a number and its square is 42. Find the number. 

Let the number be x. Therefore its square is x ^{2} . 

x + x ^{2} = 42 

) x ^{2} + x ¡ 42 = 0 frearrangingg 

) (x + 7)(x ¡ 6) = 0 ffactorisingg 

) x = ¡7 or x = 6 

Check: 
If x = ¡7, ¡7+(¡7) ^{2} = ¡7 + 49 = 42 X 

If 
x = 6, 
6+6 ^{2} = 6 + 36 = 42 
X 

So, the number is ¡7 or 6. 
EXERCISE 13D
1 The sum of a number and its square is 90. Find the number.
2 The product of a number and the number decreased by 3 is 108. Find the two possible answers for the number.
3 When 32 is subtracted from the square of a number the result is six times the original number. Find the number.
4 The sum of two numbers is 9 and the sum of their squares is 153. Find the numbers.
5 Two numbers differ
by
5 and the sum of their
squares
is 17. Find the numbers.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
(Chapter 13)
327
Example 11 

A rectangle has length 5 cm greater than its width. If it has an area of 84 cm ^{2} , 

find the dimensions of the rectangle. 

If x cm is the width, then (x + 5) cm is the length. 

Now 
area = 84 cm ^{2} 
(x 5) cm 

) x(x + 5) = 84 

) x ^{2} + 5x = 84 
x cm 

) x ^{2} + 5x ¡ 84 = 0 

) (x + 12)(x ¡ 7) = 0 fon factorisationg 

) x = ¡12 or 7: 

But 
x > 0 
as lengths are positive quantities, 
) 
x = 7 

) 
the rectangle is 7 cm by 12 cm. 
6 
A rectangle has length 5 cm greater than its width. Find its width given that its area is 

150 
cm ^{2} . 

7 
A triangle has base 2 cm more than its altitude. If its area is 49:5 cm ^{2} , find its altitude. 

8 
A rectangular enclosure is made from 50 m of fencing. The area enclosed is 144 m ^{2} . 

Find the dimensions of the enclosure. 

9 

A rectangular pig pen is built against an existing brick 

fence. 24 m of fencing was used to enclose 70 m ^{2} . 

Find the dimensions of the pen. 
10
11
Use the theorem of Pythagoras to find x given:
x cm
A right angled triangle has sides 1 cm and 18 cm respectively less than its hypotenuse.
Find the length of each side of the triangle.
12
A forestry worker plants 600 pine trees. The number of pine trees in each row is 10
more than twice the number of rows. If equal numbers of pine trees were planted in
each row, how many rows did the forestry worker plant?
13
ABCD is a rectangle in which AB = 21 cm.
The square AXYD is removed and the remaining
rectangle has area 80 cm ^{2} .
Find the length of BC.
A
X
B
328
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
(Chapter 13)
14
A, B, C and D are posts on the banks of a
20 m wide canal. A and B are 1 m apart.
If OA is the same length as CD, find how
far C and D are apart.
15
D AB is 2 cm longer than BE. DC is 3 cm less than twice BE.
a 
Explain why triangles ABE and ACD are 
similar. 

b 
If BE = x cm, show that x ^{2} ¡ 4x ¡ 6=0: 
c Hence, show that 
Example 12 

1 The sum of a number and four times its reciprocal is 8 _{2} : Find the number. 

Let the number be x. 
Therefore, its reciprocal is ^{1} : 

x 

x 
+ 
4 £ 
1 x 
1 = 8 _{2} 
fas the sum is 8 


x 
4 
17 

) 
1 
^{+} x 
= 
2 
which has an LCD of 2x 

x 
2x 
4 
2 
17 
£ ^{x} _{x} 

) 
£ 
^{+} 
£ 
= 
fto achieve a common denominatorg 

1 
2x x 2 2 ) 2x ^{2} + 8 = 17x 
fequating the numeratorsg 

) 2x ^{2} ¡ 17x +8=0 
fequating to zerog 

2x ^{2} ¡ x ¡ 16x +8=0 
fsplitting the middle termg 

x(2x ¡ 1) ¡ 8(2x ¡ 1) = 0 
ffactorising in pairsg 

) (2x ¡ 1)(x ¡ 8) = 0 
fcommon factorg 

2x ¡ 1=0 
or 
x ¡ 8=0 
fNull Factor lawg 

So, the number is 
1 x = _{2} or 8
Check: 
1 
1 X 8+4 £ _{8} = 8 

16
1
The sum of a number and its reciprocal is 2 _{1}_{2} : Find the number.
17
2
The sum of a number and twice its reciprocal is 3 _{3} . Find the number.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
(Chapter 13)
329
18 A rectangular sheet of tin plate is 20 cm by 16 cm and is to be made into an open box with a base having an area of 140 cm ^{2} , by cutting out equal squares from the four cor ners and then bending the edges upwards. Find the size of the squares cut out.
19 A rectangular swimming pool is 12 m long by 6 m wide. It is surrounded by a pavement of uniform width, the area of the pavement being
8 7 of the area of the pool.
a
If the pavement is x m wide, show that the area of the pavement is 4x ^{2} +36x m ^{2} .
b
Hence, show that
4x ^{2} + 36x ¡ 63 = 0.
c How wide is the pavement?
20 A circular magnet has an inner radius x cm, an outer radius 2 cm larger and its depth is the same as the inner radius (as shown). If the total volume of the magnet is 120¼ cm ^{3} , find x.
HISTORICAL 
NOTE 
BABYLONIAN 
ALGEBRA 
The mathematics used by the
Babylonians
was recorded on clay tablets in cuneiform.
One such tablet which has been preserved is
called
Plimpton 322
(around
1600
BC).
The Ancient Babylonians were able to solve difficult
equations using the rules we use today, such as transposing
terms and multiplying both sides by like quantities to
remove fractions. They were familiar with factorisation.
They could, for example, add 4xy to (x ¡ y ) ^{2} to obtain (x + y ) ^{2} . This was all achieved
without the use of letters for unknown quantities. However, they often used words for the
unknown.
Consider the following example from about 4000 years ago.
Problem:
Solution:
“I have subtracted the side of my square from the area and the result is 870.
What is the side of the square?”
Take half of 1, which is
_{2} 1 , and multiply
_{2} 1 by
_{2} 1 which is
1
add this to 870 to get 870 _{4} .
This is the square of 29
1
2 ^{.}
1
4 ^{;}
Now add
1
_{2}
1
to 29 _{2} and the result is 30, the side of the square.
Using our modern symbols: the equation is x ^{2} ¡ x = 870 and the solution is
x = q ( _{2} ) ^{2} + 870 + _{2} = 30.
1
1
This solution is one of the two solutions we would obtain using the Quadratic Formula.
We meet this formula in the next section.
330
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
(Chapter 13)
Many quadratic equations cannot be solved by factorising, and completing the square is rather
tedious. Consequently, the quadratic formula has been developed. This formula is:
If ax ^{2} + bx + c = 0,
then
¡b § ^{p} b ^{2} ¡ 4ac
x =
2a
Consider the Opening problem involving the Acme Leather Jacket Co. The equation we
need to solve is:
12:5x ^{2} ¡ 550x + 5125 = 0
where
a = 12:5,
b = ¡550,
c = 5125
Using the formula we obtain x =
550 § ^{p} 46 250
25
which simplifies to x + 30:60
or
13:40 .
But as x needs to be a whole number,
each week.
x = 13 or 31 would produce income of around $3000
The following proof of the quadratic formula is worth careful examination.
Proof: If 
ax ^{2} + bx + c = 
0, 

b 
c 

then 
x ^{2} + 
a 
x + _{a} = 
0 
) x ^{2} + 
b 
x = ¡ 

a 

) x ^{2} + _{a} x + µ b 
2a ¶ 2 b = ¡ 
fdividing each term by a, as a 6= 0g
c
a
a ^{+} µ 2a ¶ 2
c
b
fcompleting the square on LHSg
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
(Chapter 13)
331
µ x + 2a ¶ 2 b µ x + 2a ¶ 2 b 
= ¡ b ^{2} a µ 4a 4a ¶ ^{+} 4a ^{2} c 

b ^{2} ¡ 4ac 

= 

4a ^{2} 

) x + 
2a b 
_{=} 
_{§} ^{r} b ^{2} ¡ 4ac 4a ^{2} 

) x = ¡ 
4a ^{2} 

i.e., 
¡b § ^{p} b ^{2} ¡ 4ac 

x = 

2a 

x ^{2} ¡ 2x ¡ 2=0 
2a b _{§} ^{r} b ^{2} ¡ 4ac
)
)