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The term Food hygiene means the preservation and preparation of foods in the way that ensures the

safety for human consumption. It is often used to make sure that the foods stuffs are produced, harvested, prepared, stored and handled in the way that ensures the quality and safety for consumption. Food hygiene at the individual level refers to proper storage of foods before use, washing hands before preparing and making a clean environment around the kitchen. Similarly at the commercial level, it mainly refers to food sanitation in the food industry. It ensures that the productions, packages and storages are made considering the food safety and sanitation. The main task of food hygiene is to ensure the food consumptions and on the other hand, making it as safer as possible. With the increasing trends of globalization in food production, processing, distribution and preparation there have appeared new challenges to food hygiene. Now, people demand a wider variety of foods than in the past. They want foods that are not seasonal. Foods grown in one country can easily be transported and consumed in another country. With these new challenges, food hygiene is importantly considered to make sure the food stuffs are suitable for consumption. The rules and regulations that are created to make the qualitative food stuffs are called food hygiene legislation. As earlier mentioned, global expansion in food production and consumption has bought both advantages and disadvantages. It is sure that in the lack of food hygiene legislation, poor management oriented food stuffs can be produced and consumed and even transported from one country to another. To avoid food hygiene related problems, from the earlier stages of food production to the consumption, there are rules and regulations which should be followed. And for the successful implementation of the legislation, each department should work very carefully.

From the food harvesting to consumption, there are different legislations to be considered very carefully. For the quality food stuffs, each department should follow the rules and regulations. In the production process, all the activities should be in accordance with rules. In the business factory, all food handlers must receive food handling training and updates of an appropriate content, length and frequency to reflect their role and food handling responsibilities. It is a legally required that temperature checks are done throughout the entire food chain (from delivery to consumption). The proper storage of foods is important to ensure adequate provision throughout the year. Failure to ensure satisfactory conditions of temperature and the integrity of packaging can result in problems of unfit or spoiled food. To ensure good stock with the Food Labeling Regulations, all foods vegetables, sugar, wine, salt, fresh bread must be date coded. Produce delivered by nominated suppliers will be date coded as part of the purchase specification. Each product should be labeled with Best before use that ensures the production date and the expiry date. Refrigeration is the important thing to be used for storage of foods stuffs. According to the food legislation, foods premises should always be clean, hygiene and in good condition. The design, layouts and construction of food premises should be made considering the free space for the hygiene performances of all operations. They also are to be constructed to permit good food hygiene practice including protection against contamination and pest control. Food premises should also be occupied with proper temperature for storage and where necessary to be monitored and recorded. The natural and artificial lighting in the food premises should also be considered. An adequate number of washbasins and flush lavatories should always be available for cleaning hands. It is necessary to keep the cleaning agents separately than the food handling areas.

In recent days, food control has been considered importantly across the world. It can be taken as a kind of monitor based programs which start from the beginning to

the ending. The special emphasis is given both on the hygiene proficiency of the personnel and on hygienic facilities. For food control, mostly governmental organizations are actively involved. They inspect the food stuffs and make correction. Generally, chemicals in plants, live animals and foodstuffs of animal origin are controlled on an annual basis to further improve the safety of the marketed foods. In the production phase, control starts with seeds and plants and ranges through field inspection to certificate and the market control of products. Control is also implemented at fertilizers, pesticides, animal feeds, organic foods and genetically modified foods. Food control also includes the inspections and control of export and import animals, product of animal origin and plants. Since food hygiene certificate was developed to promote food safety, it has become an essential part for both employees and employers. The primary benefit is proof that a particular person obtains the knowledge required to deal with food in the work place. Lack of it might bring unfavorable incidents. Food hygiene certificate is the proof that an individual or firm has become familiar with food handling. It is also importantly recommended to the business firms to meet the governmental legislations.

Part Two
Earlier, scientists classified microbes on the basis of physical features. Nowadays, species of microbes are grouped according to evolutionary relationships. Though this is partially based on physical features, scientists also use fossil and genetic evidence. Microbes are divided into five categories: Archaea, bacteria, fungi, protists, viruses and prisons. The last two types are not actually living cells. They are

considered as microbes because they can only be viewed with a microscope, and have the ability to replicate them. All living things are supposed to reproduce. Reproduction is the process of generating offspring. The main ways of reproduction are: sexual and asexual. Some can reproduce using only one method and some of them use both ways. Microorganisms can reproduce sexually and asexually.
Archaea and bacteria

Archaea and bacteria reproduce through binary fission. Binary fission is a form of asexual reproduction in which a cell divides into two daughter cells after DNA replication. Bacteria cannot reproduce sexually, but some types of bacteria exchange their genetic information in a process called genetic recombination. During this process, two bacteria exchange their DNA fragments through the following processes:

By individual contact - conjugation. By exposure to DNA of dead bacteria - transformation. By exchange of plasmid genes. By a viral agent (bacteriophage) - transduction.


Most fungi can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Their asexual reproduction includes binary fission, budding, fragmentation and reproduction by spores.

Protozoa mostly reproduce by binary fission. Sometimes they reproduce by budding, or a process called schizogony. Schizogony is a multiple cellular fission. During this process the cell's nucleus divides several times before the cell itself divides into multiple new cells, each with one of these new nuclei. Some protozoans can

reproduce sexually. They form sex cells - gametes that fuse together, forming a new organism.

Viruses can reproduce only in a host cell. Once the virus has found a host, it looks for host cell to take over. The virus slowly transplants its genetic makeup into the cell. At that point, the virus can either lie dormant or immediately start reproducing. There are several ways of stopping microbes from reproduction. Sometimes, they might not get food, or produce toxins that kill each other. Low temperature could stop some but not all - but generally slow them down, that's why keeping foods stuffs in fridge is very important. One of the issues in kitchen hygiene is that if you use an antibacterial spray on your work surfaces, you are killing maybe 99% of the bugs, leaving behind the ones that are resistant to your spray. They then have a clear field in which to reproduce. If you didn't use the spray, the normal ones would keep the resistant ones in check. Hot water and detergent would do a great job swiping all types of bugs away.
Though most of the microbes are beneficial for human being as well as the environment, there are some which are dangerous. Beneficial microbes are very important. If we use those microbes with a valuable way, they will be valuable things for us. Microbes perform

functions such as nutrient recycling by breaking down dead carcasses, improving human health through digestive assistance and boosting immunity, and provide us with food such as beer and yogurt. Some microbes even help break down waste produced from industry and households, and they are used in the treatment of our wastewater by removing organic materials from the water. Harmful microbes cause of disease in animals, humans and crops. They are also associated with spoilage and decomposition of our foods, textiles and dwellings. An organism that can cause infectious disease is called a pathogen. Four groups of microbes that contain pathogens are bacteria, fungi, protozoa and the viruses. Some

harmful microbes include smallpox caused by a virus, malaria from a protozoan and cholera which is caused by a bacterial pathogen.
Chemical hazards

A chemical hazard refers to any stuff that can cause harm, primarily to people. We often have all kinds of chemicals in our homes and if we dont care them properly, that can result serious injuries. Household items such as chlorine gas or hydrochloric acid can lead to serious problems if carelessly used. Gasoline fumes from containers for lawnmowers or boats can result in major health hazards if inhaled. To prevent being hurt from chemical hazards, we must be careful ourselves. We must examine the kitchen stuffs all the time. If there are children at homes, the chemical materials should not be kept in their accessible position.
Physical hazards If a person is caused ill or injured consuming food products that contains extraneous object or foreign matter in a food items that is called physical hazard. These foreign objects refers to bone chips, metal flakes or fragments, injection needles, stones, glass or wood fragments, insects or any other foreign stuffs that are not generally found in food products. These mistakes are often found as results of poor employee practices, improper production process and badly maintained equipment. To prevent the physical hazard, processor should determine procedures to monitor physical hazards. The employees should be trained and examined while performing in the production process.

Microbiological Hazards

Microbiological hazards include food poisoning bacteria such as Salmonella. Bacteria cannot be seen with naked eyes. If food poisoning bacteria are existed in food, the food may look, smell and taste like normal. If such food is eaten, it may

cause illness such as sickness and diarrhea and sometimes even may cause death. In order to be away from these hazards, we should avoid inadequate cooking. While storing the food stuffs, temperature needs to be maintained. Too often, we have to be careful with raw foods such as meat and unwashed vegetables. Each year, many people lose their lives because of food poisoning. Some of the common causes for food poison are as follows: Raw or Undercooked food Whether you are cooking at your home or eating food out, if your food is not cooked well or brought at appropriate temperature, you will have more risk of food poisoning. While you might enjoy rare steak, runny eggs or certain raw veggies, these foods can all carry bacteria when they are not cooked long enough or hot enough to kill off the offending particles. You always need to inspect whether you are going to have cooked or undercooked food. To some extent, it helps you to prevent from being victims of poisoned foods. Food that is not stored at the proper temperature If you want to avoid being victims of food poisoning, you are highly recommended to keep the food stuffs with proper temperature. To keep yourself safe, always check the temperature on your fridge and freezer. They should be at 40 degrees F and 0 degrees F respectively. This can help prevent some very serious bacteria from growing and making you sick. Not washing hands before eating or preparing foods Pollution of foods from dirty hands is a big cause of food poisoning. Always wash your hands thoroughly before and after handling foods at home (for at least 20 seconds) and only eat at restaurants with strong showings in health department assessments. Additionally, always make sure your hands are clean before eating food as well, especially if you will be touching them.

Ingesting expired food We often have done it at one point or another, but eating expired food comes with a big risk for food poisoning attached. You always need to check expiration dates before eating any food in your home or purchased at the store. If you dont find date on the package, no packaging or only a sell by date, use the government guidelines for cold storage to help you determine if a food is safe to eat or not. As above mentioned, food poisoning can even cause death, it should be considered carefully. But if we examine that which food stuffs might contain poisonous, we can avoid being victims of it. Here are some examples about which daily food stuffs are likely to have poisonous and what can be done to prevent them.

In our daily lives, we often eat food stuffs that are especially risky to food poisoning bacteria. Some of them are as follows: _ Mushrooms

Mushrooms are high in protein and dietary fiber. They can become a source of vitamin D if exposed to ultraviolet light. There are few types of mushrooms which are highly poisonous and the effects range from gastrointestinal effects to death. It is very important to correctly identify the poisonous variety of the mushroom in order to avoid the poisoning. Some very expert mushroom collectors have suffered from mushroom poisoning. 32 species of mushrooms cause fatality and 52 have high poison content. It is very important to eat mushroom only if it is from a very reliable collector. Potato
Potato is the most favorite vegetable among human beings. They can be prepared in a variety of ways. Potatoes are rich in iron, vitamin C, copper, dietary fibers and many other nutrients. They contain elements known as glycoalkaloids. Most common glycoalkaloids in potatoes are solanine and chaconine. The stem and leaves of the potato plant are highly poisonous. The green raw potato is poisonous and death can occur by eating large amount of raw potato. Potato poisoning is rare, but it does happen from time to time. To avoid the

poisoning, raw potato should not be eaten and potato should always be cooked properly before eating. Fugu/ Puffer Fish

Puffer fish are generally believed to be the second most poisonous vertebrate. The fish is lethal if not cooked properly. Tetrodotoxin is a lethal poison found in huge amounts in the liver, ovaries, skin and other organs of the fish. Puffer fish eats things which create this deadly poison in the body of the fish. The poison shuts down the nervous system and paralyzes the body muscles. Till date, there is no known antidote. We must cook it properly before eating. In 1975, Finland experienced a food poisoning outbreak caused by Bacillus cereus. During the day, 36 people had the same launch with boiled rice, meat and vegetables. Eighteen of them were poisoned and became ill. The disease pattern was similar to previously reported short incubation time B. cereus food poisoning associated with cooked rice. The main symptoms of the victims were abdominal pain and vomiting. Bacillus cereus was already recognized as a food poisoning organism. Rice and certain seasonings were contaminated raw materials. For the prevention of food poisoning epidemic, rice and species of good microbiological quality should be chosen. Boiled rice should not be kept with more than 10 degree Celsius. Additionally, it is important to prepare the whole proportion of meal at the same time to avoid the biphasic temperature curve which enables B cereus to grow in rice. For the proper hand hygiene, I wash my hands as many times as possible. I always clean hands before handling food stuffs and after eating. While maintaining hand hygiene, I often use a good quality liquid soup. I often keep nails short and cut it smoothly. Additionally, I always remove my hand jewelry before entering to kitchen. In the kitchen, employees need to wear proper clothes. At first, the certain kitchen clothes are means of protection to kitchen employees and on the other side, those

clothes are supposed to represents their profession too. The proper clothes include double breasted jacket, Apron, pants, hat, shoes and others. The double breasted jacket can be reversed to hide stains. It contains thick cotton cloth protects from the heat of stove and protects from splattering of boiling liquids. Apron is used to shield the rest of the wearers garments from food splatters and stains. Hat is useful to prevent hair falling on the cooked items. Pants are also important for kitchen employees. These pants are generally loose allowing employees to move freely.

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