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SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION
AND
EINSTEIN S THEORY OF RELATIVITY

SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION
AND

EINSTEIN S THEORY OF RELATIVITY
BY

ERNST CASSIRER

AUTHORIZED TRANSLATION
BY

WILLIAM CURTIS SWABEY,
AND

PH.D.
PH.D.

MARIE COLLINS SWABEY,

CHICAGO LONDON

THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY
1923

COPYRIGHT 1923 BY THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY CHICAGO Made in United States of America 80 aai COMPOSED AND PRINTED AT THE WAVERLY PRESS BT THE WILLIAMS & WILKINS COMPANV BALTIMORE. A. U. . S.

the special results of which. It became increasingly evident that exact science had here reached questions for which there existed no precise correlate in the traditional language of formal logic. a peculiar difficulty arose: the traditional logic of the concept.PREFACE The by investigations contained in this volume were first prompted In the course of an studies in the philosophy of mathematics. Thus an attempt had to be made to advance from this general point of view to the forms of conceptual construction of the special disciplines. out such a plan. con itself. but extended over the whole field of exact science. firmed this view and led to a renewed analysis of the principles of the construction of concepts in general. but it was necessary to make an attempt to trace their systematic structures as wholes. I finally resolved to make the attempt only because the value and significance of the preliminary work already accom plished within the special sciences became increasingly evident to me. It did not accord of arithmetic. could not be included in the general exposition of this book. with the general purpose of the enquiry to collect special examples from the particular sciences for the support of the logical theory. The of the principles of form content of mathematical knowledge pointed back to a fundamental of the concept not clearly defined and recognized within logic In particular. physics and chemistry. however. in order that the fundamental unitary relation by which these structures are held together might be revealed more I did not conceal from myself the difficulty of carrying distinctly. Here. geometry. The systematic structure of the exact sciences assumes different forms according as it is regarded in different logical perspectives. it became necessary to analyse more closely the function of the concept itself and to trace it back to its presuppositions. . attempt to comprehend the fundamental conceptions of mathematics from the point of view of logic. The problem thus defined gained more general meaning when it became clear that it was in no way limited to the field of mathe matics. however. investigations concerning the concepts of the series and of the limit. in its well-known features. proved inadequate even to characterize the problems to which the theory mathematics led.

both attempt to repre sent a single problem which has expanded from a fixed center. Whenever.Metaphysics. What the concept is and means in its general function can only be shown by tracing this function through the most important representing it fields of scientific investigation and in general outline. in a philosophical point of view. determination without consequences in all the problems and solutions of knowledge. .&quot. there can be no doubt that the logi cal problem has thereby been greatly and directly advanced. has been raised. connected and held in intellectual unity by their common point of departure.formal&quot. the question as to the relation of thought The and being. Part II of the book attempts to Both parts. that is formed of the fundamental nature ( of the concept is which are generally considered under (&quot. therefore. considerations to the original opposition of thought and being breaks up into a number of different problems. in the history of philosophy. nevertheless. The system of knowledge tolerates no isolated &quot. sought to base the following exposition upon the historical development of science itself and upon the systematic presentation of cannot consider its all content by the great scientists. though seemingly separate in content.IV PREFACE Particularly in the exact sciences. which are. ERNST CASSIRER. therefore. nevertheless. direction which their solution takes. The conception. Whatever one may judge in detail of the results of these researches. The transformation which these questions undergo when regarded from the general point of view that is gained by criticism of the exact sciences and the new show.} or &quot. Erkenntniskritik&quot. the special logical point of view which they represent must be carried through and verified in detail. nevertheless. of knowledge and reality. drawing ever wider and more concrete fields into its circle. the investigator has turned from the special problems to the philosophical foundations with ever clearer consciousness and energy. Every change in this fundamental view indirectly produces a complete change in the way in which the general question is stated. directly significant in judging the questions of fact &quot. I have.Criticism of Knowledge. Although we the problems that arise here. The problem logical receives new meaning when we advance from purely conception of knowledge of reality. are united. by cer tain views about the nature of the concept and judgment. it has been dominated from the first by certain logical presuppositions.&quot.

which seeks to preserve the spirit which unites Plato. which sets forth a general philosophical standpoint from which Einstein s theory is seen to be only the latest and most radical fulfillment of the motives . Leibniz and Kant and to show how this spirit reaches its fulfillment in the modern develop ment of mathematical and physical theory. which we have called the Supplement. of space Professor Cassirer based his analysis in 1910 on the historical state which was still dominated by the Newtonian conceptions and time. seen in the latter the relative completion and realization of the historical tendency which he had described in his earlier works. he has since taken account of the new theory of relativity and has. On the ground of the same maxim. Zur Einstein schen Relativitdtstheorie&amp. pragmatism nor realism as these terms are understood in our English-speaking philosophy. while the second part. doctrine is neither idealism. one of immense importance for the philosophy of physics. The first part of the present book.gt. ap peared in 1921. but which lacks the fatal rigidity As Professor Cassirer develops his logical or of the latter s system. since it marked the development of the new and revolutionary theory of relativity.TRANSLATORS PREFACE was thought that there was need for some comprehensive work on the philosophy of the exact sciences which w ould do full justice to the newer developments in mathe matical and physical speculation while showing at the same time It seemed that the the historical connections of these tendencies. it is rather a positivistic and non-static rationalism. of course. In accordance with the fundamental maxim of his critical method of science. The intervening period was. with good logical justification. Professor Cassirer s philosophy may be regarded as a fundamental epistemological &quot. The reader will find here a construc and systematic survey of the whole field of the principles of the exact sciences from the standpoint of a logical idealism. His critical idealism it becomes a doctrine of creative intelligence. Descartes. of Professor Ernst Cassirer herewith presented fulfilled two works It in the English language r these requirements best of tive all. which is historically derived from Kant.theory of relativity&quot. Substanzbegriff und Funktionsbegriff was published in 1910.

. . way through the Professor Cassirer himself kindly read the entire work in manuscript . WILLIAM CURTIS SWABEY. his discussion in Chapter IV. Accuracy and clarity have been their They alone are responsible for the italicized paragraph headings.nach der Gesamteindruck besteht fur mich kein Zweifel dass der Sinn des Ganzen richtig getroffen . Section VI. the translators are aware that a good deal of the vigor and savor of the original has escaped in the process of substituting correct but colorless terms for the more vivid language of the original. advanced course in the Theory of Knowledge and that perhaps these guide-posts might help the student in finding his difficult material. which were inserted because it was thought that the book might be used as a text or reference work in connection with an chief aim. and. With regard to the translation. und wiedergegeben ist. MARIE COLLINS SWABEY.VI TRANSLATORS PREFACE which are inherent in mathematical and physical science as such.&quot. While Professor Cassirer has had his fundamental principles confirmed rather than disproved by this recent development. of Substance and Function must be taken in connection with his later statements. states that &quot. in a friendly letter. We wish herewith to express our hearty thanks to Professor Cassirer for permitting us to translate his works as well as for his trouble in reading the manuscript of the translation and for his courtesy in the whole transaction.

The psy chology of abstraction. Purpose and nature of the generic concept. defect of the psychological theory of abstraction.class and of unity. Extension of the concept of number. cept. 35 Criticism of the nominalistic deduction III. The concept of progression. The psychological criticism of the concept (Berkeley). orders. The problem of abstraction.second&quot. The irrational numbers. The serial form and the members of the series &quot.CONTENTS PART I THE CONCEPT OF THING AND THE CONCEPT OF RELATION CHAPTER I ON THE THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF CONCEPTS I. The logical foundations of the pure concept of number (Dedekind). arithmetic. Number and of presentation and the act of presentation. Number and the concept of class. The theories of Helmholtz s and Kronecker. tion. The sensationalistic deduction of number. IV. The concept in Aristotelian logic. Russell theory of cardinal numbers. of logical relations 9 The negative process of &quot. The variety of objective &quot. The mathematical con cept and its &quot.abstraction. 18 CHAPTER II THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER I. Objects of the and &quot. Number The content 27 as ordinal number. The metaphysical presuppositions of Aristotelian The concept of substance in logic and metaphysics logic. of the zero The logical definition theories. The The place of the thing-concept in the system series.&quot. The criticism of the theories of abstraction.intentions. 3 The forms of III. developments in logic. II. Mill s analysis of mathematical concepts. The logic of relations.&quot.&quot. Dedekind s . New II.&quot. Gauss theory of the negative and imaginary numbers. The system of arithmetic.concrete universality.first&quot. Frege s foundations of presenta . The presupposition of the class con 44 The generic concept and the relational concept Criticism of &quot.

The transference of relations dis tinguished from induction and analogy. . The problem of the The concept of &quot. The &quot.doctrine of forms&quot. numbers (Cantor) 54 CHAPTER III THE CONCEPT OP SPACE AND GEOMETRY I. Geometry and the group theory.ill CONTENTS explanation of the irrational numbers.subject&quot. Eu clidean space and the other forms of mathematical space. Mechanism and the concept of motion. Grassmann s Ausdehnungslehre and its logical principles. The conceptual principles of pure space. The method of ancient geometry. and its significance for natural science (Karl Pearson).power. of motion. The syntheses of generating relations. (Hilbert). Veronese s modification of empiricism. The problem of metageometry. and the concept of the Source IV. du Bois-Reymond s theory of the limiting concept. Geometry as pure &quot. Rationalism and empiricism. 68 II. The concepts of constancy and change in geometry III. The fundamental principle of analytic geometry. The P. The apparent logical ideal of physics. The concept of &quot. The constructive concepts and the concepts of nature. Ideal objects in empirical geometry. The &quot. The second &quot. (Leib niz). Mathematical space and sensuous space. Geometry and reality 100 CHAPTER IV THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE I. and the principle of continuity. Magnitudes and functions The infinitesimal geometry. The con cept of traditional logic and the scientific ideal of pure descrip tion. and quadrilateral construction of Staudt. Concept and form. and thought in the principles of the geometry of posi Steiner and Poncelet. The con cept of space and the concept of number. Projection and the imaginary in geometry.doctrine of relations&quot.limiting concept&quot. Is this the true ideal of physics? 112 II. Ob jections to the Kantian theory of geometry. Numbering and measuring as presuppositions. Projective metric (Cayley and Klein. The attempt at an empirical 91 grounding of geometry (Pasch). The forms of calculus. Intuition tion. The production transfinite numbers. of of transfinite numbers.principle of generation&quot. Characteristic 76 (Kombinatorik) as pure &quot.correlation&quot. The concept of space and the concept of order. Real space and experiment.&quot. Metrical and projective geometry.

Kepler).fact&quot. Criticism of the method of physical &quot.hypotheses. Construction and con 170 vention VII. The &quot. The problem of abstraction in modern logic. The chemistry of sensuous qualities and Richter s law of definite pro portions. etc. Hertz s system of mechanics. Newton s concepts of absolute space and absolute time. Robert Mayer s methodology of natural science. The problem The sceptical theory of knowledge (Pro The concepts of nature and purpose (Plato).&quot. Streintz s concept of the &quot. The impact of atoms.regulative&quot. . tagoras. Energetics and mechanics.theory. Energy and the concept of number.measurement. Neumann: the body alpha. of inertia 151 VI. and the The concept of the &quot. The atom as a relational concept. Logical aspects of the concept of type.&quot. Space and time as mathematical ideals.&quot. The relation of the ideal and reality The problem of the physical method and its history. 187 Physics as a science of qualities VIII.idealization&quot. The concept of the measure of work. The system of reference of pure mechanics.&quot.fundamental body. &quot. The changes in the concept of the atom. The theory of C.Real&quot. 139 &quot. The &quot.). Consequences of the confusion of truth and reality. The physical and the physical &quot. 130 Hypotheses and The presuppositions of physical &quot.simple&quot. The postulate of continuity. Dalton s law of multiple proportions. The problem of the construction of concepts in chemistry. The substitution of the fixed stars for absolute space. The hypostatization of sensuous qualities (Aristotle).&quot. of pres 115 entations. The concept of the ether.CONTENTS IX III.abstraction. atom of Boscovich and Fechner.not real&quot. The hypostatization of sensuous qualities (Anaxagoras). The existence of the limiting point. The concept of substance in the Ionian philosophy of nature. The chemical concept as a rela- . The concept of energy. Logical idealism on the problem of existence. Energy as a relational concept. The concept of hypothesis (Kepler and Newton).intellectual experiment&quot. ontological &quot. elements in the concepts of the physical object. The verification of physical hypotheses. The concepts of space and time. V. The motive of serial construction. Energy and the sense qualities. The physical concepts of series. Atomism and num ber. IV. Units of measurement. Mathematics and teleology (Plato. The formal presuppositions of energism. Matter and idea and Galileo s concept natural laws. Aristotle. Rankine s de ductions of energetics. The and logical form of the concept of the physical object. The logical and of knowledge (Plato). concept of non-being. The &quot. and the law of inertia. atom and the application of differential equations. The &quot. problem of existence. use of the concept of the atom. The concept of valency and the theory of types.

Judgments of perception and judgments of experience. &quot. The series of degrees of objectivity. and &quot. reality.objective&quot.&quot. The concept as (confusion relations the expression of individual relations. The subjectivity of the sensuous qualities.&quot. Discrete and continuous &quot. The separation of &quot.uni .subjective&quot. Experience as aggre gate and as system. The periodic system of the elements. relation III. methods. Criticism of Mach s theory. experience. The concept of the &quot. in all empirical judgment. The concept of the &quot. The postulate of necessary determinateness. versal&quot. and the theories The reconstruction of the systematic of &quot. The problem of the con stants of natural science. Induction and analysis. and &quot. The relation of &quot. In duction and the theory of invariants. Experiment as the means of analysis. and the relation of mathematical necessity. The metaphysical tendency in induction and deduction.&quot. Rickert s of &quot. The logical gradations of the contents of experience.element of eternity&quot.invari form of experience. The two 252 of laws of nature. position. form of chemistry.reality. Locke s theory of empirical judg ment.X CONTENTS tional concept. fundamental types of knowledge The problem ants of Laws and constants. Induction and analogy.presentations. Chemistry and mathematics IX.fundamental&quot.&quot. The concept and the 265 CHAPTER VI THE CONCEPT OF REALITY I.Isolation&quot.super Laws and rules. and &quot. Rickert s theory of the scientific construction of concepts.resolutive&quot.&quot. of the a priori The general &quot. The empirical theory of judgment. Changing and constant elements of experience. &quot. The &quot.&quot.radical&quot. The concept of natural science and 203 &quot. Criticism of Rickert s theory.compositive&quot. and &quot.thought-experiment. Word-meanings and mathematical concepts.&quot.particular&quot.meanings&quot.composite radicals. 237 II. Magnitudes and other forms of 220 PART II THE SYSTEM OF RELATIONAL CONCEPTS AND THE PROBLEM OF REALITY CHAPTER V ON THE PROBLEM OP INDUCTION I. relations.wholes. and &quot. The development of the concepts of objectivity and subjectivity. Mach s &quot. The prob- .

&quot. concept 314 CHAPTER VIII ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RELATIONS I. &quot. permanence and repetition. . progress to the &quot.eternal truths.&quot. Criticism of the physiological explanation of relational concepts. Association as a prin 271 ciple of explanation II. Meinong s theory of &quot. o?&quot. The concept of objectivity of projection and its and the problem of space. The unity of the physical world 293 The historical transformation of the Helmholtz theory of signs. III. The critical concept of truth. The doctrine of the in The concept of modern psy chology. The division into circles of objectivity.form&quot. Truth and the &quot.&quot. &quot.founded contents. Constancy and change in knowledge.&quot.Projection&quot. The problem of the subjectivity and objectivity of relational con The universal functions of rational and empirical knowl cepts. The meaning of judgment. The correlation of the conscious ness of the ego and the consciousness of the object.tran of sensuous experience.whole XI scending&quot. The existence of the &quot. Aristotle s Doctrine of the ~K. &quot.matter&quot.77&quot.world.&quot.&quot. Ebbinghaus s physiological account of relations.&quot. The independence of logical truths of the thinking subject.th&quot. The concept of &quot. of edge. The concept of the object in The objectivity within pure mathematics. The problem of pragmatism. The prob lem of the &quot. The logical and the jyitoLogical conceptions of rela The unity of the scientific views 302 &quot. and &quot.form-quality&quot.practical. 326 II.thing. The reciprocal relation of the knowledge.TTT. The conflict between empiricism and nativism. The reconcili ation of permanence and change. of experience. T.e CHAPTER VII SUBJECTIVITY AND OBJECTIVITY OF THE RELATIONAL CONCEPTS l| II. in s modern psychology. The &quot.transsubjective. The sepa ration of thought and experience.T tivity.Thoughts of relation&quot. &quot.&quot. Concept and perception distin guished (Helmholtz). The con 309 cept of truth of modern mathematics The relational concepts and the activity of the ego. The double form of the &quot.vovb &quot.Objects of a higher order. Plato psychology of relations.represen Transformation of the concept of representation and tation.oi.CONTENTS lem of transcendence.&quot. 286 The function of judgment. . The 337 psychology of the idea of space. and &quot. . The theory defects. The psychology of thought. Logical relations and the problem of self-consciousness. critical idealism.selection. substance.

. III. Matter. . The concepts of space and time of critical idealism and the theory of relativity VI. 387 394 IV. ether and space V. The philosophical concept of truth and the theory of relativity..Xll CONTENTS SUPPLEMENT EINSTEIN I. The theory of relativity and the problem of reality Bibliography Index. The empirical and conceptual foundations tivity 367 . S THEORY OF RELATIVITY CONSIDERED FROM THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL STANDPOINT 351 of the theory of rela Concepts of measure and concepts of things II. Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry VII. 409 430 445 457 461 .

PARTI THE CONCEPT OF THING AND THE CONCEPT OF RELATION .

CHAPTER
ON THE THEORY

I

OF THE FORMATION OF CONCEPTS

is developing in the foundations of theoretical contemporary philosophy regarding knowledge is manifested perhaps nowhere as clearly as in the trans

New

developments in

logic.

The new view that

formation
it

In logic alone, of the chief doctrines of formal logic. seemed to have gained a firm foundation; in philosophical thought

a field seemed to be marked off that was assured against all the doubts aroused by the various epistemological standpoints and hy- ,] The judgment of Kant appeared verified and confirmed ^ potheses. that here the steady and secure way of science had finally been jj reached. The further consideration that, as logic since the time of Aristotle had not had to retrace a single step, so also it had not
single step, seemed from this point of view a confirmation of its peculiar certainty. Undisturbed by the continuous trans formation of all material knowledge, it alone remained constant and

advanced a

without variation.
If

we

follow the evolution of science within the last decades

more

closely, however, a different picture of formal logic appears. Every where it is occupied with new questions and dominated by new tendencies of thought. The work of centuries in the formulation of

fundamental doctrines seems more and more to crumble away; while on the other hand, great new groups of problems, resulting from the general mathematical theory of the manifold, now press to the fore ground. This theory appears increasingly as the common goal toward which the various logical problems, that were formerly investigated separately, tend and through which they receive their ideal unity. Logic is thereby freed from its isolation and again led to concrete tasks and achievements. For the scope of the modern theory of the manifold is not limited to purely mathematical problems, but involves a general view which influences even the special methods of the natural sciences and is therein verified. But the systematic connection into which logic is thus drawn compels renewed criticism
of its presuppositions.

disappears criticism
;

The appearance of unconditional now begins to be applied to those very
3

certainty doctrines

4:

SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION

that have persisted unchanged historically in the face of profound changes in the ideal of knowledge.

The concept in Aristotelian logic. The Aristotelian logic, in its general principles, is a true expression and mirror of the Aristotelian metaphysics. Only in connection with the belief upon which the latter rests, can it be understood in its peculiar motives. The conof the nature and divisions of being predetermines the con ception In the further ception of the fundamental forms of thought. of logic, however, its connections with the Aristotelian development ontology in its special form begin to loosen; still its connection with
the basic doctrine of the latter persists, and clearly reappears at definite turning points of historical evolution. Indeed, the basic

|T

which is ascribed to the theory of the concept in the structure of logic, points to this connection. Modern attempts to reform logic have sought in this regard to reverse the traditional
significance,

:

j

order of problems by placing the theory of the judgment before the theory of the concept. Fruitful as this point of view has proved to
be, it has, nevertheless, not been maintained in its full purity against the systematic tendency which dominated the old arrangement. The intellectual tendency still shaping these new attempts revealed itself in that features crept into the theory of judgment itself, which

*

/

could only be understood and justified- by_the traditional theory of the generic concept (Gattungsbegriff).\ The primacy of the concept, which they sought to lay aside, was once more implicitly ac

knowledged. The actual center of gravity of the system had not been changed but merely the external arrangement of its elements. Every attempt to transform logic must concentrate above all upon this one point: all criticism of formal logic is comprised in
I

criticism of the general doctrine of the construction of concepts

this doctrine are

Purpose and nature of the generic concept. The chief features of well-known and do not need detailed exposition.

r
\

Its presuppositions are simple and clear; and they agree so largely with the fundamental conceptions, which the ordinary view of the world consistently uses and applies, that they seem to offer no foothold for criticism. Nothing is presupposed save the existence of

things in their inexhaustible multiplicity, and the power of the mind to select from this \vealth of particular existences those features that are common to several of them. When we thus collect objects
characterized

by possession

of

some common property

into classes.

THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF CONCEPTS
and when we repeat this process upon higher levels, there gradually an ever firmer order and division of being, according to the

arises

^

u series of factual similarities running through the particular things. r The essential functions of thought, in this connection, are merely those of comparing and differentiating a sensuously given manifold. J Reflection, which passes hither and thither among the particular objects in order to determine the essential features^in-wliich
l j

Abstraction la/s hojd^jion and agree, leads of itself to abstraction. raises to clear consciousness these related features,v pure, t)y them
selves, freed

from

all

admixture of dissimilar

elements."

Thus the

\

peculiar merit of this interpretation seems to be that it never destroys or imperils the unity of the ordinary view of the world. The c_oncept

j

does not appear as something foreign to sensuous reality, but forms a part of this reality; it is a selection from what is immediately contained in it. In this respect, the concepts of the exact mathematical
sciences stand
sciences,

-^
\
\

upon the same plane as the concepts

of tbe descriptive
ordering^mcT""""

which are merely concerned with a superficial Just as we form the concept of a tree classification .of what is given. by selecting from the totality of oaks, beeches and birch trees, the group of common properties, so, in exactly the same way, we form

the concept of a plane rectangular figure by_igolating the common properties which are found in the square, the right angle, the

rhomboid, the rhombus, the symmetrical and asymmetrical trapezium and trapezoid, and which can be immediately seen and pointed out The well-known guiding principles of the concept follow of themselves from thesr foundations. Every series of comparable objects has a

\

supreme generic concept/ which comprehends within itself all the determinations in which these objects agree, while on the other hand,
within this supreme genus, the sub-species at various levels are defined by properties belonging only to a part of the elements. In the same

way that we ascend from

the species to the higher genus by abandon-^ a certain characteristic, thereby, drawing a larger range of objects ing into the circle, so by a reverse process, the specification of the genus
takes place through the progressive addition of new elements 6f content. \ Hence, if we call the number of properties of a concept

magnitude of
1

its content, this

2

magnitude increases as we descend from
der Logik, Ed. 4, Leipzig, 1875, 51 ff.
16
ff.;

Cf. e.g., Drobisch,

Neue Darslellung
1857,

Uberweg, System der Logik, Bonn,
2

Cf. intension. (Tr.)

6

SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION

the higher concepts to the lower, and thus diminishes the number of pecies subordinate to the concept; while, when we ascend to the higher genus, this content will diminish as the number of species is increased. This increasing extension of the concept corresponds to a progressive diminution of the content; so that finally, the most general

concepts

we can reach no

conceptual pyramid, which we form
in the abstract representation of

longer possess any definite content. The in this way, reaches its summit
"something"

under the

all-inclusive

L

being of which every possible intellectual content falls, but at the same time is totally devoid_pf specific meaning.
of abstraction. of the concept logical theory
its

which

The problem
universal

At

this

point
first

in

the

traditional

arise

the

this

method

validity and applicability. of forming concepts is entirely
it

jckmbtsx concerning If the fin^l goal of

empty,
Such"

process leading to
is

must arouse

suspicion.

the whole an outcome

unintelligible

if

the individual steps have
to

fulfilled

the require
fruitful

ments,

which we are accustomed

make

of

every

and concrete process of construction of scientific concepts. What we demand and expect of a scientific concept, first of all, is this: that, in the place of original indefiniteness and ambiguity of ideas, it shall institute a sharp and unambiguous determination; while, in this case, on the contrary, the sharp lines of distinction seem the more effaced, the further we pursue the logical process. And in fact, from the
standpoint of formal logic itself, a new problem arises here. If all construction of concepts consists in selecting from a plurality of objects before us only the similar properties, while we neglect the
rest, it is clear

,

that through this sort of reduction what

is

merely a

This part, ijparf has taken the place of the original sensuous whole. The concept ffihowever, claims to characterize and explain the whole. \ would lose all value if it meant merely the neglect of the particular
I

and the annihilation of their peculiarity. is meant to be the expression of a thoroughly positive process; what remains is not to be merely an arbitrarily chosen part but an "essential" moment by which the
cases
it starts,

from which

The

act of negation, on the contrary,

whole

is

determined.

The higher concept

is

to

make

the lower

intelligible by setting forth in abstraction the ground of its special form. The traditional rule, however, for the formation of the generic concept contains in itself no guarantee that this end will be actually

achieved.

In fact, there

is

nothing to assure us that the

common

THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF CONCEPTS
properties,

7

which we
truly

select

include

the

from any arbitrary collection of objects, which characterize and typical features,

determine the total structures of the members of the collection. We may borrow a drastic example from Lotze: If we group cherries

and meat together under the attributes

red, juicy

and

edible,

we do

not thereby attain a valid logical concept but a meaningless combina tion of words, quite useless for the comprehension of the particular
cases.

Thus

it

does not

suffice;

becomes clear that the general formal rule in itself that on the contrary, there is always tacit reference
logic.

to another intellectual criterion to supplement it. The metaphysical presuppositions of Aristotelian

In the

system of Aristotle, this criterion
are
left in logic

is

are

filled in

and made

plainly evident; the gaps that good by the Aristotelian metais

|

f

the special link that binds the two fields together. For Aristotle, at least, the concept is no mere subjective schema in which we collect the common elements of
physics.

The

doctrine of the concept

an arbitrary group of things. The selection of what is common -remains an empty play of ideas if it is not assumed that what is thus gained is, at the same time, the real Form which guarantees the causal and teleological connection of particular things. The real and ulti mate similarities of things are also the creative forces from which they spring and according to which they are formed. The process
of comparing things and of grouping them together according to similar properties, as it is expressed first of all in language, does not lead to what is indefinite, but if rightly conducted, ends in the dis-

"Specific

co very of the real essences of things. Thought only isolates the type; tEiiTlatteTTs contained as an active factor in the indi

special forms.

vidual concrete reality and gives the general pattern to the manifold The biological species signifies both the end toward

which the living individual strives and the immanent force by which
its

evolution

is

guided.

The

logical doctrine of the construction of

~"\

the concept and_of_definition can only be built up with reference to ihese fundamental relations of the real. The determination of concept according to its next higher genus and its specific difference

reproduces the process by which the real substance successively unfolds itself in forms of being. Thus it is this basic jits special of substance to which the purely logical theories of Aristotle inception
constantly have reference.

The complete system

of scientific defini-

/

8
tions

SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION

would also be a complete expression of the substantial forces which control reality. 3 The concept of substance in logic and metaphysics. An understand ing of Aristotle s logic is thus conditioned by an understanding of his conception of being. Aristotle himself clearly distinguishes the various sorts and meanings of being from each other; and it is the essential problem of his theory of the categories to trace through

and make clear this division of being into its various subspecies. Thus he also expressly distinguishes the existence, which Is indicated by mere relations in judgment, from existence after the fashion of a ingi the being of a conceptual synthesis, from that of a concrete
subject.

In

all

these quests for a sharper division, however, the

Only logical primacy of the concept of substance is not questioned. in given, existing substances are the various determinations of being
Only in a fixed thing-like substratum, which must first be given, can the logical and grammatical varieties of being in general find their ground and real application. Quantity and quality, and time determinations, do not exist in and for themselves, space but merely as properties of absolute realities which exist by them selves. The category of relation especially is forced into a dependent
thinkable.

and subordinate position by
of Aristotle.
it

Relation

is

this fundamental metaphysical doctrine not independent of the concept of real being
;

can only add supplementary and external modifications to the In this way the latter, such as do not affect its real "nature." Aristotelian doctrine of the formation of the concept came to have a characteristic feature, which has remained in spite of all the mani fold transformations it has undergone. The fundamental categorical relation of the thing to its properties remains henceforth the guiding
point of view; while relational determinations are only considered in
so far as they can be transformed, by some sort of mediation, into This view is in properties of a subject or of a plurality of subjects. evidence in the text-books of formal logic in that relations or con

among the "non-essential" proper a concept, and thus as capable of being left out of its defi nition without fallacy. Here a methodological distinction of great
ties of
3

nections, as a rule, are considered

On

cially, Prantl, Geschichte der

the metaphysical presuppositions of the Aristotelian logic, cf. espe LogikimAbendlande, I; Trendelenburg, Geschichle

der

Kategorienlehre; H. Maier, Tubingen, 1900, pp. 183 ff.

Die

Syllogistik

des

Aristoteles,

II,

2,

THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF CONCEPTS
significance

9

The two chief forms of logic, which are appears. to each other in the modern scientific develop especially opposed ment, are distinguished as will become clear by the different
value which
is

placed upon thing-concepts and
ii

The psychological

this general criterion,

supposition, upon In fact the whole special doctrines of the peripatetic metaphysics. struggle against the Aristotelian "concept realism" has been without
effect upon this decisive point. The conflict between nominalism and realism concerned only the question of the metaphysical reality of concepts, while the question as to their valid logical definition was not considered. The reality of "universals" was in question. But what was beyond all doubt, as if by tacit agreement of the conflict ing parties, was just this: that the concept was to be conceived as a

If we accept recognize further that the essential pre which Aristotle founded his logic, has survived the

criticism of the concept (Berkeley).

we

universal genus, as the

common

element in a series of similar or

this mutual assumption, resembling particular things. all conflict as to whether the common element possessed a separate factual existence or could only be pointed out as a sensuous moment in the individuals,

Without

would be

essentially unintelligible.

Moreover,

the psychological criticism of the "abstract" concept, radical as it seems at first sight, introduces no real change here. In the case of Berkeley, we can follow in detail how his skepticism as to the worth

and

fruitfulness of the abstract concept implied, at the sarae time, a dogmatic belief in the ordinary definition of the concept. That

the true scientific concept, that in particular the concepts of mathe matics and physics, might have another purpose to fulfill than is
ascribed to

them
4

in this scholastic definition,

this

thought was not

the psychological deduction of the fact, concept, the traditional schema is not so much changed as carried over to another field. While formerly it had been outer things that

comprehended.

In

in

common element was selected, merely transferred to presentations as psychi cal correlates of things. The process is only, as it were, removed to another dimension, in that it is taken out of the field of the physical
were compared and out of which a
here the same process
is

For greater detail c/. my Das Erkenntnisproblem in der Philosophic Wissenschaft der neuern Zeit, Vol. II, Berlin, 1907, pp. 219 ff.

4

und

10

SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION

remain the same.

into that of the psychical, while its general course and structure When several composite presentations have a of their content in common, there arises from them, according part

to the well-known psychological laws of simultaneous stimulation and fusion of the similar, a content in which merely the agreeing

determinations are retained and

all

the others suppressed. 5

In this

way no new, independent and special structure is produced, but only a certain division of presentations already given, a division in which
certain
tion,

To

are emphasized by a one-sided direction of atten way raised more sharply out of their surroundings. the "substantial forms," which, according to Aristotle, represent

moments
in this

and

the final goal of this comparing activity, there correspond certain fundamental elements, which run through the whole field of percep

And it is now asserted still more emphatically that these absolute elements alone, existing for themselves, constitute the real kernel of what is given and Again the role of relation is
tion.
"real."

limited as

much

as possible.

Hamilton, with

all

his recognition

of the Berkeleian theory,

showed the

characteristic function of relat-

/ s ing thought. Against him, J. Stuart Mill emphasizes that the true [/ positive being of every relation lies only in the individual members
which are bound together by it, and that hence, since these members can only be given as individuals, there can be no talk of a general

\

r

The concept does not exist save as a part of a concrete presentation and burdened with all the attributes of presen tation. What gives it the appearance of independent value and
meaning
of relation. 6

underived psychological character is merely the circumstance that our attention, being limited in its powers, is never able to illumine the whole of the presentation and must of necessity be narrowed to a

mere

selection of parts. The consciousness of the concept is re solved for psychological analysis into consciousness of a presentation or part of a presentation, which is associatively connected with some

word or other sensuous
The psychology of
according
to
this

sign.

abstraction.

The

"psychology

of

abstraction,"

key to the logical of every form of concept. This meaning is derived from meaning the simple capacity of reproducing any given content of presenta
view,
furnishes the
real
tion.
5

Abstract objects arise in every perceiving being in
tlberweg, op.
cit.,

whom

like

Cf., e.g.,

51.
s

Cf. Mill, 1865, p. 319.

6

An

Examination of Sir William Hamilton

Philosophy, London,

not affected by it. it finally forms only a shadowy background on which the constant features stand of these out the more clearly. The their pro fusion agree. but leave behind them certain Since these traces of their existence in the psycho-physical subject. we find here a common. Yet precisely where there seems no Weighty as this distinction metaphysics. shown in that they exert a special have been left in us by percep The and reality of these residues is independent influence upon newly occurring content and transformed according to them. Logik. The difference between the ontological and psychological views is . the conflict of opinion. indivisible whole.&quot. which has remained apparently unassailable throughout all the changes of the question. especially B. Erdmann. If we remain in the sphere of this nevertheless. in so far as every the content of perception because they are already containedjrui^-^e common elements.. which tions of real things and processes.THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF CONCEPTS 11 sentations. between the real perception and the recall. at a point of view closely akin to that of medieval &quot. specific Cf. 88 ff. may appear from the standpoint of meaning and content of the logical problem are. gressive into a unitary.* Is the theory of the concept.things&quot. Ed. of scholasticism were the beings copied in thought. Thus we stand apprehended and this is sometimes emphasized by the advocates of this here. . are again aroused by newly occurring stimuli of a similar sort. view themselves. constitutes the psychological nature of the concept. pp. real and verbal abstracta can only be taken from the act of perception is itself. fundamental belief regarding the concept. which must be thought of as unconscious during the time traces. a firm connection is gradually formed between the similar elemeats of successive percep That which differentiates them tends more and more to tions. which is consequently in origin as in function merely a solidification features that totality of memory-residues. latter problem. and is it able to represent 7 them in all their mutual connections and 2. determinations of the perceived have been given in repeated pre For these determinations are not confined to the particular moment of perception. as here developed. 65 ff. an adequate and faithful and characterize picture of the procedure of the concrete sciences? Does it include all the special features of this procedure. the real methodological difficulty begins. while here the objects are meant to be nothing more than the contents of perception. disappear. merely that the &quot.conceptualism.

which arise through genetic Mathematical concepts. The the horse. rom empiri- * 1 which aim merely to be copies of certain factual charac While in the latter case. are the generic concepts of of the the descriptive and classifying natural sciences. in order to maintain the unity of the supreme principle of experi ence. in the former case we first have to create the multiplicity which is the object of consideration. has frequently attempted to obliterate this opposition. But this very attempt leads at once to a transformation and disintegration of the theory. it is in whose favor it was undertaken.&quot. It can easily be understood that the logical theory of abstraction. his theory of the concept at once ceases to develop naturally and freely.12 characters? SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION With regard to the Aristotelian theory. for instance. Wherever he leaves the field of biological thought. a free production of certain relational systems. Mill s analysis of mathematical concepts. The doctrine of abstraction loses either its universal validity or the specific logical character that originally belonged to it. The concepts. olive-tree. by producing from a simple act of construction (Setzung}. multiplicity of things is given in and for itself and is only drawn together for the sake of an abbreviated verbal or intellectual expres sion. an act of thought itself. through the intellectual f . even in its modern forms. this must be answered negatively. resist reduction to the customary schema. the lion. are different cal concepts. In another sort .abstraction.&quot. at this point that questions as to the value and inner unity of the theory of abstraction must be decided. which are question Aristotle s special object and interest. the concepts of geometry. establishment of a constructive connection. The concept of the point. a systematic con nection of thought-constructions (Denkgebi Ideri) There appears here in opposition to bare &quot. From the &quot. Thus Mill.form&quot.abstraction. The proposition that 1 + 1 upon = 2 merely describes an experience which has been forced us by the process of joining things together. definition. is to be ascertained and established. especially. at least. which is the simplest offered by exact science. the teristics of the given reality of things. by progressive synthesis. or of the surface cannot be pointed out as an immediate part of physicallypresent bodies and separated from them bysimple &quot. for . Even in this example. logical technique faces a ( new problem. beginning. explains mathematical truths and concepts as also mere expres sions of concrete physical matters of fact. or of the line.

if not by those of the universe. the whole of our knowledge. first of all. But psychical existence is denied no less than physical to the objects of geometrical definitions. a dictory concept for us because it is only a contra has been shown in experience square&quot. as new geometrical or arithmetical truths. so that the beginning of one impression is inseparably connected with the cessa According to this mode of explanation. The reproduced presentation is. a third always came into being of itself. Here.round is true of the axioms concerning spatial relations. it would significance and validity. inherent in these special experiences of numbering and measuring. Mill further attempts to justify the value and peculiar significance. but only with relations between There are no real things which precisely agree hypothetical forms. the that.THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF CONCEPTS 13 tion of lose of world of objects.conceive&quot. for example. peculiar this explanation at The &quot. in this case. in a world.deductive&quot. is now traced back to the fact that in these propositions we are never concerned with statements about concrete facts. similar to the original in all details. Moreover. is able to is supplant the sensible object once crossed by another. not only the actual reality. geometry and arithmetic seem again resolved into mere statements concerning But this interpretation fails when certain groups of presentations. in which by the combina two things. by virtue of its clarity itself. reference is made to the accuracy and trustworthiness of the images. However. that a thing loses the property of having four corners the moment it assumes the property of roundness. in order to reach memory-image. with the definitions of geometry. without exception. a line without breadth. which we ascribe to mathematical propositions. For in our mind we never find the presentation of a mathematical point. we do not need each time renewed perceptions of physical objects. but the very possibility of such contents must be denied. but always only the smallest possible sensible extension. it is at least excluded by the physical properties of our planet. for every psychical image we can . no circles whose radii are all equal. certainty. also we never &quot. The same &quot. from the standpoint of our experience. no perfectly straight lines. in tion of the other. there are no points without magni tude. and distinctness. which we retain of spatial and temporal relations. a varied experience has shown* the image that the geometrician frames corresponds In this way it can be conceived perfectly to the original impression.

.&quot. does not change the constitution of con sciousness and of objective reality.e. Ed. a process which the traditional doctrine cannot justify. as it has litherto been understood. . If we trace the method of this transformation. 9 Ch. 7. the world of sensible things and presentations is not so much reproduced as imits transformed and supplanted by an order of another sort. as Mill s own explanations show. more particularly Ch. London. The concepts of the manifold species and genera are supposed to arise for us by the gradual predominance of the similarities of things over their differences. IV. Book II. is result also by the simple schema of &quot. Mill. imprint themselves upon 8 Cf. 8 It is evident at form shows us only once that this double explanation destroys itself. for they possess no concrete correlative in all of these facts. at least for those forms which alone are defined and characterized as &quot. but merely institutes certain and divisions in it. For in their origin the same process is shown.&quot. are revealed. such as cannot less even be characterized. and Book III. all emphasis is laid upon the similarity between mathematical ideas and the original impressions. conceals within itself what is ulti mately the same problem. or rather an ordered system of strictly differentiated intellectual functions. it is seen that this sort of similarity does not and cannot exist. however.concepts&quot. to which the traditional logical conception especially appeals and upon which it rests. it merely divides the parts of the sensempression but adds to it no new datum. &quot.abstraction. And this confirmed if we turn from the purely mathematical concepts to those of theoretical physics. and can be followed in detail. Ch. 1868. 9 The defect of the psychological theory of abstraction. however. A System of Logic. however. These concepts of physics also not intended merely to produce copies of perceptions. but to are put in place of the sensuous manifold another manifold. Cf. by virtue of their many appearances. selection from the facts of nature and presentation. These forms cannot be attained by bare in the mathematical sciences.Abstraction.14 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION lines of a certain breadth. the similarities alone. 24. On the one hand. much justified. we find that the naive view of the world. i. of the trans formation of the concrete sensuous reality. Neglecting the nature of abstract concepts. which agrees with certain theoretical conditions. In the definitions of pure mathematics. 5. on the other. certain forms of relation.

which connects and binds together the two temporally separated conditions. We say that a sensuous - manifold is conceptually apprehended and ordered. According to the manner and direction in which the synthesis takes place. This synthesis.&quot. On the other hand. however. is merely a psychological side-issue and does not affect the logical characterization of the concept. . That the &quot. without running through the different instances. Thus from this point of view also it appears that all construction of concepts is connected with some definite form of construction of series.unconscious&quot. without the definitive moment in the clear deduction of each element from the preceding being thereby removed. whether from the retention of this identity of relation there finally evolves an abstract object. fail to attain like fixity and permanence. is determined. and by which the form of dependence between each member and the generic connection arise. the consciousness of their and consequently of the abstract object could This transition from member to member. Without a process of arranging in series.abstraction. A charac function is ascribed to thought. By this. things. namely. which constitutes the specific form of the concept.series of similars.&quot. never succeeding one. which change from case The similarity of to case. features are united. according to a fundamental generating rela tion. to relate a present content to a past content and to comprehend the two as in some re spect identical. The appearance of a general image of that sort may be excluded by the nature of the generating relation. a general presentation in which similar tion. The psychology of abstraction first of all has to postulate that perceptions can be ordered for logical consideration into &quot. is irrelevant to the process implied here as long as the elements are not recognized as similar. however. It is the identity of this generating rela maintained through changes in the particular contents. an act of identifica tion is recognized as the foundation of all &quot. can manifestly only be effective and fruitful. in necessary sequence. the same sensuous material can be apprehended under very different concep tual forms. traces left in us by an earlier perception are like a new impression in point of fact. while the individual differences. possesses no immediate teristic sensible correlate in the contents compared. if it is understood and judged as such.THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF CONCEPTS 15 * the mind. however. manifestly presupposes a principle according to which it takes place. when its members do not stand next to one another without relation but proceed from a definite beginning.

and is not the generic presenta spatial and temporal tion. The relation relations. or causal dependence. the qualities of things and thepurejispect of relation are and&quot. a thorough-going transformation. the real weakness of the theory of abstraction is apparent in the one-sidedness of its selection. And yet even the most simple psychological reflection shows that the &quot. very different is merely a collec name. with sensations of pressure and touch. therefore. from the wealth of possible principles of logical order. it will be seen that a series of contents in its conceptual ity. the concept is of necessity merely the expression and husk of it. number and magnitude. of merely the principle of similarIn truth. upon which rests all definiteness of the content of percep essential characteristics with parts of this very content itself. . The &quot. Thus we can conceive members of series ordering ordered according to equality or inequality. thus produced is in each case decisive. The ordinary schema calls for for in it of the construction of concepts. And the real task of logical theory with regard to any definite concept consists in setting forth these functions in their and in developing their formal aspects. The forms of series.likeness&quot. categorical functions are here united under what In truth. which may arise incidentally under special circumstances. The theory of abstraction obscures this task since it confuses the categori cal forms. Thus analysis of the theory of abstraction leads back to a deeper problem. thought identification has taken place.16 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION h I ij In this connection. dissimilarity does not appear as a special element of sensation side by ide with colors and tones. but which does not enter as an effective element into the definition of the concept. maintained unaltered in its qualitative peculiarity^ Thus side by side with series of similars in whose individual members a common element uniformly recurs. Once this it can indeed appear as if the work of were limited to selecting from a series of perceptions aa. ^placed on the ^ame~level&quot. of contents. which hides the tive difficulty of the problem. a/3. even in its outer form. . between any contents is not itself given as a further content that similarity or tion. here referred to. fused without distinction. is primarily only a vague and ambiguous expression. we may place series in which between each member and the succeeding member there prevails a certain degree of difference. J V/l may be arranged according to the most divergent points of but only provided that the guiding point of view itself is view.comparison&quot.

if not in its complete form. is only The connection of the members is in every case pro in general.concept is to develop. is obviously not to be pointed out as itself a member of the series. we have already presupposed the concept. relate*]. lf| ! ^| we however. for when ascribe to a manifold an order and connection of elements. and that the total groups of such are divided into parts and sub-parts. going rule of succession of the series a. according to which they are to &quot. That objects are given as organizations of particular attributes. however. \but contrast.THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF CONCEPTS In truth. of which application is made in the customary doctrine . duced by some general law of arrangement through which a thorough ay .abstracted&quot.b. as disconnected particularities. . the con the possession of a common by a special example of logically possible connections &quot. but it is the rule of progression. of the origin of the generic concept. but not in the sense that we construct this rule out of them through either bare summation or neglect of parts. and develops according can thus be it. . that was factually blended with them. . is not thereby merely is judgecl and shaped according to a certain conceptual as soonWs this is recognized it must become evident before a mere beginning that points beyond . nection of the members of a series together is not itself a new element. . which exists . out. is not deduced thereby. the category of the thing and its attributes. F(b. On the one side.property&quot. . yet in its fundamental function. The con cept. which remains the same. . That which binds the elements which determines the The function F(a. c). no matter in which member it is represented. sort of dependence between the successive members. the common element a. . basic principle. which are attributes common tfco several of Ithem. but presupposed. is here taken as the self-evident. 6). The place of the thing-concept in the system of logical relations. thafe put we stand here In truth. it is the category of the whole and its parts on the other.c. There are two different lines of consideration in which this logical presupposition is plainly evident. . . What lends the theory of abstraction support is merely the circumstance that it does not presuppose the contents. \ described. but that it tacitly thinks them in the form of an ordered manifold from the first. The unity of the conceptual content out of the particular elements of its-exten sion only in the sense that it is in connection with them that wo become Conscious of the specific rule. of which the .given&quot. the &quot. . is established. tyowever. .

50 f. des . which we characterize by the concepts of the whole and its parts.abstraction. After we have conceived the from plan of this system in a general logical theory of relations.. and in place of the actual 10 perception the substitution of its imperfect and faded remainder. The essential act here that we drop certain determinations. previous experiences. they would never be taken as completely similar to the new impression and would thus not blend into a unity with the latter. / the particular to the universal. also. What enables the mind to form con sive concepts. Only the inexactness of reproduction. and of the thing and its attributes. we can. 168 ff. Psychologic emotionalen Denkens.. in which things and their properties are disre garded in principle. we reach the paradoxical result that / thought. 2. p. in so far as it mounts from lower to higher and more inclu- moves in mere negations. all Thus formation of concepts begins with the substitution of a generalized image for the individual sensuous intuition. The categorical acts (Akte). that we abstract from them and exclude them from consideration as irrelevant.18 SUBSTANCE AND FUNC itself. which we had hitherto held. new and more general difficulty arises to threaten the traditional logical If we merely follow the traditional rule for passing from doctrine. H. were fully determinate. are not isolated but belong to a system of logical categories. no general property of things can be contained. if they recalled the vanished content of consciousness in its full. determine its details. concrete and living nature. Maier. which never retains the whole renders possible __pf the earlier impression but merely its hazy outline. pp. its inability to grasp the individual differences everywhere present in the particular If all the memory images. which remained with us from cases. it is this standpoint. On the other hand. presupposed is cepts is just its fortunate gift of forgetfulness.&quot. forms of connection from the in the naive view limited standpoint of certain relations emphasized The category of the^thingyehows itself unsuited for of the world. purpose in the very fact that we have in pure mathematics _a field of knowledge. which moreover they by no means exhaust. Logik. 10 Cf. ajidTn^hose fundamental concepts therefore. not possible to gain a view of all possible. this unification of elements. 1908.that are in themselves dissimilar. Tubingen. a &quot. Ed. this \ The negative process of m At this point. Sigwart.

merit of mathematical &quot. but also be able to deduce them from the universal formula. Vol.general concepts&quot. The genuine concept does not disregard the peculiarities and particularities which it holds under it.&quot. 11 . significant expression. Lambert. we reach we adhere all that only a superficial schema from which lar case have vanished. Lambert pointed out that . u this means not only that he is to retain all the more special cases. 193 ff. When a mathematician makes his formula more general. but on the other hand. ing a deeper comprehension of its import and structure. that the mathematical concept appears most sharply distinguished from the In the methodological struggle over the limits ontological concept.THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF CONCEPTS If 19 strictly to this conception. since these. in fact. much less reckon the transformations of which they are capable. according to the traditional formula. Riga. we reach the strange result the logical labor which we apply to a given sensuous intuition Instead of reach serves only to separate us more and more from it. Cf. but in all strictness fully to retain them. the deter mination of the particular from the universal so much the more difficult.philosopher. 1771. Anlage zur Architektonik oder Theorie des Einfachen und des Erslen inderphUosophischenundmathematischenErkenntnis. The ideal of a scientific concept here appears in opposi tion to the schematic general presentation which is expressed by a moments of the concept is very easy for the mere word. all peculiar traits of the particu The mathematical concept and its &quot. the germ of a distinction of great simple consequence. which took place in the philosophy of the eighteenth century. my Erkenntnisproblem in der Philosophic und Wissenschaft der neuern Zeit.concrete universality. The possibility of deduction is not found in the case of the scholastic concepts./ seems excluded.&quot. but seeks to show the necessity of the occurrence and connection of just these particularities. 11 This remark contains. It is at this point. But from any such conclusion we are once more safeguarded by considera tion of that science in which conceptual definiteness and clarity have reached their highest level. II. of mathematics and ontology. for in the process of abstraction he leaves behind all the particularities in such a way that he cannot recover them. Thus abstraction &quot. and hence the reproduction of the par ticular . this relation was incidentally given happy and In his criticism of the logic of the v it was the exclusive Wolffian school. p. indeed. not to cancel the determinations of the special cases. are formed by neglecting the particular. 422 f.

problem of finding two whole numbers. thus in their deeper systematic connections. belongs to the which takes up into itself the pecu them according to a rule.universality&quot. etc. of logic the abstract universality of the concept to the concrete universality of the mathematical formula. it neglects all specific fercnces. whoever has it can deduce from it all the mathematical relations which concern the special problems. Abstract universality belongs to the genus in so fat if as. hnf f tfoft universal alidity of a principle of serial order. for example. forms of space.g. e. to the special geometrical forms of the circle.) liarities of all the species and develops en. in accordance with a well-known distinction of Hegel s. he takes these problems not as isolated but as in continuous con nection with each other. 2.. these formulae possess concrete . Modern expositions have attempted to take account of this circumstance by opposing. we ascend to the &quot. and of which one is divisible by 2 and the other by 3. while.higher&quot. the ellipse. for example.. and from which of itself 22-6z follows as a formula of the first. concept not the of a. And the further we proceed in this and the more firmly this connection according to laws is established. Thus we can proceed from a general mathematical from the formula of a curve of the second formula. by considering a certain parameter which occurs in them and permitting it to vary through a continuous series of magnitudes. It is evident is as a perfectly determinate step in a general process of anew that the characteristic feature of the &quot. Here the more universal concept shows itself also the more rich in content. presentation. We do not isolate any abstracT of part whatever from the manifold before us. but is fixed and retained change. in which z can only have the values 0. The criticism of the theories of abstraction. The individual case is not excluded from consideration. 1. considered in and for itself. Thus.20 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION it What gives is a universal rule for the connection of the particulars themselves. systematic whole (Gesamtbetfrrfi&quot. by expressing the second by the formula 6z + 3. for in this way the total axiomatic structure of our space is first revealed in full distinctness. but members a definite relation by thinking them as we create for its bound together by an inclusive law. in modern geometry. so much the clearer does the unambiguous determination of the particular stand forth.. the intuition of our Euclidian three-dimensional space only gains in clear comprehension when. whose sum is equal to 25. on the other hand. order. 3. algebra solves the on the contrary. concrete universality.

we cannot indeed ascribe to the abstract object that thus comes into being the particu lar color of gold. for it is never satisfied to advance on the traditional doctrine to the universal concept by neglecting the particular properties without retaining an equivalent for them. we may indicate the meaning of the problem by citing a characteristic turn recently taken by the theory of ab straction. it would be no less inadmis if we simply attempted to deny all these particular determina . or the density of lead however. silver. if systemati cally developed and carried through. this is is field of for logic. of this form of logic is not confined to mathematics alone. all are universal because they represent the law the numbers sought. Drobisch. which. contains within itself all the particular cases for which it once recognized. Every mathematical function represents a univer sal law. tions of it. which. copper and lead. 12 If. the numbers sought for follow from these formulae as species of them. Neue Darstellung der Logik. there now appears However. The same is true in general of every mathematical function of one or more variables. will raise logical questions that in science itself we proceed extend beyond the traditional point of view. the contrary. When we form the concept of metal by connecting gold. Everywhere a new motive is apparent. As he explains. . tion of metal. as we saw. the real practice of thought in the formation of concepts does not follow the course prescribed by this doctrine. a completely new In opposition to the logic opened investigation of the generic concept. They z is which determines because. which. or the weight of sible copper. however. they are also concrete when given the four above-mentioned values. the field of logic of the mathematical concept of function.&quot. represents the point of view and influence of the concept of substance. 22.THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF CONCEPTS universality. it extends over into the field of the knowledge of nature. by virtue of the successive values which the variable can assume. or the particular luster of silver. neither of this or that p. Before of nature has been to trace the construction of functional conceps and thus to verify our new conception of the concept by concrete examples. for the concept of function constitutes the general schema On and model according to which the modern concept molded in its progressive historical development. An indication of this motive is to be found in the first place in Lotze s skeptical comments of abstraction. that 12 For the idea obviously does not suffice as a characteriza it is neither red nor yellow. application holds.

would lead in the end to the denial of all determina tion. what seems to be appearance cancelled in this way is maintained in another form and under a differ ent logical category. Ed. The merely negative procedure. which are neglected in the formation of the concept. only if we retain the total series of colors in general as a fundamental schema. Logik. P and Q must be set up.nothing&quot. 2. We (Iribegriff] when we is only in a purely negative process. if we abandoned in it all thought of the aspects of procreation. the particular which are pip2 and qiQ2. in place of the particu ^4 . because there is no form of procreation. which can be pointed out as common to all animals. If we carry through the tions. approaches the problem which Lambert had clearly and definitely formulated. that are different in the different species. that it is of some degree of hardness. And analogously. v &quot. we would not retain the general concept of animal.. using the example of the mathematical concept. But precisely to the extent that the concept is freed of all thing-like being. but the positive thought must be added that it is colored in some way in every case. of breathing. the simple neglect of the &quot.ots peculiar functional character is revealed.marks&quot. qiQ2.marks&quot. in things and their attributes. which is the rule of abstrac tion but always. which the concept would then signify.marks. In truth. in the place of the neglected particular determina . p. every process of logical generalization must indeed appear an impoverish ment of the conceptual content. Lotze. represent this systematic totality substitute for the constant particular &quot.marks&quot. Thus it becomes evident diich we are forming. Leipzig. . therefore. . such as stand for the total group of possible values which the different &quot. density and luster. with respect to which we consider the concept determined. on the basis of psychological considerations. It is not. on the contrary. 1880. neither of this or that movement and of respiration. so that our thought would find no way of return from the logical 13 We see here how &quot.marks&quot. Fixed properties are replaced by universal rules that permit us to survey a total series of possible determinations 18 Lotze. of specific weight. the general species of I jabove lar rule to the end. it obliges us to retain. pip2.22 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION hardness or resisting power. can assume. variable terms. &quot. 40 f.&quot. etc. the systematic totality (Inbegriff) to which those marks belong as We can abstract from the particular color special determinations. As long as we believe that all determinateness that the falling aside of the particular determinations consists in constant &quot.marks&quot.

In the progress of thought. there a single occurrence suffices to fix it in its definite character as a member of the series. whose total content is expressed in the 14 B. . In this way we unify the whole system in the expression a x y . the consciousness of uniformity is rather supplemented by the consciousness of necessary connection.. finds himself forced by his consideration of the mathematical manifold to the introduction of a point of view and a new terminology. aa^ 3 . 2. f . such as a new shade in the series of colors.object of the second order. and which therefore perfectly represents the structure and logical divisions of the concept... The first phase of every construction of concepts. We do not directly to their common individual members by a variable expression y..THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF CONCEPTS 23 _ This transformation. This turn of thought Objects of the series &quot. retain the traditional theory of abstraction. In general. for instance.&quot. this change into a new form at a single glance.&quot.first&quot. orders. which takes its place as a well-defined member of a series of presenta tions. a new chemical compound in a series of known compounds of similar constitution.. even in case we never perceive it again. which can be changed into the concrete totality (Allheit) of the members of the by a continuous transformation. Erdmann. there now appearj/objeets of the second whose logical character is determined solely by the form of connection from which they proceed. wherever we unify the objects of our thought into a single object. &quot. p. ofjpgical being. he now teaches. though perhaps the original. that Erdmann. does indeed involve the separating out of a certain universal on the basis of the uniformity new with which * its uniformity of the given. It is signifi cant of this tendency. 14 In contrast to objects of sense-perception.objects of the first order. constitutes the real positive achievement of abstrac proceed from a series aai/3i.Wherever in developed presentation a composite object is found in our perception. but replace the totality of individual members a by a variable expression x. in fundamental tendency. content recurs amid varying particulars: but^thig. 158.&quot. is not the sole condition which enables us to mark off the objects of our presentations. the totality of tion. 00:2/82. Logik.. and &quot. &quot. after completing his psychological theory of the concept. constitutive a.&quot. which we can designate as &quot. and this supplementation goes so far that ultimately we are not dependent upon number of repetitions to establish a concept. can be traced even in those expositions of logic that. Ed. we create a new order.second&quot.

24 relations established unification. The variety of objective &quot. then the question must arise as to how this peculiar comes to our consciousness and by what acts it is grasped. breaks through the old schema of the formation of concepts. than when I contemplate is a difference between making valid mathematical judgments &quot. a greater need is felt for a new psychological foundation.the&quot. concerning the number thereby placing it in an objective connection of relations. special red color.&quot. for we have already seen that &quot.intentions&quot. the unification of elements in a concept And this criterion. for instead of the community of &quot. For attention only separates or connects elements already given in can give these elements no new meaning and invest It is such a change of function. There red as a species.&quot. is decided by their &quot. It is clear that exclusively with a particular object or with a plurality of such objects. example I select from the perceptual complex of a house I &quot. For sensuous experience is concerned &quot.connection by implication. as the truly creative faculty in the formation of concepts. here only introduced by way of supplement and as a secondary aspect. From the standpoint of purely descriptive analysis of conscious process also.essence. the objects with which pure logic deals are not identical with the individual contents of perception.essence&quot. In general.marks. no summation of individual cases can ever produce the specific unity which is meant in the concept. loses all application in a deeper phenomenology of the pure thought processes.&quot. remains aimless and unmeaning if it does not consider the elements from which it takes the concept to be from the first arranged and connected by a certain relation.&quot. the mere sensuous experiences. however. it them with no new entation into concepts in the logical sense. to which Erdmann declares he was led by the problems of the modern theory of groups. it is something different when for as its when grasp this or that particular property of a thing. The theory of attention. SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION between the individual elements by the act of This type of thought. logical function. therefore.abstraction&quot. can never suffice for this purpose. however much we heap them up and however much we complicate them. but possess their own structure and &quot.four. as the purely logical aspect of the concepts of relation and of the manifold becomes If clearer. which first transforms the contents of perception and pres perception. and directing consciousness upon a con crete group of things or presentations of four elements. proves on closer analysis to be the real logical prius. The logical .

and the conceptual &quot. to the same fundamental distinction. on the other. since we are led. such as cannot be reduced to the consciousness of imprinting upon If we are still to speak of abstraction as sensation or perception. and thus.subjective&quot. 25 (in the first case) is given by its place in an and therefore timelessly valid whole of relations. it different objectively directed &quot. of point of view. Thus the circle of complete. they are peculiar forms of consciousness. 1901 whole subject cf.eleThis identity of refer ence.objective&quot. from the pure phenomenology of consciousness.four&quot. Halle.intentions.THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF CONCEPTS determination of &quot. but the intelligent accomplishment of the most diversified and mutually independent acts of thought.acts&quot. sensuous structure. nevertheless its meaning is now from that of the customary sensationalistic doc no longer a uniform and undifferentiated attention to a given content. is. By the side of what the content is in its material.&quot. Die ideale Einheit der Species und die neuern Abstractions: theorien. Husserl. on the one hand. The difference between these contents. that to which the concept owes its being. The serial form and the members of the series. something distinctive and new as regards the compared contents themselves. isjyj_iixeducible fact. analysis.&quot. it is categorical and belongs to the a certain QK&amp. 15 On this No. Vol. which is necessarily limited to a particular here and now. under which the comparison takes place. by its place in a mathematically defined number-system./nas mnts-can be designated as like or unlike.acts.similarity&quot. While the empiristic doctrine regards the &quot. are psychologically completely underived. thought strives to make a new advance.gt. of certain contents of presentation as a selfevident psychological fact which it applies in explaining the forma tion of concepts. from the side of &quot. it is justly pointed out in opposition that the similarity ot-eeftain elements can only be spoken of significantly when been established from which the^.&quot. its meaning develops out of the various logical which can be attached to the content. the validity of which has been shown in the our subject is &quot. which differentiate the sensuously unitary content by These ideal &quot.species. &quot. however. II. a totally different trine. is unable Here the psychology of to reproduce this form of determination.int of view&quot. there appears what it means in the system of knowledge. by which we unify them. logical investigation. II. each of which involves a particular sort of meaning of the content. Logische Untersuchungen. but sensuous presentation. for abstraction is V 15 special direction of objective reference. .

For in fundamental problems there are no absolute divisions and limits. . for such enumeration lacks the generating principle that enables us to connect the individual members into a functional whole.being&quot. ^ it is clearly differentiated from tigation. at the evolution of &quot.form In fact. . which can be investigated with respect to its logical import inde pendently of any metaphysical or psychological presuppositions as to the &quot. Even a hasty glance how the problem of consciousness and the problem of reality. . b. This independence of pure logic. The serial f orm F(a.&quot. however. 16 ff . therefore. b. above pp. it is a new characteristic contrast between the \ member of the series expression of the and the form The content of the concept cannot be dissolved of the series. lies before us in the system of the sciences. and not by a simple sensuous intuition. and this determination can only be expressed by a synthetic act of definition. c in In this conception there is no presentation. of giving it an independent reality along with the particular things.serial forms&quot. without thereby in consists exclusively .26 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION of consciousness. on the other hand.. of the concept. Here. into the elements of its extension. Its &quot. c. The meaning of the law that connects the individual members is not to be exhausted by the enumeration of any number of instances of the law. field .formal&quot.! If I know the relation according to which a b c are ordered. &quot. because the two do not lie on the same plane but belong in principle to different dimensions. to discover the special character of the connecting relation from the mere juxtaposition of a. . The totality and order of pure &quot. . ) which connects the members of a manifold obviously cannot be .) danger of hypostasizing the pure concept. . both take part in this process. it is impossible. the logical determination by which other possible serial forms $. These considerations indicate the direction of the following inves .formal&quot..c. does not mean its isolation within the system of philosophy. the theory finds a rich and fruitful field. I can deduce them by reflection and isolate them as objects of thought. form for a new content. (Cf. every transformation of the genuinely &quot. that is characterized concept produces a new interpretation of the whole and ordered by it. thought after the fashion of an individual a or 6 or losing its peculiar character. also a yield. i. logic would show the dogmatic inflexibility of the traditional forms begins to And the new form that is beginning to take shape. . especially in the structure of exact science.nature&quot. Psychology and criticism of knowledge.

to regard all asserthings. but at the same time the insight has been deepened and clarified that in number is rooted the substance of rational knowledge. so also. first is no longer seen in it. both historically and systematically.three&quot. 27 .two&quot. number all the power of knowledge seems contained. number. they must have a certain property which gives them their numerical character. Thus it is quite intelligible that we should meet upon the threshold of algebra the same typical opposition that was traceable in the field of logic. Through number the general ideal of knowledge gains a more definite form. we should expect to find certain fundamental The properties of objects revealed in the numerical concepts. Just as objects are differentiated according to size and form. all possibility If there were no of the logical determination of the sensuous. If we accept the traditional logical view. &quot. it connection with that consciousness of the meaning and value In the thought of of the formation of concepts first develops. either in themselves remains unchanged in philosophical thought. strictly speaking. in its real import This Pythagorean doctrine through all the changes in The claim to grasp the substance of things number has indeed been gradually withdrawn. according to smell and taste. The sensationalistic deduction of number. on the theory of abstrac tion. The concept of or would be abstracted from a plurality of objective groups.CHAPTER II THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER Among It is in number stands the fundamental concepts of pure science the concept of in the first place. the concept of and truest expression of rational method In it are directly mirrored the differences in principle between the fundamental interpretations of knowledge. from this standpoint. in which for the first time it is defined with full clarity. just as the concept of a certain color arises from the comparison of colored perceptual It is consistent. theory of abstraction provides. nothing could be understood or in their relations to each other. for no other point of view. in things. &quot. Even when the meta physical kernel of the object number remains the in general.

ten tones or ten pulse-beats. to analyse them into Three pebbles do not make the same partial groups of the sort 00. that the perception that arises in the first case can always be transformed through mere spatial re-arrangement of its parts into the second perception. Bk. 6. Ch. II. for example. The propo sitions of arithmetic lose their former exceptional position. Mill. the proposition that = 3 represents no mere definition. The appearance of ideality that attaches to this science must. but an inductive truth learned through early experience and which has since been continually confirmed. Mill. S. Such truths constitute the foundation of the science of number. reality of another sort. 1 2X2 foundations of arithmetic. With this first step into the exact scientific problems. a new physical environment into which is A we = 5 just as were thrust. impression on our senses when they lie before us in two separate Hence the asser piles as when they are collected into a single pile. according to J. in which certain constant relations prevail. disappear. We have always been able when we have seen three things before us in a certain arrangement. but it reports an empirical matter of fact which our spatial perception has hitherto always presented in the same way. in the form o%. Philosophy. s Hamilton System of Logic. tion. likewise a proposition possessing merely empirical certainty.28 tions concerning SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION numbers and numerical relationships as expressive of certain physical properties of objects. 0. is no mere identical proposition that says noth ing. 67 ff. Thus. In the modern develop ment come 2 of empiricism. this latent consequence has for the first time fully + 1 to light. pp. could make the proposition that familiar and self-evident to us as it now seems unintelligible and absurd. we can already see very clearly what real meaning and importance may be contained in what appear Frege s field of 1 Cf. that have no reference to sensible facts? The concept of ten either means nothing or it means a certain uniform total impression that is always found in groups of ten bodies. therefore. An Examination of Sir William . And that the various impressions thus gained from objects form a system among themselves. no mere fixation of the meaning which we are to connect with the concepts of two and three. they come to be on the same plane as other physical observations that we have made concerning separations and combinations in the world For how can there be significant and valid judgments of bodies.

according to Mill. the real and indispensable basis of all assertions concerning numerical Hence beyond the field of spatial sensuous intuition. we lose The the scope and freedom of application that is essential to it.&quot. leads to a direct conflict Wherever an attempt has itself.It pertinent criticism of Mill s doctrine. the arithmetical concepts would be deprived of the very determinateness which constitutes their peculiar value and import. wherein these actual combinations and separations alone are possible.684 is just as definitely and clearly differentiated from the number that immediately precedes or follows it as three is from two or four. relations. but of the number of categories. For. when carried through. So much the more significant that the theory. of numbering can only take place. in his drastic and &quot. or of the number of factors of energy: all objects which cannot be arranged side by side and separated from each other like pebbles. been made in modern mathematics to analyse and explain the fact of scientific arithmetic. be easily seen. the logical structure of pure number has been sharply distinguished from Mill s arithmetic of &quot.&quot. which differentiates the sensuous intuitions of the each other? And in the two concrete groups from same way that the characteristic content of the numerical concepts is lost here. of the number of Kepler s laws.impression&quot. if a property abstracted from outer things could be carried over without change of meaning to . synthesis where the combining and separating instituted by it can actually be carried out with physical objects. we must recognize that it follows with convincing necessity from his is it general interpretation of the concept. But in truth. The logical differences of numbers would be with the fact of scientific arithmetic tion limited and restricted to whatever psychological power of differentia we had attained in the apprehension of given groups of objects. which arise in us from the different groups. but who could point out the &quot. thereby guarding against a possible illusion. remarks Frege. however. so.pebbles and ginger bread nuts. we speak not merely of the number of seeds in a pile.THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER TO 29 be purely formal logical differences.&quot. if Mill s deduction were correct. however we may judge Mill s theory of the fundamental arithmetical principles. The number 753. constitute ing images. would indeed be strange. where things themselves can be The vary collected and separated into perceptible spatial groups. The absurdity of this consequence can. Indeed. the real foundation of the numerical concepts would be lacking. on the other hand.

For the whole . 9 ff. by nature sible. the reason lies in the fact that intellectual The system activities. especially pp.. we must of connection and dependence exists between the compared cases. and to determine the assume that some form properties of the latter after the analogy of the former. are not entirely excluded but are According to this theory. It is absurd that what is of a salty concept or a sticky judgment. sensible should present itself in connection with the insen see a blue surface.&quot. .triangular&quot. When we attempt to give such a conception clear and definite meaning. 27 ff. 1884. of a blue presentation. by virtue of which the one can be deduced from the other. We do not see the three in it in case we take the word as a whole. only of the immediate observation of physical facts. of arithmetic. but upon a &quot.generalization&quot. presentations and concepts. kind of sensuous impression corresponding to the word &quot. We would not have the right to extend any determina tion. cf. are to be the result arithmetic. If it is to be possible to carry over observa tions that we have made with smaller complexes of objects progres sively to larger and ever larger complexes. if one were to speak of a fusible experience. which leads to a judgment in which the number 3 2 appears. If we assume that in the same way in looking at a triangle there is something sensuous which then this sensuous element must corresponds to the word also be found in three concepts something non-sensuous would have something sensuous as a property. processes of judgment. 2 which appears to us in any individual group. but we see something to which an intellectual activity can attach. only the first truths of tacitly assumed. If the absurdities inevitably implied in the sensationalistic interpretation of number do not come to light directly in the first deduction. to groups of a Breslau. while the scientific system of algebra is not to rest upon the continually renewed influx of facts of perception.three&quot. Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik. immediately. 31 f. of the original sensuous facts. p. the most elementary formulae. It can be granted that there is a When we &quot. we find that it directly implies a plurality of different intellectual functions which partake in the construction of number. we have a peculiar impression which corresponds to the word blue. and this we recognize again when we look at another blue surface.30 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION It would be precisely as experiences. But this conception involves all the riddles which the theory promised to solve. matter Frege.

No generally applicable laws. The road to a purely deductive of consideration.&quot. Not external things.presentation. number is thereby reopened. in which we now seem to grasp the true original of the numerical concepts. every arithmetical proposition would have to be specially proved by observation or perception for every individual number. there remains.&quot. another class of realities. which is indispensable to every theory in proceeding to the higher arithmeti cal forms. without the assumption of such a connection we should have to be prepared for the possibility that any unity. if we did not comprehend them all as similar in &quot. but &quot. itself in its peculiar and irreducible mode of being. added to or substracted from a given group. The sensualistic theory is only able to avoid this consequence by an unnoticed deviation into another line The demand for a generalization of primitive experiences of number contains. which could completely transform the whole and cancel its fundamental characteristics. construction of the realm of the insight suffices. Number and &quot.nature. although concealed. constitutes the necessary and adequate foundation for the determination of the elements themselves. If we renounce the view that all arithmetical judgments are directed upon physical things and dependent upon them for their validity. At first. there seems to be another way to establish the desired relation between numerical propositions and the empirical existence of things. no thorough-going relation would bind together the members of the realm of number. nevertheless. such as permits us to proceed from one manifold to another by continued identical application of the same fundamental relation. In fact. that very function of the universality of number concepts. however.THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER 31 larger or smaller number of elements. which the sensualistic theory finally admits against its will. would alter the total character of the group so that no infer ence would be possible from the relations of one group to those of any other. what they seek to encompass and represent is not a material but a mental being. The new unities would then act like as many physical conditions or forces. however. on the contrary. means nothing more than that they are connected by a definite rule. is the source of these concepts.consciousness&quot. deriving both its foundation and superstructure from a common principle. is offered the first view of a unified methodical deduction. In this consequence. The scope and . which was to have been set aside by the explanation. This similarity. for this that the same intellectual procedure.

with respect to the same subject. and can be destroyed again in the same way. the same intellectual transformation takes place that we met earlier The attempt to have the in the field of general logical theory. The proposition that 7 + 5 = 12 reports no connection of presentational experiences. but only the way in which they are reflected in the com The prehension of our ego. however.presentation&quot. in spite of its ideality. furthermore.32 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION universality of the numerical concepts seems here to be explained. never returns in precisely the same form. which arises in the individual subject according to special circumstances. as presentation. means in the ff. above For psychology. remains free from all the limitations that had to be placed upon it as long as it was taken as an expression of particular material existences and their relations.). number here again fails to attain an foundation. &quot. just as formerly 9 last it was a special case of physics. as psychical reality. the arithmetical meaning of two is not affected by all . concept copy outer reality directly this outer reality there appears its abandoned. It is the fulfillment of the demand for this latter. The psychological image of two may. which constitutes all the meaning and value of the pure numerical concepts. be con nected with an accompanying spatial presentation and. is act of enumeration does not give the relations of things in themselves. either as it has occurred in the past or will occur in the future in thinking individuals. it now forms an appendix to psychol ogy. it may now be vividly grasped. in connection with a special problem. analysis nothing else than a definite psychical content. The doctrine of independent logical p. but in place of phenomenal form in our mind. Number. binds the seven and the five in themselves with the twelve in object upon which this judgment is directed has. however. in the case 6f one person. nevertheless. but it establishes a connection which. The itself. remains an element which shares with the sensationalistic deduction. However much there still this transformation it may advance the problem. (Cf. a fixity and definiteness which sharply differentiates it from the changing contents of presentation. according to the Platonic expression. Thus what is here given is always only a temporally limited and determined reality. We can recognize how here. in the case of another. once it has disappeared. not a state which can be retained in unchanging logical identity. Such a content is different in different individuals and. now dimly. be without it.

as a totality of possible relations. Concepts are identical when they can be substituted for each other in all the \ assertions into which they enter. that one is divisible by another. The act. It may with justice be objected that what characteristic of number cannot be pointed out in any particular isolated content of consciousness only because there is and here a universal presupposition. they can only be in finite groups. realized in this consciousness as particular elements. If the numbers are realities in individual con &quot. this criticism does field of psychical being in its full and scope.e. the whole difference between the logical meaning of the concept of once revealed. etc. not any particular content subsequently resulting from it. . The content of presentation and the act of presentation.. of a presentation is exhausted in its immediate givenness. sciousness.THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER \ 3 &quot. cit. for all the &quot. can be the desired psychological of a manifold of elements differentiation correlate of the numerical concepts. op. by which we define and any unity and the synthesis by which we join together such unities into new forms. and to which it goes back The &quot. 33 and means can only be What the concept these differences. in its actual occurrence. ascertained through understanding it as the bearer and starting-point \ of certain judgments. 3 Cf. 37. Yet in establishing this opposition between the pure numerical concepts and the psychological contents not seem to have grasped the significance is of presentation. but it underfor its real meaning.given&quot.is&quot. Of a presentation it is meaningless to say that one is larger or smaller than another. number and the psychological conception of presentation is at The characteristic relations which prevail in the series of numbers are not thinkable as properties of the given contents of presentation. It is not with objects.being&quot. And no less does the postulate of an infinity of numbers exclude any such conception. again Frege. either those of inner or outer reality. p. but with acts of apperception. If we apply this crite rion. The activity of and connection alone.. i. of the pure numerical concepts can thus be understood and grounded from a new stand point.universality&quot. constitute the only condition under which we can speak and their connection. when every relation which holds of the one can also be carried over to the other. that the numerical determination is connected. the double or triple of it. which controls and guides the origin formulation of contents in general. Even sensationalism recognizes this universality.

is not gained is already presupposed in the apprehension of every one of them for the arrange ment of these individuals into an inclusive whole is only rendered possible by the fact that thought is in a position to recognize and by running through an but maintain a rule. by an analogous method. They thus belong to a certain individual stream of consciousness as 4 Mill. A System of Logic. which goes back from the finished contents of presentation to the acts by which they are formed. uniformly found in a group of particular objects. The consciousness of this universality indefinite plurality of cases. therefore. we discover their numerical determinateness. has in truth been gained surreptitiously.&quot. 6. Ch. that the asser tion of the universality of number. Bk. The mathematical property of the enumerability of things is thus ity that all ascertained here in the as all same manner as any physical property.must be numbers of something: there are no according to which is such things as numbers in the abstract. and In this attempted deduction also. in spite of all differences peculiarities of application. for noth ing assures us that the cases beyond our experience show the same properties as those actually observed. nevertheless. For whatever constructive value we ascribe to the pure acts of thought. however.34 stands SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION it. But though numbers must be numbers of something. the real logical problem of number is not so much solved as rather pushed back a step. so. A new standpoint regarding the foundation of number reached through the deeper and more mature psychological deduction of the numerical concepts from the fundamental act of From this apperceptive connection and separation in general. as a thing-like &quot. they may be numbers of anything. known to our experience. in conceptual identity. in their purely psychological sense. We recognize.&quot. they remain. Propo sitions. Just we learn by thorough-going comparison of individual cases that bodies are heavy. number is to be called universal not because it is con standpoint.&quot. all existences of every kind. &quot. and thus fall under the arith metical laws. . says Mill. always occurrences which come and go in time. . 2. &quot. is first tained as a fixed property in every individual. its fundamental theory. in so far as it rests upon such a procedure as this.mark. but because it repre sents a constant condition of judgment concerning every individual as an individual. II.All numbers. 4 objects. concerning numbers. have the remarkable peculiar they are propositions concerning all things whatever.

or two with three. which constantly presses to the fore. find a limit and standard in this system. but considerations of formal logic. to which it ascribes a permanent and unchanging form. In the beginning. without any appeal seems to belong to On any dependence upon concrete measurable magnitudes.) the fulfillment of which must appear entirely problematical. Dedekind says in . (Cf.by a finite system of simple steps of thought. and how the entire logical complex of propositions con It is by virtue of this is numerical series tained in pure arithmetic arises according to this connection. In the arithmetical judgments it is not the relation of temporally limited the realities which is expressed and established. is only an expression of a certain dogmatic view of the nature and function of the concept.) The development of scientific arithmetic in the last decades is charac terized by the increasing demand for the deduction of the concept of number. For what way remains of grounding a concept. (Dedekind. however. in its full import. neither of the psychical or the physical? This question.If we trace exactly. The system of arithmetical concepts and propositions is not to be estimated in terms of this view. if we are to regard it neither as a copy of inner nor of outer being. &quot.&quot. or perhaps even to empirical the other hand. indeed. &quot.&quot. this method is a mere postulate. however. The science of space perception. ii The logical foundations of the pure concept of number. But a psychological analysis of the acts of forming presentations cannot disclose how one is connected with two. which has gradually evolved out of its independent and immanent presuppositions. here thought reaches out beyond the whole field of thought-processes to a realm of ideal objects. the latter is pre to sensible objects or supposed in a new form. the earlier question recurs. fundamental form that every element of the connected with every other according to a fixed systematic rule. however. from purely logical premises. The construction and objective foundation of this systematic connection belongs to a totally different method. especially Ch. on the contrary. VIII. moment.THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER it 35 of runs off here and now under the particular conditions Here. the thought gains acceptance that determinations of number are to be grounded. In this deduction of arithmetic out of logic. all intuition. below.

Upon this one. The procedure of &quot. all further elements are given by the fact that a relation (R) is given.given&quot. Was siyd und was sollen die Zahlen? Ed. After a certain starting-point has been fixed by an original assumption. operations of thought and objects of thought. &quot. Was sind und was sollen die Zafden. nevertheless it becomes evident with deeper understanding that the old terms have here gained a new import and which are spoken of in the further deduc assumed as independent existences present anterior to any relation. on the basis of tiiese simple principles.things&quot. . which in continued application generates all the members of the complex. 1893. Dedekind has shown how the complete construction of arith metic and the exhaustive exposition of its scientific content is possible sary order among The logic of relations.&quot. not their agreement in some factual con stitutive part. for copying means nothing else than the intellectual arranging by which we bind otherwise totally diverse elements into a systematic unity. and as such can never be in isolation but only in ideal meaning. shall Here the question concerns merely the unification of members of a series by a serial principle. mathematical dev&opment of this thought 6 in its but shall Dedekind. foundation the whole science of number must 5 be erected The starting-point here seems to be the traditional logical doctrine of a plurality of things and the power of the mind to copy them. but absolutely inevitable. are not &quot. but a new necesity.ctfrieptual division without its being necessary that one elemenjcbe connected with another by any sort of factual similarThe xo^ying does not produce a new thing. community with each other. to let one thing general without which thought &quot. We shall not trace the details. a capacity in is impossible.what we do in counting a group or collection of things. we are led to the considera tion of the power of the mind to relate thing to thing. Thus arise systems and groups of systems in stj^&quot. has also mdergone a characteristic transformation. p. but they gain their whole being. one thing copy another. first in and with the relations which are predicated of them. For we are no longer concerned to produce a conceptual copy of outer impressions. VIII. The tion.copying&quot. &quot.SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION beginning his deduction of the concept of number. correspond to another thing.things. Braunschweig. so far as it comes within the scope of the arithmetician. &quot. Such are terms of relations. &quot. such as correspond to them in some particular feature. In his work. 2.

b be non-transitive when this extension is not necessary. furthermore. It is.brother&quot. In this case we call the relation &quot. from the non-symmetrical relations. a na ive prejudice to regard the order which holds between the members of a manifold as something tions. In truth. and all its determinate character and specific peculiarity are 8 Russell. it can in the first place be so con stituted that it also holds in the same way between b and a. which have far-reaching application in the calculus of rela tions. it is not attached to the elements as such but to the serial relation by which they are con nected. in which therefore aRb and bRa cannot exist together. from the asymmetrical relations. and on the other hand.Kant und die moderne Mathematik. (Geschwister) is symmetrical and transitive. on the one hand. there emerge in the first place certain fundamental formal determinations. illustrates them by different family relationships. and distinguish it. the relation involved in &quot. in which this sort of reversal is not possibfe.father&quot. in which the validity of aRb indeed permits that of bRa but does not necessarily imply it.brothers and sisters&quot. which we can symbolically represent by the expression aRb. validity follows for a and c. is called transitive it when and c. as if it were immediately given through the bare exist ence of the individual members. Thus if any relation between two members a and b is given. .THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER content ourselves merely with emphasizing its essential tendency. A relation. etc. number are given in the general logic of relations. so that from the validity of aRb follows that of bRa. is nonsymmetrical and transitive. I. It is said to / * come in for consideration here chiefly in so far as upon them more exact definition of what we are to understand as the order of a given whole. rests the self-evident.&quot. 1 ff. in fact. If we consider the totality of possible relations^acconling^toVEicn a series of intellec tual constructions (Denksetzungeri) can be arranged. Cambridge.symmetrical&quot. to whom these distinctions are due. such as uniformly belong to certain classes of relations and differentiate them from other classes of different structure. cf.&quot. from the fact that its holds of each pair of members a and 6. On this and what follows see Russell. asymmetrical and intransi tive. also Kant Studien XII. p. 1903. the relation &quot. and intransitive when it is excluded 6 These determina by the nature of the relation under consideration. much as we are not interested in the concept of number for its in as own sake but only as an example of the structure of a pure &quot.functional The presuppositions of the deduction of the concept of concept. my essay &quot. the relation &quot. The Principles of Mathematics.

multiplication and division. which . (Bestand) of numbers rests upon the relations. &quot. cit. Russell. then these elements are numbers or the ordinal numbers or also simply numbers.in arranged by the the consideration of a simple infinite system N.lt. of such a sort that to every member there belongs an immediate successor with which it is connected by an unambiguous transitive and asymmetrical relation. retain merely their dis tinctness. . can be developed purely on this basis. relations or laws. then.basis&quot. hence they are never directed primarily upon &quot. the whole &quot. whole and fractional numbers.. &quot. If. 24 and 25. Chs. which they show within themselves. All the propositions of arithmetic../&amp. all the operations that it defines. is always some transitive and asymmetrical relation that to imprint upon the members of a whole a determinate a necessary order. are related solely to the general properties of a progression. &quot. we consider a series which has first member. With reference to this liberation of the elements from every other content (abstraction). definition. op. and for which a certain law of progress has been established.&quot. we totally abstract from &quot. says Dedekind in relation. the particular properties of the elements. the explanation of positive and negative. but upon the ordinal which prevails between the elements of certain systematic The definitions of addition and subtraction. we have already grasped the real fundamental type with which arithmetic is concerned..When.38 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION Closer investigation shows that is it derived from this serial relation. and not upon any relation to an outer objective reality. that remains throughout the whole series. $.copying&quot.certitude&quot..progression.&quot. 7 The concept of progression. and attend only to the relations in which they are placed to each other called the natural by the ordering &quot. in such a &quot. According to this deduction.gt. (Abbildung) &amp.things&quot. whatever names may accidentally be given to the individual elements. now.. form the primary object of the 7 For more exact treatment cf. wholes. and with out especially going back to the relations of concrete measurable objects.copying&quot. and the fundamental element 1 is called the fundamental number of the numerical series N. in all ordered simple infinite systems are always the same. They need no foreign (Substrai) but mutually sustain and support each other in so far as the position of each in the system is clearly determined by the others. we can The correctly call numbers the free creation of the human mind.

Studien. ed. 242. op. and cit. is retained. is ?ystem of ideal objects whose whole content just this: that there is a is exhausted in their mutual relations.inner&quot. 6.Abbildung&quot. cf. Lipps (Philosoph. 1910. independent of the factual diversity of the objects which are enumerated. numbers in general are to exist then they must. op.mark. Russell. cit.&quot. that may force themselves into the subjective stream of presentations. op. Leipzig. Chs. Ill). Since in the determina tion of concept only the general moment of &quot. this diversity must therefore be disregarded when we are concerned merely to develop the determinate character of this function. cf. but which form no actual con***-~stitutive aspect of this connection. is obviously applied in a directed new sense. they must be distinguished in the same way that from other entities by some absolute 9 But this points are different from instants. or tones from colors. minations. &quot.&quot. &quot. cf. Ill and IV. which carry through these thoughts with special clarity and penetration.) .progression&quot. The of the 10 expressed in their positions..abstraction&quot. Dedekind. it means logical con centration on the relational connection as such with rejection of all psychological circumstances. What is here expressed &quot. It has occasionally been objected to Dedekind s deduction that according to it there remains in principle no distinguishing content for number.serial number. Vol. F. purely in itself.. 8 And numbers is completely the concept of position must. cit. 5 On 6.. but its to bring to consciousness the meaning of a certain relation independently of all particular cases of application.simple infinite Dedekind.number&quot. (Die logischen Grundlagen der exakten Wissenschaften.essence&quot. the definition of a 9 &quot. and also the latest discussions of Natorp. in fact. On the concept of system&quot. aim is The function of &quot. 10 On the deduction of number as pure &quot. act of abstraction is of special interest that here the concept and term &quot. objection mistakes the real aim and tendency of Dedekind e deter that is ordinal &quot. have some nature and property. so it seems. to mark its peculiarity as opposed to other serially ordered objects. Number as ordinal number. 8 From The a logical standpoint. the character of a liberation. in its meaning.&quot. above. is. Cf. it is thus only the serial form itself its If the defined and not what enters into it as material. by Wundt. not upon the separating out of the quality of a thing.THE CONCEPT Of NUMBER science of 39 it is number or arithmetic. especially the exposition of G. Here abstrac tion has. everything that is here said of number is valid with regard to every progression in general.

my Kant Studien. distinctness required of the elements rests upon purely concep The intuition of pure time.40 first SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION of all. What characterizes is the circumstance that it issues from the fundamental unity through a more complex application of the generating relation.Kant und die moderne Kantian concept of time.concrete form&quot. Wherever a system of conditions is given that can be realized in different contents.) presupposes number. The &quot. .what&quot. c/. sense&quot.&quot. Thus. The upon which Kant based the concept of number. &quot. The meaning of the sequence is limited to the fact that two enters as a premise into the determination of three. time (if we understand by it the &quot. Vol. tual and not upon perceptual conditions^. we think the members of the numerical series as an ordered sequence. p.objective&quot. there we can hold to the form of the system itself as an invariant. The lower number is &quot. 34 f. which is of decisive significance in the whole formation of mathematical concepts. be grasped in its greatest logical universality and scorjg. XII. as lightning the thunder. does not follow the &quot.how&quot. but number does not. is indeed unnecessary here. In this way we produce a new &quot. Here we meet for the first time a general procedure. 11 It is just this that now when we remove from the concept proves to be the merit number: that in it the sive connection is in fundamental method of the science of of the elements of a certain progres &quot. but this sequence contains nothing of the concrete character of temporal succession. of the &quot. but it would be uncritical naivet6 to confuse the 11 On William Hamilton progression&quot.three&quot. of this connec disregarded and merely the tion is taken into account. for instance). conversely. but this does not imply a physical or a psychological earlier and later. by the higher number. s definition its of algebra as &quot. for neither of them possesses any temporal reality but a merely ideal logical constitution.&quot. form. presuppose Arithmetic can be defined as the science of pure time only of time (as Hamilton does.science of pure time or order in essay and relation to the Mathematik.later&quot.presupposed&quot. but a pure rela sort of tion of systematic position the &quot. and develop its laws deductively. that the meaning of one concept can only be explained by that of the other. &quot. whose structure is independent of all arbitrariness.order in progression.two&quot. and merely retain the moment of &quot. all special determination of character. True.inner time. conceptual dependence. undisturbed by the differ ence of the contents. and consequently takes up the elements that precede it as logical constitutive parts and phases into itself.

which has hitherto been deduced as a purely logical sequence of intellectual constructs. condition that the manifold considered forms + t^&amp.count regard we maintain the The finite system. from another point of view. 54. with the pure ordinal numbers. nor do we need to. that starting from a. yet tent of the concept of number. can be proved with all strictness from the premises of the ordinal theory without the assumption of any new postulate. Dedekind. Thus the formation of the sum (a b) means. n. . we can relate it to the previously developed totality of numbers in a clear and definite way by letting every element of the system correspond to one and only one position in this totality. 161. however. that thus the &quot. Given any finite system. as they have been developed by the cardinal number Dedekind and in particular by Helmholtz and Kronecker. and now say of the latter n elements. This transition from the pure ordinal number to . which was primarily gained as a specific character. This act of coordination. for since the progress from 1 to n can only take place in one way. to coordinate the last member of the system with a certain ordinal number. especially. the characteristic of the last element. p.THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER object which thus arises with sensuously real 41 We cannot read for its form is and effective things. pro vided a definitions of the fundamental arithmetical can also be transferred without difficulty to the new sort operations of numrJer.gt. revealed in all determinateness as soon as we have off its &quot. grasped in its The theories of purity the relation from which Helmholtz and Kronecker. Was sind und was sollen die Zahlen. empirically. 12 Here it is presupposed above all that there can be one and only one cardinal number of a given group. as Helmholtz in particular has shown. 12 Cf.properties&quot. In this way we are finally able.position&quot. as a character of the total system: we call it the system considered. is Fundamental as the A new aspect appears as soon as number. is understood and applied as an expres sion of plurality. does not exhaust the whole con is made with general agreement by the various ordinal theories of arithmetic. we finally reach is independent of the order in which we successively regard and emphasize the members of the cardinal it number of the that consists of group. number which we reach reproduces the total operation in its The number n. can thus be regarded. This presupposition. it it develops. however. which concludes the process. by following the fixed prescribed order of the positions. we &quot. conceptual moment of order. contains in itself all the previous phases.

42

SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION
place in the series which

b steps, that is, that we determine the we reach when we coordinate the numbers
on"

following

a,

member

for

This member, 1, 2, remains valid without modification when we go over explanation to the addition of the cardinal numbers; it is evident that from the combination of the elements of two groups, which fall under the cardinal numbers a and b, there results a new group C, the number of
series
3, ... 6.
is given by the number (a b) in the previously determined meaning. The consideration of the "cardinal numbers" thus occasions the discovery of no new property and no new relation, which could not have been previously deduced from the bare ele

with the

elements of the

whose members

+

of order. The only advantage is that the formulae developed the ordinal theory gain a wider application, since they can hence by forth be read in two different languages. 13

ment

Even though no actual new mathematical content is produced through this transition, nevertheless in the formation of the cardinal number a new logical function is unmistakably at work. As in the
theory of the ordinal number the individual steps as such are estab lished and developed in definite sequence, so here the necessity is

comprehending the series, not only in its successive elements, but as an ideal whole. The preceding moment is not to be merely set aside by its successor, but is to be retained in its entire logical
felt of

import in the latter, so that the final step of the procedure contains in itself at once all the preceding steps and the law of their mutual connection. It is first in this synthesis that the bare sequence of the ordinal numbers is developed into a unitary, self-inclosed system, in which no member exists merely for itself alone but, on the contrary, represents the structure and formal principle of the whole series. Criticism of the nominalistic deduction. If once these two funda mental logical acts at the basis of all differentiation and connection of

numbers are recognized, then no further
needed to determine the
field of

special presupposition is the operations of arithmetic. The demand is therewith realized for a purely rational deduction, which renounces all dependence on the empirical relations of physical

objects.

quently misunderstood in estimating the

Indeed precisely this distinctive character has been fre "ordinal" theory of number. The explanation of the theory, as given by Helmholtz for example,
13

Cf. Helmholtz, Zdhlen

und Messen,

erkenntnistheoretisch betrachtet (Philo-

soph. Aufsalze, Ed. Zeller gewidmet, Leipzig, 1887, p. 33).

THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER

43

leads necessarily to the view that first of all concrete groups of ob presupposed as given, and that the whole work of thought is exhausted in introducing a diversity of symbols corresponding to
jects are

this diversity of things.

However

"symbols"

are nothing

them

selves but groups of perceptible objects, visibly distinguishable from each other by shape and position. Hence we seem to be able to

abstract from the immediate properties of things in assertions con cerning numerical relations, only because we have substituted for

the reality of things their sensible "copies." Thus the true beginning of the formation of numbers would be not an abstraction from physi
cal objects, but on the contrary a solidification and concentration of their sensuous import. Every such interpretation, which different

mathematicians have seemed to approach at times in their expositions of the ordinal theory of number, contradicts its essential and deeper The symbols produced would cease to be symbols, logical tendency. would lose their characteristic function, if they were judged merely
according to what they sensuously are, and not according to what they intellectually mean. What would remain, in fact, would be only certain "images," which we could investigate as to form and But no mathematical "nominalism," size, position and color. however extreme, has ever actually attempted to transform the import of valid judgments about numbers into assertions of this
kind. It is only the ambiguity in the concept of symbol, only the circumstance that under it can be understood, now the bare exist ence of a sensuous content, and now the ideal object symbolized by the latter, which makes possible this reduction to the nominalistic

schema. Leibniz, whose entire thought was concentrated upon the idea of a "universal characteristic," clearly pointed out in opposition
to the formalistic theories of his time, the fact which is essential here. The "basis" of the truth lies, as he says, never in the symbols but in

the objective relations between ideas. If it were otherwise, we would have to distinguish as many forms of truth as there are ways of symbolizing. Among modern mathematicians, Frege especially has

shown
itself.

in
is

symbols

penetrating, detailed criticism that the arithmetic of only able to keep itself in existence by being untrue to

In place of the empty symbols the meaning of the arithmeti

cal concepts appears unnoticed in the course of the argument. 14
14

Frege, Grundgesetze der Arithmetik, Vol. II, Jena, 1903, pp. 69

ff.,

139, etc.

44

SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION

In the theory of the pure ordinal numbers also, the nominalistic interpretation forms only an outer husk, which must be stripped off
to reach the real kernel of the logical and mathematical thought. Once this is done, what we retain is the purely rational moment; for

not something which can be immediately pointed out in sense-impressions but is rather something which belongs to them only
"order"

is

virtue of intellectual relations. Thus the theory in its pure form does not require the assumption of a group of physically given, particular things, as has been urged against it. 15 The manifolds which it makes fundamental are, not empirically present, but ideally defined,

by

which are progressively constructed from an assumed beginning according to a constant rule. In this rule also are rooted
totalities,
all

genuinely

"formal"

properties, such as distinguish the series of

numbers and make

it

the fundamental type of a conceptually intel-

Jigible connection in general.

in

actual

Number and the concept of class. modern development of the
if

If,

however, we survey the
it

principles of mathematics,

the previous treatment of the subject had overlooked the moment which alone completes the logical characterization essential

seems as
of

number.

Wherever the attempt has been made to resolve the

concept of

into pure "logical constants," the concept of class has been regarded as a necessary and sufficient presupposition.

number

jj

number seems completed only when all its special has been derived from the general function of the concept. import But according to the dominant logical theory, here again, the formaanalysis of

The

I

^

|1

means nothing but the collection of objects into and genera by virtue of subsumption under general attributes. species Thus, in order to understand the concept of number, everything must first be removed from it which does not fit into this schema. But a fundamental difficulty here arises for the theory. If we are
tion of concepts

number in general, but the concept of number, we are not dealing with a logically universal concept but with an individual concept. Our concern is not with giving a species, which can be found in any number of
considering not the thought of
this or that determinate

individual examples, but with the determination of a certain definite
15

Cf. Couturat,

De

I

lnfini mathematique, Paris, 1896, p. 318

ff.

THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER

45

position within a total system. There is only one "two," only one and both of them possess certain mathematical properties "four,"

and

characteristics

which they share with no other object.

If

the

reduction of the concept of

to the concept of class is to be To in spite of this, then another direction must be taken. possible determine what a number according to its pure essence, we
"is,"

number

do not attempt to analyse it directly into simpler constitutive parts, but we ask primarily what the equality of numbers means. As soon as it is established under what conditions we shall regard two groups as of the same numerical value, the peculiarity of the "mark," which we assume to be identical in both, is thereby indirectly determined. The criterion of the numerical equality of two groups, however, con sists in that a certain relation can be given, by virtue of which the members of the two groups can be mutually coordinated one to one.

By

virtue of this process of coordination,

we
r

establish

among

the

infinitely

numerous

possible classes of objects, certain connections

by

uniting into a total complex those groups which can be coordinated In other words, we unite into a species all the manifolds in this way.

which there exists such a relation of "equivalence" or of one to one coordination; while we regard groups in which this condition is not fulfilled as belonging to different species. When this has been
for

done, any individual group, by virtue of the character of equivalence, can be regarded as a perfect representative of the whole species: For since it can be shown that two groups which are equivalent to a
third are also equivalent to each other, it is enough to prove of a that it can be coordinated member for member with given total

M

any group of the whole complex in order to establish the certainty that the same is true of all groups of the complex in question. Now
if

we abstract the common relation, which all the wholes of such a complex have to each other and consider it as a possible object of

thought, we gain the moment which, in ordinary language, we call which belongs to a the number of these wholes. "The number

concept
to
F,"

F,"

mental features,

We

says Frege, to whom we owe this deduction in its funda the extension of the concept: numerically equal the number of a concept when we do not regard the grasp
"is

objects which fall under it merely for themselves alone, but at the same time include all those classes whose elements stand in the rela
tion of one to one coordination with those of the whole under

consideration.

46

SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION
Russell s theory of cardinal numbers.

Thus

it

is

characteristic of

this conception that it emphasizes what appears in the ordinary view simply as the criterion of numerical equality as the peculiar consti

of

upon which rests the whole content of the concept number. While the traditional view presupposes the individual numbers as given, as known, and decides on the basis of this knowledge as to their equality or inequality, here the reverse process holds. Only the relation, which is asserted in the equation, is known while the elements entering into this relation are at first undetermined and are only determinable by the equation. Frege thus describes
tutive character,
;

the general procedure, "Our purpose is to shape the content of a r judgment, w hich can be interpreted as an equation, in such a manner that upon each side of this equation there is a number. We thus
to reach by means of the already known concept wish Here a methodologi of equality that which is to be regarded as equal." cal tendency is clearly defined, which is fundamental in all construc tion of mathematical concepts:: the construct" is to gain its total
.

.

.

.

*

constitution from the relations in which
"

it

stands.

(Cf.

above

p.

40

of

The only question that remains is whether, in the relation the equivalence of classes, we really grasp a relation which is
f.).

logically simpler than the totality of functions which, in the ordinal An theory, leads to the systematic series of the ordinal numbers. advance in analysis would necessarily result in our being able to

abstract entirely from all these functions, and yet accomplish in a new way the complete construction of the realm of number and its laws.
It is

upon

this point, therefore, that all critical investigation

must be

concentrated: Is the deduction of the series of numbers out of the
circle

concept of class really successful, or does this deduction move in a by tacitly presupposing concepts from the very field which it

undertakes to deduce? 16

The
conflict

theory, which has here been developed, although in sharp with the empirical interpretation of the nature of number,

The problem, which is involved here, has been discussed in lively fashion modern logico-mathematical literature; for positive exposition of the theory cf. especially the writings of Frege, Russell and Peano; for criticism cf. B. Kerry, Uber Anschauung und ihre psychische Verarbeitung, Vierteljahrsschr.
16

in the

f.

wissensch. Philos. XI, 287
ff.;
ff.

1891, p. 129 1908, p. 158

ff Husserl, Philosophic der Arithmetik, I, Halle, Jonas Cohn, Voraussetzungen und Ziele des Erkennens, Leipzig,
.

THE CONCEPT OF NUMBEK
:

47

agrees with it in one formal characteristic it also understands number as a "common property" of certain contents and groups of contents.

The

sized, is

basis of numerical assertions, however, as is especially empha not to be sought in sensuous physical things themselves but

wholly in the concepts of things.

Every judgment about numerical

relations ascribes certain attributes, not to objects, but to their con cepts, by which they are divided into classes with peculiar properties.

Venus has moons, there is in fact no moon or aggre there of which anything could be said but a property is thereby ascribed to the concept moon of Venus/ namely, that of including nothing under itself. When I say the coach of the emperor
"When

I

say:

gate of

moons

;

:

is

drawn by four

concept

horses, I thereby ascribe the number four to the This fact horse that draws the coach of the emperor.

alone explains the universal applicability of numerical assertions, which equally covers the material and the immaterial, outer and inner phenomena, things as well as experiences and deeds. This apparent diversity of the field of what can be numbered proves upon closer consideration to be strict uniformity; for the enumeration never concerns the heterogeneous contents themselves but the concepts under which they are comprehended, and thus is always concerned with the same logical nature. The previous exposition has shown how this can be more precisely understood; a certain numerical determination is to be ascribed to concepts when they are collected into classes with other concepts with which they stand in the relation of possible one to one coordination of their elements in extension.
Criticism of "Class theories." Against this explanation, however, one objection necessarily arises. The theory, which is here defended, is by no means concerned to excogitate the concept of number arbitrarily, but to indicate the real function which number possesses in the actual whole of knowledge. Precisely this is emphasized in to the interpretation which proceeds from the ordinal opposition numbers, that the "logical" properties of number here deduced are the very ones that are definitive and essential in its "use in daily A natural deduction, such as shall do justice to the concrete applications of number, is to be opposed to the technical deduction, which merely keeps in view the purposes of scientific arithmetic. But a closer examination shows that this goal is not attained; for what is logically deduced here is in no way identical with the real meaning that we connect with numerical judgments in actual knowllife."

48
edge.
If

SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION

we limit ourselves merely to the previous postulates, we are indeed enabled by means of them to place different groups of elements together and to regard them as similar from a certain point of view;
but no sufficient determination
is

thereby gained of their

"number"

in the ordinary sense of the word. Our thought could run number of "equivalent" groups and consider their any

through

relations without

any

characteristic consciousness of the pure

mutual numeri
of

cal concepts resulting
"four"

from the process.
"four"

The

specific

meaning

or

"seven"

any number groups must first be determined as ordered sequences thus as numbers in the sense of the ordinal theory. The
of

could never result from the bare placing together of groups of or "seven" elements; the individual
of elements,
"how many"

of the elements, in the ordinary sense, can be changed by no logical transformation into a bare assertion concerning "just as many;" that remains an independent problem of knowledge. Considera

tion of this problem, however, leads back to a deeper opposition in method between the two interpretations of number. It is a funda

mental characteristic of the ordinal theory that in it the individual number never means anything by itself alone, that a fixed value is only ascribed to it by its position in a total system. The definition of the individual number determines at once and directly the relation in which it stands to the other members of the field and this relation cannot be eliminated without losing the entire content of the particu lar numerical concept. In the general deduction of cardinal numbers, which we are considering, this connection is eliminated. It is also
;

necessary that this deduction erect and logically derive a fixed principle of arrangement of the individual numbers; however the

meaning of the elements is to be established before this arrangement and independently of it. The members are determined as the

common properties of certain classes before anything whatever has been established as to their relation of sequence. Yet, in truth, it is precisely in the element here at first excluded that the peculiar
numerical character
basis of
is

rooted.

The conceptual

construction at the

to abstract similarities, as must be the case according to the traditional doctrine of abstraction, but to sepa rate out and maintain diversity. The consideration of groups, which

number does not tend

can be mutually coordinated member for member, can only lead to the separating out of the identical "mark" in them; but this "mark" is in itself not yet "number" but is merely a logical property not

THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER
further defined.

49

separates

itself

Such a property only becomes number when it from other "marks" of the same logical character by
"later,"

or "more" appearing in a relation to them of "earlier" or or Those very thinkers, who have carried through the explanation of number by equivalent classes most strictly and con
"less."

sistently, emphasize therefore that this explanation is irrelevant to the methods of pure mathematics. What the mathematician con siders in number are merely the properties on which rest the order of

Number in itself may be what it will; for analysis and algebra it only comes into consideration in so far as it can be 17 purely and completely developed in the form of a "progression." Strictly speaking, once this is admitted, the dispute as to the method For where can ological precedence of the ordinal number is over. more certain information be gained as to the "nature" of number, in the sense of the criticism of knowledge, than in its most general
the positions.
scientific use?

The appeal
pre-scientific

to the

meaning attached

to the concept of

number

in

thought also does not withstand criticism. Psychologi cal analysis at least offers no support to the theory. All reflection on the actual state of thought, on the contrary, shows clearly the inner difference between the thought of equivalence and that of number. If number were what it alone should be according to this deduction, then it would be a peculiarly complicated and difficult task to point out the process by which such a concept would arise and be main tained in consciousness. For number means here a relation between two classes wholly heterogeneous in content, which are connected by no further moment than the mere possibility of mutual coordination. But what intellectual motive would there be in general to relate such dissimilar groups with each other; what meaning would there be,
for example, in placing the class of moons of Jupiter beside that of seasons of the year, the group of pins in nine-pins beside that of the muses! Such a comparison is intelligible after the numerical value

of these classes

and an

indirect

agreement between them has been

established in another way; but here, on the other hand, where this value is not presupposed but is to be gained from the comparison, the

comparison itself lacks any fixed guide or standard. It has been urged against the theory of equivalence that it leads to an "extreme relativism" in so far as the determination of number is to be a
17

Cf. Russell, op.

cit.,

230.

On

the concept of progression,

cf.

above

p. 49.

50

SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION
itself,

property, which does not belong to a group in

but merely

in.

relation to other groups. This charge is at least ambiguous; for the of number can, in fact, be nothing in any form of deduction concept

but a pure relational concept.

Only here the

field

and thus the

logical place of the relation is shifted; for while

we

are concerned in

the ordinal theory with ideal constructions, which are mutually related to each other, here each individual construction is deduced from the relation of given "classes."

The logical definition of the zero and of unity. The presuppositions, that are assumed here, come to light very clearly as soon as we pro ceed to give a strictly logical definition of the individual numerical values from this point of view, and to determine the conditions under

which we are to regard two of these numerical values as immediately In fact, in the explanation of null there appear grave successive. difficulties; for there is obviously no meaning in still speaking of the mutual one to one coordination of the members of different classes in the case in which these classes by definition contain no members. But, even if this difficulty could be removed by complicated logical
transformations of the concept of equivalence, 18 the circle in the explanation again becomes clear as soon as we advance to the defini
tion of
"one."

here assumed to be
equality

What it means to apprehend an object as is known from the very beginning; for the numerical of two classes is known solely by the fact that we coordinate
"one"

with each element of the first class one and only one of the second. This remark, simple and even trivial as it seems, has been frequently
It has been objected that it is something different take the number one in its strictly mathematical meaning or merely in the vague sense represented by the indefinite article:

controverted.
I

whether
it is

merely this
"That

last sense,

which

is

presupposed,
relate
it

when

I

am requested
of a class in a certain

to take
v.

any member

of a class

u and
"is

to a

member
is,

every individual or every

member

of a class

sense,

says Russell, e.g. naturally incontestable, but it does not follow from this that the concept of is presupposed, when we speak of an individual. We can rather conversely regard the concept of the individual as the fundamental concept, from
one,"
"one"

p. 113,
p.

on this point: Frege, Grundlagen der Arithmetik, p. 82 ff.; Russell, along with the criticism of Kerry, Vierteljahrsschr. f. wiss. Philos. XI, 287 ff., and also of Poincar<, Science et Methode, Paris, 1908, Bk. II. For
Cf.
cf.

18

criticism of Frege,

Natorp, op.

cit.,

p. 112

ff.

the elements x. We see how here in order to complete the explanation.progression&quot. Russell. is that enables us. second. while at the same time we relate it to another term y and judge the former as agreeing with or differing from the latter. in general possesses conditions. e. the member meaning of the assertion that a class u possesses the arithmetical sense) is determined by the fact that this class is (in not null and that if x and y are u s. which possesses no corresponding member in the other (u). the class of two objects it Thus. if x is class. every class that belongs to z is also different from u.. 40 ff.g. determined. definitely In general. according to Now if we take this process of positing special circumstances. 496. with each other. then x is identical with y. . then we designate v in relation to u as the &quot.&quot. third therefore. that one of its terms. 124-126.one&quot. . A similar determination is then to fix the meaning of the concept of mutual one to one correlation between terms: R is such a relation that in the case that x and x have the relation R to y. according to the theory. is use primarily rest). if x. and differentiation as a basis. easy to see that here the logical function of number not so much deduced as rather described by a technical circumlocu is. From this point of view. and x possesses the relation R to y and y x and x and also y and y are identical. be indirectly distinguished as first.next higher&quot. and z is different from x and y. which can be coordinated member for member with u. If it is found here that in class (v) a member remains. It is nevertheless. part of 19 Here also it is postulated that we first grasp as a whole the v.. r .being This relation between two numbers neighbors&quot. y. tion. y. while further. by coordinating their now elements member for member. we have done nothing but (Setzung] presuppose number in the sense of the ordinal theory. there is another term of the are produced in progressive differentiation and must. members. Cf. z.THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER 51 which the concept of one is derived. Grundlagen. it is at we comprehend a term x as identical with itself. class. by comparing the corre sponding classes u and v. p. is defined by Russell by the terms and that... in order to bring the different numbers into the form of a ordered &quot. to define the succeeding &quot. least necessary that In order to understand the explanations given here. Frege. 19 &quot. y are different terms of the class u. (and it is upon this form their scientific meaning and number. when any number n we must have a principle given. which is different from x.

to what next follows it is founded on the same intellectual synthesis in principle as that upon which it rests in the theory number.second. 20 The presupposition of the class concept. for example. nevertheless the circumstance remains that we must oppose the classes as wholes to each other. number. cit. on which the meaning of the cardinal numbers is to be based. starts from the proposition: &quot.unity. it is not necessary that the members of the two mani numbered but that. and the only difference in method consists of the ordinal in that these syntheses appear. The objected that this difference is logical difference of the class concepts.&quot. the general any element of the first manifold is placed in con nection with any element of the second. according to which each member of the series of numbers is dis tinguished from its neighbors by the addition or absence of a &quot. view. however. 20 . series of natural In order to explain the relation. and different units.similarity&quot. But even if we give up.&quot.52 in order to grasp the SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION member that remains unconnected in this form Thus here the progress from unity of connection. capable of any further deduction. as free constructions while here they depend upon given classes of elements. It follows. the prior enumeration of the individual classes which we compare. on the contrary.two&quot. p. upon which they rest and to which they owe their definition and character. The concept of the &quot. decisive consideration that the logical order of concepts is The determination of number by the equivalence of classes presupposes that these classes themselves are given as a plurality. and the number this is explained which belongs to the concept falling under F but notx is m as equivalent to the proposition that n is the immediate successor of m in the natural number series. 89. Op. as a &quot. of classes.there is a concept F and an object x falling under it of such a sort that the number which belongs to the concept F is n. Thus here a distinction is drawn within the totality Fin which a single member x is selected and opposed to the others: all these others are then used in the definition of the neighboring &quot.just lower&quot. We thus have here also only a circumlocution of the &quot. immediately given by the purely and thus neither needs nor is We would therewith be led from the classes themselves back to the generating relations. in the ordinal theory.. It two wholes connected by a certain rela has been emphasized that. for the establishment of this one to one relation. from a final inverted in this interpretation. in which two neighboring members of the numbers stand to each other.&quot. It may be thereby understand them as &quot. in folds be previously is satisfied if law accordance with this point of view. Frege. requires at least the consideration of tion. .popu lar&quot.

THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER 53 difference in the systematic wholes reduces to the difference in the however. conceptual law. The ordering of individuals into the heirarchy of species would be. . this connection has occasionally come clearly into view. 29 ff . From this point. if I grasp the thought &quot. I have thereby formed the logical product of the concepts &quot.) It is incontestable that. Frege and Russell regard as the decisive merit of their it number does not appear as a property of physical but as an assertion concerning certain properties of classes. 111. In the different interpretations of the concept of number. at the same time. an extraordinary liberation of thought and increase of depth is gained by this transformation. now as before.two men&quot. it is evident that the system of the numbers as pure ordinal numbers can be derived immediately and without the circuitous route through the concept of class. According to Russell. which no logical deduction of number can avoid. Nevertheless it does not 21 Cf. and the proposition that there are two men says only that a complex is class given which simultaneously belongs to the claaaJlman! and the 21 It becomes evident at this point that the theory &quot. above p. In the attempts to ground the logical theory of the cardinal numbers.&quot. Russell. Thus the conflict of mathematical theories here again combines with the general questions of logical principle that were our starting-point. and the concept &quot. If the attempt to derive the concept of class were successful. from which they have proceeded. The generic concept and the relational concept. yet does not belong to its original content. the traditional form of would gain a new source of confirmation. cit. The theory of the ordinal number thus represents the essential minimum. since for this we need assume nothing but the possibility of differentiating a sequence of pure thought construc tions by different relations to a certain fundamental element.man&quot. of number from that logic the true goal of all knowledge. compared with the sensationalistic doctrine. which serves as a starting-point.^ things that in it therefore objects as such do not form the basis of numerical judgments but rather the concepts of these objects. the consideration of equivalent classes is of the greatest significance for the application of this concept. op. empirical as well as exact. (Cf. has not carried through the fundamental critical ideas from which it started. there is repeated the general conflict between the logic of the generic concept and the nf fhft rftlntinnnl Jofrjc concept.couple.. that in interpretation.&quot.couple.

infinite&quot. has shown itself to be.54 suffice to I SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION emphasize the purely conceptual character of numerical J( and functional concepts are placed on the same plane. which would not be limited from the very beginning to the finite numbers. cf. The previous attempts to estab the character of number and the principle of its formation. point of view. Only on this foundation did it seem possible to produce a theory.) . above p. that belongs to the given plurality of classes and can be separated from the latter by compari assertions as long as thing-concepts son. it has nevertheless in no way been proved to be identical with the concept of number. (Machtigkeit). and &quot. according to the ordinary interpreta tion of enumeration as the successive advance from unity to unity. Number appears.power&quot.. how ever. lish which is it to number has gained in the development of modern mathematics. not as the expression of the fundamental condition which first renders possible every plurality. which arises in this connection. a purely &quot. have not grasped the question in that universality and breadth. but as a &quot.summum genus&quot.finite&quot.) /The theory finally shows itself to be a objects. is obviously unaffected by whether we regard it as the original principle of number or as only a derived result that The properties. which are presupposes another explanation of number. (On the problem of the transfinites. with a problem which belongs in its mean ing and scope to a new field and presupposes another concept of 22 knowledge. IV Extension of the concept of number. as.&quot. 24 ff . It in its most primitive form and meaning that the 22 Indeed not merely logical views but also more special mathematical reasons led to the explanation of number through the equivalence of classes. Fruit ful as the general point of view of &quot.power&quot. i. in the sense of the logic of the generic concept is here also not identical with the conceptual origin of knowledge.e. by no means contain as such the essential element for the construction of number in general: the &quot. but would include and characterize the &quot. common to the finite and transfinite numbers. Thus the fundamental is : deficiency of the whole doctrine of repeated an attempt is made to view what guides and controls the formation of concepts. according to this view.categorical&quot. 80 ff. The purely mathematical sig nificance of the concept of &quot. subtle and extended attempt to deaL/oy means of th^gejiataLachejna /of the generic concept.mark. for it mutual one to one coordination of groups seemed of fundamental remained when one abstracted from the finitude and there with the enumerability of the groups. numbers in a single deduction. below p. The aspect of significance. in some way^ar^ristitutive part of the compared abstraction (Cf.

which can only number. e. Enumeration..two&quot. the standpoint of the Pythagoreans is theory applies. Judgments of the concept of and assertions concerning the &quot. number is the expression of a thought. in the narrower sense of the whole forms the only real problem. identical to In strictness.real&quot. The meaning of or forms. or are they expressions of the same logical function that characterizes the first institution numbers? Gauss theory of the negative and imaginary numbers.&quot. here lay claim to a definite. of 1 of the negatives and the irrationals as well as of the imaginaries.THE COXCEPT OF NUMBER attempted deduction of the 55 class theory as well as that of the ordinal In principle. diately valid. are easily explained if we consider that. A. The difficul ties encountered in the introduction of every new type of number. that is effective in principle in each of the new types of number and gives them their characteristic stamp. the real basis of numerical assertions seems more and more to disap pear. . This connection and the general principle. as prominent mathemati cians have asserted. as it seems. this presupposition is only realized where not substances (things conceivable by themselves) but relations between two objects are enumerated. no serious problem. The concept and designation of the &quot. &quot.imaginary&quot. indispensable cognitive value. is first completed in the extensions. to be united with which annihilation. numbers. however. not yet left behind. still be explained and justified as applications. number. rational and irrational numbers. is stated by Gauss with complete clarity and dis tinctness in a passage in which he sets himself the task of grounding &quot.metaphysics of the imaginary. in shown to be its &quot.four&quot. for the empirical world of things everywhere offers us groups of two and four things. disappears. whole and fractional. merely technical transformations. however. this reference to things. It is thereby postulated that these objects are ordered in some way into a series. upon which the naive interpretation especially rests.g. could be imme by means of sensible objects and therefore &quot. Are these extensions. B.unreal&quot. it is here stated. in all these transformations. With the first generalization and extension &quot.&quot. which the concept of number undergoes through the introduction of the opposi tions of positive and negative.Positive and negative the true &quot. most fundamental sense. to which all the different methods of the extension of number go back. The scientific system of arithmetic.can only find application where what is is enumerated has an opposite. number.

field of numbers can be deduced. therefore. Here. and proof of this connection given by Natorp. and that the relation of A to B can be regarded as the C. . Chs. if the relation (and thus the transition) between A and B is represented 1. for every relation of to B can also be represented and expressed as a relation of B to A.&quot. A negative sub stance. upon the fact that the objects we are inves tigating are no longer regarded as ordered in a single series. the relation of B to A is represented by by + a series is sents the relation of unlimited in both directions. op. further. . here especially the penetrating exposition cit. . thus. Now in this case nothing more belongs to the concept of opposition than the reversal of the relation. The deduction of imaginary numbers rests. which would be at once being and not-being. The positive and negative numbers (+ a. a) now appear merely as expressions of progress (Fortgang) in these a two directions of the relations (R a From this fundamental ). R the operations of calculation within the thus extended conception. we thereby postulate also a relation of the follow ing member to the preceding. the dominating logical view stands out clearly. Once more we shall not trace the develop ment in all its particular phases but shall merely study typical this 23 Cf. The meaning of the generalized concepts of number cannot be grasped as long as we try to indicate what they mean with regard to substances. a negative relation is only the necessary logical correlate of the concept of relation in general. if we abstract all details of the deduction. the generating relation (R). dictio in If A we the transition from a consider. i). Ill and IV.. would be a contraadjecto. every real whole number repre any member arbitrarily chosen as a beginning to some definite member of the series. which we can understand as the converse of the first. . or as the inverse relation (R). D. In so far as such 1. on which rests member of the series of numbers to that imme diately following. But the meaning at once becomes intelligible when we regard the concepts as expressing pure relations through which the connections in a constructively produced series are governed. but as requiring for their arrangement consideration of a series of series. for all these operations are founded on the character of pure number as relational number and express all with increasing clarity. and thus define a second direction of progress. 23 The irrational numbers. same as that of B to C.56 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION . and from thus the introduction of a new unity (+ i. with regard to objects conceivable in themselves.

The determinations of size. an intellectual instrument cept must lates. shall proceed and justify from the fundamental principle of number itself. to which we are led by exter nal experience. the further demand must arise that the construction. There seem at first two ways in which a of the irrational numbers. in the deduction expressed. for between any two elements. this con in its strict mathematical significance. and thus only within the limits imposed by the personal equation (Beobachtungsfehkr). above all. not the bodies of physical reality but the cognitions. deduction of the irrationals can be attempted. factually presented magnitudes. Thus the ordinary system of fractional numbers is obviously adequate in every respect to accomplish For within this system there all the tasks that can arise in this field. Nevertheless it becomes evident that at least the appeal to the relations of concrete empirical things must fail at this point.THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER examples in 57 tendency of the thought is most clearly principle is verified. is no smallest difference. The new problem does not develop out of the apprehension of given. but out of the laws of certain geometrical constructions. thus a conceptual differentiation is offered here. Here again it seems to be experiences of physical-spatial objects which control the process of the formation of mathematical concepts and prescribe its direction. completeness of the system of algebra . The shifting the question from number to space would destroy the unity and itself. To demand an absolutely exact determination in this field is to mistake the nature of the question itself. there can always be given a new element belonging to the system. which was almost exclusively accepted up to the time of Weierstrass and Dedekind. We could start either from the relations between given geometrical extensions or from the logical which the The new postulate of the solubility of certain algebraic equations. arise and be grounded from within the circle of the postu upon which rests the systematic connection of mathematical In any case. bases the new number upon space and thus upon relations found between measurable objects. which is never reached in the observable relations of things. however near. to say nothing of being surpassed. Once this is recognized. purely ideal extensions of geometry can afford the desired basis for the derivation of the irrationals. can thus never force us to the concept of the irrational On the contrary. The relative magnitudes of things are known to us only through observation. indispensable in itself of any attempted deduction. The first method.

however. that can be made intellectually. The first of these classes includes all numbers which are smaller than a (i. for all these properties follow from it and are based on it. This guiding thought appears in its purest form in Dedekind s well-known explana tion of the irrational numbers as &quot. divides the totality itself into two classes 21 and 33. From the first.e.. for not every strictly defined. is completely determined for any numerical value when its position in the total system is given with its deduction. 230.&quot. 144 ff. For example.. if we abstract from the fact that there are infinitely many irrational values such as cannot be represented as the roots of algebraical equations. all numbers which are than a (i. More particularly cf. which precede a in the systematic order of the whole). the converse of this proposition does not hold. such an explanation does not decide whether the object produced by them is definitely determined or whether there are several different values which satisfy the stated conditions.e. which we can select from this totality. Russell.larger&quot. for For even it confuses the erection of a postulate with its fulfillment. . Dedekind s explanation of the irrational numbers.. which however is not the square of a whole number. which introduces the irrational values as the solutions of certain equations is indeed inadequate..cuts. If. in any case. fraction implicitly involves such a division of the total system. by which it is distinguished from all others. op. An adequate definition must not characterize the ideal object upon which it is directed merely by some particular &quot.mark&quot.. If we first take as given the totality of rational fractions. e. a fraction being defined as a proportion (Verhaltniszahl) and derived without appeal to measurable and divisible relations.58 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION The ordinary algebraical method. however. individuality. and its relation thus determined to all the other known members of the realm of number. the second. this relative position includes within it all other properties that can ever be ascribed to the indi vidual numbers. 24 magnitudes from the consideration of the pure ordinal then every individual element a. that belongs to it. but must comprehend and determine it in its full characteristic This individuality. unambiguous division. the designation of any individual &quot. corresponds to a definite rational number. then so that a positive whole 14 it will number A always lie between two squares can be pointed out such that cit. if we consider any positive whole number D. which follow a).g.

irrational&quot. We have thus by means of a Nevertheless. there conceptual rule (by the side of which any number of others could be placed) reached an entirely sharp and clear relation between classes of numbers. Dedekind s definite logical The exposition suggests this consideration in so far as it takes its start from geometrical analogies. . it is explained. element. Braunschweig. is first class lies to the left of every point of the second class. with the purpose of clarifying the funda The continuity of the straight line. in every case of complete division of the system of rational numbers. 25 The assumption of this property of a line is characterized by Dedekind himself as an axiom.(/1 59 + 2 I) .&quot. this cutting of the line into two pieces. and smaller than all numbers of the class 33.D&amp. made completely is exhausts the system of evidently no element in this system. and which would thus be greater than all the numbers of the class 21. is not proved but merely asserted on the ground of a general postulate. nor is it introduced as a mere &quot. a system of relations and into such can be again resolved. in this form of derivation. from the beginning. Stetigkeit und irrationals Zahlen. while the numbers whose squares we think of all the numbers whose squares are greater than D as united in a class 33. p. so that the division here rational numbers. there exists one and only one point of the straight line which produces this division of all the points.lt.lt. 1892. 9ff. an element which has no other function and meaning than to represent The new number.THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER /1 2 &amp. which were first deduced with strict logic.symbol. that it involves an indemonstrable assumption. which is nevertheless represented by no individual numerical value in the manifold as hitherto denned. in such a manner that every point of the mental thought. which produces this separation. 25 by which we first recognize the continuity of the 2. ence of one and only one numerical element. then any possible rational value belongs to one of these classes. conceptually this determinateness of division itself. Ed. both from the side of philosophy and from that of mathe The exist matics. Dedekind. If now we into unite all are smaller than D a class 21. In fact. the fact that when all the points of a straight line are expressed by divided into two classes. but it appears as the expression of a complex whole of relations. objection has frequently been raised against Dedekind s deduction. is thus not arbitrarily conceived. It represents. It is this cir cumstance which now occasions the introduction of a new &quot.

postulate.cuts&quot. which forces itself upon us in understanding the realm of number.exists&quot. not necessarily continuous. by which we read continuity it real existence. at least.cut&quot. . p. the order in which the different &quot.If. in the case of space. line. 33) 21 when an element a can be division indicated that belongs to class &quot. innumerably many of its properties w ould remain the same even if it were dis continuous.is&quot.real&quot. nevertheless in the field of pure number it loses all meaning. the whole dualistic separation of ideal and real being.&quot. When by any the rational system is divided into two sort of conceptual rule. 25 Such an opposi can indeed occasion the thought that no and tion of &quot. We (H. is &quot. &quot. and &quot. Even if. is irrelevant. space has a into it. if we chose to do so.essence&quot. our concern here is not with an unjustified transition.e. such a separation between the product of &quot. which corresponds to it. this filling in. there would be nothing to hinder us from making it continuous by intellectually filling in its holes. Furthermore. then is r however. No number (the whole numbers as little as the fractional it is and irrational numbers) &quot.cut&quot. thus implies no questionable meaning. The logical &quot. 33) larger than the second (|[. What is here determined with absolute definiteness is primarily number system the division classes 21 itself. anything other than made in certain conceptual definitions. however. of the first and class Idem. which does not have to be conferred upon it by a &quot.&quot. conceptual determination.lt. would consist in the creation of new individual points and would be done according to the above principle.ris ets aXXo ykvos. of &quot.is&quot. free geometrical construction and what space in the nature of things can possibly be maintained. i.existence.reality. one and only one number.&quot. In truth.ideal&quot. 12. and further show that this alterna and 33 tive leaves is no member out of account. for in the realm of number. And even if we were sure that space were discontinuous. call the first of the two &quot. The assumption that wherever there rational a complete division or (Schnitte) of the there &quot. The advance from an ideal systematic connection to the existence of a new element seems to involve a jueTct/3a&amp.60 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION in general. that the resulting division as such has thus indubitable complete and exhaustive. need thereby involve a determination of being. we can decide with absolute certainty regarding any of its elements whether it belongs to one or the other class.cuts&quot. &quot.. follow each other is not arbitrary but is definitely prescribed for them by their original concept.

by virtue of which members can be posited and developed in ordered sequence. we the are not concerned with the notion that somehow known members is system supposed or assumed. may be said to numbers.THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER 33 of 61 criterion exists for &quot. produces a definite the process is finally reversed. thus wherever such a form exists the concept of number finds application. &quot. although a certain number. the second. none the less given and at hand. The notion must be given up that number arises from the successive addition of unities and that its true conceptual nature is based on this operation.be&quot. of the of rational numbers the being of other elements This way of stating the question is. We see how the fundamental thought of the ordinal theory of number is here verified. in holds directly of the rational numbers themselves.cuts&quot. Such a process contains indeed one principle from which ordered wholes result.between&quot. &quot. but in no way contains the only principle for the production of such wholes. with which &quot. Thus in the creation of the new irrational elements. as well as of the new system.&quot. The introduc tion of the irrationals is ultimately nothing but the general expres sion of this thought it gives to number the whole freedom and scope : method for the production of order in general.&quot.&quot. But we are concerned fact. in a system. for this production comes to be the conceptual &quot.cuts. individual number disappears gradually and plainly in its peculiar of a &quot. without of the The conceptual limiting it to any special relation. for the characteristic mark of succession which belongs to the &quot. another more complex system of serially arranged deter minations.function. is determined.cut&quot. since they form among themselves a strictly ordered manifold in which the relative position of the elements is determined according to &quot.cuts. a conceptual rule. Dedekind s deduction is at first connected.cuts&quot. The &quot. in its original meaning. For number. On the ordinary interpretation. which can all be understood and represented as Thus here an inclusive point of view is found from which the relative position of all members of the old. This system includes the previous totality and takes it up into itself. in itself meaningless and unintelligible. with the fact that there arises. on the basis of the originally given totality. . Thus a fixed and universal determining the serial order of the individual Thereby the forms thus produced receive the character of pure number. possesses no specific character but is merely the most general expression of the form of order and series in general.being&quot.

&quot. unlimited.power. on which the formation of number rests. which from the first forms the criterion for the numerical equality of groups. Nevertheless the problems. first gains a 27 Cf. Zur Lehre vom Transfiniten. which is Thus. of even and odd numbers. which lead to the creation of the realm of transfinite numbers. whether the number of their elements is limited or are equivalent or of the same &quot. for it it The element cannot be separated from the relational means nothing in itself aside from this complex. f. takes a new turn when we pass from the field of finite number to that of transfinite number. in the course of his decisive investigations. specifically philosophical infinite. Philosophic u.gnlnfp he^ng and its properties. when Cantor. especially Cantor. for the concept of the here the center of discussion. 27 We seem here finally to be forced from the question of the pure meaning of the concept for knowledge to the problem nf aV&amp. The concept of the infinite seems to mark out the limits of logic and the point at infinite which it comes in contact with another field that lies outside of its sphere. finite Two when their members can be mutually coordinated one to one. as were. the two groups. of the and the indefinite.power&quot. SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION sufficient condition of our speaking of the existence of a complex. aus der Zeitschr. if we let n assume all the possible values of whole numbers. a. Here problems accumulate. The application of this criterion can manifestly not proceed. and that. which it brings to expression. Halle 1890. Gesammelte Abhandl.equivalence. in concentrated form. which is thus introduced. issue with absolute necessity from purely mathematical presuppositions.&quot. They arise as soon as we generalize the fundamental concept of &quot. (Machtigkeit). by coordinating the elements individually with each other but rather presupposes that a general rule can be given.power. in such a way as to make it applicable to infinite wholes. he conjured up again all the scholastic oppositions of the potential and actual infinite. in the case of infinite groups.&quot. philos. created the system of transfinite numbers. has always belonged no less to the domain of metaphysics than to that of mathematics.62 necessary and number at all. The general thought. The problem of the transfinite numbers. . Kritik. 2n + 1. Thus we are sure that for every even number 2n there corresponds an odd number. are exhaustively correlated in a one to one manner. by which a complete correlation is established that can be surveyed at a glance. S. wholes. The concept of &quot.gt. The concept of &quot.

it includes systems of the first &quot. as&quot. The latter is the case. but also with regard to the cardinal numbers.). 2.well-ordered groups. Annalen. cf. as regards the specified property. on the other hand. the coordinate system of ordinal numbers. according to which infinite systems can be arranged. nevertheless.power. then the question arises whether the totality of possible manifolds is exhausted in them or whether there are groups of another character. as can be proved. 29 For the definition of &quot. allgemeinen Afannigfaltigkeitslehre. This manifold thus represents a new level.powers&quot. the system assumes a new character when we add the extend it totality of transcendental numbers to it and thus to the group of real numbers in general. the 28 relative position of For more detailed exposition. within itself. M and N the same ordinal of number or the same both can be mutually co &quot. . for.Kant und die moderne (Kant-Studien XII. while. since when we attempt to coordinate its elements with those of the series of natural numbers there always remains an infinity of unconnected elements. 28 introduction of the transfinite numbers ai and a is merely to tain this characteristic difference. Thus if E and F are elements of M.&quot. cf. on the one hand. Grundlagen einer Mathematik&quot. position of the elements in the system. If we say that all wholes whose elements can be coordinated in one to one fashion with the series of natural numbers belong to the first &quot. it goes beyond them. The main The new number here means nothing else than a new point of view. which arises when we no longer compare the groups in question merely with regard to the number of their elements. Cantor. 21 ff. For.type ordinated one to one with each other.THE COXCEPT OF NUMBER specifically 63 seen that it is mathematical interest when it is itself capable of differences and degrees.&quot. for all particulars. and the same is true when we go from the system of rational numbers to the system of algebraic numbers. my essay. the sequence which holds for both being retained.power. which rises above the former level.power&quot. &quot. and EI when the elements and FI are the corresponding elements of N. while the advance from the positive whole numbers to the totality of rational numbers produces no change in &quot. A more complex group of distinguishing characteristics results when we place along side of the transfinite which are limited to giving the &quot. in fact. the literature there cited should be consulted well as Cantor s presentation in the Mathemat. We ascribe to the well- ordered groups 29 of order&quot.&quot. of infinite groups.

. .powers&quot. 2. then we can. cit.64 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION and E F in the succession of the first relative position of other words. then EI must precede ment of their members. which we create in order to grasp certain distinctive characteristics of infinite totalities. 1890. 68 . or indeed to co And these tion of types co 2 co 3 etc. so that type o} we can create the type of order #co. as it seems. If we are now we say that can be correlated in one to one fashion according to this condition with the sequence of natural numbers. as with &quot. Leipzig und Wien.infinite numbers&quot. form series of the types co 2. In this type of deduction. &o. op. cow&quot. The form of enumeration also is only an expression of a necessary logical differentiation.lt. which first gains clear and adequate are interpretation in this form. . . f. + &amp.numbers of something infinite. In precedes F in the first group. from that of the world or of the activity of the structions. that are actually given and can be definitely pointed out in the field of infinite groups. 1 . p. while in the comparison of the of two manifolds use can be made of any possible arrange &quot. It has been rightly emphasized 31 that our concern with the new forms of number is not so much with &quot. knowing ego. the impossibility of the fact that the objects. Thus. .&quot. by no means introduced here as mere arbitrary symbols but are signs of conceptual determinations and differences. where we move entirely in the realm of ideal con These conflicts may be represented in two-fold form.reality&quot. . Kerry. belong to the &quot. with mathematical expressions.. From is is the first actual infinite shown by the directed point of view.type bound to a certain prescribed kind of succession. co. group is in agreement with the EI and FI in the succession of the second. that all series. and furthermore by uniting two or more systems of the nco. the metaphysical problems of the actual infinite fall completely into the background. 3.type of order&quot. System einer Theorie der Grenzbegriffe. The production of transfinite numbers. totality o) 1. 5. if E 30 FI in the second group. it must pre- S. of order&quot. upon which the act of enumeration 30 31 and which. in establishing their &quot. by adding to such series in their 2 or 3 members. Cantor. and &quot. according as they are regarded from the side of the object or from that of the subject. 1.infinity&quot. The conflicts that result from the connection of the concepts &quot.o + + . by further application of this procedure. p. are not involved here. . that is. we can go on to the produc w co *.

No matter what breadth and scope we may ascribe to abstract number. thus the &quot.THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER 65 suppose. indeed permissible to think of the newly created number co as the limit toward which the numbers 1. . from the process of successive construction and synthesis of unities. the psychological synthesis of the act of enumera .is is . but judgments concerning numbers and numerical con cepts. . that is.It &quot.material. if we thereby understand nothing else than that co is to be the first whole number that follows upon all the numbers v. for it is not of an empirical but of a logicoconceptual nature. on which the transfinite is based.logical function.finite understanding&quot. The logical func than any of the numbers v which gives us co is obviously different from the first principle of . 2. but is meant to be merely an expression for the fact that the whole unlimited system of the natural numbers.. which would exclude the actual infinite no &quot. . Viewed from the other it is point of view.&quot. 3. The new cate gory of number gives this fundamental distinction its most general Cantor expressly distinguishes the &quot. &quot. can only be given in finite numbers. significance. v tend.. can actually survey an unlimited number of unities and add them But both objections are unjustified with successively to each other. . in the ordinary sense of the word. is not to be thought of as outwardly given but as arising by free construction. Just as little is there demand for the psychological processes of particular.transfmite. 4. disposal is The &quot. in which there is no &quot. isolated acts of presentation and their subsequent summation. called greater tion.&quot.last given in its natural succession according to its law. whatever is for counted must always be thought as enclosed within certain limits. which advances from individual to individual. which is presupposed. it is not accessible to us otherwise than by experience.enumeration&quot. The of the transfinite implies rather the opposite thought: it concept from represents the independence of the purely logical import of number Even in the &quot. when we limit the latter to its strictly mathematical meaning.&quot.&quot. It is not assertions concerning things that are to be collected. The number co is not the result of such a perpetually renewed addition of particular elements. such as could be represented and surveyed in the totality of their elements only by a general conceptual rule and could not be counted off member for member. . is to be member.&quot. grounding of the irrational numbers.material&quot. reference to the &quot. we could not avoid considering infinite classes of numbers. . tion. of enumeration at our unlimited.

natural&quot. I call it SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION the second principle of generation of real whole same more closely thus: when any definite numbers and exists define the succession of defined real whole numbers is given. It is this same thought.&quot. on the basis of this second generating principle. a kind of fundamental unity. is ultimately only permissible and fruitful because it does not represent an absolutely new procedure. . but merely carries further the tendency of thought that is unavoid able in any logical basing of number.66 generation.e.principle of generation&quot. a new number produced. as the first number greater than all of them. such as those of particular psychical contents and acts of presentation. from which a new form of number-construction takes its start. in so far as it is to be treated as a unity. To seek to understand and represent the &quot.second &quot. in so far as it is &quot. which is to be regarded as the limit of those numbers. becomes the starting-point for a arise other new construction.&quot. Just as the endless multiplicity of natural numbers is ultimately posited by one concept..number&quot.given i.. it rather appeared that the individual members of the series of numbers could only be deduced in their total extent by considering one and the same generating relation. is among which there no one that is largest. and would negate its essential concept. 33. held to be identical in content through all variations in particular application. For mathematical thought. 32 The second &quot. becomes itself a new element. i. which now attains sharper formulation. numbers in their lawful order but of rendering them intelligible. sensical. Consideration of the properties of external things. The whole by a law. 11. so its content can be drawn together again in a single concept.. Cantor. the ordinal view is verified here for in the concept of a new construc : tion following 32 upon all elements of the series of natural numbers. of number (Cantor}. which use the former as material basis. endless totality of natural numbers. the fundamental relation. i. Even here it was not the bare addition of unity to unity. that includes within itself all the members that proceed from it. Grundlagen.e. p. co as an aggregate of individual unities would be non On the other hand. From the first order there and more complex orders. This principle of generation&quot. proved them to be incapable not only of con structing the series of the &quot. according to a universal principle.e. Once more we see the liberation of the concept of number from the concept of collective unity. which controlled the formation of concepts.

op.metaphysics of the imaginary. that of two. in so far as they possess in themselves a prescribed of serial form. but the relation merely points out the logical circumstance that the definition of three &quot. irrational and transfinite numbers are not added to the number system from without but grow out of the continuous unfolding of the fundamental logical function that was effective in the first beginnings of the system.after&quot.. prove to be complex assertions. as soon as we advance from the complete and closed system of the real numbers to the more complex According to the &quot. With this to a multidimensional manifold.numbers&quot. The problem of the infinity of time can also be left out of con sideration at first. into which the transfinite enters. there appear logical problems. means ultimately merely this same sort of concep tual dependence in the order of grounding.natural&quot. in a series is independent of the concrete temporal succession. which find their complete formulation beyond the limits of the pure doctrine of numbers in the field of general geometry. The judgments. numbers. and hence obey certain laws of connection for purposes of calculation. between the two fields. A new direction in principle comes in. For the meaning of &quot. 33 though they do not agree with them in all points. however. 294. number systems. . transfinite. as long as it is remembered that this totality to be logically surveyed and exhausted in a single concept. which are analogous to those of the finite numbers. but rather with the unification of a plurality of series. a thorough-going conceptual &quot. cit. Thus three does not follow upon two in the sense of a succession of events. Thus the new forms of negative. which Gauss founded and developed. The new constructions continuity prevails are &quot. of which each one is given by a definite generating relation. cf. the same holds in a still stricter sense for the relation between the transfinite and the finite numbers.succession&quot. That the number co is &quot.THE CONCEPT OF NUMBER there is 67 is no contradiction. which are reduced by analysis to relative determinations of infinite systems In this sense. all the finite numbers of the series of natural numbers. we are no longer concerned here with the establishment of the most general laws of the order of a single series.presupposes&quot. more particularly Russell. transition 33 For the arithmetic of the 286.&quot.

act exclusively according to selfits value and support in intuition.eternal Thus the geometrical form becomes at once the expression being. f Concept and form. Concept and form are synonyms. a realm of &quot. must serve as the type. number reveals itself as a complex intellectual determination. which theory must follow. which constantly gains more definite The meaning of number is first grasped completely expression. space. to carry through this development. nevertheless it seems empty and meaningless so long as it does not deepen and enrich our intuition. which appear in it and run through all diversity as permanent features. In the historical beginnings of logic this fact is most evident. which possessgyjo^immediate sensible copy in the properties of the Necessary as it is in modern analysis and algebra physical object. in purer form. they unite without meaning of eidos. as in the created laws but finds But if we adhere to the criterion of intuition. natural principle of the scientific construction of concepts. This principle seems only to come to light in its purity where thought does realm of number. A conceptual construction may be spun out ever so subtly and consistently from presuppositions. 68 . The sensuous manifold is ordered and divided by certain spatial forms. in geometry. lies henceforth not exclusively in algebra Not number. In these forms we possess the fixed schema by which we grasp in the flux of sensible distinction in the things a system of unchanging determinations. when thought has freed itself from seeking in concrete experience a In its most general mean correlative for each of its constructions.&quot. Precisely here then lies the critical decision for every logical theory of the concept. still it might appear that it repre sents only a technical detour of thought and not the original and ing. the opposition of the logical theories to each other appears in a new light. not. The model. because of their immediate relation to concrete reality.CHAPTER III THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY The logical transformations of the concept of number are dominated by a general motive. but the concepts of but.

. However much the geometrical judgments. where it advanced freely in methodic discovery. The method of ancient geometry. so in general we are able to grasp the highest genera. Not only did they grasp the concept of number. the difference that remained between the method of discovery and that of scientific The scientific exposition is exposition becomes the more manifest. is 69 The principle of the logic confirmed from a new angle and this time it is neither the popular view of the world nor the grammatical struc ture of language. 1909. but the Ephodion of Archimedes also shows with great refuted clarity how completely Greek thought. 373. . The genera of existence can only be clearly grasped when they are strictly dis tinguished from each other and limited to a fixed circle of content. Just as we recognize as identical the size it outline of the visible form in whatever sensuous material or may appear. As circle and ellipse. ellipse and parabola do not belong to the same visible type. The proof at by investigation of the historical sources. including that of the irrational. geometry of antiquity that is is dominated by the same fundamental view given general expression in formal logic.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY and the confirmation of the logical type. from which it cannot entirely free itself. in a strict sense. in all sharpness. Geschichte der Mathematik im Altertum in Verbindung mil antiker Kulturgeschichte. meet and corre spond in content. The view. that the problem of change was in general alien to the mathe matical spirit of the Greeks has been more and more completely also each geometrical Thus character. 1 But precisely when we realize this. especially pp. influenced by certain logical theories. nevertheless there is here only a secondary similar- 1 Cf. which we can make about the two fields. Berlin. The synthetic . it seems that they cannot. These relations have not been exclusively significant with regard to logical problems they have also been decisive in the scientific evolution of geometry. fall under the unity of a concept. indeed. 256. the exposition of Max Simon. form possesses an isolated and unchanging first is not directed so much upon the unity of the forms as upon their strict differentiation. science upon which it rests. 274 ff. but the structure of a fundamental mathematical of the generic concept . to which existence owes its uniform structure and the constant recur rence of its definite features. was penetrated by the concept of continuity and thus anticipated the procedure of the analysis of the infinite itself.

It is not the content of a given that determines its pure cognitive value. The concept of space and the concept of number. was analysed by Apollonius into more than eighty cases. Grundlagen. however remote. 1902. 2 The unity of the constructive principles of geometry is hidden by the specialization of its particular forms of which each is conceived as irreducible. . although anticipated. XI. 343 ff. Geometrical knowl edge in the strict sense is not found where the particulars are studied 2 See Reye. of geometry could only be carried out after a new ideal of method had been clearly conceived. on which the Discours de la Methode is founded. at once demands and conditions a new conception of geometry. This simple thought. also my work. to every difference in the total sensuous appearance of a figure corresponds a difference in interpreta A problem. The method of Descartes is everywhere directed toward establishing a definite order and connection among all particular expressions of thought. The reform first gained definitive formulation through Descartes. (1902) p. The transformation of geometry in modern times begins with an insight into the philo It was not by chance that the new sophical defect of this procedure. which we are not able to master fully by this methodical progress from step to step. which modern synthetic geometry tion and deduction. What ever can be an object of human knowledge is necessarily subject to this condition of continuous connection. and necessity only because they are individually derived from the concept in question and its specific structure. 220 ff. solves by a single construction. so that there can be no question. No member can be introduced as an entirely new element. especially by Fermat. The proofs of the two types of assertion are in each case strictly separate they gain their validity ity . Every difference in the arrangement of the given and sought lines of a problem presents a new problem in regard to the proof. Cf.70 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION and not an original logical identity. form of geometry. differing only in position. but each must issue step by step from the earlier members according to a certain rule. p. Vereinigung. but the necessity by thought which it is deduced from ultimate first principles in unbroken sequence. Marburg. The first rule of all rational knowledge is then that cognitions be so arranged that they form a single self-contained series within which there are no unmediated transitions. Leibniz System in seinen wissensch. Die synthetische Geometric im Altertum und in der Neuzeit (Jahresberichte der Deutschen Mathematik.

for its object is the isolated spatial form whose properties it grasps in immediate sensuous intui tion but whose systematic connection with other forms it can never completely represent. of being must be subordinated to the analysis of knowledge. by Foucher de Careil. This is the goal of the philosophical method: to con ceive all its objects with the same strictness of systematic connection as the system of numbers. which can be generated out of each other by a certain fundamental principle. in fact. The notebook of Descartes. pub. signifies the true substance of the external objects and is thus an But here the analysis original and irreducible condition of being.&quot. whoever surveys the chain of the sciences will find them no more difficult to hold in mind than the series of 3 numbers. but only where the totality of these objects can e constructively generated according to a given process. Its deeper value consists in that in it alone is completely fulfilled the supreme methodological postulate. We can only bring space to exact intelligibility by giving it the same Number logical character as hitherto belonged only to number. this is the only manifold which is built up from a self-created beginning according to immanent laws. Ordinary synthetic geometry violates this postulate. 4. which reveals the development of his fundamental thought. may appear strange when regarded from the standpoint of the Cartesian ontology. &quot. and thus can conceal within itself no question in principle insoluble for thought. The conversion of spatial concepts into numerical concepts thus raises all geometrical enquiry to a new intellectual level. contains a &quot. upon a true philosophi cal &quot. for in this. is not understood here as a mere technical instrument of measure ment. Oeuvres inedites. Traditional logic seems impregnable as long as * Descartes.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY 71 as isolated objects. The demand that spatial forms be represented as forms of number and be wholly expressed in the latter. The scientific discovery of analytic geometry rests. .extension&quot. The substantial form-concepts of ancient geome which remain opposed to each other in bare isolation. 1859.&quot. At this point. p. which first makes knowledge knowledge. are changed try. From the standpoint of the exact sciences in the time of Descartes.The sciences in their present characteristic expression of this: condition are masked and will only appear in full beauty when we remove their masks. Paris.revolution. by this into pure &quot.serial concepts&quot. we are led with inner philosophi cal necessity to the thought of the completion of the concept of space through the concept of number.

which stands before us in fixed. in another guise. but merely an ideal process. Here. and gains hereby its fixed systematic place within the These point-individualities. do not merely stand next to each other but are differently related. however. as we see. This connection appears even more clearly when we consider the special develop ment which analytic geometry received from Descartes. tendency. &quot. Here it appears that the apparently individual form of exposition contains features of universal significance which. &quot. when we analyse in detail the function here ascribed to the concept of The various forms of plane curves arise by our prescribing to a given point. seems accessible to exact intellectual treatment. The fundamental concept upon which Descartes founds his considerations is the concept of movement. From the standpoint of the older interpretation. there a problem even in this. y^into the sensuous realm of &quot. totality of possible positions. as previously the concept of number. it is an expression of the synthesis by which the successive manifold of positions. The individual point of the plane is first determined by its distance from two fixed lines. serves simply as an example of the general concept of series. while the transition from one form into is another seems to force us back into the chaos of mere perception. For only the individual figure. run through the whole philosophical history of geometry.subject. thus a purely empirical element? This doubt vanishes.72 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION is at its side as an immediate confirmation and embodiment of its principles.paths&quot. From the unification of these types of movement must be completely deduced the characteristics of lines generated in this way as of points.becoming. which we make a fundamental element. a concrete. are brought into the unity of a spatial form. It might at first appear that recognition of the concept of motion introduced a not entirely rational element into the Cartesian geometry. that are connected by any law. according to various complex . Here the concept of motion. the extension of geometry first makes room for a new logic of manifolds that extends beyond the ancient synthetic geometry limits of the syllogism. movement does not signify motion.&quot.&quot. various kinds of movement relative to a vertical and a horizontal axis. which are characterized by definite numerical values. contrary to its real Motion leads at once to the question of the moving but does not this subject presuppose a material body. The fundamental principle of analytic geometry. closed limits.

The procedure here also starts from a fundamental series xi x2 .Transcendental&quot. ac- . which had to be transcended in later historical development. with the technical means at Descartes the postulated deduction from the relations of purely disposal. by which the concept is ultimately reduced to a system of elementary operations of calculation. &quot. in so far as they can be given exact conceptual expression. constancy or change in direction and curvature. xn . The infinitesimal geometry. The of the &quot. Here in infinitesimal geometry first appears in more perfect form the new conceptual construction which can be recognized in its general outlines in analytic geometry. which is coordinated.. Cartesian geome try develops with inner necessity into infinitesimal geometry. seems impossible. The intuitive geometri cal line is thus resolved into a connected with each other by sensible properties pure succession of numerical values. for it is this postulate that defines and limits the field of geometry itself. numerical rules. but this ideal was not able to include all the scientific questions that had hitherto been united under the tual construction name of geometry.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY 73 rules of arrangement. These curves. but the system of serial concepts had to be deepened and refined so that not merely a thus clearly prescribed. a certain arithmetical rule. as for example. the given form is destroyed that it may rise anew from an arithmetical serial law.. however. of the points is only the sensuous representation symbol of this logical act of arrangement. The path of logical progress was resolution of spatial concepts into serial concepts remained the guiding standpoint. Rigor of concep had to be purchased through the exclusion of important and far-reaching fields.movement&quot. are ruled out of geometry because they can not be brought under the new definition of the geometrical concept. All the by which we distinguish one line from another. appear the limits of Cartesian geometry. A new ideal of knowledge was affirmed. be expres The concept of motion sible as peculiarities of these series of values. curves are excluded because in their case. must. The narrow selection but the whole field of possible spatial forms could be surveyed and mastered. thus does not serve the purpose of pictorial representation but rather that of progressive rationalization. Because of this demand. which in their intuitive construction have no exceptional position. Here. How strictly this general postulate is maintained is seen in characteristic fashion in Descartes exposition. and are thus brought to unified forms.

F. 1893. all possible forms of the dependency of magnitudes accord ing to law. by the differential equation f(x. It is an infinite manifold of coordinations from whose unification the curve first results method of infinitestimal analysis first clearly as a conceptual whole. 4 The elements. The concept of number is fulfilled in the general concept of function. and their cooperation first enables includes us to develop the whole content of geometry in logical perfection. The integration of the equation signifies the synthesis of these infinitely numerous determinations of only and connected structure. the process that consider. but . whereby the problem arises of deducing the of the curve as a whole from the totality of values of curvature thus gained. y/ ordinates to each point and its direction of movement a certain direction into a unitary y&quot. . Gottingen. = co a differential equation of the second order f(x. .) form radius of curvature. the space of its we apply consists in reading into every moment of the actually progressing movement a certain law of progress. which are here indicated geometrically by the concept of direction and curvature. to every point thus given is co6rdinated a certain direction of move ment. to the addition and subtraction. If we measured by a moving body as represented by the integral velocities. but that it is possible rather to unify the determinations again in a geometrical As in analytic geometry the individual point of the plane is essentially determined by the numerical values of its co ordinates x and y. Autographierte Vorlesung. In the advance to differential geometry there appears. which permeates it. multiplication and division of numbers or groups of numbers. in the sense of infinitesimal analysis. . with another series of values y\ jz But this coordination is no longer limited to the yn ordinary algebraic procedures. Einleitung in die hohere Geometric. y. and the problem consists in reconstructing from the system of these directions the whole of a given curve with all peculiarities of its geometrical course. y ) = 0. Klein. . I. are in their most general expression obviously nothing else than simple serial principles.74 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION cording to a definite rule. however. 143 ff. so. which we comprehend in their totality and in their transformation accord ing to law. In the same way. y. conception. The shows that this infinity of determinations does not destroy all determinateness. by which the transition to the following points of space 4 Compare. a new decisive moment.

is conceptually analysed as a manifold of simpler laws of serial order. appears here as a mediated result. is only an example of a procedure of more general applicability. finally determine a single whole. The individual values within the various series are never factual.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AXD GEOMETRY 75 is to be exactly determined. completely intelligible. however. from the standpoint of direct intuition and that of elementary syn seems to be something absolutely known and imme The diately comprehensible. but with construing its path purely ideally according to the various laws of the possible coordination of points of space and which points of time. which. but this order. which. which are superimposed upon each other and which. for the uniformity of movement is never actually realized.velocity/ which a body possesses at a given point of its path at a given moment of time. The same holds true of i. etc. form is as if resolved into manifold strata of relations. Logically considered. no absolute property of the moving thing but merely an expression of this reciprocal relation of dependence. The geometrical form. is a highly involved serial form.. the procedure used in the analysis of the infinite in geometry. the real path. as immediately given. by the definite type of dependence among them.e. The &quot. The curve is here also conceived as a certain order of points. nevertheless. thought necessarily uses these hypothetical values and series of values in order to render the complex whole. which are assumed to be different from point to point. if at a given point all outer influence upon it ceased. The construction of curves out of thetic geometry. that mutually determine each other. in fact. Herewith. Magnitudes and functions. as shown in infinitesimal geometry. the totality of their tangents. would tion of a series of space values velocity is move forward uniformly in a definite way. can only be conceived and represented by the comparison and reciprocal rela and time values. All mathematical conceptual construction sets itself a double task. that is. that after a certain time ti had elapsed the distance Si would have been traversed. real movement it of the body by giving the particular places through passes. The concrete form is analysed into a system of virtual grounds of determination. We assume that the body. after the time t 2 = 2ti had elapsed the distance 2s i would have been In all this we are not concerned with indicating the traversed. is revealed a prob lem of comprehensive significance. the task of the analysis of a certain relational complex into elementary types of relation and the synthesis of these simpler types .

there clearly appear the beginnings of a new and univer sal formulation of the logical question. before we can follow this development. . 9. How ever. II. Criticism of these methods 5 own See Descartes letter to Mersenne of Jan. The &quot.76 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION of construction into relations of higher orders. seek to It is not when we limit intuition as it replace by mere operations truly logical and strictly deductive of space results. that a construction of the science of much intuition to its full Thus the development leads back from the abstract concept of number to the pure concept of form. ii Intuition and thought in first Modern geometry field the principles of the geometry of position. Intuition again asserts its claim as in ancient synthetic geometry. this step seems to signify a reaction. In relation to the analytic geometry of Descartes. in the philosophical He saw in sense. Adam-Tannery. we must turn back to the special problems of geometry. the methods of Desargues. 1639. ed. That in this there lies a new motive. Descartes himself discovered and asserted. but when we restore as possible and calculation. Correspondence. In fact.parts&quot. 5 scope and independence. is and laws The analysis and complete expression of this For even here mathematical investigation intellectual tendency. the new interpretation could be carried through only by a stubborn struggle against the supremacy of the analytic methods. this &quot. here joined into new unities are themselves not extensive magnitudes which are combined of a whole.metaphysics of geometry. further. advances beyond the mere consideration of magnitudes and turns to of the infinite logically a first a general theory of functions. attains a strictly logical construction of its and true freedom and universality of method in advancing from the geometry of measure to the geometry of position. determine each other and unite into a system of dependencies. which contained the first approach to a projective treatment and conception of spatial forms.metaphysics&quot. 490. but are forms of function which reciprocally as &quot.&quot. it seems in immediate conflict with his tendencies and deductions.elements&quot. for in the philosophical struggles concerning the geometri cal methods. an in If we follow dication of a general &quot. which gives mathematics its peculiar character.

the conceptual character of the form is not established on the basis of properties purely within itself. The reference of a spatial figure to arbitrarily chosen coordinates introduces an element of subjective caprice into the determination. possibility of return to the point of view of ancient elementary Steiner is and Nevertheless from this this geometry.intuition. Whether from among all the various equations which can be applied. is never tired of praising the logical justification and Steiner and his disciples see the fruitfulness of pure intuition. in order to gain a fixed criterion in the philo sophical conflict of opinion. III.&quot.&quot. upon which it prides itself. the relatively simplest is chosen depends skill of the calculator. The reversion to the intuitive aspect of the figure pro duces only an apparent connecting link. &quot. If. in their own laws without translation into abstract numerical relations. following his teacher and model Pestalozzi. according to this process. that is now understood under geometrical &quot. Jakob Steiner.in themselves&quot. within the field to be ordered. On the one hand. 6 For further particulars regarding Leibniz sketch of Leibniz System in s. 6 and standpoint.Analysis cf. has been deepened and transformed. we enquire of the scientific founders of modern geometry concerning the meaning they attach to the concept and term &quot. which may be different according to the choice of the assumed system of reference. but that it is obliged to have recourse to a point of view external to the object considered. defect of ordinary synthetic intuition only in a limited sense. there is no philosophically characteristic and significant. It is charged that analysis is not able to establish the universal principle of order. If this defect upon the individual is to be avoided. The fundamental spatial forms are to be grasped as they are &quot.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AXD GEOMETRY 77 begins with Leibniz and is brought to a first conclusion with his founding the analysis of position. there appears at first a peculiarly conflicting result. Ch. . and thus upon an element which the strict progress of method seeks to exclude. a procedure must be found which is equal to the analytic methods in conceptual rigor but which accomplishes the rationalization wholly within the field of geometry and of pure space. for the content itself. in the expression of a spatial figure.intuition. Grundlagen. but is expressed by an accidental relation. geometry in that it teaches us to use and not in the whole freedom and situs&quot. and understood Poncelet. wiss.

intuition&quot. There are a small number of simple funda mental relations. individually conceived and investigated. order comes out of chaos. and thus first attains completeness of rational deduction. The method is found in that through it geometrical 7 deduction can proceed entirely unhindered. dependency of geometrical The particular terms are here also subor- C/.. innumerable properties can be ascribed to figures. The various sensuously possible cases of a figure are not. never stands for it itself alone but as a symbol of the system to which belongs and as an expression for the totality of forms into which it can be transformed under certain rules of transforma tion.78 scope of Poncelet its SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION meaning. 347. we master the whole subject. by which. Cf. Op. in the chief work of the opposite logical tendency expressed. B. forming into series in the most perfect order. but all interest is concentrated on the manner in which they mutually proceed from each other. Steiner s work: keit geometrischer Gestalten voneinander. and the allied parts united into well-defined groups. Reye. figure with its accidental content. Entwicklung der Abhangig&quot. the preface to J. 8 cit. neither the synthetic nor the analytic method constitutes the essence of the matter. The opposition here in removed as soon as we thought In the case where follow the exposition on both sides more closely. 8 7 according to Jakob Steiner. 1832: Systemat. In this way we succeed. Through proper appropriation of a few fundamental relations. it especially takes account of imaginary and infinitely distant elements that possess no individual geometrical &quot. find we value of the new On the other hand.existence. the meaning the formulations of the is is not that of adherence to the sensuously given figure but is the free constructive generation of figures according to a definite unitary principle. as it were.The present work seeks to reveal the organization by which different kinds of phenomena are bound together in the spatial world. as in Greek geometry. and we see how all the parts naturally fit together. Thus &quot. In so far as an individual form is con it sidered.. in gaining posses sion of the elements from which nature starts.&quot. which consists in the discovery of the of forms on each other and the manner in which their properties are continued from the simpler figures to the more complex. dependency . in that. wherein the schema is expressed from which the remaining propositions develop logically and without any difficulty. In this. Berlin.&quot. p. with the greatest possible economy and in the simplest way. but directed to the mediation of the forms upon each other. is never concerned with the particular is. Die synthetische Geometric im Altertum und in der Neuzeit. the geometry of position is founded purely on intuition. without being narrowed to the limits of possible sensuous representation. for example.

we see that the fundamental methodological standpoint. above p. but this postulate must now be satisfied by purely geometrical means and without the introduction of the concepts of measure and of number.correlation&quot. p. for example. made on the philosophical presupposi tions of his work. but the general motive of series stands forth the more clearly. conflict in which he engaged regarding the principles of his discipline. so that once found and established. but is to this is 9 when 1865. or the particular plane as an element in a sheaf of itself of rays. The deduction the fundamental forms expresses this in so far as. 9 The theory of the protective properties is to be no mere material extension of the field of geometry. with Descartes. which led to the discovery of analytic geometry. Paris. Strictness of deductive in the field of the spatial itself. and the principle of continuity. but as an element in a pencil of rays. II. 71 f . Poncelet urges with emphasis that in these pre Academy. but was only retained because it represented the purest and most perfect type of a logically ordered manifold in general. refers with increasing definiteness to the philosophical In opposition to the criticism which the Parisian especially Cauchy. He appropriates the words of Newton that in geometry the method of discovery means everything. (Cf. The evolution. 365. Cf.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY 79 dinated to the systematic relation that unites them. 357. important task continuous with the achievements of analytic geometry.) We can understand that henceforth there must arise a new. the particular straight line is not defined in itself. The construction of the spatial forms from original fundamental relations remains as an in violable postulate. but with the real root of the new view. We saw how. is characterized and guided in detail by logical views. In general. I. . Poncelet. This is especially manifest in the case of Poncelet who. in the foundations. is not set aside here but retained and brought to a new fruitful application The motive of number is excluded. results occur of themselves as the fruit of the method. which begins here. number was not characterized as the fundamental principle because of its own content. 2nd edition. The concept of &quot. Traite des proprietes projectives des figures. p. connection seemed only able to be carried over to space by the mediation of number. suppositions we are not dealing with a secondary matter.

Op. des me thodes d investigation et d invention. enfin la the orie des polaires reciproques et la the orie des transversales 6tendue aux lignes et surfaces courbes. Descartes charged ancient mathematics with not being able to sharpen the intellect narrowness of the sensuous view with larities of without tiring the imagination by close dependence on the sensuous form. dans le genre de ceux qu on a nomme principes d exhaustion. the geometrician considers is not so much the properties of a given figure as the net-work of correlations in which it stands with other allied structures.La doctrine des propriete s projectives. ne forment pas simplement des classes plus ou moins etendues de problemes et de theo- remes. which charac terize this system. remain unchanged. . The force and conclusiveness of geometrical proof always rests then in the invariants of the system. mais constituent proprement. The true It can only show synthetic method cannot revert to this procedure. le principe ou la loi de continuity. cit. This double task is fulfilled as soon as we regard the particular form we are studying not as itself the concrete object of investigation but merely as a startingpoint. which are to be regarded as the general conditions of the system. principle by the expression and which he formulates more precisely as the permanence of mathematical relations. not in what is peculiar to the individual members as such. which Poncelet of the is principle of continuity. The fundamental relations. p. 5. from which to deduce by a certain rule of variation a whole system of possible forms. if it equals it in scope and universality. and Poncelet maintains this challenge throughout. individual figure.80 introduce a first SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION 10 The principle of investigation and discovery. but at the same time gains this universality of view from purely geometrical assumptions. The only characterizes philosophically postulate that 10 involved can be formulated by saying that it is &quot. and which must be equally satisfied in each particu constitute in their totality the true geometrical object. What tive to another when it is deducible from the latter its by a continuous transformation of one or more of elements of position: yet in which the assumption holds that certain fundamental spatial relations. methode des infmiment petits.&quot. itself equal in value to the analytic method. It is this interpretation. celle de la perspective-relief. des moyens d extension et d exposition. etc. necessary step is to free geometrical thought from the new and its close adherence to the particu the directly given. We say that a definite spatial form is correla lar form.. pour la Geometric pure des principes.

can be progressively extended all the successive members.. he is concerned to guard the transference of relations. the law of connection is not subsequently disclosed. However. which gives them room for . The transference of relations distinguished from induction and There is clearly manifest in these elucidations of Poncelet analogy.THE COXCEPT OF SPACE AXD GEOMETRY 81 for possible to maintain the validity of certain relations. Above all.. however. . p. which are found in an individual case. and in which the identical and clearly defined meaning of a conceptual rule always threatens to dissolve into an abstract and schematic generic image. in which concept and image are not strictly distinguished. but forms the original basis by virtue of which the individual case can be determined in its meaning. but take them with a certain breadth and indefiniteness. we do not consider the metrical and protective relations in the manner in which they are embodied in any particular figure. of the particular relata. defined once all. i. It may seem at first surprising and paradoxical development.&quot. a tendency toward an exact and universal expression of the new thought. from any confusion with merely Induction proceeds from the analogical or inductive inference. because Traite des proprictes projectives. The conditions of the whole system are predetermined. but permit changes of them within a certain sphere defined by the conditions of the system. that this indefiniteness of the starting-point is held to be the ground of the fruitfulness of the new procedure and of its superiority over 11 the ancient methods. which he assumes as basic. so that finally determinations. 11 What it the standpoint of image. Here. and all specializa tion can only be reached by adding a new factor as a limiting deter mination while maintaining these conditions. to particular to the universal it attempts to unite hypothetically into a whole a plurality of individual facts observed as particulars without necessary connection.e. We thus begin by considering the figure and do not analyse it in a general connection (Lags ). in spite of a change in the content of the particular terms. XIII XXI f. If these changes proceed continuously from a definite starting-point. From the beginning. it soon appears that the expression of the thought here suffers from the ambiguity of the traditional logical terminology. appears as indefiniteness from neglects the individual features f. in the beginning into all its individual parts.phase. the systematic properties we have discovered in a figure will be trans ferable to each successive &quot.

into another by retaining all tion&quot. corresponding to them. from which the projective treatment of a figure takes its start. which we choose as a starting-point. the &quot. they are.descriptive&quot. All the forms. never the mere properties of the particular kind but the properties of the genus. but merely presupposes a certain principle of transformation. three different forms of the procedure of &quot. in the sense of direct intuition. . and &quot. only different expressions of one and the same concept. 18 f .group. from the serial princi ples to the members of the series. however. not a separated whole of attributes which uniformly recur in the The inference proceeds from the properties of the individuals. but it all reveals the capacity to evolve the particulars in their concrete totality As Poncelet empha (See above p.genus. sal&quot. The new criterion &quot. in the sense of the pure geometry of position.univer and &quot.metrical&quot. Here of the geometrical construction of concepts is shown here in its general significance. that can issue in this way from each other.types&quot. connection to those of the objects connected. The peculiarity of the Projection and the imaginary in geometry.&quot. the general case does not absolutely neglect the particular determinations. The essential problem consists in separating out those &quot.correla ing can be distinguished. by which different figures are connected. indeed. intuitive structure. appears from the standpoint of the concept as the basis of all exact determination since in it is contained the univer sal rule for the construction of the individual.) entirely from a principle. are considered as an indivisible unity.particular&quot. We can transform a certain figure.82 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION of the picture (Bild). The forms. they can be deprived of any reference to such a type in so far as there is no geometrical existence.&quot. method appears most clearly in its fundamental procedure. elements of a figure which persist unchanged in its projection. In general. is found in the procedure of projection. here signifies merely a sizes. which is main tained as identical. accord to Poncelet. it is connection of conditions by which everything individual is ordered. Between the &quot. which we unite in this way into a can belong to totally different in their sensuous &quot. for it is this criterion upon which the admission of the imaginary into geometry ultimately rests. there subsists the relation which characterizes true mathematical construction of concepts. The most important form of correlation. it is immediately evident that to belong to a concept does not depend on any generic similarities of the particulars.

so that the intersections and the directions of the radii corresponding to them are to be expressed by imaginary values. exchanged or reversed in the of an &quot. which we can intelligibly expect and demand of consists in the truth . That under definite conditions certain elements of a figure disappear and cease to exist. which without this mediation would stand opposed as heterogeneous and unrelated. It is this ideal force of logical connection. we it. in so far as a logico-geometrical sense. that secures them full right to &quot. 77. then we can transform this geometrical system by continuous dis placements in such a manner that the straight line finally falls wholly outside of the circle. The new view is obliged to break with this procedure. p. for the latter also are the expression of perfectly valid and true geometrical relations. (Cf. The coordination of the deduced figure with the original figure no longer connects elements that are actually present and it observable. but the various species of dependency that can From this point of view. defect of the ancient methods consists in that they neglect this funda mental logical instrument. figure. a circle and a straight line that intersects consider.&quot. while in the case in which case. important case the transformation can proceed in such a manner that certain elements. and this is methodologically the most interesting and Finally. so that the difference consists exclusively in the absolute magnitude of the parts. Further. the imaginary intermediate members always serve to make possible insight into the connection of real geometrical forms. this contains a fruitful is in itself no merely negative knowledge but and thoroughly positive geometrical insight. has resolved itself But it is geometry is precisely these ideal correlations that cannot be spared if The to be given a unitary and self-contained form. The fulfills a logically indispensable func tion in the system of geometrical propositions. In this we can speak of a direct correlation.) and imaginary elements are essentially similar. The only it &quot.reality. and thus consider only magnitudes of an absolute and quasi-physical existence. which could be indicated in the original form is the order of the individual parts deduced we can speak only If as real parts. correlation.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY its 83 parts as well as their mutual arrangements. real subsist between forms. in it imaginary subsists. but merely intellectual elements.indirect&quot. entirely disappear in the course of the process.being&quot. into a purely ideal correlation. since from the beginning it defines as the real object of geometrical investigation not the individual form in its sensuous existence. for example.

to another in connection with which they were not immediately obvious.ideal&quot..radical axes. that connects their two points of The points of intersection. Chasles. from this it results further that the same also holds. Cf. since these also have no deeper or firmer basis than consists in the truth of relations. Thus a certain intuitive expressed here and completely replaced by certain con ceptual properties belonging to it and this logical determination is also retained after the substratum. which are discovered and proved in connection with one the &quot. of We The fruitfulness is predicated.&quot. also.84 it SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION contains. p. 7 ff. The real properties of real common chords are thus dis covered and grounded by reference to the chords.&quot. 12 Along with the particular relations of content. there always exists a straight line. first of the relation proceed from the persistence discovered. p. a new structure of definite properties. the so-called &quot. we is given in the straight line. in the special case of three common chords of really inter secting circles.radical axis&quot. of two circles in a plane. above If p. ed. there this straight line. (Cf. essentially similar and equal to the earlier. etc. also Hankel.elements. are distinguished by the fact that the tangents drawn from them to the circle are equal to each other. Leipzig. which the relation is of this procedure form. and create by definition in the imaginary &quot. The geometrical rela tion thus established can also be traced and expressed in the case in which the circles no longer intersect. is . but fall completely outside of each other. Geometrie.. which we call the &quot. 2nd. viz. of the two circles. it can easily be shown that the three lines so arising intersect in one point. Paris. of the two circles.g. has disappeared. then in the case in which they intersect. from the retention of definite relations arise new &quot.&quot. there are 12 Thus. and in this sense can be called the ideal common chord of the two circles. 60 ff.) consider a simple example from ordinary geometry. seen in that a systematic connection between forms is thereby established. Here in the realm of geometry is which repeated the same process that we are able to follow in the realm of number. if any three circles in a plane are given. In this case. which contains their two element points of intersection.common chord&quot. . 1875. Die Elemente der projektivischen &quot.subjects. e. and we construct for each two of them the &quot. which satisfies the essential condition previously mentioned. in connection with which it was &quot.imaginary&quot. in its relation to the valid propositions and judgments it brings to expression. 205 ff. Apergu historique sur I origine et le developpement des methodes en Geometrie. such as permits us to carry over proposi tions.points&quot... 1875.

the same thought is expressed by Chasles in his &quot. distinctness.&quot. are connected with the The principle of the &quot. the general logical character and meaning of the new method becomes evident. in so far as they lead to strict and incon testable truths. Considerations philosophiques le et techniques sur principe de continuite dans les lois geometriques. 336 ff . by which we generate in strict deduction the whole of projective space from the simple concepts of the point and the straight line. 6..368ff. which geometry produces. p. not only because they represent concentrated assertions about definite relations of position. with another turn of expression.real&quot.) . was introduced and founded by Poncelet from a purely geometrical standpoint. The new elements.357ff. are logically justified conceptual constructions.Principe des relations contingentes&quot. and the quadrilateral construction The development of projective geometry. (Applications d Analyse et de Geometrie.cf. To the extent that the geometry of position is built up from independent assumptions. elements. d form a harmonic sequence relation of the distances a 6 to 6 c is the same as that of the For the whole matter.permanence of geometrical relations. (Apcrcu historique p. XI ff . p. 13 points. according to the projective theory of space.real&quot. has thus brought the philosophical principles upon which it is founded to more and more explicit expression.. Traite II. which is equally just to the and &quot. as can be shown. The constructive process. 66 ff For the designation of the principle .. begins with the consideration of harmonic pairs of points. Thus in the first phase of projective geometry. 319. the harmonic position of four points on a straight line is at first introduced exclusively by means of the concept of the when the 13 double proportion: the points a. two parallels intersect. Poncelet says with Metrical and projective geometry. &quot.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY above real&quot. section III. are in their object but they are nevertheless thoroughly paradoxical logical in their structure.204ff.permanence of formal laws. and the infinitely distant straight line in which two parallel ized concepts of planes intersect.un &quot. which cannot be of Staudt. Here a higher point of view is found. 85 all certain universal formal determinations by which the &quot.). but because these new constructions are com pletely subjected to the geometrical axioms. it even before was used in algebra as the justification of the general number. of continuity as the &quot. p. Applic. compare Poncelet. in so far as they do not refer to relations of measure. Paris 1864. The infinitely distant point in which. c.unreal&quot. as well as Traite des proprietes projectives I. points. followed here in detail. 357. &quot.

since it can be proved that the construction indicated always gives the same result no matter what quadrilateral is taken as a basis. Niirnberg 1847. p. Geometric der Lage. ed. then by means 14 of the Staudtian quadrilateral construction. which is characterized metrically as the double pro The decisive method portion. nevertheless. and thus to give them a fixed position within a general serial order. c. in a straight line to which we coordinate the values 0. and the two other opposite sides through c. 8. which remains unchanged in every projective transformation of a given figure. with certain numerical values. The demonstration of this Projective metric (Cayley and Klein).. 1. when the determination. is derived in a purely descriptive way. which is definitely determined by this method. The concept of measure is here not excluded. made the basis of the geometry of position rests On the fact that it represents a metrical relation. p. a fundamental relation of position is established by a proce dure which uses merely the drawing of straight lines. Geometric der Lage. Reye. the diagonal through 6. furnished in the formulation which projective geometry has gained through Cayley and Klein.86 distances a d to c d. unified exposition Projective geometry only gains an independent and strictly when this last limit is also set aside. . We here gain a general procedure that is enables us to coordinate all the points of space that can be generated from a given starting-point by progressive harmonic constructions. but is taken up into the foundations as an underived element. so long as it point satisfies Thus without any application of metrical concepts. Die . 5. and is thus in measurement and comparison of certain essence of purely metrical nature. SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION This explanation obviously presupposes the distances. The logical the conditions. I. for this is given in the known quadrilateral construction of Staudt. If we start with three points a. find their C/. We points a 6 c determine the fourth harmonic point d to three given co-linear by constructing a quadrilateral of such a sort that two opposite sides pass through a. that it is. the point of intersection of the second diagonal of the quadrilateral with the straight line a b c is the desired d. Leipzig 1899. we can 43 ff. 14 ideal of a purely projective construction of geometry is thus reduced to a simpler requirement. 6. 4th. by means merely of this fundamental rela tion and its repeated application. Staudt. it would be fulfilled by showing the possibil ity of deducing all the points of space in determinate order as members of a systematic totality.

p. F.cuts&quot. We are not concerned with the addition or division of distances and angles. Vol. which is analogous to the postulate by which Dedekind in his theory &quot. it results when we take into consideration. Klein. In truth. Here we find verification of the fact that. such as addition and subtraction. Gottingen 1893. Annalen. (Schnitte). This manifold can be further completed by becoming a universally group in which every element corresponds to a definite number. Also the advance to structures of higher dimensions offers no difficulty in principle. of which only the principle can be suggested here. rational positive or negative introduces the irrational numbers as &quot. Vorlesungen uber Nicht-Euklidische Geometric. anticipated from the beginning of modern geometry. 338 ff. until finally by 1. and give this the value 3. number was evolved as 15 For all particulars regarding this method.. On projective metric. instead of the points of one straight line. see also Weber-Wellstein. as well as Math. number is only used here in its most general logical meaning: not as an expression of the measurement and comparison of magnitudes but as the expression of an ordered sequence. . The working out of thought is chiefly of technical mathematical interest. The transition to the pointcontinuum takes place on the basis of a further intellectual postulate. the elements of which are defined as pure determinations of position. impression. which forms with the points a harmonic fourth. We thus gain a complete scale on the basis of which a unified projective metric can be evolved in which the elementary operations. but only with the differentiation and gradation of the members of a certain series. . those of two or more straight this lines. The designation of the individual points of space by corresponding numbers might indeed at first cause the illusion that concepts of magnitude. Encyklopadie der p. however. virtue of this method we gain an infinite manifold of simple deter minations of position. cf. of length and distance. are defined purely geometrically. 2nd. in our general logical deductions.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY 87 fourth harmonic point to which we let the number 2 correspond. 15 The concept of space and the concept of order. Elementar -Mathematik. also is evident here. 2. multiplication and division of distances.dense&quot. and we can further determine a new point. II. IV. 573 ff. are applied in this deduction. The inclusion of the spatial concepts in the schema of the pure serial concepts is here finally accomplished. but a general philosophical result. to each of which a whole number is coordinated. 315 ff . 18.

Geometry and the group theory. is manifest the connection in general deduc tive method.a In this connection.elliptical&quot. its most general form as in general. can be successively related to the different theories of parallels and thus carried into the special 17 &quot. the two fields remain strictly separated in essence. so here we first postulate a plurality of points and a certain relation of position between them. Russell. that is here evolved. or &quot. the totality of the members is evolved in fixed order. Thus in contrast to the multiplicity of the geometrical concept Its logical character persists of geometrical methods. by a certain generat ing relation. the general projec tive determination. is thus The order of points of space is conceived in satisfied in a new way. 118. and in this beginning a principle is dis covered from the various applications of which issue the totality of &quot. determinations. while no decision is made concerning its special axiomatic structure.pure ordinal number and kept free from able magnitudes. in so far as through it brought to intellectual unity. the &quot. .possibility of by the addition of special completing conditions. This character can be brought to mind by considering the most general interpretation which the modern concept of geometry has attained. 16 Space is here deduced merely in coexistence&quot. F. projective geome possible spatial constructions. True. Rather it can be shown that the &quot. immediately reduced to that of number. 16 Cf. the same manner as that of numbers. Annalen IV. The very definition of &quot. which is to be placed beside arithmetic in deductive rigor and purity. science try has with justice been said to be the universal of space. of the figure cannot be But precisely in this relative independence of the elements. not so much a whole of individual elements or structures.parabolic.group&quot. the single form stands out with increasing clarity. The addition of geometry to the theory of groups forms the final and decisive step for the whole interpretation.hyperbolic&quot. through all change in particular application. A totality of operations forms a group. priori&quot.essence&quot. 17 Cf. as in the independence of their fundamental relation. &quot. in particular concerning the validity of the axiom of parallels.&quot. ambridge Mathem. which Descartes made. contains a new and important logical aspect. Klein. 575 ff. As in the case of number we start from an original unit (ursprungliche Einheitssetzung) from which. The Foundations of Geometry. when witp any two operations their is . 1897. all connection with measur The demand. p. as a system of operations.

\called diverse possibilities for the construction of geometrical systems. &quot. The thought of independence from all these trans formations must be added to the intuition of the individual form. we gain a view of verytions.&quot. In this sense.a. Klein. to give this form true universality and therewith true geometrical character. as when we sub/stitute for the original figure another. and considering the con18 Cf. If we what in general is to be understood as a &quot. so that the successive appli cation of different transformations belonging to the totality leads only to the operations originally contained in it. which we take as the basis of our investigation. 18 In this concept of the group. we find that we consider as geometrical only such properties as remain unaffected by certain spatial trans formations. when we increase or decrease the absolute magnitude of its parts proportionately. that serves as a starting-point. The propositions. we geometry by adding the system of all projective transformations to this group. certain structure. property.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY combination 89 is also found in the group. which geometry evolves about . For instance. but can rather broaden this group by the addition of conditions. 1 ff. which is related to it as its / image in a mirror. all equally justified logically. p. persist unchanged when we vary the absolute position of this structure in space.geometrical&quot.. a group is formed by all the geometrical transformations which result when we permit the elements any movements whatever in ordinary three-dimensional space. or when finally we reverse the arrangement of the individual parts. of similarity-transformation can broaden it to projective and of mirroring (Spiegelung)) . if we take the ordinary new metrical geometry as characterized by the appropriate group of spatial transformations (i. a way is opened by which we can go from one form of geometry to another by changing the fundamental system to which all assertions are related. a general principle of classification is gained by which the different possible kinds of geometry can be unified under a single point of raise the question as to view and their systematic connection surveyed. by the specific operations of movement. . for the result of two successive movements can here always be represented by a single movement.Geometry is distinguished from topography by the fact that only such properties of space are geometrical as remain unchanged in a certain group of opera If we adhere to this explanation. F.e. For as we are not bound in the choice of the group of transformations. Einleitung in die hohere Geometric II.

confirmed in a new sense. but this unchangeableness cannot be defined unless we understand. 63 ff. schungen (reprinted Math. thought remained entangled in the particular figure instead of directing itself to the ultimate The grounds of the connection of figures according to law. but could not be used as an independent logical The field of becoming marked out a region within which principle. finally proved to work within geometry in the opposite direction. Annalen 43. then change could be tolerated as an auxiliary concept.) . defined. in each of these geometries where a manifold con taining a transformation-group is given. saw how from the beginnings of Greek mathematics. This emphasis on permanence. as if it We If geometry were &quot. As F. In general. for here change recognized as a fundamental concept. as the theory of invariants.eternal being. 1893. the problem is to develop the invariant-theory applicable to the group. requisite rigid constancy of the intuitive spatial form narrowed the freedom of geometrical deduction. while. A new development begins only after the concept of change has been This development critically tested and confirmed by analysis. 19 The concepts of constancy and change in geometry. This universal procedure throws a bright light on the essential relation of the con cepts of constancy and change in the foundations of geometry. systematic conclusion in the theory of groups. we must refer again to F.90 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION stant properties in this broadened sphere of transformations. Vergleichende Betrachtungem iiber neuere geometrische For&quot.&quot. the philosophical question constantly reverts to this relation. treats of certain unchangeable relations. what possesses were true that exact proof were only possible of that which always maintains itself in the same form. the most diverse kinds of geometry can be methodically grounded and similarly deduced. Geometry. by proceeding from a given group to a more inclusive system by means of a definite rule. in Platonic language. pure mathematical thought possessed no force and which thus seemed given over to the indeterminateness of sensuous perception. The unchanging geometrical properties are not 19 For gramm&quot. Klein has shown in detail. on the other fixed logical limits are given it. its is reaches jlnow . all particulars. certain fundamental changes in opposition to which it gains its validity. The Platonic explanation is Lhand. which was intended to exclude all sensuous elements from the foundations of pure mathematical knowledge. p. Klein s Erlanger Proof 1872. as its ideal background.

Leibniz replied that also within pure deter minations of order. which \ prove in comparison with others to be independent moments._jCojistancy and change thus appear as thoroughly correlative moments. 20 We can still take the elemen20 It is of historical interest that the logical problem of a metrical geometry based on pure projective relations was. raised the objection that they did not touch the essential import of the two concepts. relations or proportions have magnitudes. with growing consciousness and success. as a matter of fact. but is jhere /valid only relative to a certain intellectual operation. The reduction of metrical relations to projective realizes the thought of Leibniz that. . F / of the general category of substantiality. e. determinations of magnitude are possible.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY 91 such in and for themselves. (ordre des coexist ences possibles ). before space is defined as a quantum. chosen as a Here already a change appears in the meaning / system of reference.dis tance&quot. which owes its value and intelligibility to the fact that it is a^ not sensuously presented but is constructed by thought through succession of relational structures. Relative things have their magnitudes just as well as absolute things. definable only through each other. by which the points of projective space are generated. Permanence is not related to / the duration of things and their properties. which position and order are not.order of coexistence&quot. grasped by Leibniz. The chain of harmonic constructions. in so far as a preceding member is distinguished from a succeeding member and the &quot. The permanence in question denotes no absolute property of given objects. The geometrical &quot. Clarke. Within pure geometry. but signifies the relative independence of certain members of a functional connection. it must be grasped in its original qualitative peculiarity as an &quot. in The evolution of modern mathematics has approached the ideal. who advocated Newton s theory of absolute space and absolute time. which Leibniz established for it.. gains its identical and determinate meaning only by indicating the definite group of \changes with reference to which it is conceived. thus. but only in relation to a system of possible transformations that we implicitly assume. Against Leibniz s definitions of space as an order of coexistence and time as an order of succession.g.concept&quot. provides the structure of this order. Space and time are first of all quantities. that must constantly grow clearer in the course of the enquiry. in mathematics. this is shown most clearly in the development of the general concept of space. which are measured by their logarithms. between them can be conceptually defined.

Klein. Leibniz. seu ordinis similitudinis relationis. seu Algebrae Speciosae ad Speciosam generalem. Schriften.Hinc especially see Pasch. such as the general rela which at first_seems_to possess an irreducible ^sensuous existence. independ ent of its original perceptual content and apply it to series in which the relation of &quot. Math. in fact. from this restriction and to raise it to free logical The meaning of this relation must be determined by application. 61.object&quot. etc. possesses no immediate intuitive correlate. form of connection is given. between two points is defined and measured by the logarithm of a certain doublerelation. Hauptschriften zur Grundlegung der Philosophic. I. According to this conception.doctrine of forms (Leibniz). By this extension. which has been repeated in the modern grounding of projective metrical geometry: for in the latter.. . advances still further when it attempts to subsume the specific order of spatial externality under a universal system of possible orders in general. the straight line and the plane. to free a relation. Vorles. Characteristic (Kombinatorik) as pure 1 &quot. Characteristic (Kombina torik) thereby becomes the fundamental science. In this sense. there an identical in &quot. VII. Vorlesungen iiber Nicht-Euklidische Geometric. uber neuere Geometric. Philos. we do not compre hend under it the doctrine of the number of combinations of given elements. etiam prodit ignorata hactenus vel neglecta subordinatio Algebrae ad artem Combinatoriam. 107. the &quot.between/^ &quot.axioms. for from these axioms alone is gained the meaning in which it enters into mathematical deduction.distance&quot.92 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION tary contents of geometry: the point. nevertheless they are and remain relations. This interpretation. 21 modern geometry seeks tion of &quot. 65 ff. p. vel scientiae generalis de quantitate ad scientiam generalem de qualitate. Leibniz. expressionibus in universum. seu scientiae de formulis quantitatem significantibus ad doctrinam de formulis. from intuition but all that refers to the connection of these contents must be deduced and understood conceptually. Again we are led to the Leibnizian mathematics conception of mathematics.between&quot. Bibl.&quot. 21 More &quot. Cf. is not the general science of magnitude but of form. We see here a reference to a question. which we can express in certain rules and is defined in the mathematical &quot. 189 f. we can make the concept of bet ween&quot. Gerhardt. but the universal exposition of possible forms of connection 22 Wherever a definite general and their mutual dependency. definite axioms of connection in abstraction from the changing sensuous material of its presentation. ut adeo speciosa nostra Mathematica nihil aliud sit quam specimen illustre Artis Combinatoriae seu speciosae generalis. however. 1 and 9. p. . not the science of quantity but of quality.

into the process of inference. as these relations 23 Cf. (Hilbert). the nature of the original geometrical objects is here exclusively definitions. which we have evolved for these points. with which ordinary Euclidian geometry deals &quot. and their compatibility has to be proved. straight lines and planes. of which the one deals with tion. the other with the circles and spheres of a certain group of spheres. the The particular elements in this mathematical construc character. are regarded as equivalent to each other on this view. it is only this being that enters into proof. that mathematics gives its objects. can be changed into spheres and circles.doctrine of relations&quot. II.&quot.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY 93 The relational structure as such. From these rules of connection. and is thus accessible to the full certainty. tion are not viewed according to what they are in and for themselves. For &quot. of the elements. The begin ning consists of a certain group of axioms. into inverse point-pairs of a hyperbolic or elliptical group of spheres.. but simply as examples of a certain universal form of order and connection. 23 This deductive connection constitutes a distinct formal determination. Vol.points&quot. In contrast to the Euclidian which take the concepts of the point or the straight line as immediate data of intuition. 2nd. follow all the properties of the elements. by the conditions to which they are subordinated. which can be separated from its material foundation and established for itself in its systematic sense. that we have taken as a basis. without any change being produced in the deductive connection of the individual propositions. in so far as they include in themselves the same content of conceptual dependencies along with a mere change of the intuitive of which the dependencies are predicated. I. In this &quot. defined The point and the straight line signify nothing but structures which stand in certain relations with others of their kind. Mathematik.subjects. sect. which we assume. from which fixed content they proceed. Bk. not the absolute property sense.being&quot. the very instructive examples and explanation given by Wellstein. This interpreta tion of the methods of pure mathematics receives its clearest expres sion in the procedure which Hilbert has applied in the exposition and deduction of the geometrical axioms. Encyklopadie derElem. . mathematics at least recognizes in them no other than that belonging to them by participation in this form. or into mere number-trios without specific geometrical meaning. constitutes the real object of mathematical investiga Two complexes of judgments. Geometry as pure &quot.

have no absolute.94 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION are defined by certain groups of axioms. V. Wellstein. 116. it resolves into a web of related an structures which reciprocally support each other. (Cf.foundations. tions. above p.lt. signifies the real irpbrpov TJJ while the elements in their apparent absoluteness signify -n-pos fnj. 68).) The syntheses of generating relations. it is not the beginning but the end of the conceptual develop the logical goal. of connection. as opposed to all particular structures. which we approach by the progressive connection of universal relations. From this point of view. . it might seem a circle to define the content of the geometrical concepts exclusively by their axioms: for do not the axioms themselves presuppose certain concepts thought.as. In this sense. is extended. p. Intuition seems to grasp the content as isolated self-contained existence.pv&amp. which we owe to sensuous intuition. (Cf. is taken here as the expression of their essence. but rather a change able existence. It is by this intellectual proc ess that the provisional content first becomes a fixed logical object. We all take them only as hypothetical starting-points.lt. as a point in a judgment systematic manifold. that serve as its &quot. But these terms. however. but as soon as we go on to characterize this existence in judgment. Only this systematic &quot. The law &amp. The determination of the individuality of the elements is ment. we can understand how the center of gravity of the mathematical system for has moved in a definite direction in its historical is The 24 circle of objects to which mathematics applicable development. The procedure of mathematics here points to the analogous procedure of theoretical natural science.complexion&quot. the manifold.. here as in arithmetic. cit. Ch. of the elements.&quot. 24 Hilbert s geometry has been correctly called a pure theory of rela In this. therefore. and not their particular characters. appears as the real logical prius. in the psychological sense. but we look for closer determination from their successive inser tion into various relational complexes. is true that. only a Trporepov | 1 &quot. Concept and know the individual only as a member. At first. it forms the conclusion to a tendency of we can trace in its purely logical aspects from the beginnings of mathematics. op. which first in their formulation? This difficulty is disposed of when we clearly It distinguish the psychological beginning from the logical ground. which it contains the key and the justification. we can only present the meaning of a certain relation to ourselves in connection with some given terms.T6L.

and in determining the mutual connec clarifies this Modern mathematics conception. Hamilton s theory of quaternions. though philoso phers appear still to regard it as very essential to Mathematics. realizes the ideal of tion of these relations. was to form the fundamental instrument for all problems relating to order and measure. but a system of operations. 121. Vol. p. Grassmann s Ausdehnungslehre. dividing or compounding given magnitudes. there the immediate object is not determinations of magnitude or position. in the philosophical sense. Leibniz replaced this mere conjunction of two aspects finally it by a relation of logical subordination. For the modern interpretation. In the theory of groups. 158 and 419: &quot. The extension of mathematics beyond traditional bounds is still more striking in the case of the theory of groups. the doctrine of the different possible types of connection and arrangement was made the pre 25 supposition of the science of measurable and divisible magnitudes. XII. In its general meaning. the projective calculus of distances. upon which all possible deter mination of magnitude rests. which it had for Descartes. Gregor Itelson s definition of mathematics as the science of ordered objects. The elements and all their derivatives appear as the result of certain original rules of connection. are only different examples of this logically universal 25 Cf. which are investigated in their mutual dependency. does not occur in pure Mathematics. also Leibniz Hauptschriften (Phil.&quot. Principles of Mathematics. but rather in isolating the generating relations themselves. The &quot. in fact.mathesis universalis&quot. Bibl. the task of mathematics does not consist in comparing. p. which are to be examined in their specific structure as well as in the character that The various results from their composition and interpenetration. from which the total field of mathematics can be surveyed as a unity. p.) . 107). Metrical geometry itself is deduced from purely qualitative relations. that merely concern the relative position of the points of space. 50. 5. and does occur in many cases not at present amenable to mathematical treatment. above p. The development of mathematical exposition projective geometry independently of the instrumentalities of measure and the compari son of magnitudes. p. see Russell. (Revue de Metaphysique.95 becomes clear that the peculiarity of the method is bound and limited by no particular class of objects. The notion which does occupy the place tradi tionally assigned to quantity is order. 62. Cf. for the first time the supreme and universal principle is reached. note 2. forms of calculus of modern mathematics. 1904.Quantity. Leipzig. 1904.

merely this possibility of determination. sphere of consideration (Cf. but is directly applied to the sists precisely in The methodological merit that the &quot. Theorie der komplexen Zahlensysteme. or in compounding it again out of these. which Grassmann 26 Cf. then the combination of several such principles will be an operation. Universal Algebra I. as well as H. Leipzig. 1867. concerned in analyzing a given &quot. viz. which can be reduced to fixed systematic rules. Wherever such a transition from simple to complex series is possible. to Hermann Grassmann s The general considerations. forces or pairs of forces in we can compound distances or triangu any way with each other and In all these cases. We can deal with products of points or of particular vectors.. 26 by calculus. we can have points characterized not only by their different positions in space. but by different mass-values. modern mathematics.Calculus&quot. as in Grassmann s geometrical characteristic and in the theory of quaternions. as in which is and sufficient necessary the deductive structure is bound to no Mobius barycentric establish the result lar surfaces. as it evolved in strict sequence from the philosophical ideal of Descartes and Leibniz of &quot. The certainty of element. synthesis of relations. however. Cambridge. more particularly regarding these methods of calculation. the ment widened. It seems to have been this general thought.&quot.mathesis universalis.whole&quot. Grassmann s Ausdehnungslehre and its logical principles. is above p. for any arbitrarily chosen ele can serve as a foundation in so far as a new structure can be to issue It is made from it by repeated application its of a certain defined relation. we are not calculation. . SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION of all these procedures con here achieves completely free and independent activity (Betdtigung) in that it no longer remains limited to the compounding of quantities.96 procedure. Hankel. We were able to trace this synthesis as the real goal of mathematical operations in the field of magnitude itself in the development of the analysis of the infinite. 1898. retained in the calculus and constitutes condition. there a new field for deductive mathematical treatment is defined. Whitehead. . into parts similar to it.) Now. by means of ceptions of Ausdehnungslehre. which led also to one of the most weighty and fruitful con unified result. but the general problem is to combine any conditions of progression in a series in general into a If an initial element is defined and a principle given which we can reach a manifold of other elements by a regular progression. 73 f.

without the assumption of any real content with reference to which it 29 is different. In the same way. nor is can there be question as to in what relation one particular differs from other &quot. This postulate is fulfilled defined by the fact that in itself into numbers for all details in the field of number can be from the system of ordered postulations. Mathem. But as &quot.. -but remains entirely in the combination of different acts of thought. we now assume the element. Physik. Ztschr. Die u. we expressly abstract from all characters of the changes. Ausdehnungslehre. Grassmann. 10. Grassmannsche Ausdehnungslehre. In the ordinary account of the geometrical elements.immediate&quot. u.&quot. especially V. but they do not exhaust the real content of the latter. (1844). 27 The goal. Leipzig 1894. Vol. 47. entirely deduced grasped. 28 Cf. Instead of the point (i.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY 97 prefaced to his work. of the surface out of the line but what is here meant as a mere picture. 28 For this purpose.e. Zweig der Mathematik I. whose significance is explained and confirmed by the further development of the problems. a &quot.manner of generation. science of form is -The character of a pure beyond thought it proof does not go another sphere. mathemat.there from another. was to raise the science of space to the rank of a universal science of form. Schlegel. by virtue of which the manifold is first surveyed and in the science of . they signify a clear methodological project. which we think of the fundamental special element as undergoing. The intuitive spatial relations may offer the first occasion for grasping pure conceptual relations. Werke. without any real content. by which is meant only a pure particular grasped as different A specific content is thus not yet assumed: particulars. might occasionally seem unsatisfactory and obscure. for the particular is defined as different absolutely. p. op.beginning&quot. we are accustomed to speak of the generation of the line out of the point. we must here also go back from the given extensive manifold to its simple &quot.. 22. . nevertheless. to which the number series itself owes its being. physikal. cit. . must now be gained for geometry as is already given and assured within arithmetic. must receive a strictly conceptual interpretation in order to serve as the starting-point of the new science. 41. p. which Grassmann set himself. can be no thought here as to what sort of particular this really for it is the particular absolutely.&quot. if regarded as mathematical definitions. and merely retain the abstract thought of an 27 j. the particular place). Die lineale Ausdehnungslehre: ein neuer p. 1896. 29 Ges.

indicated at the it into the different values Ausdehnungslehre. which stands out as the most general function of the mathematical concept: with giving some qualitatively definite and unitary rule that determines the form of the transition between the members of a series.addition&quot. the total scheme from the beginning reaches further. &quot. We advance from the rela tively simple forms of &quot. when Grassmann goes on to develop the various possible forms of connection in detail and to limit them from each other by the formal conditions to which they are subjected. which can be gener ated according to the same law. if the result is to be definite. which successively transform 30 . which we consider.&quot. but in and for themselves they represent entirely independent processes. . . it is clear that this rule must suffice to represent exhaustively all their the properties. In as much as fields. nevertheless. the totality of the elements. thus that which arises by a transformation of the generating element according to one law. but are merely known and defined by the rule of their construction. a theory of external and internal All these operations multiplication of distances and points. of similar or dissimilar transformations. p. 28. These general considerations gain a more precise mathematical meaning.subtraction&quot. which we have established by definition. and &quot. . to ever more complex ways of constructing a manifold out of certain fundamental relations. SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION from which there issues is primarily concerned with definite kinds of transformation. agree with the algebraic procedures of the same names merely in certain formal peculiarities. working out of Grassmann s Ausdehnungslehre by continuous repetition Thus if the concrete that aspect. 30 Simi larly. by which a new structure can be definitely determined from any given elements.The Different must evolve according to a The simple form of extension is law. If an initial member a is assumed and a plurality of operations Hi R2 Rs same time. Here we are occupied only with of one operation a multiplicity of members.generation. we call a system or a field. there arise systems on higher planes when we combine different transformations in such a way. such as subjection to the associative or the distributive law. There results a developed doctrine of the &quot. are not given us from elsewhere. . etc.98 original beginning. and then the totality of its members is subjected to a new transformation. that first a manifold evolves by a certain transformation from the initial element.&quot.

The considerations by which Grassmann introduces his work thus create a general logical schema under which the various forms of calculus. Lehrbuch der Statik (T. in fact. Logik der reinen Erkenntnis. More and more the tendency of modern mathematics is to subordinate the elements as such and to allow them no influence on the general form of proof. especially p. as also they agree in their Thus fruitfulness for the problems of mathematical natural science. which is used in a real proof and is not merely related to pictorial representation. in fact. the However logical principle here established gains new confirmation. and the concept of the Source. which have evolved independ ently of the Ausdehnungskhre.logic of the source&quot.. 31 sense &quot. Mobius. The logic of mathematics. The most diverse forms of &quot.I.(quantity&quot. belong to one logical type. The forms of calculus.quality&quot. VII. 102 ff. Matter and Motion. oil operations and the various possible types of this compounding is deductively determined. different these fields may be in content. in so far as they satisfy this condition. back to the fundamental concept of the Source. Theorie der komplexen Zahlensysteme. 32 31 . 32 The systematic Cohen. The postulate of this concept is fulfilled wherever the members of a manifold are deduced from a definite serial principle and exhaustively represented by it. Every concept and every proposition. we recognize at once how the fundamental thought of logical idealism has been progressively confirmed and deepened in them.&quot. In advancing to the other fields of modern mathematics. must be fully grounded and understood in the laws of constructive connection. der reinen Erkenntnis (Logik des Ursprungs). If we survey the whole of these developments. to &quot. which leads from the concept of magnitude to the point concept of function. is the first and most striking example of the general of view. in a strict &quot. 1837).calculus.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY a\ 99 2 az as etc. for they only show from a new angle that the real elements of mathematical calculus are not magnitudes but relations. then the result of the compounding of these 3. especially Hankel.given&quot. Cohen s Logik developed its fundamental thought of the Source in connection with the principles of the infinitesimal calculus. as the real founda Here. in structure they all point tion. from &quot. while Maxwell evolved the elements of mechanics from the fundamental concepts of vector analysis. can also be subsumed. Maxwell. Mobius applied his universal calculus to a strictly rational construc tion of statics. as Grassmann understands it. cf. is.

but rather compounded from their disappearing parts. is unavoidable: in contrast to the &quot. and thus relate every geometrical proposition directly to a mechanical proposition. for we are not concerned with pointing out the ultimate substantial constitution of magnitudes. to its com here excluded and replaced by the general relation ponent &quot. however. has continually led to the misunderstanding that here magnitudes are not understood from their conceptual principle. clearly emphasized by Leibniz. or when we speak of the product of two or three points or of the product of a point and a is distance.&quot. the conditioned to the individual moments. such as when simple points are added or the sum of two distances with direction is represented by the diagonal of the parallelogram constructed out of them. by the side of the procedure of the infinitesimal calculus. once deduced. In spite of the protests of idealistic logic. as such serves also to fix and limit its own problem. The extension. when we place the other possible forms of mathematical &quot. there appears everywhere the &quot. it would be nonsense to ascribe the ordinary &quot. The distinction.infinitely small&quot. falls in point of content outside of the sphere of our enquiry. The subordination of the infinitesimal analysis to the more inclusive system of &quot. For we are not concerned with presenting the results of mathematics. pairs of forces for certain distanceproducts. but merely with finding a new logical point of view for their determination.whole&quot.resolution into concepts.analysis into parts. The problem of metageometry. we cannot avoid taking up the . which conceptually of constitute it.&quot.100 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION connection of operations. meaning to opera tions in the barycentric calculus. however. But even from this limited point of view.analysis of relations&quot. the concept of the &quot.parts&quot. the real question is mistaken and displaced. remains unchanged when we substitute forces for straight lines. but merely with determining the principle of the mathematical construction of concepts. significant and fruitful as they may be from the standpoint of the critique of cognition.determination&quot. The relation of the &quot. which the system of Euclidean geometry has undergone through metageometrical investi gations and speculations. Thereby. This point of view comes out sharply. For example. which as the univer sal instrument guarantees the certainty and the progress of pure f IV deduction.arithmetical&quot.

Thus the one consistent empiristic system of mathematics has been constructed by Pasch.. we soon recognize that the agreement of interpretation is only apparent. in general it was the empirical character of the geometrical concepts. The question necessarily arises as to whether the view. An empirical grounding of the mathematical con cepts would only be given. Leipzig. where proof was adduced that their entire content was rooted in concrete perceptions. German ed. can only rest on the fact that its con cepts originally correspond exactly to the actual objects of observa Only secondarily is this original content overlaid with a net33 Veronese. which has previously been gained of the mathematical concept. The answer of mathematics itself seemed for a time definitive. in so far as he attempts to introduce the elementary structures. that was deduced from the metageometrical researches. which have led individual investigators to this decision. Grundzuge der Geometric von mehreren Dimensionen und mehreren Arten geradliniger Einheiten. affirms as a common conviction of scientific investi gators. but also the interpretation of its basis and source. had lost its characteristic privilege of applying its concepts in a strictly unambiguous sense. and reasons more belonging to the concept of experience in popular usage al once comes to light. VIII. The attempt at an empirical grounding of geometry (Pasch). for it is the special distinction of this problem that it has not merely transformed the content of mathemati cal knowledge. tion. can be main tained in the face of the new problems arising in this connection. . not in exact conceptual form but merely in the meaning which they can possess for sensation. the first complete historical survey of all attempts to reform the theory of the principles of geometry. It is as if geometry. p. such as the point and the straight line. which geometry continually receives in natural science and in practical life. The whole indefiniteness closely. and deducible from them. The fruitful applica tion. on entering the field of philo sophical speculation. Pasch explains. That there is here a is justified extension of the original field of geometry now beyond question with philosophers as with mathematicians.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY 101 problem of metageometry. so much the more necessary is it to discover whether the new con tent breaks through the logical form of geometry or confirms it. in the strict sense. that at least the ordinary geometry of tridimensional 33 If we examine the motives space is founded merely on experience. Veronese s Fondamenti di critical geometria. 1894. Note 1.

655 cit. p.. The theorem. which cannot indeed be clearly assigned. p. . of which it is rather only a special in realized. according to this conception. when we go beyond 34 remains in force only for these cases. Thus to the proposition. but it soon appears impossible to reach the structure of the total historical system of geometry from it.real&quot. while it loses its validity certain limits. which proves to be not further divisible within the given limits of observation.. &quot. The &quot.unreal&quot. which are ultimately nothing but a result of (those ideal constructions. 34 35 35 Pasch. which are demanded by the nature of the geometrical objects as mere objects of percep tion. and gains all the rest by the development of this once assumed material. is nothing but a material body. If truth of its added to the fundamental we abandon these abstractions.102 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION of technical abstractions. Cf. ff. straight lines and planes are used also. geometry retains the character of a natural science and is only distinguished from the other natural sciences by the fact that it only needs to take a very limited number of concepts and laws directly from experi ence.point. that we originally sought to exclude. 17 f. All these developments are consistent with the chosen starting-point. p.&quot. and serve as a basis for the definitions of those elements which the geometrical idea is only imperfectly and approximately Every geometry of approximation is obliged to operate with presuppositions taken from geometry. scientific &quot. ples is draw one and only one straight line.pure&quot. op. The concepts of perfectly determinate points. to the assumption of &quot. while distance is compounded out of a The validity of the geometrical princi accordingly subject to certain limitations. the reservation is to be added that the points considered must not be too close to each other. Ideal objects in empirical geometry. is work by which indeed is its theoretical con struction furthered. structures. and by Well- stein. that between two points we can finite number of such points. the criticism of Pasch s system by Veronese. application. it cannot serve for the deduction of methods. but nothing propositions. Vorlesungen iiber neuere Geometrie. that represent actual objects of observation. if we turn resolutely back to the real psychological beginnings. we are forced from the assumption of points. In order to give the proofs true rigor and universality. that between two given points a third can always be inserted. 128 f.

In the system of Pasch. and in which the generated element is determined from the beginning by the fact that we subject it to certain general laws of relation. as Veronese remarks. For this always demands a pure act of construction.possibility&quot. who at first approves the search. Veronese. But in establishing this. element. in Platonic language. They serve as the first incentive.. element which in pure mathematics.&quot. but express neither the limit nor the real meaning of the mathematical construction of concepts. not factually but methodically. As the axioms. We start from &quot. Although geometry is defined here also as an exact experimental science. Thus we are obliged ultimately to for appeal to a specific function of the intellect in the deduction of the geometries of more than three dimensions. but also on &quot.intellectual activity&quot.THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY Veronese s modification of empiricism. the logical role of experience has become entirely different.subjective&quot.empirical considerations. Rationalism and empiricism. multiple-dimensional geometry is not excluded a posteriori but a priori.mental facts. i. and it is this &quot. propositions and tion. which is to be formed in strict independ ence. but only what they mean and are worth as elements of scientific proof. a possible &quot. when he urges that geometrical &quot. from which we ascend to the conception of universal systems of conditions with no sensuous correlate. proofs of geometry cannot contain any undefined element of intui when we abandon intuition in general. The geomet axioms are not copies of the real relations of sense perception. but as such do not enter into the system of deductive proof.objective&quot. there must at least remain . which lies beyond the possibilities of our spatial intuition. in which we go beyond the given. the issue is already decided from the standpoint of the critique of knowledge.&quot. is not to be based merely on direct external observation. gives the thought a new turn. but they are postulates by which we read exact assertions into inexact intuition. The sensuous contents form indeed the first occasion. 103 The search for an empirical foundation of geometry is thus led into a new path.spring-board&quot. for such critique does not ask as to the origin of concepts. The raw material of sense impressions must be worked over by our mind before it can be useful as a starting-point rical mathematical considerations. from certain facts of sensuous intuition. geometry and rational mechanics asserts its superiority over the &quot.e. For the data of observation negate every attempt to enter a field. only as the &quot. but these facts serve. nevertheless.

104

SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION
is

a purely hypothetical connection of abstract truths, which
sible
"If

acces

we are called," Veronese to intellectual investigation. adds, "Rationalists or Idealists because of these ideas, we accept the title in distinction from those who would unjustifiably deny the
and geometri and who would enquire whether each new hypothesis possesses a possible perceptual representation, e.g., in geometry a
greatest possible logical freedom to the mathematical
cal intellect,

purely external perceptual representation. We accept the title, however, only under the condition that no really philosophical mean The "really philosophical" meaning, that is ing be attached to here guarded against, is, as the reference to P. du Bois-Reymond
it."

only the hypostatization of mathematical ideals into a absolute existences; their purely intellectual value as 3 hypotheses is not being thereby affected.
shows,
sort
of

3 *5

Mathematical space and sensuous space.

The

logical

freedom here

sought for geometrical concepts cannot, however, merely relate to those that apply to more than three-dimensional spaces; in so far as a true unity of principles is sought, it must be recognized in the of this methods of ordinary Euclidean geometry. If the
"point"

geometry were only the image of an object existing outside of thought, "because there are outer objects which directly (!) present or arouse in us the perception of a point without which there are no real so-called 38 the continuity of the system of geometry would be broken; points," for what conceptual analogy and affinity subsists between elements, which are copies of presented things and elements that entirely result from "intellectual activities"? And conversely, if those intellectual procedures suffice to constitute the element of an n-dimensional manifold, what difficulty is there in gaining the element in the special
In fact, it is precisely when we compare case of three dimensions? Euclidean space with other possible "forms of space" that its peculiar conceptual character stands forth sharply. If from the standpoint of

metageometry, Euclidean geometry appears as a mere beginning, as given material for further developments, nevertheless, from the stand point of the critique of knowledge, it represents the end of a compli
cated series of intellectual operations. The psychological investiga tion of the origin of the idea of space (including those which were
36

Cf.

more particularly Ch. IV,
cit.,

p. 162

ff.

37

38

Veronese, op. Veronese, op.

p.

VIII
VII.

ff.,

XIII

ff., f.

p. 658, 687, etc.

cit.,

p.

cf.

p. 225

THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY

105

undertaken with a purely sensatiorialistic tendency) have indirectly confirmed and clarified this. They show unmistakably that the space of our sense perception is not identical with the space of our geometry, but is distinguished from it in exactly the decisive con stitutive properties. For sensuous apprehension, every difference of place is necessarily connected with an opposition in the content of
sensation.
"Above"

and

"below,"

"right"

and

"left"

are here not

equivalent directions, which can be exchanged with each other with out change, but they remain qualitatively distinct and irreducible
determinations, since totally different groups of organic sensations correspond to them. In geometrical space, on the contrary, all these oppositions are cancelled. For the element as such possesses
specific content, but all its meaning comes from the relative position it occupies in the total system. The principle of the absolute homogeneity of spatial points denies all differences, like the difference of above and below, which merely concern the relation of

no

object.

outer things to our bodies, and thus to a particular, empirically given 39 Points are what they are only as starting-points of possible

constructions, in which the postulate holds that the identity of these constructions can be recognized and retained through all diversity
of the initial elements.

The

further

such as

its

continuity and infinity, rest

they are in no

way given in spatial completions, which we assume in the continuity of space is a sensuously phenomenal property has been definitely set aside by the deeper mathematical analysis of the conil

moments of geometrical space, upon a similar foundation; sensations, but rest upon ideal them. The appearance that

manifold.

[I

||

tinuum, which has been carried out through the modern theory of the The concept of the continuum used by the mathematician in his deductions is in no way to be gained from the indefinite image This image can of space, that is offered us by sensuous intuition. never represent precisely the ultimate deciding difference by which

.

continuous manifolds are distinguished from other infinite totalities; no sensuous power of discrimination, however sharp, can discover any difference between a continuous and a discrete manifold in so far as
30 Concerning the differentiation of "homogeneous" geometrical space from inhomogeneous and "anisotropic" physiological space, cf. more particularly Mach, Erkenntnis u. Irrtum, Leipzig, 1905, p. 331 ff. Cf. especially the exposi tion of Stumpf, Zur Einteilung der Wissenschaften (Abhandl. der Berliner Akademie d. Wiss., 1906, p. 71 ff.).

106

SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION
"everywhere
dense," i.e.,

the elements of the latter are

where between
itself.
40

any two members, however

close

we may choose them, another
Just

member can be

discovered belonging to the assemblage

broadened by gradual steps of into the continuous totality of real numbers, so by a series of thought
as the field of rational

numbers

is

intellectual transformations, does the space of sense pass into the homogeneous and conceptual space of geometry.
infinite,

continuous,
to the

Kantian theory of geometry. It is thus a strange anomaly, when from the possibility of metageometry the empirical character of Euclidean space is inferred. Euclidean geometry does
Objections

not cease to be a purely rational system of conditions and conse quences, when it is shown that along with it other systems can be thought, which are capable of the same logical strictness of connec It is to be noted that two opposite objections, based upon the tion.

same premises which are taken from metageometry, have been expressed against the Kantian theory of geometry. On the one hand, the pure apriority of space is contested on the basis of these

own
and

premises, while on the other hand, it is objected that in Kant s exposition, the a priori freedom of the mathematical concept
all sensuous representation is not view that the axioms were satisfactorily expressed. in "pure intuition" can only be explained "by that residuum of sensualism which still attached to the Kantian idealism." 41 Of these two opposed objections, only the last possesses an entirely clear and consistent meaning. Not the empirical but the logical character of the fundamental concepts is confirmed and illumined in a new way
its

possible separation

from
s

Kant

"given"

by the modern extension
which we can
\

of the field of mathematics.

The

role,

ascribe to experience, does not lie in founding the particular systems, but in the selection that we have to make among
still

them.

reasoned that, as all the systems are equally valid in we need a principle that guides us in their applica tion. This principle can be sought only in reality, since we are not here concerned with mere possibilities, but with the concept and the problem of the real itself; it) short, it can be sought only in observa
It is

logical structure,

tion
40

and

scientific

experiment.

Experience thus never serves as a

uum

my
41

For explanation and examples, cf. especially Huntington, "The Contin as a type of order," Annals of Mathematics, 2ser., VI and VII; compare "Kant und die moderne Mathematik," Kant Studien, XII, 15 ff.
Wellstein, op.
cit..

p. 146.

THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY

107

proof or even as a support of the mathematical system of conditions, for such a system must rest purely in itself; but it points the way from the truth of concepts to their reality. Observation closes the gap
logical determination; it leads from the many geometrical space to the one space of the physical object.
left

by purely

forms of

Real space and experiment. This connection leads, however, beyond the bounds of pure mathematics and results in a problem, which can only be adequately solved by a critical analysis of the

procedure of physics.

The question
itself

of the

method and value

of the

If of central importance. physical experiment one looks to experiment for the confirmation or refutation of a certain system of mathematical hypotheses, experiment is essentially under

now becomes

stood in the Baconian sense of the "experimentum crucis" Experi ence and hypotheses belong accordingly to separate fields; each exists for itself and can function by itself. experience, which is conceived as separated from any conceptual presupposition, is
"Pure"

appealed to as a criterion of the value or lack of value of a certain theoretical assumption. The critical analysis of the concept of on the contrary, that the separation here assumed experience shows,
involves an inner contradiction.

Abstract theory never stands on

one
it

side, while on the other side stanjds the material of observation as

r"h

\
1

i

and without any conceptual interpretation. Rather we are to ascribe to it any definite character at all, must always bear the marks of some sort of conceptual shaping. We can never oppose to the concepts, which are to be tested, the ll empirical data as naked but ultimately it is always a certain of connection of the empirical, which is measured by a logical system similar system and thus judged. 42 But if the measuring experiment vjs always bound in this way to a system of presuppositions, which include both purely geometrical assumptions concerning space and
is

in itself

this material,

if

.

"facto";

1

1

then

concrete physical assumptions concerning the relations of bodies, it is clear that we can expect no clear decision from it with regard

to the conflict of geometrical systems. Wherever a value gained by experiment contradicts the value demanded by deductive theory, the alternative is left open to us whether we shall restore the agree

ment

and observation by changing the mathematical part And thought would undoubtedly avail itself of this latter procedure. The possible
of concept

or the physical part of our abstract hypothesis.

42

Cf. here the detailed

grounding in Ch. IV, especially Sect. IV.

108

SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION and
is

variation of the conditions follows certain rules

bound

to a

Before we would proceed on the basis of the certain sequence. results of astronomical measurements, to change from the geometry

geometry of Lobatschefski, we would first have to as to whether we could take account of the new result investigate by an altered conception of the system of physical laws, for example, by revising the assumption of the strictly rectilinear propagation of
of Euclid to the

This state of affairs has been continually emphasized from light. the philosophical side in the controversies about the principles of geometry; but it seems that it was first through the expositions of
Poincare, which were decisive in this connection, that
clear
it

became

and gained wide recognition within mathematics.

As

Poincare"

justly emphasizes, all our experiences are related only to the relations of bodies to each other and their physical interactions, but never to the relation of bodies to pure geometrical space, or the parts of this

space to each other.
"essence"

It is thus vain to expect instructions

of space

from a procedure which, according to

about the its whole

tendency and disposition, is directed upon entirely different questions. Since the objects with which experience deals are of an entirely differ ent sort from the objects of which the assertions of geometry hold,
since the investigation of material things never directly touches the ideal circle or straight line, we never gain in this way a decision

the different systems of geometry. 43 The conceptual principles of pure space. Thus, if the choice between the various systems is not to be surrendered entirely to subjective caprice, we must face the problem of discovering a rational criterion of difference. Logical consistency, such as belongs to all these systems, is merely a negative condition, which they all share among

among

themselves. But within the group thus established the differences in fundamental structure and in relative simplicity of structure are not extinguished. While from the standpoint of the principles of identity and contradiction, the thought of the heterogeneity of -space may be

equivalent to that of homogeneity, nevertheless, there can be no doubt that within the rational system of knowledge the concept of
uniformity, in the most diverse fields, always precedes that of nonuniformity. The non-uniform is always gained from the uniform in the process of constructive synthesis by the addition of a new condition, and thus represents a more complex intellectual structure.
41

Cf. Poincarg,

La Science

et

VHypothese, Chs. 3-5.

THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY The form
form
of Euclidean space

109

of space, in the

is thus in fact "simpler" than any other same sense that within algebra a polynomial

of the first degree is simpler than a polynomial of the second degree. 44 In the order of knowledge, at least, there is here a necessary and
definite sequence;

but

it is

this order of

knowledge by which, in the
of objects.

critique of cognition,

we determine the order

The

differ

ences between Euclidean space and the space represented in the hypothesis of Lobatschefski or of Riemann first become manifest

when we compare

parts of these spaces, which transcend a certain

magnitude, with each other. If we limit ourselves, on the contrary, to the generating element of all these spaces, the difference disap The Euclidean standard holds without modification for pears. measurements in infinitesimals, which thus proves it in principle It represents the first and fundamental schema really fundamental. with which all other constructions are connected and from which they
are distinguished.

The uniformity

of Euclidean space

is

really only

an expression of the fact that it is conceived merely as a pure rela tional and constructive space and that all further determination of content, which might lead to a difference in absolute magnitude and in absolute direction, is eliminated from it. 45 In so far as absolute
determinations of magnitude as such are permissible in pure geometry, they always rest on a universal system of relations, which have been previously developed independently and which is only more closely determined in details by the addition of particular conditions. Euclidean space and the other forms of mathematical space. Thus Euclidean space remains, indeed, a conceptual hypothesis in a system
of possible hypotheses; but within this system, nevertheless, it From a possesses a peculiar advantage in value and significance. a manifold system of pure logico-mathematical forms, we select

that corresponds to certain rational postulates, and attempt with the help of this manifold to render the character of the real intelligible.

We
the
in

do not thereby exclude that, along with the fundamental system,

more complex systems

also possess a certain sphere of application
significance.

which they also gain concrete
44
45

In the

first

place,

Cf. Poincare, op.
Cf., e.g.,

cit.,

p. 61.

22: "The simplicity 1844, of space is expressed in the principle: space has the same properties in all places and in all directions, that is, in all places and in all directions, the

Grassmann, Ausdehnungslehre of

same constructions can be

produced."

HO

SUBSTANCE AXD FUNCTION*

the results of these systems are often themselves capable of an inter pretation and translation which brings them, at least indirectly, to As Beltrami has shown, the relations of intuitive representation.

Lobatschefskian geometry find their exact correlate and copy in the geometry of pseudo-spherical surfaces, itself a particular section of ordinary Euclidean geometry; while the "elliptical geometry" of planes, as developed by Riemann, corresponds to the geometry of
spherical surfaces within the Euclidean space of three dimensions. And also, when we go over to systems of higher dimensions, this

can again select possibility of referring back does not cease. within our intuitive space itself structures that are subject in all
their reciprocal relations to the abstract rules, which are deduced and proved for any manifold of more than three dimensions. Thus the
all spheres forms a linear manifold of four dimensions, the form of which can be investigated and established in universal 46 But even where we lack this reduction to known spa geometry.

We

manifold of

tial relations

and problems, the

possibility

is

not excluded of inter

preting the propositions of non-Euclidean geometry so that a definite concrete "meaning" corresponds to them. For all these propositions

only express a system of relations, while they make no final deter mination of the character of the individual members, which enter into
these relations.

The points, with which they are concerned, are not independent things, to which in and for themselves certain properties are ascribed, but they are merely the assumed termini of the relation
and gain through it all their character. (Cf. above p. 94 ff.) Hence, where any system is found in accordance with the rules of connection of any of these general theories of relation, a field of
itself

application for the abstract propositions is indicated and defined, no matter whether the qualitative character of the elements of the

system can be pointed out or whether
in space.

it can be intuitively represented In so far as physics offers us systems, which require a plurality of means of determination for their complete exposition, we can speak of a manifold of several "dimensions," to be judged and

treated according to the previously evolved deductive laws of these manifolds, regardless of whether or not these means of determina
tion permit a spatial interpretation.

Geometry and
rational
46

form

In any case, the result is that the purely reality. of the geometrical construction of concepts, as the
Wellstein, op.
cit.,

Cf.

more particularly

p. 102.

THE CONCEPT OF SPACE AND GEOMETRY
latter

111

has been gradually established, is not threatened by the metageometrical considerations but is rather confirmed. Even if

one heeds

all

the doubts that
still

may

be awakened through these

these doubts never concern the real ground of considerations, the concepts, but only the possibility of their empirical application. That experience in its present scientific form gives no occasion to go

beyond Euclidean space is expressly admitted even by the most radical empiristic critics. 47 From the standpoint of our present knowledge, they also conclude, we are justified in the judgment that
physical space
"is

we must not exclude the

to be regarded as positively Euclidean." Only possibility that in a distant future perhaps

changes will take place here also. If any firmly established observa tions appear, which disagree with our previous theoretical system of nature, and which cannot be brought into harmony with it even by
far-reaching changes in the physical foundations of the system, then, all conceptual changes within the narrower circle having been
tried in vain, the

query

may

arise

whether the
of

lost

unity

is

not to be
if

reestablished

by a change in the

"form

space"

itself.

But even

we take

into account such possibilities, the proposition would only be thereby strengthened that, as soon as we enter the field of the deter mination of reality, no assertion, however indubitable it may appear,

can lay claim to absolute certainty. It is only the pure system of con ditions, which mathematics erects, that is absolutely valid, while the
assertion, that there are existences corresponding to these conditions in all respects, possesses only relative and thus problematic meaning.

of universal geometry shows that this sphere of problems does not affect the logical character of mathematical knowledge as such. It shows that the pure concept on its side is prepared and fitted for all conceivable changes in the empirical character of percep
tions; the universal serial

The system

form

is

of the empirical
47

is

to be understood

the means by which every order and logically mastered.
ff.

of the

Enriques. Problemi della Scienza, Bologna, 1906, p. 293 Supplement on Einstein s theory of relativity. Tr.)

(See Ch.

VI

CHAPTER

IV

THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE

The constructive concepts and the concepts of nature. The logical nature of the pure functional concept finds its clearest expression and most perfect example in the system of mathematics. Here a field of free and universal activity is disclosed, in which thought transcends The objects, which we consider and into all limits of the "given." nature we seek to penetrate, have only an ideal whose objective being; all the properties, which we can predicate of them, flow exclu

from the law of their original construction. But precisely where the productivity of thought unfolds most purely, its here, The constructive con characteristic limit seems to come to light. of mathematics may be fruitful and cepts (Konstruktionsbegriffe) indispensable in their narrow field; but they seem to lack an essential element for serving as an example for the whole circle of logical problems, as typical of the properties of the concept in general. For however much logic limits itself to the "formal," its connection with the problems of being is never broken. It is the structure of being with which the concept and the logically valid judgment and inference are concerned. The Aristotelian conception and foundation of the syllogism assume this at all points ontology gives the basic plan for the construction of logic. (Cf. above p. 4 ff.) If this, however, is the case, mathematics can no longer serve as the type and model, for since it remains strictly within the field of its self-created structures, it has in principle no concern with being. The difference between the "generic concept" in the sense of traditional logic and the constructive mathematical concept may be freely granted; but one might be tempted to explain this difference by the fact that within mathematics the final and conclusive function of the concept is not sought, and is accordingly not found. The voluntary limitation, which we assume in it, is justified; but it would be a failure in method, if we were to attempt to solve all logical problems from the narrow standpoint that we have here defined for ourselves. The decision as to the direction of logic cannot be gained
sively
:

112

theory may indeed assume and apply certain hypothetical elements. The concepts of nature know and can know no other task than to copy the given facts of perception. that have An hitherto been accessible to us in no direct experience. from the &quot. It is passive surrender to the object. which must constitute the true standard. which are present and can be The concep indicated in the perception as such. the postu late holds that these elements must at least be validated in a possible perception. Here truth and certainty of judgment rest only on observation. the image of outer reality presented to us. The whole meaning and certainty of the concept as found in natural science depends accordingly on the condition. We thus stand of the mind. and to reproduce their content in abbreviated form. the is more purely again wholly within the general view. we beginning prescribed by the character of the material. which here seems to secure to the concept its force and effectiveness. means the assumption of certain data of sensation. this . The more free ourselves from our own constructions. the assertions concerning things and their real properties. there remains no creative freedom and arbitrariness of thought. from this conception of the problem. but which are nevertheless regarded as thoroughly homogeneous in their properties with the really perceived elements.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE by a type Rather of consideration 113 which remains one-sidedly in the ideal. above p. it only signifies certain features. that has found its logical expres The concept is only the copy of the sion in the theory of abstraction. tion of the quately a certain group of phenomena. but in this case. however. its final and definitive formulation only in the concepts of The concept of traditional logic and the scientific ideal of pure descrip If we proceed. that it contain no element which does not possess its In order to represent ade precise correlate in the world of reality. the genuine concepts of being. (Cf.idols&quot. it hypothesis signifies only a gap in our knowledge. given. 5. but the character of the concept is from the tion. reality would be clearly and completely given as a whole in actual perception. The question as to the meaning and function of the con it is cept gains nature. Perfect knowledge could abandon asylum ignorantiae: for it.) meaning and task of natural science also corresponds completely to this view. also. the solution seems to turn at once in favor of the traditional logical view.

and in it there seems to be indi is first cated a necessary condition. which enters into physical theory. physics is rather constituted merely by the phenomena in the form in which they are immediately accessible to us. when it them as symbols for certain impressions and complexes of The unity of the physical method seems thereby to impressions. The whole modern philoso at first glance merely as the increasingly rigor phy of physics appears ous and consistent working-out of this view. Colors and tones. In this view alone. We no longer reach beyond the field of the sensible in order to discover the inex- perienceable. does The apparent the possibility seem given of sharply separating experience and speculative philosophy of nature. Whatever assertions concerning real resists this reduction thereby shows itself to be a factor arbitrarily introduced. However we may judge concern its very conception contains an . The goal of this philosophy of physics would be reached. if we resolved every concept. be secured for the first time for now it is no longer compounded from analysis reduces recognizes . into a sum of perceptions. that is. ideal of the explanation of nature. as atom or molecule. which must disappear in the final result. is in truth no fundamentally new element. sensuous muscle-feelings and perceptions of pressure and contact are the only material out of which the world of the physicist is constructed. heterogeneous elements. the true logical ideal of physics. to which all must be ultimately reducible. and replaced it by this sum. what is added in concepts.114 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION logical ideal of physics. but in the general concept of sensation the common denominator is ity fixed. would be. What this world seems to contain in addition. smell and taste sensations. Complete logical these concepts to their significance. accordingly. absolute causes and forces. Is this the true ideal of physics? ing the justification of this ideal. by which the scientific concept of physics In opposition to the metaphysical defined and completed. there now appears the more modest task of describing the real completely and clearly. upon which rest the multi The content of plicity and change of our world of perception. which possess no direct sensuous correlate in the world of perceptible things and processes. but only a peculiar guise in which the data of sense appear. if we retraced the path from the intellectual abbre viation (which is what all concepts reveal themselves to be) to the concrete fullness of the empirical facts. ether or energy. The exclusion of all ele ments.

f Here as it is historically presented. on the contrary. or does it contain elements. before we decide as to the value or lack of value of the view of reality which it contains. really only a collection of observations strung together as if on a thread. whatever the final result might be. or. is this procedure measured by a general theory of knowledge and of reality. it is highly paradoxical in principle when we look back over our general estimate of the principle of mathematical conceptual construction.facts. must also be demanded with respect to the more complex facts of knowl edge. Again it would be a certain metaphysics of knowledge which sought to point out the way to physics. To abstract from this function means to destroy the certainty and clarity of the facts themselves. of theory in its purity. positivistic critic with regard to the facts of sense perception. order to produce the raw material of &quot. The function of numbering and measuring is indispensable even in description of the given.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE ambiguity.&quot. be won by following the course of physical investigation itself and considering the function of the concept that is involved directly in The same impartiality. The first and most striking characteristic which forces itself upon us with regard to any scientific theory. which must first 115 be set aside. this connection How ever self-evident. which belong to another logical type and therefore demand another foundation? ii Numbering and measuring as presuppositions. involves a peculiar difficulty when we consider it from the standpoint of the general logical demand for The theories of physics gain their definiteness from the mathematical form in which they are expressed. indeed may seem. The answer to this question can only actual status of physical theories that is made of these theories. which decides concerning its value? In the latter case. the method of consideration would not be changed in principle. The description of the is confused with a general demand Which of the two elements is the Is it merely the actual procedure of original and determining one? science itself that is here brought to its simplest and shortest expres sion. . It has become increasingly clear that all content belonging to the trivial. Is this theory. &quot. that is demanded by the its procedure. scientific also the first task is to grasp the actual side&quot. that are to be repro duced and unified in theory.

the mathematical concept is not so much a justified and necessary instrument to be applied along with experiment and observation as a constant danger. such as possess no possibility of direct sensuous realization. is never to be avoided or set aside. however. and thus to let the empirical determinateness of being disappear into the freedom and caprice of thought? And yet this danger. it is first known mathematically when it is subjected to a transformation. in the positivistic sense of the word. No matter how penetratingly the physicist portray it as empirical philosopher. by which it is changed into another type of manifold. lead to fruitful applications within intuition itself. 28. and the third of the arith metical concepts of the square and the cube. Although the first of Kepler s laws of planetary motion makes use of the purely geometrical definition of the ellipse as a conic section. The given of intuition forms merely the psychological starting-point.) advance of mathematical conceptual construction. Every such transforma tion. inhering in things precisely as do their color or their lustre and hardness. which does not involve may the application of certain numbers and measures. which are completely alien to intuition in their origin and logical properties.116 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION mathematical concept rests on a pure construction. however clearly it may be envisaged. Even so abstract an intel- . if it were merely a matter of the elementary concepts and structures of mathematics. The more this appearance is destroyed in the (Cf. yet is its most pregnant expression in the analysis of the not limited to the latter. number and form themselves appear as a sort of physical property. For the purposes of knowledge of nature. he directly falls into it again as soon as he sets to work as scientific investigator. to the naive comprehension. that are continually used in the construc tion of mechanics and physics. to subject this existence to the schema of our mathematical concepts. must obviously be abandoned where we are merely concerned with grasping the given as given in its specific individual structure and properties. revealed to us in sensation. There is no exact establishment of a time-space fact. Does it not falsify the immediate existence. and transcend it in principle. above p. This relation finds infinite. which we can pro duce and master according to rational laws. One might over look the difficulty in this. at first no epistemological problem might be seen in this. Conceptions. the more strikingly the general question is thrown into relief. For it is precisely the complex mathematical concepts.

as soon as we ask about the connection and law of the real. that of com . &quot. Vol. and concept can only be reached on the basis of this thought. Even the ideal numbers of our theory are found in chemistry. have both the same fundamental concept as their principle. as hypo thetical radicals. but have their justification in the fact that chemistry. we have transcended the the sphere of concrete factual being. however. p. strict limits prescribed indicate this connection by the positivistic demand.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 117 lectual creation as the system of complex numbers offers a new example of this connection. As soon as we take one step beyond the first naive observation of isolated facts. of its elements. but which. namely. The first phase of the The exact clearly expresses rooted in the thought of mechanism. which prevail within this system. although in different spheres of 1 being. has developed the thought that the relations. The explanation theory of nature this. That form of knowledge. of nature is of nature. like the ideal numbers.real&quot. as well as the part of the number theory here considered. precisely this transference of structures. correspond to the prime factors. &quot. Zahlensysteme. 360.not-real&quot. to Even here it appears that it is and elements. and the chemical formulae for the analysis of bodies are exactly the same as the formulae for the analysis of numbers. the elements. for instance. 35. which have hitherto not been analysed. is to describe the real Mechanism and scientific the concept of motion. have their reality in compounds The analogies here indicated are not to be regarded as a mere play of wit. The real problem is. Crelle s Journal.&quot. whose whole content is rooted in a connection of purely ideal constructions. perhaps only too often. in its later development. whose task and lay bare its finest threads. 104. we must go back to a system that develops only universal hypothetical connec tions of grounds and consequences. and which renounces in principle the &quot. position. upon a peculiar interweaving of that every scientific theory rests. Kummer. possess their concrete substratum in the relations of chemical combina tion Chemical combination corresponds to the multiplication of the complex numbers. or more exactly the atomic weights of the same. begins by aside from this very reality and substituting for it the turning symbols of number and magnitude. Theorie der komplexen . p.reality&quot. In order even to and law clearly and adequately. 1 may attempt to free itself from Cited by Hankel.

from the beginning. mechanics.motion&quot. As long as we understand by space nothing else than a sum of various visual and tactual impressions.) into this circle of purely conceptual determinations. nevertheless. i. above Thus. individual positions of Mars. psychological and &quot. following the observations of Tycho de Brahe. What sensation offers is and remains a plurality of luminous points in the heavens.. and all heaping up of partic ular positions could not lead to this thought. no &quot. Space and time themselves. into which we constructively transform it by certain intellectual postulates.e. first presents us. continuity and uniformity. . is nothing but a certain relation into which space and time enter. This reduction. Motion. never belong to the coexistence of the sensuous impression itself. motion and its laws remain the real problem in connec tion with which knowledge first becomes clear regarding itself and this first its task. are assumed as members of immediate. motion drawn p. is possible in it in the sense of exact physics. but in their strict mathematical This latter demands the continuous and homogeneous space of pure geometry as a foundation. but involves a characteristic function of thought. meaning. which transforms this discrete aggregate into . if there were not active from the beginning ideal presuppositions through which the gaps of actual perception are supplemented. may be conceived in this way. Reality is perfectly understood as soon as it is reduced to a system of motions. but only to those forms of manifold. it is only the pure mathematical concept of the ellipse. in the universal scientific sense. which Kepler took as a basis. can never be accomplished as long as consideration remains in the sphere of mere data of perception. identity along with change and this identity is never provided by mere obser The vation. this relation not in their properties. 105. however. qualitatively different from each other according to the special physiological conditions under which they come into existence. itself is also (C/. which has to have been previously conceived. but this aspect alone is in no sense sufficient to ground the strict concept of motion. however. that is needed by which all outer observation Here unity is demanded along with diversity. indeed the fundamental fact. however. do not in themselves alone contain the thought of the orbit of Mars.118 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION schema and to replace it by one broader and more universal. It is only in appearance that it forms a direct fact of perception.phenomenal&quot. Perhaps the change of the qualitative difference of successive presentations sensations.

in so universal law. and in them is involved the concepts of the material point. but the question arises all the more urgently as to the intel lectual means by which this result is reached. which defined the task of mechanics as the complete and unambiguous movements taking place in nature. a &quot. are grasped and grounded. but first arises in intellectual synthesis and in the anticipation of a of a Motion is gained as a scientific fact only after we produce by this law a determination that includes the totality of the space and time points. The well-known definition of Kirchoff. This ideal dependence stands out most sharply when we pass from the process of movement to the subject of movement. which can be constructively generated. far as this determination coordinates to every moment of continuous time one and only one position of the body in space. which go beyond possible sensuous experience. the infinite obviously cannot be perceived as such.nature&quot.subject&quot. however.description. of uniform and variable velocity description of the justified in the as well as uniform acceleration. however. constitutes the real and original problem. sharper conceptual analysis . tangible and visible qualities.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE a continuous system. Even at this point. but they are in no way such for the epistemologist. For the latter. Again it seems as if this subject could be directly pointed out in perception. it is is which motion a complex of ascribed as a property. This mathematical transformation. to it is body. which the physicist assumes to have taken place. then with the help of this logical material the totality of possible phenomena of motion can be completely surveyed and mastered in its form. 119 Every assertion concerning the unitary path involves the assumption of an infinity of possible moving body places. from a new angle it is revealed that even the first approach to mechanics depends upon presuppositions. exists in which movements are found as describable objects only as a result of a thorough intellectual transformation of the given. If the thought of the continuity and uniformity of space. may be entirely meaning which its author connected with it. All these concepts may justifiably serve the mathematical physicist as fixed and immediate data. at which he aimed. as well as the exact concepts of velocity and acceleration. Kirchoff himself leaves no doubt that the &quot.&quot. has the exact mathemati cal equations of motion as a presupposition. Thus. yet without the philosophical consequences that are ordinarily drawn from it being thereby justified. The &quot. of motion.

by which it is separated from its sur roundings and recognized as a whole of individual form. and significance for natural science. They owe their determinateness merely to a first and superficial unifica tion. does it attain that And identity. In fact. wherewith we unite into a whole parts of space that seem to Where such a properties. body is required with respect to all elements on the other hand. its The &quot. disintegration into a plurality of independently moving subjects. a keener faculty of sensuous discrimination would show us. at the point where two different bodies seem to be in contact. determined with absolute exacti unity begins and ends can never be tude. body of pure geometry has to be substituted for the perceptible body and its limitless is the exact theory of motion changeability. the supreme condition of the definiteness of the point of reference is again aban doned in place of the one movement have been substituted as many different movements as there are independently moving particles. it is to be demanded that it represent a strict unity in itself.rigid&quot. so long it is unable to furnish a constant point of reference for change. if the grounding of to be accomplished. as points of application in the . it is never the contents of perceptions as such that we can use as foundations for the judgments of pure mechanics. which makes it useful as the &quot. (Karl Pearson). a con possess approximately the same sensuous stant reciprocal exchange of parts and thus a continuous movement of the limiting surfaces. The &quot. distinguished and limited from all other structures. As long as it is not enclosed in fixed and unchanging limits. themselves. which is closed off from the outside and also is in itself incapable of further differentiation and as exact limitation of the of its outer surroundings. the empirical body must be definitely determined. so . It is Karl Pearson above all.120 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION meets peculiar difficulties.description&quot. Thus a system must be taken as a basis. who has described this process with clearness and emphasis in his work. The Grammar of Science. of motion.limiting concept&quot. In order to serve as the subject of move ment.bearer&quot. As he explains. the necessity of such a transformation of the problem is recognized and emphasized by the adherents of the theory of &quot. Only when we ascribe a strict geometrical form to the body and thus raise it from the sphere of the merely perceptible to the determinateness of the concept. As soon as we think of its individual parts as movable with relation to each other. Yet the bodies of our world of perception never satisfy this condition.

all these laws can only be asserted with meaning of the ideal limiting structures which we conceptually substitute for the empirical data of sense-perception. can form into new groups. ff . 325 etc. London 282. we fall once more into all the antinomies that necessarily inhere in every type of dogmatism. not of &quot. it is there.things&quot. 2 Cf.&quot. What we can alone as itself a particular phenomenal existence. as soon as we give up trying to conceive an intellectual as we construction for the establishment of a scientific order of phenomena. These contradictions disappear as soon of learn not to confuse immediately sensuous with conceptual elements. that properly gles in vain to clearly realize the &quot. as we have seen. but of thought. in physics is the construction of a world of geometrical accomplish forms. appear. class of objects. in the field of perception. 1900.&quot. in the multiplicity of movements we ascribe to them. it is nevertheless true that the mind strug motion of anything which is neither a geometrical point nor a body bounded by continuous surfaces. can lose old parts and gain new. &quot.. 198 p. Second edition. as soon as we transform its logical assumptions directly into parts of reality. the mind absolutely rebels against the notion of anything moving but these conceptual creations. which the mathematician substitutes for them in his Motion is not a fact of sensation.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 121 expression of the laws of motion. Pearson. Groups of sensuous impres sions can change. . Motion is a predicate that is never immediately applicable to the of the surrounding sense-world. free construction. 2 All this exposition of Pearson s physical as well as metaphysical. The Grammar of Science. p.It geometrical forms change their position in absolute time that is. but of &quot. reproduce and represent with wonderful exactness the complex phases of our sensuous experience. is in the field of conception solely that we can talk of the motion of bodies. ^ when first stated. move. The contradictions.conception. can be explained for the greater part by the fact. that the two spheres knowledge here opposed have not been sharply and definitely separated from each other. 239 ff. in which mechanics often becomes involved and which have come to light especially in the attempts to apply the general mechanical laws to the movements of the ether. which would thus be apprehended by sensation.&quot.. yet these. but these changes in no way signify the real object of mechanics. and there only.perception&quot. Rather. but holds solely of that other &quot.Startling as it may. As soon as we read this whole thought-world directly into the sense-world again. which are limits unrealizable.

as Paul du Bois-Reymond develops it. like all problems of this species. which can themselves in no way be &quot. as . in sensuous manifold. The concepts was to introduce. system of geometrical ideals. general logical reduction of the question.&quot. yet the construction rests on The advantage to be gained from this principles. and the only way out for clear thought seems to be not so much in resolving the antinomies. which appear at this point. Instead of a mere passive reproduction. precisely that which constitutes the character and value of the intellectual procedure of physics.122 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION admirable but we ask in vain how. P. The question process. we see before us an active which transports what is at first given into a new logical It would be a strange way of describing what is presented. sphere. When we raise the question whether there an exact limit to a definite given sequence of presentations. as long as its sphere. however. such as are necessarily foreign to the world of our perceptions? If the task of a true &quot. mechanics can still be conceived as purely descriptive science. on these assumptions. is not to be solved according to strict objective criteria. du Bois-Reymond s theory of the limiting concept. Here more than anywhere else they both seem entangled in insoluble difficulties. the consideration of the concept of the mathematical limit leads back to a fundamental metaphysical problem. on the contrary.general theory of functions. the ideal justification of such construction of a limit cannot be perfectly it remains purely within is slight as long as logic and epistemology themselves have not reached clarity on this point. descrip tion is to conceive the given as faithfully as possible. them in their insolubility. but according to the subjective inclination of the individual investigator.objective&quot. as to the character of the fundamental concepts of natural science merges here into a more general problem. this decision is expressly cian in more recent times.&quot. Can it be called a description of perceptual contents to substitute in place of them a is . We saw how the first step in the formation of these scientific place of the members of a certain limit of this manifold. if for this purpose we concerned ourselves with bare concepts. but disclaims from the beginning any exists attempt to remove it. The &quot. as rather in understanding and recognizing fact. illumines this dualism on all sides. which. demonstrated by natural science. In represented by a noted mathemati According to him. neither adding it is nor subtracting anything: then. sort of transformation of the initial experience.presented.

after the removal of everything which strange might conceal the truth and when at last one might expect to behold its image clearly and definitely. which represents the decisive turning-point of all critique of knowledge. am forced to develop before the reader the double 3 Interpretation of the foundations of our science. which stand irreconcilably opposed. at the end of most careful and eager -reflection. The mathematician is not in a position to grant the victory to either one of these fundamental views all that he can and must do. f. is to follow them to their ultimate intellectual roots.&quot. The old question as to the relation of concept and existence. Tubingen 1882. and &quot. which constitute the intellectual conclusion of certain series of presentations.and thought-process. It is. &quot. in order to bring clarity into the foundations of analysis. .THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE for 123 example to the figures of a decimal fraction.idealism&quot. than I today. in fact. or with idealism. p. such that the limit possesses the same existence as the members of the sequence them selves. who first noticed through a transparent crystal the double image of a single object. but which can never themselves be directly presented. 2 . at least as long as we are concerned with pure mathematics However. could not have showed it to his friends more moved.&quot. because no absurd consequence of them is found. for here we stand at a point. he problem of existence. The simple mathematical problem leads us into the conflict of two general views of the world. The solution of the riddle is that of it remains and observation of our its relations to &quot.The most persistent du Bois-Reymond.peculiar result . worth while to seek out the mgin of this . affirm the existence of structures. He. We must choose between these two views of the world: either with empiricism we must assume as existent only what can be pointed out as an individual in the real presentation. of idea and form. the answer we give cannot be clearly determined by logical and mathematical considerations alone. Die allgemeine Funktionstheorie. it remains a very phenomenon that.empiricism&quot. says perception does not go beyond showing that there will remain a riddle. it appears before us in double form. here 3 Paul du Bois-Reymond. are two completely different interpretations. meets us once more hi a characteristic and original Indeed the suspicion must at once arise as to whether the opposition found here between &quot. that have equal claim to serve as the foundations of exact science. reprereality.

for only experiment and generalizing induction warrant us in making a decision concerning real events in the psychic life of number e means nothing else than number system. confirms this exclusive direction of interest. the series gains a definite it relation to the relation of members and of this field.before&quot. be insoluble while if it could be shown that there are problems wholly . that is to be thereby affirmed. and which are thus wholly independent of its solution in their logical In structure and validity. truth. which we apply in its definition. within the ideal 1 + i + T2 is + ro + (in inf.&quot.) . that it is not the mathematician but the philosopher and psychologist. it appears even in the first arguments of du Bois-Reymond. If we assume the general rule individuals. whether it contains within itself all In this case only. The student of algebra. would the antinomy possible manners of thinking. and merely directs itself upon the objects of thought as such and their objective logical connection. with all which it this is not the case.number&quot. observation of our thought-process and its relations to perception&quot.the persistent is speaking here. while the other contains all those elements.smaller&quot. that are ever exceeded by the series when it is carried far enough. What in the world could &quot. and &quot. removed from the opposition. The existence of the that. If this were the meaning of the assertion. then by it the system of rational numbers contains analysed into two strictly divided classes. By virtue effects in the field of rational of this complete division. validity of all these relations alone justifies us in speaking of a e.after. undoubtedly intends to signify no fact of outer physical reality.&quot. the antinomy would lose its sharpness. specifically mathematical Pure mathematics is precisely characterized by the fact abstracts completely from all such investigation of the thought- process and its subjective conditions.existence&quot.greater. The &quot. the mathematical standpoint would lack any means of testing and verifying it. and constitutes the entire &quot. The manner. and thus of &quot. of the numbers e and TT. of which one elements. &quot. one and only one position is determined definitely and with objective necessity by the series.124 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION sents a complete disjunction. who speaks of the &quot. but just as little is it the presence of certain contents of presentation in any perceiving and thinking subjects. the complete and . since stands to them in the &quot. which here serves as a starting-point.&quot. which numbers.being. who problem? that it contribute to the solution of any particular. in which the concept of existence alone appears within mathematics.

in fact. It appears.thing.if . Here. then we see that. accordingly.000. remarks du Bois-Reymond. which arises in this way.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE self-contained existence of this number. is. 125 61 above p. or whether only those positions possess reality.We demand. as we advance further in the series. fractions: since the value of e standpoint of the &quot. we are. according to this assumption. as the value of 1 is distinguished from the value of 1. After a into certain member. until if finally our intuition is unable further to separate them. if we hold to the belief that we are only justified in assuming a particular &quot. certain limits to further advance are felt. however.&quot. even if it &quot. we think of the individual numbers of a convergent series as repre sented by points on the abscissa. which allows us to point it out in intuition and to distinguish it from other positions. The existence of the limiting point. (Cf. which corresponds to the algebraic limit of the series. on the basis of the psychological If we remain at the principle of the threshold of discrimination. not in a position to decide finally whether that point. to be other wise when we turn from the algebraic meaning of limit to its geomet rical meaning. nevertheless in principle fif no other sort than the whole numbers and is just as strictly and sharply dis from that of any other number. where there is a particular presentation for its representation at our command. which are sufficiently divided from each other by the logical conditions. The existence of a point seems to be verifiable. what is impossible.&quot. we are concerned on both sides with pure concepts. I hold this to be so incon ceivable that I affirm. only by a procedure. which are algebraically expressed by the members of the series itself.empiricist. in fact. the existence of a limiting point for any definite converging sequence of points can never be proved from the consideration of the sequence itself. For example. &quot. th^t no intellectual labor will extort from a brain such a proof for the existence of the limiting point. indeed.&quot. exists as a particular geometrical individual. we do not appeal in any way to the faculty of separating presentations and similar particular contents of perception in consciousness. we demand that the sequence of points abstracted from the given points shall determine a point not belonging to the given points. will move nearer and nearer to each other. f. however near e it may tinguished Here lie. which their defini tion imposes upon them. the terms become indistinguishable and flow each other. although purely ideal. then all these points.) The determination.

Allgemeine Funktionentheorie. thus the real existence not only of that which is presented. they proved themselves.126 united SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION Newton s gift of divination. p. To &quot.&quot.&quot.is The idealist believes in some sort of existence (Vorhandenseiri) of unpresentable. 175 ff . of the geometrical point is not different in principle from that of the pure numbers.being&quot. (Cf.idealism&quot. I ber die Grundlagen der Erkenntnis in den exakten fcissenschaften. Here speaks an &quot. System einer Theorie der Grenzbegriffe. Ju Bois-Reymond s work. ourselves outside the field of pure mathematics. however. an expression of valid 5 spatial relations. it was seen. we read here. manifold takes place. The deeper ground of all the misunderstandings and contradictions. lies here also in the indefmiteness and ambiguity. . above p. according to laws geometrical thoroughly analogous to those of the systematic development of the system of numbers. pertinent criticism of the doctrine of P.prove&quot. p. and here as there intellectual progress consists in our taking up into the system original all and belongs to no other elements. 87. in space.The fundamental view of the idealistic system. that all these powers would not suffice to produce the desired proof. Cf. du Bois-Reymond. The &quot. p. the idealist in the sense of du Bois-Reymond. in the sense in which existence the concept of being is understood. &quot. Cf. but of the intuitions necessarily following from the presentations &quot. in which existence of points. that are connected with the by an unambiguous conceptual relation or a chain of such relations. We saw how the paradoxes of imaginary and infinitely distant points were solved from this standpoint little as these points : could claim for themselves any sort of mysterious &quot. Their being is exhausted in their geometrical meaning and necessity. Tubingen.idealist.&quot. the is here taken. generated by our thought 4 6 6 process. p. 4 and the crushing power F of the intellect of / It is entirely correct Logical idealism on the problem of existence. 91. for with the mere question under investigation we have already set :. and \ v ien. will never be attempted by anyone who has ever made fully clear to himself even the critical refutations of the ontological argument. Euler s clarity Gauss. Here as there we start from an ideal postulation of unity.). ^ 6 Allgemeine 1890. on the other hand. On the other hand. can alone demand and claim for the struc tures of pure mathematics. It is this necessity which the true &quot. 66 f. goes far beyond such a demand.&quot. Lpz. The construction of the logical sphere. verbal conclusions of sequences of presentations. 1900. 83 ff.reality&quot. Kerry s Funktionentheorie.

even more sharply in the interpretation of appear the fundamental concepts of natural science than in the purely mathematical discussion.empiricist. on the other hand. of presentations. &quot. and ever again it appears.idealization&quot. The consciousness of the limits set to all our knowing by its nature and essence is felt increasingly here.&quot. The organ for reality is and remains denied to are enclosed in the box of our perceptions blind. we must give up all hope of finding a direct verification of them in any part of the outer world of perception. which is common to the advocates of both these. On the basis of this for the real. and makes no us. his conception to be perverted by his opponent as we can easily see. We cannot Consequences of the confusion of truth and of this confusion . Uber die Grundlagen der Erkenntnis in den exakten Wissenschaften. in which the expo sition of the foundations of exact knowledge here results. Indeed. which threatened to settle more thickly around the image of scientific reality. for a glimmer is already light: but what corresponds in the real to light?&quot.&quot.We progress. 7 This radical scepticism. abandon the concepts of the absolutely rigid body. although. is a mer consistent and significant consequence. but this unavoid able process cannot be critically justified and grounded.organ&quot. that no intelligible meaning can be gained. for the necessary possess no which form the real organs for the logical interpretation concepts. in fact. the mist is again dispelled. and mastery of the manifold of sensations. when we attempt to grasp and analyse them. Ever anew we find ourselves led to unpresentable elements. which lie behind the known and accessible world of sensuous appearance. VIII. this image arises first through a process of idealization. however. when as here he only recognizes the existent (Vorhanderi) as true. The &quot. of the atom or of force at a distance. &quot. .THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 127 who has permitted the &quot. The whole antinomy unfolded in the Allgemeine Funktionentheorie disappears as soon as we destroy this confusion of truth and reality. The consequences reality. in which the view. du Bois-Reymond. If this transformation is once understood. we indefinite data of sensation are supplanted 7 by their strict conceptual P. &quot.Our thought is as if paralyzed. Abschn. and for what is beyond them born We cannot have a glim of light. These concepts are drawn into the same conflict they also continually go beyond the given. are transformed into mysterious realities behind the phenomena.

it pre supposes an independent and constructive activity.. only the mosaic of the perceptible and the images and concepts deduced from it by the process of thought.&quot. The &quot.Our field of affirms du Bois-Reymond s &quot. The &quot. of pressure and contact sensa But the completion of this &quot. whose fundamental function is thus here throughout confirmed.&quot. however. indeed. no deeper relation would be gained.idealist. This process of thought. more or less exact planes.. logical lines of direction. perception would not be merely a mosaic but a true chaos.. The aggregate of sensuous things must be related to a system of necessary concepts and laws. of the idea. for the parts of the mosaic would thereby. They only go beyond the given.system of presentations&quot. but there dwells within us the indestructible conviction . presence of certain things outside This proposition is undoubtedly correct. . and brought to unity in this relation. only establish the inevitable. also must accept this form of idealization. It is a mere misunderstanding when he affirms that he does not recognize that the absolutely straight line and the absolutely exact plane exist. cannot take place by our simply inserting new &quot. nothing else is understood than the mass of given perceptions. but they would consists in this function proof. as is most clearly manifest in the creation of limiting structures. than the system of colors tions. by which alone complete orientation is gained within the manifold of ! phenomena. be moved together more closely and densely. without it. but in spite of no new form of connection. p.&quot.contains not thought.128 limits. For this very discrimination of different stages of exactitude presupposes comparison with the exact idea. 8 Allgemeine Funktionentheorie. for. in so far as by &quot.empiricist&quot. &quot. SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION But the assertion of the objective validity of this process is not the same as the assertion of a new class of objects.being&quot. in order to grasp the more sharply the systematic structural relations of the given.insensible&quot. 110 f.mosaic of the perceptible&quot. however. and tones. &quot. things into this first empirical reality. and needs no other support and no other Also the ideal concepts of natural science affirm nothing regarding a new realm of separate absolute objects. of the 8 the system of presentations. but only more or less straight lines. of tastes and odors. thus by transformation and combination. the world of this. demands really more than the mere combination and transformation of parts of presentations.

its matically fixed and cannot be e stands in certain . not 9 mere sound? between ideas and 10 Allgemeine Funktionentheorie. ascribed to certain sequences on the basis of conceptual criteria. as their conclusion. certain relations hold. it is affirmed. we can explain and understand better why any attempt to interpret the concepts of natural science as mere aggreof a ideas. and explains that he only 9 refuses to accept the ideal itself. therefore. along with du Bois-Reymond.number&quot. all conflict is removed in principle.) For here precisely the characteristic meaning and the real function of the concept of limit is obviously excluded. where one is taken as an actual. psychologically significant image.The sions with no real or logical meaning corresponding to them. For the existence of the ideal. not with an arbitrary play of phantasy. Nevertheless. namely. /The logic of mathematics.&quot. and it is.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE As soon 129 as the empiricist. Is there any meaning in later. &quot. in the explanation of the pure numbers.. in asserting the greater and smaller of elements. as it has already failed p. Between the limit and the members of the series. in which the position of each element. becomes clearer necessity. 80. which are mathe The &quot. p. so it must be somehow a presentation. Grundlagen der Erkenntnis. p. character izes idealization as throughout justifiable. 118. however. while its correlate is made to consist earlier and There can only be valid mathematical relations between ideas and words. means nothing more than the objective logical neces That we are not here concerned with such a sity of idealization. a word for 10 This nominalism. From this connection with the relation of the ideal and reality. that are gained from the partial sums of the defining series it takes its place with them in a series. which can alone be critically affirmed and advocated. as a word.&quot. . fails in the explanation of the concept of limit. p. . above 43 ff. as mere verbal conclu &quot. cf. succession of presentations. It is vain to interpret the ideal limits. presentation. the more deeply the concept of the object is analysed into its condi tions. is unalterably ascribed. 95.. The sequence of objective presenta tions of what is exact have. (Cf. Allgemeine Funktionentheorie. that there are such relations of order in the sequence. something that cannot be presented.can in no way be grasped as a pictorial perfect. as it enters our thought and finds and as our thought consists in the application there. arbitrarily changed.. numerical relations to the other numbers.

we establish the law of the propagation of pressure in fluids by grasping the concept of a condition of perfect which we substitute for them ture and investigate the relations between the pressure. i. which in reality in general are never found. 11 The problem here formulation. Grundriss der Natur philosophic (Reclam). and a very large part of the laws of nature. It is a much more /relation complex relation. . we often meet the view that the ideal of pure description of the facts is a specifically modern achievement. they fall . although beyond the real field of empirical perception. 11 It is thought that here for the first time Ostwald. as Wilhelm fluidity. 55. we volume a procedure very generally applied in science. especially all quantitative laws. that prevails in the actual structure of science and calls for clearer expression logically of the relation between principle and fact.130 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION No scientific gates of facts of perception must necessarily fail. Yet. theory is directly related to these facts. seem to lie on the same line with the members of this field and the laws.&quot.. that we assert. We investigate the intellectually. but is related to the ideal limits. bodies by regarding the masses. in The problem of the physical method and its history. such as express a relation between measurable values. it is a peculiar interweaving and mutual interpenetration of these two elements.Such extrapolations. then we could attempt to do justice to this method by a simple extension of the positivistic schema. only hold Ostwald.&quot. p. We thus stand before the fact that many and among them the most important laws of nature are asserted and hold of conditions.e. tempera of gas by proceeding from an &quot. paring &quot. gas and com a hypothetically evolved model to the direct data of sensation. in sooth.positivist&quot.are exactly for the ideal case. impact of as perfectly elastic or inelastic.ideal&quot. If raised reaches further than appears in this initial the procedure of natural science only consisted in substituting the ideal limiting cases for the directly observable phenomena. do not seem to represent a transformation so much as a mere extension of certain perceptible relations. which affect each other. the between the theoretical and factual elements at the basis of physics cannot be described in this simple way. says so convinced a &quot. which the theoretical consideration of nature For the objects with is concerned. &quot. In epistemological discussion of the foundations of natural science.

metaphysics. without the grounds of this connection being Common understanding and the view of the intelligible to us. however.) As modern investigation has more and more destroyed the prejudice that the scientific use of experiment was unknown to the Greeks. Custom and practice gradually enable us to distinguish certain uniformities in the sequence of phenomena. It is expressed in an incompar and unforgettable picture in the Platonic metaphor of the cave.physics&quot. signifies a misapprehension of the continuous which physics has reached its present form. The one is satisfied affects the able merely with grasping the sequence of the shadows. The problem of knowledge. but have mutually assisted and illumined each other. begins with a withdrawal from every such if . and to draw the phenomenon into the circle of practical calculation. when we trace it back to general systematic and historical sources. whole speculative view. but its it gains full sharpness and definiteness. and it was only in struggling This view. however. more in it. for both it is sufficient they are able to predict one phenomenon from another by means of the empirical routine which they have made their own. that begins here. world based upon it do not need these reasons. there are two types of consideration and judgment regarding the phenomena of the world of sense. in spite of all the wealth of results. (Plato. while before. the facts. Philosophi cal insight. course with this problem that physics gained full mastery over its field of Reflection and productive scientific work have never been strictly separated here. principles of empirical knowledge. the way to these results remained in darkness.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 131 physics has reached true clarity regarding its proper goal and intel lectual instruments. is thought to be the decisive product of the critically philosophical and most modern research. their earlier and later. For the human mind. so we can also indubitably recognize in ancient philosophy the theoretical controversy over the The conflict. And the further back one follows this reflection. clearly is a fundamental opposition of viewpoints discoverable This opposition persists in the modern expositions un weakened . the problem of method has been continually and vitally important. and &quot.&quot. the exclusion in principle of all factors which cannot be empirically confirmed. with fixing their before and after. phe nomena which pass across the mind like shadows. The separation of &quot. and to recognize certain connections between them as uniformly recurrent. From the by first scientific beginnings of physics.

it Furthermore. and thus directs our expectation of the future into fixed paths. indeed. Forschungen zur Geschichte des Erkenntnisproblcms im Alterff. against which the clarity of purely conceptual investigation and knowledge stands out the more strongly. the whole later development of scientific investigation in antiquity is dominated by this Platonic everywhere echoed in the controversy between the &quot. and the &quot. the customary sequence of phenomena. But the more investigation was applied to the discovery and establishment of individual facts. but only serves as a dark background. but the eternal and unchanging rational grounds. sceptical theory of knowledge. which enables us to use one phenomenon as the sign of another. p. Not the phenomena in their bare succession.empirical&quot. but we do not need to know them. which was already developed at the time of Plato.) highly probable that this opposition signifies no intellectual construction (of Plato s). 12 In any case. The task of science is fulfilled grouping and sifting such signs. etc. but that it represents with radical sharp is The ness a concrete historical opposition.turning&quot. Scientific empiricism expressed itself in the sceptical theory of knowledge. and affirmed as its positive signifi cance and distinction the very feature. from which they proceed. each one of which awakens in us a memory. It is was changed. owing to the flowing and indefinite character of the objects. not given to lasting defect of all empirical knowledge. To grasp these rational grounds. Whoever. it presupposes the &quot. this realm of \6yoi in the phenomena them selves was. the same rigor of connection could never be in the field of mathematics. that runs through Greek medicine.132 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION manner of consideration. had once grasped the nature of insight into the necessary. are the unique object of knowledge. In this sense. knowledge to comprehend the essence of things from a universal What remains for us is only the observation of principle of reason. according to Plato. (Protagoras. as the real and final goal of all in certain 12 Cf. indeed. The real causes of occurrences remain unknown to us. physicians. tum. denied to thought. Berlin 1884. reached. 146 .rational&quot. of the soul to another ideal of knowledge. the more the value and order distinction. only turned back under compulsion to the con sideration of a field in which. Natorp. empirical knowledge of the sequence of phenomena is not the completion and fulfillment of the pure knowl edge of ideas. which Plato regarded as the of knowledge It is.

whether we logically comprehend how one event issues from another. Empirical knowledge. The concepts of nature and purpose. Plato opposes to the bare sequence of phenomena. insight into their ideo We do not possess true knowledge of natural logical connection. 13 produces no complete disjunc the entire field of knowledge. For example.&quot. but there remains an indefiniteness in the characterization of its ideal counterpart. when we survey the ordered whole. or merely accept the fact of a certain empirical coexistence or succession. how all the threads are mutually interwoven finally into one web. and rest in it. no sensuous connection. is sharply characterized. but we first have true knowledge long as one member different meanings. can satisfy us. Phaedo 99 f. into which all concepts ultimately merge. which satisfied with the sequence of &quot. The ethical idealism of Socrates lives in this view of nature. to form a single order of the phenomena of nature. 109. if we attempt to explain the fact that the earth moves freely in the center of the universe.the but good and right&quot. 14 13 14 Cf. Another view.. The real balance and division of the matter is rendered obscure as is exactly defined. This fact is the more significant since it has constantly recurred in the historical development of the problem. no mechanical vortex of bodies or any other cause of the same sort. 509 Cf. At first. These consequences remain essentially the same. alone is ultimate and decisive basis of the fact. as long as its place in the total plan of reality is not clearly distinguished. total movement of the process as a purposively We must understand how one element demands another. D ff. especially Republic. however. is found in Plato opposed to this deduction &quot. in the case of Plato. however. that the division he draws between rational tion of is and empirical knowledge. without con sidering the ethical reasons that determined him to obey the law. just as little can an individual event be truly understood. . as long as we simply permit them to run off before us as processes before an indifferent spectator. while the other falls into two between which opinion varies.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 133 theory lies in the practical consequences of our action. As little as the continuance of Socrates in prison can be explained by describing the position and relation of his muscles and cords.shadows. the conclusion of the world of ideas is the Idea of the Good. (Plato. to be pointed out as the Sensuous being must be reduced to its ideal reasons.} We recognize.

or which we think we discern in sensation. 15 Thus we stand before a new ideal of knowledge. The chaos of sense perception by applying the pure concepts of &quot. The empirical-physical relation of bodies from their essence. while those that agree with each other in any quality lie next each other.less. The first and necessary step throughout is to trans form the sensuous indefinite. which most clearly developed this postulate.stronger&quot. remains as a conceptual foundation of physics. Mathematics and teleology. with the &quot. before in strict limits. only in so far as its structure is characterized by strict mathematical laws. In this measurement. the doctrine of final causes. which were insepar ably connected for Plato. into something that is quantitatively definite. Aristotle. that secures its inner selfpreservation.&quot. . that can be mastered by measure and number. which is for him the &quot. develop themselves. The mathematical order is at once the condition and the basis of the existence of reality. Kepler.more&quot. prescribed to it by its property.134 of natural SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION phenomena out of purposes. but we must strive throughout for exact measurement of being and process. Philebus 16.weaker. The transformation of empirical connections into ideal ones cannot take place without this middle term. It is especially the later Platonic dialogues. it is the nu merical determinateness of the universe. even after it Cf. can become an object of knowledge.} In Aristotle the two lines of thought have already separated. it rest with the indefinite &quot.natural 15 place. being is grasped and explained. Being is a cosmos. and which they progressively strive to fulfill. Thus the elements are arranged in the cosmos according to results ultimately the degree of their affinity. from the immanent purpose given them by their nature. The outer process and its quantitative order according to law merely mirrors the dynamic process. by which the absolute substances maintain and .&quot. The mathematical motive recedes into the background and thus only teleology. as for example the Phikbus. It is rooted in Plato s interpretation of mathematics. thus each body retains a tendency to its &quot.mediator&quot. 24 f. between the ideas and the things of sense. (Plato. must be confined quantity.&quot. which as such cannot be grasped and enclosed in fixed limits. and combining with it in a unified view. We cannot or &quot. a purposively ordered whole. one which Plato himself recognized as in immediate harmony with his teleological thought.

for the following historical exposition is given u. Here the opposition between the empirical and the speculative views of nature is first sharply defined. which still existed in Plato s system of nature. Thus a new opposition becomes henceforth effective in history. now not only is the sensuous observation of contingent. it creates a new unity to be tested and verified by thought. Wissenschaft der ff . Above all. inner causes of every physical connection are revealed. is relation of superordination destroyed. In modern times. does not attain to the causes but only to the quantities of being. which is satisfied with the mere collection of individual facts. I 258 ff .. but also the exact representation of the processes in pure concepts of magnitude is excluded from this ideal knowledge. on the other hand. It expands immediate experience inta theory by filling up the gaps left by direct observation. neuen II 322 . The line of division has moved.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 135 has been forcibly deprived of this place. On the other hand. and their sphere. free from all extraneous problems. At The more exact evidence Zeit. it limits itself to representing this system of conse quences merely as a system and dependence of 16 magnitudes.accidents&quot. empirical uniformities excluded from the highest ideal knowledge of the supreme causes. in so far as he simply pursues his own task. mathematical physics first seeks to prove its claims and independence by going back from the philosophy of Aristotle to that of Plato. in my work Dos Erkenntnisproblem in der Philosophic 308 ff. The unity of the teleological and the mathematical methods of consideration. and its place is taken by a and subordination. but his abstraction from this problem in no way signifies his persistence in the ordinary empirical method. Absolute substances and their inner forces are indeed unknown to the mathematical physicist and must remain so. but which cannot be directly given by sensation.. With energy and clearness he repudiates a conception that would reduce the mathematician to a mere calculator and exclude him from the community of philosophers and the right to decide as to the total structure of the universe. The mathe matical hypothesis establishes an ideal connection among^ these facts. Thus the true hypothesis limits the field of mathematical physics to two different directions. while the mathematical mode of consideration. 16 it is Kepler of whom this reversion is characteristic. and by substituting a continuous connec tion of intellectual consequences for isolated sense-data. and is limited to the &quot. Here the true.

forces. of reality from the facts of perception (before they have been conceptually worked The scientific physicist can simply leave alone the ques over). This order is not directly seized and understood by the senses. The particular historical conditions.136 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION the same time. did not reach this conception of its problem without vacil lation and difficulty. Kepler places its characteristic function elsewhere than does the ordinary speculative philosophy He is not concerned with a transition from the mathe of nature. the mathematical expression of the hypothesis. nevertheless reverts to the mathematical teleology of Plato in his final conception of the world. The logical factors. how ever. one understands the fundamental change in view between Kepler and Newton. is the whole of its meaning. . matically characterized phenomenon to its absolute causes.arche according to which the divine architect ordered the cosmos. From this.} Physics. which shape being. First of all. Kepler. could only be accomplished by bringing to light the empirical foundations of exact science. but it plays its role in the conception of reality of mathematical empiricism (Empiric).statics of the universe. under which modern natural science developed. The mathematical ideas are the eternal patterns and &quot.&quot. (Kepler and Newton. In defend ing the legitimacy of hypothesis. the legitimate function of the concept does not consist in revealing a path to a new non-sensuous reality.understanding&quot. yet all the more first he must seek to advance from a mere collection of observations to a universal &quot. types. and gives it definite logical form.&quot. forced the negative rather than the positive part of the new task into the center of considera tion. The concept of hypothesis. although he strongly defends the claims of empirical investigation against the metaphysics of substantial forms.&quot. but only by the mathematical intellect. to a mastery of the all-inclusive harmonious order prevailing in it. the line of division effaced. but with a transition to a quantitative &quot. its algebraic-geometrical form. remained in the background as long as all philosophi cal power was concentrated upon protecting pure experience from the incursions of metaphysics. on the other hand. and this warding off the theory had to ward off metaphysical claims. According to this view. tion as to the ultimate &quot. Thus the more deeply we penetrate into the exact structure and exact more danger there is that the strict between experience and speculation will again be Newton s regulae philosophandi seek especially to meet presuppositions of physics.

Observation and scientific investigation teach us that those properties. . con This expression can of certain In this sense. who generalize these explanations and extend them to the whole field of natural science. on which depends the whole value of physics as a science. fundamental failure in method to attempt to form physical explana tions on the model of logical definitions.e. which can neither be increased nor diminished and which are common stitute in their totality the essence of body. 137 Induction is very definitely characterized as the only source of certainty in physical matters. of weight. It is Newton s first disciples and pupils. The logical and ontological &quot. then all elements would have to be removed. The law of the change of this value from point to point contains the answer to all questions. property of matter. which realization of this had no immediate correlate in the field of perception. even within the Newtonian school. But the demand would mean nothing less than the destruc tion of the Newtonian mechanics and its systematic conception. we can grasp it as such only in so far as we know of no experiment w hich might occasion us to doubt its universal empirical presence.nature&quot. they form no instru ment of knowledge. but merely hinder the unprejudiced under standing of phenomena. we make such a failure if..description of It is now recognized as a phenomena&quot. The r thus signify nothing facts of perception. is first formulated here. more than an empirical generalization question as to the cause of the reciprocal attraction of cosmic masses cannot occupy the real physicist as such and lure him to speculative hypotheses. however. we proceed from the hierarchy of concepts and species. which contains the measure of the acceleration which a body undergoes at each point of its path. Further development.essential&quot. distinctly with them. we can conceive weight as an &quot. i. must be excluded from physics. instead of proceeding from the observation and collection of indi vidual cases. that can be raised with scientific justification regarding the &quot. for attraction is to him nothing but a certain numerical value. to all bodies.&quot. but only in this sense. If physics should be forbidden the use of hypothesis in every sense. showed very clearly what was problematical in this apparently fial conclusion of methodology. which claim to discover the ground and essence of any natural process.hypotheses.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE this danger. Definitions. The demand for a physics without hypotheses first appears and the technical expression of &quot.

This dispute.138 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION of absolute space and absolute time. Thus the difficulty involved in its historical development still The necessary and warranted persists undiminished in physics. plan of a complete mechanical explanation of the There is a lack of certainty in world are here alike condemned. distinguishing the assumption of some sort of &quot.dark qualities&quot. which upon a misapprehension of this fundamental double relation. of a . And this same ambiguity remains to some extent in modern discussion. but who entirely disagree in their positive Such an investiga interpretations of the logical structure of physics. Aristotle and Descartes.most striking expression of such ambiguy-^ity is in the concept of description itself. standpoint. in its From this new clear that the &quot. nevertheless.empiricism.&quot. for critical form. for instance. and thus the very concept of physical_ This antinomy is insoluble within the limits of the reality itself. although imperfect. it is logic. struggle against ontology leads to an obscuring of the simple logical facts. has given up metaphysical claims. stands rests here new. The . long inseparably connected in history. Newtonian system. which Newton s methodology alone permits. directly on the side of an &quot. however.phenomenalism&quot. tor as Duhem. which is assumed as a basis for defining and limiting the problem and empirical field of physics. And. it is precisely on these concepts that the possibility of distinguishing between real and apparent motion rests. in spite of all attempts at sharper epistemological defini tion of the problem. however. speculative who merely agree with each other in opposing metaphysics. which Newton takes as the starting-point of his deduction. The relation of physics and logic is still always described by distinguished scientific investigators as if we still stood in the midst of the conflict between Newton and Wolff. forcibly and clearly develops the idea that every mere establishment of a physical fact involves certain theoretical presuppositions and thus a system of physical hypotheses. which stamped its form on the philosophy of the eighteenth century. lose every legitimate The concepts meaning when measured with the logical criteria. For this term serves to f unite investigators. Philosophical criticism must seek here for a strict separation of these two materially heterogeneous questions. the metaphysics of substantial causes and the first. its deeper ground lies in the indefiniteness with which the concept of the hypothesis is here interpreted. of things from the fundamental theoretical thought. may be regarded as settled.

are in their inner essence just as little as I know . The question as to how heat arises from diminishing motion or how heat is again changed into motion. and it is precisely the agree in limiting physics to the field of of the itself differs. even of the most brilliant intellects. (Mechanik der Warme. This assertion may be pronounced by some as trivial. instead of taking possession of them. Bemerkungen uber das mechanische Aequivalent derWdrme. . by von Weyrauch. according as it is applied to an phenomenon indefinite object of sense perception or to the theoretically con structed object of mathematical physics. 3rd ed. in all the material remodeling of &quot.phenomena. is declined by Robert Mayer. 236).THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 139 Newton is not on the same plane intellectually with that developed and advocated by ancient scepticism. The discoverer of the fundamental law of modern natural science agrees entirely Robert Mayer s in his methodological views with the series of great investigators Robert Mayer begins with the of the problem of physics as is found in same theoretical definition The logical Galileo and Newton in the most diverse applications. but that all speculative attempts. ed. 17 This is &quot. which both The concept &quot.&quot. IV methodology of natural science. continuity appears unbroken.. or as Galileo used against the Peripatetic philosophy of the school. not to say the only. Once a fact is known on all sides. yet certain it is. to raise themselves above facts up till now borne only such language as Kepler used precisely against the alchemists and mystics of his time. have barren fruit. electricity etc. not only that this rule has been too often neglected down to the most recent times. rule for the true investigation of nature this: to is remain persuaded that it is our task to learn to know the phenomena before we seek explanations or ask about higher causes. or combated by others with ever so many reasons. p.The most impor physics introduced with the principle of energy. just as Galileo do not know what avoided the question as to the cause of weight. it is thereby explained and the work of science is ended. conditions of this construction which give rise ever anew to the epistemological question. the inner essence of a material substance or of any thing in general 17 Robert Mayer. tant. The problem arises to inves tigate the fundamental differences of these two views.&quot. Stuttgart 1893.I heat. that starts with the Renaissance.

A process is first known. what conditions a phenomenon is to be taken as known in the sense The &quot. along A problem is held to be explained.&quot. only the quantitative determinations of being and process ultimately remain as the firm possession of investigation. however.&quot.knowledge&quot. and that I can give a clear and good notion of what a force is. The indi vidual constants established mean nothing in themselves. validity of universal rules of connection. is all &quot. efforts of adepts. cognizance of an isolated fact. Stuttgart 1893. significance is indicated. when it is known (bekannt) perfectly Here a new problem This definition must. The constant numerical values. brings about. A fact is understood when it is measured: single number has more true and permanent &quot. Thereby. of a phenomenon. Briefe. while the attempt to penetrate the depths of the world-order by hypotheses is a counterpart of the In the light of this conception. 180. be accepted without but back of it arises the further question. and finally to the totality of facts of experience in general. which exact science of physics.hypotheses. indeed. by Weyrauch. of permanent Hypotheses and natural laws. and these presuppositions form the real &quot. when it is added to the totality of physical knowledge without contradiction.&quot. indicate nothing its introduction into a universal serial connection. an assertion concerning certain relations of law. at the same time. This.a value than a costly library of 18 hypotheses.) . by which we but characterize a physical object or a physical event. is implies the When the phenomenon brought to a fixed numerical expression. 226 etc. implies i. their meaning is first by comparison with and differentiation from other values. as to under limitation.e. only numbers. is obviously not the same thing as the bare sensuous and on all sides. with the rejection of the false problem.The sharp that can be required of an empirical investigation. this logical relativity becomes most evident. that I see the connection of many phenomena much more clearly than has hitherto been seen.140 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION I know this. that can no longer be contested by scientific phenomenalism. however. definition of the natural limits of human investigation is a task of practical value for science. ed.. reference is made to certain logical presuppositions which lie at the basis of all physical enumeration and measurement.&quot.true hypoth18 See Mayer s letter to Griesinger (Kleiner e Schriften u. Every assertorical affirmation of a reality. however. The &quot. p. when its relation to cognate groups of phenomena is clearly estab lished.

magnitudes. vation. then we are concerned with a hypothesis in mathe matical form. insufficient. but only the objects to which we relate them. it is erroneous to regard measurement itself as a purely empirical procedure. Ostwald. in order to add a conjecture as to their signifies It is this by way of supplement. it is clear that the physicist at least never deals with colors or tones as sensuous 19 Ostwald. Often. which must be traced in detail. which always leads to a clear discrimination. for the numbered and meas ured phenomenon is not a self-evident. immediately certain and given starting-point. appear in the formula. it soon appears that the bare attempt to measure implies postulates that are never fulfilled in the field of sense-impressions. for even granting this assumption.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE esis&quot. 19 While this postulate of measurability is justified. indeed. on the contrary. has laid great emphasis on polemic the difference between the hypothesis as a formula and the hypothesis The presuppositions Formulae contain merely algebraic expressions. if. in his of physical &quot. Vorlesungen iiber Naturphilosophie. Even if we . But in every case there is a simple logical procedure. The answer given here signifies only the repetition of the real question. which could be carried out by mere perception and its means. p. such means of verification are lacking. then we are con cerned with a lasting formula or with a law of nature. all In the case of physical pictures (Bilderri). . but the result of certain conceptual operations. but it serves to make possible order. In fact.measurement&quot. in very order to reach a transcendent beyond. 213 f. and the worm is in the fruit. which are not measurable. so that the given criterion of differentiation seems. at first glance. 141 nothing but a principle and means of measurement. these pictures themselves appear in the guise of mathematical exposition.. &quot. but it points the way by which absolute causes we advance from the sensuous manifold tual manifold of measure of sensations to the intellec and number.&quot. which are capable of direct measurement and thereby of immediate verification by obser as a picture..When every magni tude appearing in the formula is itself measurable.. against the use of hypotheses. on the contrary. this insight remains unaffected. they only express relations between magnitudes. We never measure sensations as such. It does not go beyond the realm of the factual. grant to psychophysics the measurability of sensation. Leipzig 1902. not introduced after the phenomena are already known and ordered as magnitudes.

but is in no If we go from solid absolutely forced upon us by it alone. If we give to a certain volume of mercury the value of degrees. then in order to divide the distance between the two points thus signified into further divisions and subdivisions. 20 C/. the pertinent exposition of G. when we ascribe a determinate of velocity to a non-uniformly moving body at each point of its path. 47 ff. above p. where we seem guided by no other interest than to arrange its differences as pre sented us. and to another volume of mercury the value of 100 degrees.intelligible&quot. None of these concepts. accord ing to which the correlation between temperature values and volume values is established. Milhaud. It is a long way from the immediate sensa tion of heat to the exact concept of temperature. but only with temperature and pressure. but solely with vibrations. that he has noth ing to do with sensations of warmth or contact. 119 ff. If we consider the factors involved in the measurement of motion. then. (C/. simple p. the simple formula of way proportionality must be replaced by a more complex formula. even here theoretical elements are requi and clearly appear. . 20 In this we see how the example. for purposes of measurement.142 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION experiences and contents. continuous extension of the mathematician for sensuous extension. we must make the assump tion that the differences of temperature are directly proportional to the volume of the mercury. we must go from the contents of It is perception to their conceptual limits. bodies to fluid. however. we are obliged to pass from the subjective perception to an objective functional correlation between heat and extension. the general solution definition is already given. such a construction presupposes for its explanation nothing less than the whole logical theory of infinitesimal analysis. for it is evident that the physical motion cannot be established without substituting the geometrical body for the sensuous body. Before we can speak of motion and its exact measurement in the strict sense. from the mercury thermometer to the water thermom eter. But even where we seem to stand closer to direct sensation. without substituting the &quot. This assumption is primarily nothing but an hypothesis suggested by empirical observation. into a fixed scale. Paris 1898. In order even to establish the schema of measurement.) no less a pure conceptual construction. Le Rationnel. can be understood as a simple copy of the facts of perception. The indefinite stronger and weaker of the impression offers no foothold for gaining site fixed numerical values.

and the degree of its temperature. we see at first a sum of direct observations.temperature&quot. the exact understanding. has been increasingly clarified This epistemologithe philosophical work by It is of the physical investigators themselves. The peculiar and characteristic function of the scientific concept is found in this transition from what is directly offered in the perception of the individual element. the value of the pressure it is under.abstract symbols. to the form. which the elements gain finally in the physical statement.&quot.&quot. Let us follow in thought the course of an experimental investigation. that is noted. not related to these by that instruments. and the scientifically guided and controlled experiment. but also the abstract and principles of general mechanics definition of pressure requires. which merely connect the physical theory again with the actually observed facts.fact&quot. but they are &quot.theory. are none of them concrete objects properties. tions in which we can simply repeat. The physical cal insight &quot. The value of the volume which a gas assumes. He gives a of the contrast between the naive living portrayal sensuous observation. such as we could coordinate with colors and tones. But the enumeration of these observa no way constitutes the kernel and essential meaning of s results. for instance. but a variation in the pressure. insight into the deepest and most difficult theories of hydrostatics. which remains merely in the field of the con simplest and convincing and crete facts of perception. indeed. . and the physical &quot. not a change which takes place in the manom eter.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 143 quantitative determination of a physical fact draws it into a network of theoretical presuppositions. The apparatus. presupposes not only the principles of arithmetic and geometry. that is estab lished. by which the volume of a gas is established. imagine ourselves. It is not the height of a certain column of mercury is reported. outside of which the very question as to the measurability of the process could not be raised. but a value of it is &quot. but to the objects. and for celestial its complete mechanics. which are measured them. who has brought physical theory to the mutual relation between physical its and clearest expression. under which the observed gas stands. placed in the laboratory where Regnault carried out his well-known attempt to test the law of Mariotte. Duhem above fact all. Regnault before of him What the physical investigator objectively sees are certain conditions and changes in his instruments But the judgments he makes are measurement. then.

Paris 1906. to exclude these latter. we substitute an infinitely small. ments and measures with the particular instrument that he has sensibly before his eyes. but can only be ascertained through a critical discussion directed upon the exclu In truth. etc.error of observation. which permits us to carry the observed deflection of the magnetic needle into the general theoretical formula of the strength of the The correc current. the excellent exposition of Duhem. is to deprive the observation itself of Units of measurement. which we make first with a concrete apparatus. however. there lies extremely complex intellec tual labor. This connection appears from a new angle. appears still more clearly when we consider. then the observations. no physicist experi sion of the &quot. tible as such. must be related and carried over to a general geometrical model. which it assumes as constant. which can be moved without friction around a vertical axis. and thus to determine the value of the latter. and the final result of this experiment as the physicist formulates it. which has a We magnitude and form. (La Theorie Physique. which are taken as universally valid. 21 is but is first never a property that belongs to the percep conferred upon the latter on the basis of Cf. are themselves a work of mathematical certain horizontal magnetic axis. in which this connection is ex plained in its particulars and illuminated on all sides. come of before they are physically applicable. For example. This when we constancy. but he substitutes for it an ideal instrument in thought. substitute for a copper wire of a definite strength a strictly geometrical circle without breadth. the course of an experiment. and it is the totality of these transformations. its 21 meaning and value. if we measure the intensity of an electric current by a tangent-compass. son objet et sa structure. and it is through this.&quot. that the real out of nature.144 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION Between the phenomena actually observed in of electricity. from which all accidental defects such as necessarily belong to the particular instrument. in place of the steel of the magnetic needle. which we make and must necessarily make with the use of every physical instrument. an investigation never comes directly to light. that a report regarding a single instance of a process is made over into a judgment concerning a law This dependence of every practical measurement on certain fundamental assumptions. theory. realize that every concrete measurement requires the estab lishment of certain units. are excluded. tions.) .

The daily revolution of the earth. such as seem to stand at the disposal of the measurement of space. uniform motion empirical applications. in direct intuition. The inequality of the stellar days is what is rather demanded now. as it seems. the law of exponents. in accordance with which the diminution relation to Thus the . in which the emanation of radium loses its radio has recently been proposed as an exact unit of measurement activity. and seek in the field of the concrete The lies directly given us by the interval. in which a material point left to itself traverses equal distances. in this. Here again we find the concept of the mass-point. and we are forced to more remote intellectual assumptions. of the earth. produces a gradual diminution of the velocity of the rotation and thus a lengthening of the stellar day. might attempt to eliminate this dependence by going We over from rational mechanics to its ing to establish a strictly phenomena. The desired exact measure again eludes us. From tulates is the beginning. in the problem of the measurement of time. and thus a purely ideal concept of a limit. renders apparent the difference. All of these gain their meaning only by some physical law. viz. and once more it is the hypothetical assumption of a universal principle. which arises from the continuous change of the ebb and flow of the ideal tides. We cannot and compare them stretch of time to the place of another. which we tacitly assume with them. that the principles and theories of optics are presupposed in order to . The necessity of such pos seen especially in the fundamental physical problem of measurement. For abstract mechanics. It is analogous to this. which first makes possible the unit of measure. for precisely the characteristic move one element of time is that two parts of it are never given at once. and is confirmed by empirical reasons. The law of inertia enters as a conceptual element into the explanation of the unit of time. time. Thus there only remains a conceptual arrangement made possible by re course to the phenomena of movement. More exact consideration. those times are said to be equal. which always remains between the which unit here would be between two successive and empirical measure of time.. offers the required uniformity in all the perfection that could ever be taken into account for purposes of measurement. on the basis of theoretical The friction. considerations. however.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE intellectual postulates 145 and definitions. the measurement of time must forego all sensuous helps. serves as a foundation. culminations of the same star. of effect takes place.

possible. The intellectual anticipation of the law is not contradictory. stellar days to be unequal. Nevertheless. that we reach laws by comparing and measuring individual facts. The naive view. especially Lucien Poincar6. because such anticipation does not occur in the form of a dogmatic assertion. units is thus always the attempt to establish certain laws as universal. on the other hand. Concerning the theoretical presuppositions of the determina tion of units of measurement. v. constitutes the extension concept.146 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION introduce the wave-lengths of certain rays of light as the foundation What guides us in the choice of of the measurement of distance. 1908. because we have assumed the law in hypothetical form in measurement itself. is now revealed as a logical circle. L Esprit positif. The validity of the physical concept does not rest upon its content of real elements of existence. 1898. in a particular sensuous impression. In this fundamental character. The correctness of the assumption. it which (Cf. IX (1901). but upon the strictness of con- basis of nection. to which they are related and according to whose model 22 they are constructed. Paradoxical as this reciprocal relation may appear. but these very laws. The law can only arise from measurement.equal&quot. Henri Poincare. such as can be directly pointed out. but merely a question. that measurements inhere in physical things and processes like sensuous properties. cf. The verification of physical hypotheses. and also Wilbois. Revue de Metaphysique et de Morale VI. dtsch. The value and correctness of this assumption are first shown when the totality of experiences are connected into an unbroken unity on the it. assume the empirically entirely &quot. in order to maintain the principle of the conservation of energy. Revue de Metaph.) Thus the individual concept can 22 Cf. Brahn. because it does not involve a final answer. La Physique moderne. . La mesure du temps. above and continuation of the mathematical 83 f. not the material measuring-rods and units of measurement. Lpz. it makes p. is more and more superseded with the advance of theoretical physics. it has been justly urged. cannot indeed be assured by our verifying every hypothesis and every theoretical construction directly in an individual experience. and only need to be read off from them. We The real constants are thus fundamentally. it exactly expresses the central logical problem of physics. but merely as an initial intellectual assumption. the relation of law and fact is thereby altered. For the explanation.

but not to selves. repudiate the naive Baconian thought of the &quot. can never furnish the fundamental scaffolding of physics. which it makes possible. just as. in the sense of a mere inductive collection of isolated observa tions. if we &quot.experimentum crucis. is primarily revealed in the consequences it leads to. experi ence.&quot. the other for its support and confirmation. The intellec for it is denied the power of giving mathematical form. ff. The motive of serial construction.facta&quot. in particular Duhem. on the other hand. we conceive the concepts only with refer &quot. error of ence to the totality of possible experience. who urge strongly that experience in its totality forms the highest and ultimate authority for all physical theory. as isolated entities existing for them that it conceives the &quot. more particularly Erkenntnisproblem II. must ultimately recognize that all the complication of investigation and its methods simply removes us more and more from the concrete fact of intuition in its sensuous 23 24 immediacy? Is all this ff. but we possess the only by virtue of the totality of concepts. 308 .Pure&quot. p.facts&quot. Yet if we conceive the final result of the analysis of physical theory in this fashion. there remains a paradox. Its &quot. modern form has definitely overcome Those thinkers.truth&quot. Of what value is all the intellectual labor of physics. which connects the bare fact systemati tual cally with the totality of phenomena. but it gains this confirmation always only as a member of a theoretical complex. 125 Cf. expenditure of Cf. 23 Although this conception has been obstinately maintained within the epistemology of natural science. also. Here the function of the concept only extends to the subsequent inclusion and representation of the empirical material. It is the fundamental Baconian empiricism that it does not grasp this correlation. La Theorie Physique. in the connection and systematic completeness of the Here each element needs explanations.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 147 never be measured and confirmed by experience for itself alone. nevertheless there are many signs that physics itself in its it. so that first we could select a member of the sphere and enquire whether it possessed a copy in the second. We do not have physical concepts and physical facts in pure separation. only begins when the fact is 24 represented and replaced by a mathematical symbol. the testing and proving of this material. work of understanding. no element can be sepa rated from the total organism and be represented and proved in this isolation. which our thought has only to copy as faithfully as possible.

to distinguish an object from other objects. been found in a fixed group of which represents the mere diversity as a A con sequence of elements according to law. a definite capacity for heat. to which physical theory tends. that scholasticism replaced the consideration of facts by that of names. It We have not been concerned with separating out the element from a plurality of similar impressions. this consequence has occasionally been pointed out: the necessity. common The unity properties. a definite specific gravity. has been opposed to the evidence and truth. with respect to which the comparison is made. now threatens to fall upon physics itself. which are necessary for however. it is facts. this. but with establishing a principle by which their diversity should appear. All these concepts appear to be so many means of grasping the in series. etc. last definitely.) sideration of the fundamental physical concepts has confirmed and broadened this view. we must ascribe to it a definite volume and a definite mass. according to which the comparison and arrangement of the elements takes place. in its inception. The individual thing is nothing for the physicist but a system of physical constants. (Cf. In fact. has been previously conceived with conceptual This aspect is never given in the original rigor and exactitude.148 scientific SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION means worth while. which by the very presuppositions of has been shown. that the course of the mathematical construction of concepts is defined by the procedure of the construction are inseparably connected together the formation of concepts. presuppose that the aspect. but &quot. a definite electricity. by which we are more and more alienated from the true reality of sensation. and of assigning it a fixed of the concept has not in the rule. . in opposition to the traditional logical doctrine. but in order for it to be possible. when the final outcome is and can be but the transformation of facts into symbols? The reproach nothing raised by modern physics. against scholasticism. above 14 ff . rests upon a false abstraction. outside of these constants. he possesses no means or In order possibility of characterizing the particularity of an object. the serial principles themselves. which comes to consciousness in the experience of individual This separation. The measurements.given&quot. based in the attempt to isolate two moments from each other. however. and to subsume it under a fixed conceptual class. must be theoretically established. Nothing but a new nomenclature seems to be gained. of series. Scientific investigation accomplishes this place within these series.

In the sense of this conception. Each of the different physical concepts defines and thereby renders possible an increasingly intimate connection and arrangement of the elements of the given. The chaos of impressions becomes a system of numbers. totality of experience were lacking.-v. If this reference of the individual to the of consciousness&quot.&quot. sensuous properties. In the language of this theory. scale of comparison. The relation. The sensuous quality of a thing becomes a ^physical object. we first see the &quot.&quot.thing&quot. &quot.&quot. In this logical connection. from the system of concepts. the concrete impression first changes into the physically determinate object. and not in any constitutive part of the perception. in order to be then applied to the manifold of perception.cal .reality. yet it is this connection that gradually reveals itself to be the real kernel of the thought of empirical &quot. but these numbers first gain their denomination. but has to be worked out theoretically. designation. the particular property of the sensuous impression is but all that distinguishes it as a member of a system is retained and brought out. can be illumined from another standpoint by connecting it with the ordinary psychological theory of the concept. The . we can characterize the various physical concepts of measurement evolved &quot. that subsists between the individual members. In this judgment. The symbol possesses its adequate correlate in the lost. the &quot. into the mathematical value in the transformation of the impression It is true that. The physical concepts of series. to world of reality.apperceptive connection.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 149 impression.symbol. by scientific theory as the real and necessary apperceptive concepts . in the symbolic &quot. when it is transformed into a serial determination. The newly appearing im is first grasped as an individual. such a scale.unity the impression would no longer belong itself would be destroyed. that is fundamental here. The physical analysis of the object into the totality of its numerical constants is thus in no sense the same as the breaking-up of a sensuous thing into the group of its must be introduced. and thus their specific meaning.objective&quot. connection according to law. which are theoretically established as universal standards of measurement.our&quot. now changes from a sum of properties into a mathematiwhich are established with reference to some system of values. but new and specific categories of judgment in order to carry out this analysis. and first gains conceptual comprehension through the apperceptive interpretation and arrange pression ment that it undergoes. the problem of the concept resolves into the problem of &quot.

a survey of the possible kinds of exact correlation. cate any character of the matter itself. Thus no content of experience can ever appear as something absolutely strange.&quot. and between which a selection must be made. and has been thus no thorough reciprocal determination among its individual members. . F. the further it seeks to penetrate into the &quot. also. in particular those of mathe The material of perception is not merely subse quently moulded into some conceptual form but the thought of this form constitutes the necessary presupposition of being able to predi matical relations. and an anticipatory schema is therewith produced for The preliminary deductive work furnishes its closer determination. we have thereby impressed it with the seal of our universal concepts of connection. an individual body in order to render rationally intelligible the totality of its possible changes and its relations with respect to exter nal impulses to motion. . p. that scientific physics.150 for all empirical SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION knowledge in general. which we ascribe to &quot. but process it is seeks to express the properties of the body or of the investigating by taking up into its determination new it Such a parameter is the mass. by which physics of the real world. that it necessarily belongs to some of these series. for even in making it a content of our thought. Without them. Scientific experiment always finds several ways before it. 1907. as it were. without being able to give any predicate for determining it more It is only when we bring the given under some norm of closely. in setting it in spatial and temporal relations with other contents. which theory has prepared. Lipps. 211 ff.parameters. It discovers no absolute metaphysical qualities. 25 and chemistry progressively determine the bodies nis. it shown there is no arrangement of the factual in series. the fact is recognized. which we regard as characteristic of the momentary condition of a given physical system.properties.&quot. of being able to assert any concrete determination and predicates of it. indeed. The same holds 26 of all the different magnitudes. the striking developments of G. or the amount of energy. We would only possess the fact as an individual subject. and assumes clearly Even before its individual value has defined physical &quot. Mythenbildung und ErkenntLpz. been empirically established within each of the possible comparative series. indeed. Cf.being&quot. of its object only strikes new strata of numbers. measurement. Now it can no longer seem strange. while experience determines which of the possible types of connection is applicable to the case in hand. that it gains fixed shape and form.

of substance stands at the pinnacle of the scientific logical conception view of the world in general. differentiating properties. which The concept of substance in historically marks the line of distinction between investigation and myth. it is the concept of substance. The attempt to deduce the multiplicity of sensuous reality from a single ultimate substance contains a universal postulate which.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 151 enter into this procedure. yet in its progress it has filled this form with a new content. for all particular qualities must develop out of it. not guided by alien caprice but containing within itself its principle of being. however imperfectly istic it may be fulfilled at first.&quot. it is rather precisely the pure abstraction of matter itself that first gains clear expression in the infinite and indeterminate substance v of Anaximander. . of investigation not having yet been conceived or begun. It contains indication of the that what constitutes the origin of sensuous being cannot thought have the same properties that it has. sensuous. The the Ionian philosophy of nature. in whose homogeneous structure the oppo sitions of the warm and the cold. It cannot be clothed with any particular material quality.substance. the wet and the dry still lie together unseparated. this new conception seeks its confirmation only in the sphere of sensuous things. as they alone seem to constitute the The conceptual and critical work fixed positive content of reality. which constitutes the meaning of &quot. Philosophy has its own origin in this achievement. however. and raised it to a its new level of confirmation. the first time. Natural science in The more deeply we development has everywhere used the form of this latter. expression of a new mode At first. of the aTTupov already rises in logical freedom above the sphere ological of immediately perceptible reality. It thus becomes a being without definite. nevertheless is the character For of thought and a new question. tendencies begin to Anaximander s principle arise that transcend this conception. But even within the Ionic philosophy of nature. Thus it is some empirically given. The realm of the material in general is not abandoned. percep tion offered the only fixed limit separating reality from myth and poetic fantasy. the more clear becomes the character of the scientific concept of the thing and its difference from the metaphysical concept of substance. particular material. being is conceived as an ordered whole.

not only is a universal principle of motion first established. the thick and the thin are all fundamental properties of things. however small. and on the manner and quantita tive proportion in which these properties are mixed with each other. although they are really never lacking. and are to be thought of as always contained in even the smallest material What gives the particular part. so that in ordinary popular considera tion the remaining factors can be practically left out of account. The wet and the dry. (Anaxagoras . It is vain to seek to deduce the particular from the universal. The unity.152 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION The hypostatization of sensuous qualities. substances their distinguishing form is not that they contain any one of the qualitative elements in isolation. but is rather raised for the While the opposites are to evolve by &quot.&quot. All the elemen tary properties enter in their totality into every composition. rest all the differences and contrasts between the composite sensuous of matter as their real origin. In order to reach clarity anticipation. which interpenetrate in it. The true infinity of the ultimate substance is found not so much in its homogeneous and undifferentiated structure. but that one of them pre dominates in the composition. With Anaxagoras. point back to permanent and absolute properties fold.all The totality of infinitely many qualities. is not answered in this first attempted solution. first time. on this point.separating out&quot. but also the physical explanation of the particular qualities enters on a new phase. in his principle of the infinite. which draws cealed within it. the bright and the cold. even every physical point. is in all. such as air and water. detailed working-out of this theory is merely of historical interest. however. represents a &quot.) The problem of the particular qualities and properties. ether and earth. Thus the mani apparent properties of bodies. the dark. as rather in the unlimited fullness and multiplicity of qualitative differences con It is the cosmology of Anaxagoras. thought must apparently take the opposite course. of whose existence and differences the senses inform us. . the warm and substances. in this gives the motive to the further development of the involved speculative philosophy of nature. represents out this tendency to its conclusion. In this sense. the manner and occasion of The question their differentiation remains at first wholly obscure. from the homogeneous ultimate principle. if the former is not already contained in the latter in some form. every particle. assumed by Anaxi- mander merely a logical which lacks exact foundation. however far we pursue the analysis.

THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 153 but even aside from this. instead of the infinitely numerous &quot. of things. indeed. Here we have. there corresponds in truth an unchanging and substantial For any sensuous property to arise newly in a subject or to being. that represents the permanent existence of things but this function is transferred to the totality of properties. which exist in themselves and can operate for themselves. The varied multiplicity of sensible qualities is thus retained. although only in connection with other causes of the same sort. The hypostatization of these properties leaves unchanged. it is which seem To each of these properties. air and of these elements determines the peculiarity of the they undergo. concealed from view by which seem to take its place. wet and dry. and thereby the total plan and order of the arise the four elements: Thus the structure of this physics also rests upon the same procedure of converting the relative properties of sensations into absolute properties of things. which thought demands. to appear and disappear. a particular persists empirical material like air or water. The fundamental qualities are here reduced again to a small number. characteristic attempt to construe the permanent being. to its conceptual principles. without going beyond the sphere of the &quot.germs&quot. which has frequently come to light in the advance of physics. but it defines the content of these principles in expressions. and which can be discovered . The nature motions cosmos. Properties and of sensation are immediately transformed into substantial oppositions causes. as it were. each of these properties and is only temporarily. water and earth. by perception. from the combination of which are to fire. it contains an element of typical meaning. It is no longer.&quot. consciously increased to infinity. (Aristotle. from which each body results. there are merely the properties of warm and cold. in fact. on the contrary. .given. as in the Ionic philosophy of nature. it is true they gain thereby a changed metaphysical significance. in appearance to go hither and thither.) Aristotelian physics also represents no intrinsic change in this respect. which are throughout taken from sensuous perception. The hypostatization of sensuous qualities. The analysis of Anaxagoras aims to go back of the concrete sensuous object. with which we are misled by a super consideration of things. as it is first offered in intuition. the others. The view at the basis of this comes out with especial force and distinctness in its historical consequences. but in principle they do not go beyond the in it their nature character of the sensuous. ficial disappear is a mere deception.

that is present in all warm things. and substitute other proper existence.. and by its presence calls forth certain effects in them. in to master the different &quot. on which its fluidity and volatility rest. when considered in connection with the logical presuppositions of the Aristotelian system. and which thus furnish the foundation for the construction of a certain generic concept. Paris. that what constitutes the generic common element of a group of bodies must be somehow present in them as a separable part.. 279 ff. Thus mercury. Paris. far example. are separated off as physical parts and raised to independent solid bodies are distinguished from the fluid and by the presence of a certain absolute and separable property. shows how slowly science. Les origines se I Alchimie. silver. The volatile bodies ties for them. its fusibility it. which are different from the being of the body. appears Bacon s clearly even in modern times in the physics of Bacon. if we successively remove from it the two &quot. ff. 206 ff.&quot. and its softness. also Berthelot.154 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION of natural science. transition to another state of aggregation means the loss of this quality and the assumption of a new substantial nature.. Meyerson. p. especially the The whole whole of chemistry and ages. etc. for example. in we separate from tin its order to make it approach from which it is at first separated by all these properties. and therewith at least in principle trans The ferable from one body to another. that is immanent in them. properties. . We take from the partic ular body its particular properties. The hypothesis of a heat substance. The form of heat exists as a peculiar somewhat.&quot. in such a The transmutation independent substances in creaking. on which this conception of nature rests. Identite el Rfalite. of metals into each other is conceived and repre sented according to this fundamental view. can be changed into gold. alchemy of the middle The elevation of qualities into separate essences.elements. like the assumption of a special electric or magnetic fluid. which are conceived as so many is in general way that one it is sufficient In order to transform any body into another. theory of forms goes back to the axiom. and explaining it from them. 300 Cf. is here the dominant view. The task of physics is exhausted in reducing the complex sensuous thing to a bundle of abstract and simple qualities. p. a position to imprint them successively on matter. the excellent presentation by E. is first intelligible. The whole view.natures. 28 replaced also in 28 modern this conception has been Especially in the concepts of 1908. 1885. which are common to a class of things.

Here we face a change in the direction of thought. is directly taken from the KCVOV of the Pythago reans. only according there is a sweet and a bitter. for no one of them is capable of exact quantitative determination. The concept of empty space. it is only according to to the untested &quot. the whole structure of chemistry before Lavoisier follows with inner necessity. and thus of a truly unambigu cold. which we seem to perceive is at once a bearer reappears in diverse forms. precisely for that reason number is to be characterized as the substance of things. is here embodied in a concrete construction of mechanics.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE chemistry it 155 chemistry Thus sulphur is the expression of the combustibility of bodies. these properties are to be cast aside. On number. The sensuous properties of things are banished from the scientific universe. This change is completed in the atomistic system. with which this thought was first grasped. while mercury comprehends and It is always certain expresses the totality of metallic properties. there exists from the another fundamental view of physical being and process. transformed by the assumption mixed with bodies and from this assumption. Thus only those properties of things.opinion. the expression of their solubility. Being is no longer sought directly in the sensuous perceptible qualities. reactions according to law. Ancient science gave a perfect expression to this view in the system of atomism. that &quot. all ous definition. goes back in its historical presuppositions to the fundamental concept of the Pythagorean doctrine. what was an abstract postulate for the Pythagorean. for it alone gives them a definite.subjective&quot. that is . through the mediation of the Eleatic system. is sensuously in a number of phlogiston into a particular substance. from which Democritus starts. traced here in its Along with the development we have first general features. salt. but being is resolved into the pure concept of number. for which a substantial substrate is directly assumed. Every element of the older and a type of a certain striking property. gradually ceases with the advance of Greek science. knowable character. of bodies. The property of combustibility. till it finally yields to a purely methodological and rational explanation.&quot. that are deter- . The mystical exaggeration. rests all the connection and inner harmony of things. nor in what corresponds to them as an absolute correlate and counterpart. a colored and a colorless. a warm and a picture of the For the representation of objective reality. Atomism and number. on the contrary. view. Atomism.

it is thus itself not unchanging. in so far as nothing is retained in this but pure determinations of magnitude. Precisely in this is rooted the meaning and justification of the concept of the is atom. It represents all the properties. but rather a vari able expression. remain as the The abstract number-schema of the Pythagoreans is properties. so that each particular point represents merely an equivalent startingpoint for geometrical relations and constructions. He explains. exhausted in the totality of properties. as in this or that place. is here taken in a sense that makes the pure image of number. which arithmetic and geome them both) The impact of atoms. with this acceptance of atomism. It is interesting to trace how. No logical necessity forces us to conceive matter as either white or red. as large or small. sweet or bitter.156 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION &quot. concept of space. In order to advance from number to mate rial physical existence. It was in this sense that Galileo. Now if the real determined from this point of view. which enables it to develop to its full effect. fulfills all the conditions of number.real&quot. For the atom signifies no fixed physical fact. on the other hand. minable in the sense of pure mathematics. as in motion or rest. we can abstract without thereby destroying the thought of matter itself. the problem is only raised in general terms. save its that in the concept of matter nothing else is fundamental conception as of this or that form. now. From all other properties. it accordingly. understood and founded atomism. at the threshold of modern physics. the intellectual motive. but a logical postulate. but is in no way solved completely. is the absolute uniformity of its parts. However. however. The world of atoms is nothing but the abstract representation of physical reality. The differences existing in the immediate space of perception are wholly removed. The substance of the physical body : is try and the pure theory of motion (which goes back to can discover and establish in it. continually works . to which it owes its origin. nothing remains of it but what makes it a numerical order. in the transformations which the concept of the atom undergoes in the course of time. objective correlate. however. a quantitative whole. and Its characteristic feature. supplemented by a new element. it is necessary to have the mediation of the Space. all inner differ ences are resolved into mere differences of position. pleasant or evil-smell ing rather all these characterizations are mere names to which (since they cannot be reduced to exact numerical values) there corresponds no fixed.

is . and the &quot.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 157 out with greater clarity. a peculiar difficulty results. by means of which it excludes all others from its position in space. demands that the sum of energy remain unchanged in every transference of motion from one body to another. If we consider the atoms as perfectly hard bodies.&quot. that &quot. The consequences of this dualism soon become clear in the develop ment of the doctrine. however. 27 And a second problem no less difficult results.molar&quot. The opposition of the hard and the soft. with gone from the masses to their parts. Kinetic atomism has sought in various ways to remove this contradiction in its foundations. energy has been changed into &quot. Yet if we attempt to apply this point of view to the impact of atoms. when 17 lose of energy. like that of the light and the heavy. but also in their magnitude and form. when we being consider the relation that results between the physical concept of and the physical law of process. the well-known report of Aristotle as our authority. This law. In order to remove this contradiction of the law of the conservation of energy. if we merely consider its applications to mechanics. according to their conception. the theory must assume that a portion of the energy has tially inelastic bodies. there in inelastic masses. are simple subjects of motion. they possess different extension and different form. Yet to the extent that the dynamical interaction of the atoms becomes a real problem. But this explanation is obviously not available for the atoms themselves. since these.molecular. that For criticism of the attempted solution of Secchi. although no reason for this difference shown. and lack all possibility of being further analysed into parts and subparts. the dissolution If we take of sensuous determinations is not fully carried through. not only in their position in place. then their properties and modes of action are to be deter mined according to the relations we can directly observe empirically every collision of wholly or par appears a certain loss of energy. the atoms are distinguished. They concentrate into a real antinomy. without ever having fully succeeded. atom of Boscovich and Fechner. is thus is again taken up directly into the objective consideration of nature. according to which the must occur in the impact of absolutely hard bodies. The postulate of continuity. a residuum of the sensible properties of body is retained and put on a level with the determinations discerned by mathematical thought. the logical necessity appears above all of endowing each atom with an absolute hardness. according to Democritus.simple&quot. In the atom of Democritus.

158 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION the mechanics of the atoms with the demands which from the postulate of the continuity of process. The contradic tion merely comes from the fact. that a false standard is applied here to the thetical structure on which mechanics should rest. and they both advance after the impact with a common velocity. II. is not the behaviour of the empirical bodies of our environment. that we can establish no definite value for the velocity of the two masses at the moment of impact. in a jump from one magnitude to another. which are meant to be nothing but rational constructions of thought. Thus we need not ask whether it is possible or impossible for absolutely rigid bodies in impact to satisfy the law of the conservation of energy. conceptual postulates. however. Die Atomistik und Faraday s Begriff der Materie. leads to the discovery. 1901. to which cal construction of the atoms and their we are bound movements. . but the universal laws and principles of mechanics. cf. 1905. which properties are only deduced from analogy with the sensuous bodies of our world of perception. but conversely we assume the &quot. Lpz. which two absolutely hard bodies undergo in the moment of their impact. If a slowly moving body is overtaken by a more finite amount. however. on the basis of by the &quot. The Concepts and Theories of Modern Physics. in the theoreti The compati- counterbalanced by a part of the rotary movement of the atoms being trans formed into progressive movement. The norm for the formation of the con tent of the atom. that is separated from it by a fixed. ff.real&quot. This assumption. that the atoms. more particularly..subject&quot. Thus we are not directed for this norm to a mere vague comparison with directly observable phenomena. but we determine the conditions of motion. is to be abandoned from the standpoint of the theory of knowledge. then this result can only be expressed by our ascribing to the one body an abrupt loss. Erkenntnisproblem. to the other an abrupt increase in velocity. Cf. have certain properties ascribed to them. rapidly moving one. and that a gap remains in the mathematical determination of the whole process. especially Otto Buek. German edition. Stallo. which is determined by the law of the conservation of the algebraic sum of their motions. p. The change of velocity. This very analogy. 28 The advocates of extended atoms have occasionally replied to objec result we compare tions of this sort. 34 ff. can only consist in a sudden transition. cf. For general criticism of the concept of the atom. 394 &quot. Berlin. to be satisfied validity of this law as an axiom.

The concept of the atom and the application of differential equations. we find ourselves forced also from the logical side to that transformation of the concept of the atom. resolves into the concept of law and that it is meant to be merely the expression of a functional dependence of magnitudes. we cannot doubt that the scheme of the world. is distinguished from another. The negation of extension is joined to the negation of the sensuous qualities. point of force. thoroughly satisfactory. &quot. that they mutually determine for each other in the system of dynamic actions and reactions. which was already characteristic of Democritus. what differentiates them is merely the position. which natural In place of the extended science since Boscovich has carried out. is in essence and structure atomistic. and not the similarity of atomic motions with any processes of known physical reality. as it is here understood.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 159 bility of this construction with the other assumptions of rational mechanics is the rule that alone can guide us.thing&quot. The atom. II. springs from the relations of which it is the intellectual center. selfcal &quot. by which one empiri All independent. Boltzmann has sought to deduce the necessity of the atomic hypothesis from the fundamental method of theoretical natural science. and Fechner after him. The magnitude and form of the atoms have now disappeared. . that force itself. Boscovich urges energetically. We see how the reduction of the sensible properties. 29 This reply is. signifies nothing manifold in general. from the procedure of applying differential equations. what remains is merely the relation of a dynamic coexistence in the law of the recip and repulsion of the points of force. The scientific development.On closer concept of number. confirms this view throughout. which the concept of the atom has undergone in the most recent modern physics. he explains. 380 ff. that is assumed with it. If we do not deceive ourselves concerning the meaning of a differential equation. there now appears the absolutely simple but indivisible particle. in principle. has here advanced another step. yet when we think it through. that can be ascribed to it. existent attributes are now completely effaced. which in its origin goes back to the pure rocal attraction its origin after manifold trans but the member of a systematic formations. In the conflict between atomism and energism. here reverts to it 29 See Lasswitz. Geschichte der Atomistik. therewith there is the negation of every determination of content in general. All content.

160 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION inspection. for the necessity of the atom is here meant to be deduced not from the facts of the empirical con trees. assured to the atom in this way can be no other than belongs in general to the pure mathematical concepts. 31 The procedure itself of the infinitesimal calculus. 60. this process only reaches its we permit the magnitudes under consideration mathematical conclusion to converge toward the limiting value null. of certain finite magnitudes. 231 ff (Populare Schriften. the &quot.) Cf. they are only phenomena. then it is clear indeed that physics. Lpz. from atomism by differential equations. p. does not see the wood for the to suppress the demand for of individuals. who believes he can free himself defined by that demand?&quot. of to be understood atoms is to be proved by and applied as images his deduction. What conceiving a great number the differential equation the value expressed by the same has been Thus he. however. certain extension. while. p. when in the explanation of use is it This type of explanation is of high interest from the stand point of the critique of knowledge. Annalen der Physik und Chemie N. then this number must increase until its further increase is no longer of influence. 129 ff. Thus Boltzmann expressly guards against the assumption that the absolute existence of the for the exact representation Precisely in this assumption. beyond which the ideal procedure could not go without involving itself in contradictions with the As long as we remain with magnitudes of a we reach no definite logical determination. whatever physical divisibility one may . Schriften . 141 31 ff. assume. no matter how small we may choose these magnitudes. if the &quot. is to gain its full sharpness and exactitude. to If which Boltzmann we start with the presentation appeals.) Bin Wort der Mathematik an die Energetik (Pop. urges this transition. there always remains 30 Boltzmann. that we have first to conceive a finite number. and then permit the latter to diminish continuously in order to gain a point of application for the differen tial if equation. p. however.existence&quot. 30 sideration of nature. Along with reality of phenomena. a constant value could always be given. according to atomism. F. Vol. this is the first condi tion. a differential equation is only the expression of the fact. Uber die Unentbehrlichkeit der Atomislik. but from the conditions of the method of exact If.image&quot. Boltzmann. this is the case. the necessity finally appears of going from the extensive corpuscle to the simple mass-point. 1905.

and of ascribing different velocities to the many. 119 ff). but with the establishment of certain simple.. for which latter we then introduce the atoms as hypothetical substrata. In this sense the &quot. is regarded from a new point of view. assumption of the simple. as soon as any sort of physical process. the substratum.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 161 the intellectual possibility of analysing the body further. not further reducible body is only a methodological device to advance to the abstraction of simple move ment. Boltzmann.. in its modern physical application. is not defined and postulated as a part of matter. according to its fundamental physical meaning. by which we can approach the material 32 point that only moves forward. in accordance with processes. It is only when we advance to the material point. which we took as its 82 Cf. which hitherto passed as simple. but we have to consider by our abstracting from rotary movement. loses the aspect of materiality more and more how it is resolved into vortex movements in the ether. It appears that. 215. side of energism against point.If . Here an important logical moment is indicated the simplicity of the The point is assumed for the sake of simplicity of movement.. that the concept of the material assumed by mechanics. The changes in the concept of the atom.&quot. to any degree of approximation. but by permanent forms of motion. Leipzig. in general. by which it appears as the result of a plurality of conditions. that this indefiniteness duced. does not develop out of that of body by our abstracting from extension practically or entirely. parts. have absolutely nothing to do with atoms. Thus we understand how the atom. . however. Entwicklung. Thus we are complex movements not primarily concerned with separating out the ultimate elements of things. which. which is of course inevitable. 1898. fundamental from which the variety of processes can be deduced. as it is &quot.&quot. p. we analyse the body into other than purely forward movements. distinguishable sub groups.atom. which into elements of volume. It is only considered as an intellectual point of application for possible relations. here satisfied not by any kind of material substratum. is done away with. but as a subject of possible changes. It has been urged from the (Cf. . and a fixed subject of motion pro above p. . their character indivisibility. We analyse into elementary processes. Die Energetik und ihre geschichtl. Helm. is fulfill The the conditions of indestructibility and physical postulate of identity.

which we define. according as we seek through progressive idealization from different empirical it starting-points. by The concept of the ether. in order to give this concept a definite content we have to utilize certain properties originally tion. At first no two aspects. the concept of the ether. tion or with regard to technical-physical means of analysis. The &quot. which belongs to it. (which is especially possible in modern physics on the basis of phenomena of radio-activity) changes our view of the &quot. of the atoms is fundamentally a purely logical predicate. which. An when we proceed from the concept analogous development is presented. but a way is offered to deduce it from the laws of electrodynamics. that develops here. that arise here at first. leads constantly to new determinations and differentiations within their subject. of matter and of the elements out of which it is The new unity. at SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION once divides. spring from the fact that. The difficulties. the hitherto material atom breaks up and But the new unity gained in resolves into a system of electrons. processes in general. is always only the expres built up. of matter to the second principal concept of natural science. Thus when inertia no longer appears as an absolute property of bodies. according as we approach to reach it from one or the other direction. Only the point of application changes. every process of bringing a great field into a new connection. sion of the relatively highest and most comprehensive standpoint of which we grasp the totality of physical things and judgment.constitution&quot. Every advance of analysis. but the procedure of postulating a unity remains constant. finds its solution when we resolve to abandon all direct sensuous . and as thus Sharper analysis of physical relations principle changeable. from the combination of these the limiting case itself presents a different appearance. and not by reference to our sensuous capacity of discrimina remains unchanged. it is deter mined with reference to the intellectual analysis of the phenomena of nature. of defining the condition of knowledge at any given time and of bringing it to its most pregnant intellectual expression. while the function. this in manner can itself only be conceived as relative. however.162 basis. won through comparison with the objects of sense percep Ether accordingly appears as a perfect fluid.simplicity&quot. the Thus we can say that the content of the concept of atom may be regarded as changeable. fully unified picture results possesses certain properties of perfectly elastic bodies. in principle only The conflict.

especially the constants for the 34 The assumption of the velocity of propagation. individual thing of The more perception. The Grammar of Science.. while it 163 merely as a conceptual discover a physical as for example. &quot.Empty&quot. and to use 33 symbol of certain physical relations. e. point of space. are all held together by the fact that certain functional dependencies subsist between them. to which we are led in the investigation of light vibrations. 33 34 and concentration of objectively Cf. This gradation of the individual positions and their arrangement into different mathematical-physical series is what gives them a new content. The unitary and strictly homogeneous space is progressively differentiated through our inscribing upon it. as it were.. however. but only as a unification valid. is now in a certain sense covered over with a wealth of other determinations. inclusively and consciously physics makes use of the con of the ether. this is because the equations. In order to establish a continuous connection between these two conditions. space.being&quot. at a point of space remote from it. according to the electro-magnetic theory of light. which can be expressed by pure numerical values. totality of such numerical determinations is really the fundamental conception which we express in the thought of the ether. which only represents one principle of &quot. of the ether can. 1 . which result for dielectric polarization. German trans.. the identity is affirmed of the ether of light with that ether in which electro-magnetic effects are propagated. mutually agree. When. 178 ff. 262 ff.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE representation of the ether.cause&quot.g. and because further the numerical constants. a certain effect of light at a certain phenomenon. p.. measurable relations. a web of numbers. in fact. . are identical in their form with those. See Henri Poincare Elektrizitat und Optik. We we are obliged to locate its &quot. 159 ff. that subsist between the values of the optical and electrical constants. Pearson. these. same substratum is here also only another expression of the thorough going analogy of the mathematical relations: for the connections. we postulate a medium for them by conceiving the space between them continuously filled with certain The qualities. Berlin. p. be All that physics teaches of the ultimately reduced to judgments about such connections. the more clearly it appears that the object thus cept signified cannot be understood as an isolated. 1891. arrangement.

249: &quot. the description of the M of &quot.164 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION logical The form of the concept of the physical object. Identite el Realite. most perfect possible copy Every new theoretical conception. This progres sive transformation must appear unintelligible.electron. it did not come to rest until extension itself had been dissolved into the mere appearance of simple and indivisible centres of force. that the object loses not only its color. and this point is propagated with a velocity. odorous thing into a &quot. also E. resemble inertia to a certain extent. the exactitude and perfect rational intelligibility of scientific connections are only purchased with a loss of immediate thing-like reality. no reconciliation is possible. would then separate science further from its real task. Cf. however.bit mere geometrical figure of certain outlines and dimensions. its taste. that science introduces. if we place the goal of outer of natural science in gaining the reality. took as the basis of his well-known analysis of the concept of the object. La Physique moderne. would on the contrary threaten to vanish away. which cannot exceed the velocity of light. consequents. sensuous copy of reality. The electron is thus simply a definite small volume at a point of the ether.matter. but gradually also its form and extension goal of its and shrinks to a mere 35 of wax. the intellectual process did not stop.. It is only thus of the fundamental element p. furnishes the real solution of the problem. a more careful study now shows us that his mass was only a fiction the electro-magnetic phenomena. This recipro cal relation between reality and the concepts of science. changed from a fixed.&quot. Now if we again survey the changes.&quot. Meyerson. and this inertia depending on its charge. warm. which should be retained and verified unfalsified.Thus the elec tron must be regarded as a simple electric charge without matter. which the scientific concept of substance has undergone from its first speculative beginnings. which occur when we set the electron in motion. it must appear as a genuine impoverishment of reality that all existential qualities of the object are gradually stripped off. led us astray. that science is able to represent this reality as a necessary connection of grounds and &quot. 228 ff . It is only owing to the fact that science abandons the attempt to give a direct.g.point. e. or permit its velocity to vary.&quot. which possesses special properties. Here. True. by Lucien Poincar6. . Cf.&quot. the unitary tendencies stands out clearly. owing to this peculiar method. Our first investigations caused us to ascribe to it a mass one thousand times less than that of an atom of hydrogen. empirical existence. bright. p.&quot. which Descartes The &quot. in fact. its smell. . And even with this reduction.

Thus the world of immediate experience pales into a shadow. yet which remain inaccessible to all the intellectual means for grasping the things of experience. that for which we exchange it remains before us as an eternally incomprehensible riddle.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE through going beyond the circle of the given. that afford a view into the extra-phenomenal world. Behind the world of our experience arises a realm of absolute substances. are never found as constituent parts in the perceptions. and fulfill their purpose so much the better. mass and force are nothing but examples of such schemata. &quot. the system of atoms and forces acting at a distance. which are themselves a kind of thing. elements in the concepts of the physical object. for what copy. how ever perfect. it traces the universal intellectual schemata. could equal the original in exactness and certainty? Knowledge has no need for such a duplication.genuinely real&quot. something which. of natural science consisted simply in reproducing the significance reality that is given in concrete sensations. of physics. two different dimensions as y^were. Yet there is no metaphysical dualism here. we can never attain. for although is no direct similarity between the members of the two fields.extra-phenomenal beyond. on the other hand. they reciprocally refer to each other. &quot. remains in principle There presses upon us the inevitable idea of some unintelligible. we cannot reach into this &quot. which would still leave the logical form of the perceptions unchanged. The concepts of order of mathematical physics have no other meaning and function than to there serve as a complete intellectual survey of the relations of empirical If this connection with empirical being is destroyed. double antinomy arises. opposed to the concepts that represent an existence. are the concepts that merely express a possible form of connection. while.Real&quot. For the elements. thing existing since eternally beyond presentation. that science creates the intellectual means of representing the given according to laws.it Thus we have two separate fields.not real&quot. Instead of imagining behind the world of perceptions a new existence built up out of the materials of sensation. at the basis of the order of perceptions according to If the law. Atom and ether. a being. .The manifold forms of the absolute are not windows in our system of presentations.&quot. in which the relations and connections of perceptions can be perfectly represented. The &quot. then it would indeed be a r vain and useless work. the less they contain of direct perceptual content. of the concept. and &quot.

and which here gains full The meaning of the mathematical concept cannot be comprehended.terra nunc et in aeternum incognita. the meaning only appeals when we recognize the oncept as the expression of\a pure relation. threads. Uber die Grundlagen der Erkenntnis in den exaklen Wissenschaften. it is unin telligible how. Physics itself. leads to a field permanently closed to research: to a &quot.166 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION they only show how impenetrable are the walls of our intra-phenomenal prison.thing&quot.&quot. the physical begun clarity. as long as for it we^ek any sort of presentational correlate in the given. p.&quot. intuitive character but in its sensuous isolation. the more clearly matic function is shown. however. (Cf. we could ever return to exactly could hope to master it on the basis of concepts produced in conscious contradiction to its real content. which is given to us. All these doubts are resolved. 147 ff . but is connected inseparably by logical threads with the totality of Each particular concept is.system this system. as it were. The objects of physics: matter and force. one of these experience. with our physical concepts formed through transcend of presentations. standpoint of science at the basis of 39 we merely which are its intellectual connection and &quot. on which we string real experiences and connect them with future possible experiences.) of the popular . above p. 112 ff. while from the retain those elements in it. (Cf. in connection with the mathematical concepts.harmony. it gains in rela tions for it no longer remains isolated and dependent on itself alone.&quot. but it comes to conscious ness in different ways thus at one time we consider it in its sensuously .upon which rests the unity nd continuous connection of~~the members of a manifold. Thus there is only one reality. atom and ether can no longer be misunderstood as so many new realities for investigation. above p.&quot. as it were. in its continuous and necessary progress. 35 On the other side of the question. as soon as we consider the physical ing the &quot. Cf. The unction of the physical concept also is first evident in this interpreThe more it disclaims every independent perceptible con ation. when once they are recognized as instruments pro duced by thought for the purpose of comprehending the confusion of phenomena as an ordered and measurable whole.) . All that the view of the world loses in properties. or how we concepts no longer for themselves but. 122 ff. and realities whose inner essence is to be penetrated. du Bois-Reymond. P. fact. in their natural In genealogy. its logical and syste &quot. in concepts only carry forward the process that is the mathematical concepts.. tent and everything pictorial.

Without this concept. this sensuous &quot. Apxaiuv e5oe TO ov Kivridijvai. . is no sensuous &quot. oijTe Kai TO irXJ7!?os TUV OVTUV. Aristoleles de generatione e et corruptione A .gt. robbed thought of one of its fundamental instruments. . In the conception of the real. The thought of non-being is thus no dialectical construction. Democritus. &i&amp. TO Te bv Kal TOV &VTOS ovdtv ny ov elvai. this characteristic interpenetration of the sensuous by the intel lectual has insight first by the great empirical investigators created the universal schema of the been expressed with growing consciousness as a logical also. p. also grasped the philosophical problem latent in it.rdr)&amp.gt. even though it does not have the same sensuous form of existence as the concrete. Marburg 1879. it is taken as the sole means of protecting physics from the extravagances of a speculative idealism.lt. but. .325 a: &/ICHS y&p TUV TO ntv y&v Kfvov OVK ov. .VTs T^V ai&amp.gt. validity as the &quot. but they destroyed the phenomena themselves by giving up the possibility of understanding them in their multiplicity and mutability. and thus of nature. Empty space is necessary for the phenomenon.d\\ov TO 8ev f) The being. M reinen Erkenntnis. Cohen. even so it has to be granted that in this fact a moment is involved. as the Eleatic idealism had attempted. Tols 5 Kevov 38 /J.o\oyovnfvct \kyovTts OVK tptiopav Kivr](nt&amp.Tovcri. 70 . Even when the facts them selves are regarded as the supreme standard for all intellectual con ceptions. TO yap Kvpiws ov iranirXripfs ov. empty space itself. Thus it is impossible to relate scientific thought merely to being. who scientific conception of nature.LVTJTOV.riv Kai &Klvr)Tov TO irav elval ovTf (petal Kal irapioovTts avrrjv cos Xoycp okov &KO\ovdelv Iv Kal &Treipov Ivioi.nothing&quot. non-being is just as necessary and unavoidable a concept. particular phenomenon. intellectual mastery of empirical reality is not The Eleatics in their denial of non-being not only to be attained. cos bpoXoyrjcFas Klvrjcriv 6i n^v TOLS tpaivo^ tvois. &K. see For the historical and systematic significance of the concept of the ov. has the same place and same TO inviolable 37 . Motion requires the void for its representation. OLTIVCS irpos TT]v alo 9i)ou&amp.$ .lt. Platans Ideenlehre und die Mathematik.rj elvai nod. gains clear definition here historically for the first time. Logik der etc. Kexcopur/uej ou 8. we can see of non-being. 6/j.aiprj&amp. however. 5 oiiK AydyKTjs p. /xi) fj.v OVTC yevtaiv TO. AevKnriros 5 k\eiv cbi^tfy Xo-yous T&amp.VTO. on the contrary.lt. av ovvacrdai cWos Kfvov K nev ovv TOVTWV TUV Xoyuv virepf3a.something:&quot.TI TO \v KaTavntva^ovaiv ipijcriv OVK av ovaav &vev Kevov. intelligible.lt.given. no thing-like reality. that belongs to the scientific principle in /jTjdei contrast to any concrete thing. and when no other purpose of the concept is recognized than that of rendering the fact of motion.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE The concept 167 how In the history of physics. which is absent from direct intuition.&quot. 38 The physical concept is defined through a 37 Cf.

its consequences are applicable to relations of outer . The senses are entangled in the &quot. even in case there is no body in nature with a spiral movement. since these are limited to the individual.168 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION I I i double opposition: an opposition. and subjective opposition of the warm and the cold. in his philosophical view. This general thought gains significant application in Galileo s exposition and defence of his supreme dynamic principle. they do not exhaust the whole of objectivity.con ventional&quot. our propositions would lose nothing of their validity. and. it can serve in which the connection of general as a symbol of those principles. renders possible motion and interaction among them. to unmethodical Geometrical space serves here as an example and type of a pure Since it connects the atoms in a unity and relational concept. which are inaccessible to the senses.&quot. For him the law of inertia has and even if throughout the character of a mathematical principle.the true and necessary things. If empirical observation agrees with these consequences. only &quot. speculation. so in the same way in found ing dynamics we can proceed from the presupposition of a uniformly accelerated movement towards a definite point. and conceptually deduce all the resulting consequences. so that in the movement of a body with weight the same relations are found. as realized in nature. to metaphysical sensuous perception. he goes back to Democritus. as an experimental investigator. thus Galileo. which the theory evolved from hypothetical assumptions. since in and for themselves they contain no assertions about existence. Just as the propositions of Archimedes concerning the spiral remain true. at first established purely intellectually. on the other. remains for him also from the concept of reality. which could not be otherwise. directly joins on to Archimedes. but only connect certain ideal consequences to certain ideal premises. the sweet and the bitter. But even if the latter were not the case. without these principles themselves forming part of the intuitive reality. then without danger of error we can regard the conditions. Like while. Democritus. Matter and idea and Galiko s concept of inertia. on the real and given rests. distinct The concept of truth. The physics of modern times has retained these principles unchanged. belong in the sphere of scientific investigation. however. on the one hand. For this whole is completed only in the mathematical functional dependencies. he describes and completes the conception of nature by the conception of necessity.

conception. here carried over to the concept of matter.&quot. of mechanics. which is in no way used in the deduction and proof of the principle. for what was there developed for the concept of the ception. It denotes an idea.material points&quot. The matter. to pass beyond it.&quot. when Simplicio is ready to grant the unlimited persistence of the motion of a body left to itself on a horizontal plane. sense-impressions. yet not standing on the same plane methodologically with these phenomena.empiristic&quot. void. tion. ov. that we confuse it with a reality of perception itself.we are forming a con physicist struct largely based on geometrical symbols. of which it speaks. 250 f . are actually never realized. conceived for the purpose of ordering the phenomena.&quot.&quot. definiteness but always only as a &quot. Thus. and so accustomed have we got to this conceptual element in the construct. the real subjects for the exact expression of the principle are the &quot. 169 way signify a direct copy of any conditions. in a certain sense.When we consider space as says a modern objective and matter as that which occupies of strictly &quot. and not the it. with which exact science is alone concerned. not the empirical bodies of our world of per We see how modern science has here retained the funda mental thought of Democritus only in order. Inertia is for Galileo. p. The fixed outlines and geometrical we have to give it are only possible because we go beyond the field of sensations to their ideal limits. the material constitution of the particular body is merely an acciden tal and external circumstance.resolutive method. they are only gained by means of the &quot. as empty space was for Democritus. at one point in the &quot. We are projecting the form and volume of conception into perception.&quot. to the Tra^TrX^pco-s Matter also in the sense of pure physics is no object of percep is but rather of construction. It is the conceptual volume or form which occupies space. Hence this motion needs no real. &quot. and it is this form. which 39 we conceive to . in so far as the body itself is of sufficiently lasting material.&quot. tendency.perception.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE reality.Dialogue concerning the empirically given fact. move. The Grammar of Science. never exists then as a &quot. &quot. a postulate that we cannot do without in the scientific exposition of phenomena. Salviati-Galilei points out to him that this assumption is without significance for the real meaning of the principle of inertia. but which is not itself a concrete sensible process of external reality. 39 Thus the con- Pearson. but only a conceived substratum. they nevertheless in no The two Systems of the World.

mere mass-point. The very beginning of theoretical physics with Newton. is subordinated and excluded in the transition from the concept From mass. The Prinzipien der Mechanik of Heinrich Hertz developed a new view. that uniformly recur in the different systems and thus form the unchanging part.170 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION cept of matter follows the same law that is universally characteristic The sensuous of the logical development of scientific principles. however. that we form of the reality of nature is not dependent on the data of sense perception alone. of this last concept. the psychological unity and interpenetration of the two moments leads at once to their logical identification.&quot. Among them. since sensation never appears outside these forms and. vr concepts of space and time. which at first seems an inseparable part. that reaches a first conclusion in Newton s is built upon the concepts of space and time. of space Owing to this unchangeableness glance to be of sensuous content. properties no longer constitute any essential part of its meaning. both concepts seem at unity. it is evident that &quot. for every theoretical founding of physics. it is espe cially space and time. being increasingly limited to ideal conceptions. Matter itself becomes idea. destroys this apparent first and time. The structure of pure mechanics logically be derived in different ways. that are produced and confirmed by mathematics. which value.picture&quot. but upon the intellectual views and postulates that we bring to it. we attain to a of matter to the pure concept of mass. Even the element of &quot. they rest merely on the establish ment of three independent concepts: space. by a is distinguished by a certain numerical certain coefficient.weight. have finally Even the in this plurality of possible starting-points. mass and force. time and mass. While n the classical mechanics. and from these it is sought to deduce the totality of the phenomena of motion as an intelligible whole governed by law. through introducing invisible masses along with the sensuously perceptible masses. in modern expositions the concept of energy appears in place Principia. the real invariant. according to the kind and number of fundamental concepts from which one starts. conversely. different It is when we grasp them emphasized here that space and time are something after the fashion of immediate sensa- . since these forms are never given separated from sensation.

it From the concepts of absolute space and absolute time. if the conditions are not also known for its concrete application. but also as it is in itself in absolutely universal form.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE tion. if experience can never give us true examples of these concepts? Can a conception claim any sort of physical significance. standpoint. because abstracts from all the differences. The struggle over principles has con stantly referred back to the Newtonian theory of space and time in order to decide the general problem of the foundation of physics. but the decisive preliminary consideration here. while the relative space and the relative time offered us by outer and inner observation signify only sensuous. motionless space and absolute. measures for empirical movements. which are to be especially &quot. 171 and when we grasp them after the fashion of mathematical is merely in the latter interpretation that their Absolute. to the If there is objective realities indicated and expressed through them. when on principle we have to refuse to apply it definitely to the reality acces sible to us? It must appear as a barren intellectual game that we laws for absolute movements in pure mechanics. however. the first scientific determination of the epistemological point Newton s problem of objectivity in general is in the definition of space and time. so long as develop we have no infallible mark for deciding regarding the absolute or The abstract rule in relative character of an actual movement.objectivity. which are based on the physiologi cal constitution and the particular position of the individual subject. A formulation. uni formly-flowing time are the true reality. by which we can subsume empirical cases under it. and in the opposition of the sensuous and the mathematical meanings of the two concepts. For the problem of see more particularly Chs. it must present the time-space order of the cosmos not only as it appears to a sentient individual from his relative And it concepts.&quot. in the Newtonian The laws of natural science. 40 contradiction remains here. This problem cannot yet be surveyed in its whole extent. itself means nothing. 40 is reached It is clear that the philosophical oppositions in the funda mental conception of physics are expressed more strongly in this question than in any other. . It is the task of physical investigation to advance from these sensuous measures. which are satisfactory for practical purposes. of view. VI and VII. What do the concepts of absolute space and absolute time mean. and thus inexact. knowledge of nature. truth is affirmed. The pure concept alone gives this universality and necessity.

but that each individual is to be understood only in thorough-going connection with all the others. or to seek to establish a moment of &quot.now&quot. discussion of the mechanical concepts has failed to mark this diffi culty with sufficient sharpness. are ultimately related to objects.172 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION understood as inductions from given facts. No we subsequently take up into our concepts of space and time. if they are to be regarded with Newton as mathematical conceptions. is the essential character of in mathematical constructions. time without regarding &quot. The gains its meaning only with reference to a &quot.there. that gains its full meaning only through its connec tions with the totality of serial members. which remain^/^tems^rek^ons every particular construction in themdenoteTalways only an indi vidual position. it as a point in an ordered manifold. all Precisely this. The question continually arises. do not exclude every &quot. it has placed the opposition of the &quot. in the center of consideration. following the course of history.here&quot. sort of relation. Moreover. determination recedes into the background in the further develop ment based. in the sense that They are and physical determination. the &quot. of course. and are conceived as the This metaphysical eternal attributes of the infinite divine substance. but the logical opposition.place&quot. of natural science. which comes from the field of ontology.&quot. that space and &quot.absolute&quot. the conception of absolute motion only apparently contradicts this postulate. only with reference to an earlier or later contrasted with it. The system of reference of pure mechanics. and &quot. in fact. can impugn this fundamental logical character. or whether we must transcend the sphere of empirical existence in any direction in order to conceive the laws of this existence as a perfect. time. which (like absolute space &quot. Henceforth the real The epistemological difficulty is concentrated in this problem. closed unity. whether in the foundation of mechanics we have to assume only such concepts as are directly borrowed from the empirical bodies and their perceptible relations. It is easy to see.absolute&quot.relative&quot.absolute&quot.and absolute time) belong to another world than that of experience. does not give adequate expression to the method ological questions pressing for solution. that no one of them means anything itself alone. No physical thinker has ever interpreted this concept as excluding . But this opposition. is on which it is not thereby removed. Thus it is nonsensical to seek to conceive a without at the same time relating it to another distinguished from it.

in the sense in which physics takes them.pure&quot. can be pointed not &quot. tion of did not tacitly conceive it with reference to some system of co ordinates. can be left entirely out of account for it constitutes the general and self-evident presupposi tion. since experience of itself definitely presses it upon us. in connection with which the persistence of uniform motion in a straight line could be pointed out.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 173 regard for any system of reference at all. or whether it possesses an &quot. At first glance. The conflict is only with regard to the kind of system of reference. but rather contains an assumption as to the nature of this correlate.intellectual&quot. . Thereby the problem first loses its vague dialectical form and gains a definite physical meaning. As soon as we decide in favor of the latter view. or whether they are independent intellectual &quot. logical terms. are only space aggregates of sensuous impressions. which are here to be question. which is without significance for the solution of any special But it is such special questions. It is a mistaken desire to ask more than this. only with regard to whether it is or as an ideal construction. being. It is above all necessary to become clear as to whether and time. as to whether the system.forms. The answer that empiricism has ready avoids all difficulties by resolving the problems into mere The principle of inertia would indeed be meaningless if illusions. to which the funda mental equations of the Newtonian mechanics refer. that is inseparably connected with any scientific construction in general. the further problem arises of mediating between the ideal beginnings of physics and at its real results. The substitution of the fixed stars for absolute space. decided. which is here determined as space separated from all material content. it might seem that the answer to these questions required the media no complicated. The sensuous and intellectual elements stand abstract opposition and require unification under a general of view^ to determine their part in the unitary concept of point first in objectivity. to be taken as material or as immaterial.&quot. fixed stars offer us a . But this unavoidable sub we stratum we do not need to establish by wearisome conceptual deduc tion. as empirically given The postulate of absolute motion does mean the exclusion of any correlate. The &quot. The system of reference.relativity. in connection with which the phenomenon of movement according to inertia can always be demonstrated with the exactitude of which empirical judgments in general are capable. out as an empirical body.&quot.

hitherto not given cases. . above p. though unavoidable from the presupposition assumed. 129 f. forms the real foundation of analytic mechanics.174 it is SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION idle to seek to gain a notion as to what form the law of inertia if we excluded reference to the fixed stars and replaced them by another system. The movements of a material system.possibility&quot. for in the formula of the law the real object of perception is replaced by its ideal limit. 47 ff. but from the possible conditions and circumstances. but we must take it as it is offered in sensuous perception. this inference.virtual&quot. because we are here concerned with a case which is never realized in actual experi ence. p. factually present existence. The funda mental theoretical laws of physics throughout speak of cases that are never given in experience nor can be given in it. But as has already appeared on all sides.) from consideration of the real alone. them without thereby being brought into contradiction with the conditions of the system. Die Mechanik in ihrer Entwicklung. contradicts the known fact of scientific procedure itself. indications of sensation. which. but also the is very clearly expressed in the principle of considered. without enquiring how it would appear to us under other conditions. or if we lost the power of orientating our would assume observations on them. The world is not given to us twice: once in reality and once in thought. we lack all possibility of judging. &quot. 41 In this solution of the problem by Mach. since Lagrange. the consequence of the empiristic offered view is drawn with According to this view. Die Geschichte und die Wurzel des Satzes von der Erhallung der Arbeit. it process. that includes all the fields of physics equally. which reveal this being to us. their means merely that we can intellectually formulate &quot. virtual velocities. which we logically imagine. The insight gained through them never issues (Cf. but it can in great energy. Mach. every scientifically valid judgment gains its meaning only as an assertion concerning a con Thought can merely follow the crete. By a virtual change of a system is now understood not only an infinitesimal 41 Cf. dynamics. What laws of motion would hold if the fixed stars did not exist. the principle of virtual changes is freed from its initial limitation to mechanical processes and is transformed into a universal principle. The further development of the principle in physics has allowed this methodological aspect to appear with In the development of modern thermo increasing distinctness. as here This includes not only the actual. no place go beyond them and take into account merely possible. do not need to be able to be actually carried out.

theoretical decision does not depend. an infinitely small change in the distribution of electricity on the surface of a conducting body. evolution do la Mtcanique. refers. at least. 42 43 sense. Paris 1903. for the truth of our theoretical deductions is entirely independent of this possibility of an immediate realization of our intellectual operations. and correspond in this translation to real or possible facts. the existence of the fixed stars does not enter. conditions of the investigation on which its real Into that &quot. with which Galileo begins his general exposition. it. now especially Natorp s exposition. op.mente concipio&quot. the logical and mathematical meaning of the hypothetical laws is 43 independent of this form of verification in the actually given. that he made to Simplicio in a similar case: viz. 356 ff. 211 ff. Cf. Duhem.the magnitudes. &quot. on the whole matter cf. are applicable to the world of perception must be ultimately decided by experiment. whether the particular methods of measurement can be directly &quot. leaves no doubt that the principle. principle of inertia thoroughly confirms this conception. p.. .THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 175 spatial displacement of its individual parts. it is ideal schemata offered The concept of uniform motion in a introduced purely in an abstract phoronomic not related to any material bodies. that the truth of the law of inertia presupposes the permanent existence of the fixed stars. in short. in so far as it is in accord with the general conditions which the system has to satisfy.accidental and external&quot.If translated into the language of concrete intuition. in the sense that he takes has not arisen from the consideration of a particular class of He certainly would have made the empirically real movements. but also an infinitely small increase or decrease of temperature. Whether the which we deduce from such ideal conceptions. 123 ff. that the reality of the fixed stars belongs. p. any elementary increase or decrease of one of the variable magnitudes that characterize the total state of the system. to which the theory deductions. only to the &quot. are subjected to certain algebraic transformations. laws. To raise any such ques tion rather to form a totally erroneous conception of the nature of a 42 The discovery and first formulation of the physical theory.. like that of the moving body itself. cil. but merely to the Cf.&quot. then we need not ask whether these calculations have a physical meaning.&quot. is Galileo. L above p. in the course of the Duhem remarks. same answer to the objection. straight line is here by geometry and arithmetic. Whether the transformation involved can be physically carried out is here of no importance.

44 mechanics would lose none of their validity by this but would be completely maintained in the new system of 1905. The and the law of inertia. It is this procedure of intel lectual variation of the determining factors for a certain result which first gives us an entirely clear survey of the field of facts. We need only apply all these considerations to the discovery and expression of the principle of inertia in order to recognize that the real validity of this principle is not bound to any definite material system of reference. made by In we Mach develop ment of the general methods of physics. viz. We must anticipate (at least in its general features) the consequence which a definite arrangement of the experiment takes an important place. the &quot. Even if we had found the law at first verified with respect to the fixed stars. Mach. . &quot. to law depends. He emphasizes that all really fruitful have intellectual experiments as their neces physical investigations sary condition. by calling to mind that we can allow the original substratum to vary arbitrarily without the meaning and content of the law itself being thereby affected.intellectual experiment&quot. is now abandoned.intellectual experiment&quot. promises.intellectual experiment&quot. Gedanken-experi- mente.176 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION &quot. we must compare the possible determining factors with each other and intellectually vary them. Leipzig p. reasons would obviously remain unchanged were found for us to the fixed stars themselves. by which we go from the real to the possible cases and also undertake to determine them. Erkenntnis und Irrtum. on which its action according of the whole. in which we clearly grasp the significance of each part in the structure The essential features. that thought must never look beyond the circle of given facts. In order to Galileo. in order to give the obser vation itself a definite direction. In fact. the logical meaning of the law even if.Uber Cf. ascribe certain movements to The principles of pure insight. For the assump tion on which Mach s initial objection rests. s justify logically the deduction here actually need ultimately only to appeal to Mach himself. here the perception is first analysed into an ordered complex.&quot. are separated from the accidental.. 180 ff. The method of the &quot. Here the meaning of each individual moment is first made clear. which can vary 44 arbitrarily without thereby affecting our real physical deduction. involves a characteristic activity of thought. there would be nothing to hinder us from freeing it from this condition. of inertia in the course of experience.

Mach himself must.subject&quot. (Mach. according to the empiristic assump tions. are without influence on it? Does what one must name explicitly or tacitly. as rather an assertion concerning definite properties and &quot. is one that corresponds in no way to the meaning and function it has actually is fulfilled in scientific is The but logical principle of mechanics rather abandoned. the body makes the strangest turns with reference to the heavenly bodies. to the causal nexus of the same? The remote heavenly bodies in our example have no influence on acceleration. to every attempt to give the law of inertia a 45 &quot. This is a motion in consequence of inertia.A free body. which enters into the conceptual formulation of the law of inertia.&quot. but have influence on velocity.reactions&quot. Is it believed now that these bodies. Streintz s concept of the &quot. would be impossible even in thought.fundamental principle can be made The same objection in body. 49. if one is to describe a phenomenon. and how could we expect that the physical properties found in a concrete individual thing could be separated from their real &quot.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 177 Such a transference orientation. The only meaning that the principle of inertia could have. not belong to the essential conditions. and transferred to another? In any case. if these principles merely reproduced the relations of moving bodies relative to a particular empirical system of reference. not grasped and explained here. if its center is fixed. according to his whole assumption. the one of the two factors can obviously not be replaced by another without the relation itself thus gaining an entirely new form. The principle of inertia would in this case not be so much a universal principle of the phenomena of motion in general. it would be logically unintelligible that we could ever think of dropping this connection and going over to another system of refer ence. affected by a momentary pair of forces. without which the conceived motion cannot be described. rotates without sliding on the tangential plane parallel to the plane of the pair of forces. we see in this example that empiricism and empirical then method (Empirie) are different. but must conceive them as one of the causal factors on which the law of inertia 45 In a formula that merely expresses the relation and is dependent. p. Erhaltung der Arbeit.&quot. mechanics from the beginning. regard the fixed stars not as an element. moves in such a fashion that its central ellipsoid. of a given empirical system of objects. In this.) . If the truth of the law of inertia de pended on the fixed stars as these definite physical individuals. interaction of definite physical objects. which we would then have to seek.

suitable system with reference to which the equations at the basis of physics are satisfied. which we have verified in particular bodies with definite physical properties. can now be expressed in the form. p. logical and historical relation. then we have in such a body a tial These equations. and which we have then taken as probably true for all bodies of the same sort. in particular. that every point left to itself moves in a straight line and with constant velocity with reference to this fundamental body. it can be easily shown. the more particular exposition by Streintz. 13 ff. the mechanical principles would be merely inductions.. which in the manner that they are ordinarily formulated are logically The principle of indefinite. thus gain a fixed and definite meaning. which appear as line or by virtue of their relative position to the or to the assumed system of reference. 48 . designated by Streintz by the name of &quot. A similarly immediate and positive decision is never possible with regard to the second aspect.gyroscopic compass. the absence of external forces: here we must simply be content with the fact that.&quot. inertia. every &quot. 22 ff . indeed. now. Die physikalischen Grundlagen der Mechanik. If. 48 This attempted deduc tion. that can be directly perceived and measured. as often as a variation from motion in a straight Streintz has attempted to define as this arbitrary. rests however on a conversion of the real If Streintz s explanation were true. The absence of rotation can be definitely indicated by certain instruments of measurement. system of reference any as it satisfies the double condition of not revolving and not being subjected to the influence of outer forces. we have hitherto always succeeded in indicating some external bodies. empirically given body in so far from uniform velocity has been observed in the movement of a point in a constant direction relative to a body.178 fixed basis SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION by pointing out its system of reference as somehow present in the reality of things. dynamic differen The claim to strict universality made by these principles would then be entirely unintelligible. moving point we characterize the body defined by the two conditions indicated by the causes of this variation itself : the absence of rotation and by perfect independence of all surround ing masses. rotation of a body brings about some physical effects. as the fundamental body (FK). It could not be understood by what right we opposed them to the observed facts as postulates predetermining the direction of our explanation.absolute&quot. only been gained by Cf. instead of trans forming the principles (which have. Leipzig 1883.

as it were. Philosophic der Mechanik. if the meaning of both had not been previously established in ideal construction. which Streintz makes the basis of his explanation. which form the basis of it. But even if soon as they failed to agree with the new we abstract from this. are already guided and dominated by the fundamental conceptions of analytic mechanics. . but it can only be explained conversely. It is only on the would be assumption of these conceptions that the meaning of the two aspects determining the fundamental body can be understood: the absence of rotation and the independence of external forces are the empirical criteria by which we recognize whether a definite given body satisfies the presuppositions of the theory. p. The working out of this thought was first attempted by C. there is already a tacit recognition of the principles which are to be deduced. along with the 47 C/. 47 theory of C. that the fundamental body and the fundamental system of coordinates could never be discovered as empirical facts. observations of definite bodies. has come into existence without these experiments. viz. there remains finally only one escape. as history shows. the consideration decisive. Thus the attempt of place in so far as it is meant to be a true founding of mechanics. especially the criticism of Streintz attempt by Hofler. while conversely the mere conception of these experiments could only arise on the The basis of this mechanics. and if we would also explain the rational structure of mechanics. on the basis of the idea that we seek for bodies of this sort and give them a special in the structure of our empirical reality. Studien zur gegenw. Analytic mechanics. Streintz. Neumann: the body alpha. is logically strictly separated from the conditions. which we have previously devel oped independently. The seemingly pure inductions. and of explaining the funda mental dynamic equations with reference to it. Leipzig 1900. in which. for in the experiments and empirical propositions. as 179 experiences. 136 f. on which the The idea of inertia did not arise from validity of the law itself rests.. from which we were able. if we still demand the connection of the law of inertia with some material system of reference. Neumann in his work on the principles of the Galileo-Newtonian theory. to read off sensuously the property of their being under no external influence. of assuming an unknown body not given in experience. The property (Merkmal). by which we estab lish whether an individual case can be subsumed under a definite law. Thus.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE definite observations). involves a circle.

We should not expect to find within physics the proof establishing the existence of this unique body. the converse feature appears. which is called by Neumann the &quot. the principle of Galileo can only be grasped in its conceptual meaning through the assumption of a definite existential background. which needs a definite background in order to be Some special body in the cosmos must be given as a basis of judgment.&quot. in fact. to be of material nature. postulate of a unitary logical point of reference is made into an asser tion of an empirically unknowable existence. We easily recognize that all the motions present in the universe or conceivable are to be related to one and the same body. According to Neumann. liber die Prinzipien der Galilei-N ewtonschen Theorie. on the other hand. unchanging &quot. what reasons are to be given for granting a single body so prominent. the methodolog ical question also was clearly expressed. 48 we conceive the body alpha annihilated by any Carl Neumann. While. the alpha. as a proposition hanging in the air. But when we attentively examine the theoretical structure founded by them and expanded continuously up to the present time. 14 . its foundations can no longer be concealed from us. at all events. Where this body is found. of purely ontological nature.body For the proof is. are ascribed all those predicates usually employed by the ontological argument: it is unchanging^ eternal and indestructible.&quot. as it were sov to this. we gain no answer. Leipzig 1870. What body is it. . that a material point left to itself moves in a straight saying in a world in which there exists at in its line. a definite content with those words. a being with although it is \ absolute properties is deduced here from mere thought. but even to be intelligible. the propositions of mechanics would necessarily cease not only to be The concept of the strict conapplicable. Only an unknown point of space an form and dimensions to all absolutely rigid body. of Galileo. a position.. f. viz. that the conceivability of our ideal conceptions If is made dependent on definite properties of being. appears as a proposition without content. p. 48 ereign.The are the propositions of our mechanics intelligible. to which we can give this special position? Unfortunately neither Galileo nor Newton have given us a definite answer to this question. time.180 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION explanation of the fundamental physical problem. And to this existence. on the one hand. force of nature. as that object with reference to which all move ments are to be estimated only then are we in a position to connect understood.

It is not the existence of the body alpha. and grant it definite properties and Here also we have moved in a circle. instead of somehow introducing them in a concealed form in the course of the deduction. such as mathematical theory offers us. Instead of the body alpha. we ever make a meaning established? of these universal judgment regarding a physical reality. problem of existence just as little of arithmetic or the pure straight line of Absolute space and time arise in the sure and continuous number of these concepts. they could answer. This assumption can never be taken from us it is a pure postulate of our scientific thought. Thus not only definite physical consequences but also the most noteworthy logical consequences would be con nected with a process in the outer world thus it would depend on the being or not-being of an actual spatial thing whether our fundamental mathematical hypotheses had any meaning in them.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 181 stancy of direction. which herein obeys only its own norms and . the assumption of physical things. only one answer could ultimately rational be given by the advocates of the body alpha. Galileo emphasized most sharply that the general theory of motion signified not a branch of applied but development of pure The phoronomical concepts of uniform and of accelerated motion contain nothing originally of the sensu uniformly ous properties of material bodies. Such an answer. manner) pure space itself. but the assumption of this exist ence. but merely define a certain relation mathematics. would at one stroke be deprived of all meaning. The absolute space and the ab solute time of mechanics involve the as does the pure geometry. But how could . We first escape the dilemma when we resolve to place our intellectual postulates in full clarity at the beginning. on which the validity of our mechanical concepts depends. we could then assume (in logically the only unobjectionable and intelli gible relations. thought by its inner necessity has led us back to that very starting-point at which the first doubt and suspicion arose regarding the formulation of mechanical principles. the concept of uniform motion of definite velocity. between the spatial and temporal magnitudes that are generated and related to each other according to an ideal principle of construction. . then we do not understand why this procedure should be limited to new basis. Space and time as mathematical ideals. places the problem on an entirely If it is in our power to deal with ideal assumptions. rules. however. if the mathematical predicates were not already To all these questions.

p. 390 ff. But just as there is 49 Cf. which requires independence of all outer forces for the &quot. The ascribe to the original and unitary system of 50 reference. cf. it means that we it as a concept. 677 ff. pure geometrical forms? While considering these our intellectual abstraction as absolutely constant. to which we look. but always only with a certain approximation.inertial more particularly regarding the mathematical construction of the system. in the expression of the principle of inertia. &quot.&quot. now especially the excellent treatment of Edm. p. rest and absolute fixity to it also..inertial system&quot. 49 of which an exact knowledge that is fixity. . above p.182 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION Thus. Here also it is never possible to isolate the fundamental hypotheses and to point them out as valid individually in concrete perceptions.. Die geschichtliche Entwicklung des Bewe- gungsbegriffs. we evolve from them Only a general schema for possible spatial changes in general. we can rely at first merely on a conceptual system of reference. we must of empirical reality is possible. and the mathemati cal consequences connected with it purely in theory. 356 f.absolute&quot. The ideal system of axes. See Erkenntnisproblem II. and take both as a basis for all further consideration of the phenomena Thus there is no hypomotion and their reciprocal relations. By means of conceptual definitions. but we can always only justify them indirectly in the total system of connection that they effect among phenomena. 129 ff. experience can ultimately decide whether this schema is applicable to the reality of physical things and processes. we create a spatial &quot. we affirm that a material point left to itself must move uniformly in a But at the same time. 50 Wundt s Philos. for how could forces affect lines in lines.&quot. i.. we know that this postulate is never exactly fulfilled in experience. Ludwig Lange. Konig. and an &quot. we ascribe &quot.e. Braunschweig 1907.fundamental system of coordinates:&quot. straight line with reference to that body. 344. Studien III. by means of .) velop the determination of the &quot. in order to regard it as identical and unchanging through all the transformations of calculation. statization of absolute space and absolute time into transcendent things but at the same time both remain as pure functions. 146 ff. to which we ascribe all the determinations required. 559. satisfies the fundamental postulate.inertial system&quot. (1886). Kant und die Natunvissenschaft. have established not a sensuous but a logical property. In so far as any empirically given body seems to conform to these determinations.inertial time-scale. We de (Cf.

the That any system of given bodies is at system of the fixed stars) does not signify a fact that can be directly established by perception or measurement.). The fixed stars stand in relations with the moving bodies of the real world. Analogously. attachment.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE no real straight line. by the choice of a new point of reference. exact. That unit of time is taken as &quot. on the one hand. La mesure du temps (cf. to which we connect our equations of motion. but means that a paradigm is found here in the world of bodies for certain principles of pure mechanics. we substitute a more exact measure of time for the not wholly exact measure. p. object of experience. visibly demonstrated and represented. above. 51 Thus there is still a relation to the physical concepts of absolute space and absolute the secular acceleration of the concepts does not consist in their but in their removing the necessarily every relation. which the stellar day affords. in which they can be. but a system of theoretical and empirical rules on which the concrete totality of phenomena is conceived to be dependent. .absolutely&quot. rest (for example. This meaning of the concepts of absolute space and absolute time was established in its general fea51 Poincar4. as it were. a closer and more exact agreement between the system of observations and the system of deductions. Thus the possibility always remains open of establishing. which relations are entirely according to the system of these propositions and find The individual material point of their complete expression in it. and on the other hand to avoid conflict between moon as actually observed. 145 f. whose application enables us. just so there is no real body. to avoid contradiction of the theoretical demands of the principle of energy. that conforms to the mechanical definition of the inertial system in all respects. The system. yet the fundamental relation to a definite system of laws of mechanics and physics remains constant. by taking our stand on the law of the con servation of energy and on the law of gravitation. It is the expression of the necessary difference. and as calculated according to the Newtonian law. assumed point of reference from the material into the ideal. that remains between the exact conceptual laws we formulate and their empirical realization. may change. that realizes all the properties of the pure 183 geomet rical concept. time. of these The meaning stripping off Hertz s system of mechanics. This relativity is indeed unavoidable for it lies in the very concept of the . in which we seek our intellectual orientation. is no individual perceptible body.

whose law we know. By taking fixed units of measurement as a basis. however. both concepts were only another expres sion of the thorough-going spatial and temporal determinateness. 52 The relation between theory and experience assumed here has found its clearest expression in modern times in the system Hertz in his exposition takes space of mechanics of Heinrich Hertz.&quot.We mean to say that experience to be copied. Theoretically it can always be gained. times and masses with each other in accordance to them. 14. where the transition is made from geometry and kinematics to the mechanics of material systems. Bk. II. Nouveaux Essais.judgments a priori in the sense of Kant. especially to These assertions thus rest not only on the laws future.184 tures SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION by Leibniz. The assertions. It is only in the second book. even if there is in the cosmos no strictly uniform course of any actual process of nature. and not of our laws of transforma tion and correlation. for we can always relate the non-uniform movements. to certain conceived uniform movements. which we demand for all being and process. For him. any appeal to the experi ence of sensuously perceptible bodies is foreign to them.Our concerning the relations of times. Leibniz. This determinateness must be demanded. . are &quot.&quot. or any fixed or immovable body. and time at first merely in the sense in which they are offered to &quot. spaces and masses are conceived as signs of outer empirical objects. that are made of them. and on the basis of this procedure calculate in advance the consequence of the connection of different movements.&quot. of our intuition and our thought. cannot contra dict the properties. and thereby translate the given impressions into the symbolic language of our inner intellectual images. especially within this and comparing the empirical spaces. which we have previously ascribed to these magnitudes as forms of our inner intuition or by assertions definition. that necessarily belongs to these ultimate units of is measurement. the properties of these empirical objects. but at the same time they should correspond to all possible. not indefiniteness of our images. symbols definitely to correspond to the concrete sensations and perceptions.inner intuition. but on previous experience besides. that times. but it is the indefiniteness of the very outer &quot. spaces and masses should thus no longer satisfy merely the claims of our intellect. experiences. Ch. by our senses we can &quot. The indefiniteness. &quot. we gain a general principle of coordination by means of which we allow certain mathematical field.

53 Thus. the ideal according to which the construction has taken place. in the field of empirical phenomena this is merely postulated. Heinrich Hertz.positivism.reality&quot. there is no lessening of its objective meaning for our knowledge.absolute movement. in so far as all actually observable motions with reference to this system have always hitherto corre sponded with the greatest approximation to the axioms. its empirical realization would only be shifted to another place.&quot. since these bodies might have very different distances from each other according as we took one point or another of their volume as a starting-point for measurement. by considering the total mass of the body reduced to the center of gravity. p. The positivistic scruples ff.. while a perfect definiteness of all elements can be gained with the struc tures we generate from the laws of intuition and thought. is mass more exactly than is &quot. if we mean by it not the abstract space of mechanics but the definite order of the world of bodies. and no done by the best scales. In order to gain an exact geometrical meaning. We measure the of our abstract dynamic of our experiences by the &quot.&quot. The order of the world which we construe on the presupposition of the motionlessness of the fixed stars. relative space also signifies no given fact in the sense of a dogmatic &quot. Die Prinzipien der Mechanik.&quot. strictly speaking. is at all events never finally given. concepts and principles. 157 ff. we must substitute a relation between points for a relation between bodies. Thus absolute space.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 185 determine no time more exactly than can be measured with the help of the best chronometer. Also when we con sider any corporeal masses in their mutual positions and their relative distances. . in order to of |relative position 63 make a completely exact assertion regarding the two material systems. no position more exactly than can be referred to the coordinate system of the remote fixed stars. If this condition should no longer be fulfilled (and we must consider this in our calculations and assumptions as a possible case). When we speak of &quot. for us the true order of things. no relation between sensuous bodies. but is always only sought. are thus obliged to have the direct empirical intuition transformed by means of the pure geometrical limiting We concepts. by which mechanics characterizes the concept of &quot. But in this.&quot. still these axioms. we have already gone beyond the limit of sensuous impres sions.distance. as a sharper analysis shows. for. 53 p. we mean by this. would be wholly unaffected in meaning.truth&quot.

the abstract of space and the concrete of bodies. II. yet plurality as such has one and the same mean . Ch. although its main features remain constant in the concepts of geometry and phoronomy. also Das Inertialsystem vor dem Naturforschung. Philos. cit. 65 Poincare. This conclusion is actually drawn. the same sense. differs from the ideal extension of geometry in any properties. we can also say that we do not have to conceive two sorts of extension. The physical space of bodies is no isolated essence.&quot. not a copy. but which have no immediate objective correlate in empirical fact. when the concepts of the &quot. When we system&quot. no measure of time is truer than any other. Cf.pure&quot. whether we define it in purely conceptual terms or represent &quot. but the only proof we can give for any is merely that it is more convenient. ventions. which we perceive in bodies. has deduced the general consequences very decisively. op. II. is that more is posited in the concept of body than in the concept of mere space but it does not follow from this that the extension. our constructive schema. Bk.inertial time-scale&quot. Nouveaux Essais.In it in some concrete example. for the concrete receives its properties 54 We inscribe the data of experience in only through the abstract. but only possible by virtue of the geometrical space of lines and This relation was also expressed by Leibniz in an espe distances. The question 64 raised here is open to no final answer so far as our See Leibniz.186 against the SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION time of mechanics thus space and the prove nothing because they would prove too much logically thought out.. they would also have to forbid every representation of physically given bodies in a geometrical system in which there are fixed positions and distances. and is thus always capable of change. we are never absolutely determined in our choice from without. but this picture always remains a plan. 55 Forum der . cially striking and pregnant saying. that scientific reflection.inertial and the &quot. arbitrariness is It seems. are described as mere con which we introduce in order to survey the facts more easily. an element of admitted into our when we thus ground our assertion concerning reality in previous constructions. Studien. Construction and convention. . 4. and thus gain a picture of physical reality.pure&quot. Vol. ing. indeed. &quot. take any natural phenomenon as absolutely uniform. Number also is something different from the totality of counted things. in an investigation of the conditions of time measurement. It is indeed true. as he explains. and measure all others by it. Ludwig Lange. &quot.

for it reaches over from the a methodologically alien field. they are after all only the universal forms in which it is represented. They are the fundamental orders. but they do not determine the concept needed to fill these empty forms with concrete content. and can have no other than unity and higher completeness in the systematic construction of experience.relative&quot. signifies a metaphysical assumption. This is the ultimate criterion of &quot. but follows a certain law of progress. truth of sort of objectivity. in so far as our intellectual construction is extended and takes up new elements into itself. but it always leaves room for different possibilities of exposition. truth of scientific knowledge.objectivity. although not with the individual perception.tran itself even to be able to conceive the problem of another The distinction between an &quot. 56 This principle has been conceived in different Cf. that must be tested in its right and validity The characterization of the before it can be used as a standard. later Chs. it appears that it does not proceed law according to caprice. It is true this order is never to be established in a single system of concepts. for it shows us that the world-system of physics more and more excludes all the accidents of judgment. Every field of science into scend&quot.absolute&quot. being and a &quot. spontaneity is not unlimited and unrestrained. . Science has no criterion than truth. arranged.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 187 previous investigation is concerned. VII The concept of energy.conventions&quot. Necessary as are space and time in the construction of empirical reality. the separation between what is necessary from the standpoint of our concepts and what is necessary in itself from the nature of the facts. such as seem unavoidable from the standpoint of the individual observer. . but develops a characteristic and original spontaneity (Selbsttdtigkeif) Yet this intelligible . in which the real is of the real itself. A new principle is VI and VII. and discovers in their place that necessity that 56 is universally the kernel of the concept of the object. with the system of perceptions in their order and connection. other conception of the object lies outside its field. ideal conceptual creations as &quot. it must &quot. it is connected. has thus at first only one meaning..&quot. which excludes any choice. it involves the recognition that thought does not proceed merely receptively and imitatively in them.

taste rest on chemical activities in the organs of the nose and mouth. Ostwald. which real type of objective reality for the older natural constitute the science. of sensuous properties. energism claims an epistemological advantage. are reduced to mere abstractions through the closer analysis and eternal. Vorles. the conditions of true and independent existence. from Democritus concept of matter opposed to empty space as the Tra/iTrXTjpts 6v. They are conceptual impressions.&quot. since it is directly revealed unsought in perception itself.thing&quot. Everywhere energies and activities are what inform us as to how the outer world is arranged and what properties it has. we feel the mechanical work that is involved in the compression of our finger Smell and tips and also in the compression of the body touched.What we see is nothing but radiat ing energy. but in the realm of being. &quot. The object is what it lappears to be: a sum of actual and possible ways of acting. In this doctrine. that are felt as light. since it is indestructible physical reasons. of which we gain knowledge to the extent that these energies go over to our body. f. and. a determination of purely philosophical reflection is definite j 57 energies.bearer&quot. which is worked on us by outer things. but it is the concrete effect. I admitted into the foundations of of reflection 67 is scientific thought. the totality of nature appears to us as a division of spatially and temporally changeable energies in space and time. matter. Along with all The atom and of the data and conditions of our knowledge. we need no circuitous route through complicated mathematical hypotheses. in particular to the sense organs constituted for receiving limits. symbol comes between us and the physical thing. but the function Henceforth all thereby limited and exhausted. Here. as a passive and indifferent [substratum of properties is now set aside. from this standpoint. for the first time. What we sense is not the doubtful and in itself entirely indefinite matter. we seem to have the ground of reality under our all Here we have a being that fulfills feet. that we assume as the &quot. until its final logical definition in the modern conception of energy. to which we attach our The &quot. p. 159 . but they can never be In in real meaning with the immediate sensation itself. uber Naturphilosophie.188 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION ways. Here no mere energy. And in order to grasp this ultimate being. here we are no longer in the realm of mere thought. When we touch a solid body. compared we grasp the real because it is the effective. which effects chemical changes in the retina of our eye.

ener can be seen or heard is obviously no less nai ve than the notion gies&quot. logically at least. from an epistemological point of view. To measure a perception means to change it into another form of being and to with definite theoretical assumptions of judgment. by which we make the sensuous manifold unitary and uniform in conception. &quot.hypotheses. but not numerical differences of quantities of work. of sensation: of What warm and cold. is light given us are qualitative differences and dark. Number. however. The notion that &quot. Whatever physical advantages the concept of energy may have over that of matter and the atom. Energy and the sense qualities. There is one doubt that on the same plane and belong to the This is shown negatively in the similar from the sensuously given. 141 ff. sweet and bitter. If we conceive the problem in this way. can not be misunderstood as substance. which energism might claim over mechanism. but rather in that it understood them more clearly in their It could not be a matter of entirely excluding logical character. but only of not making them into absolute properties approach it (Cf. it is seen that energism contains a motive from the beginning. It is to of things as numerical values and relations that the theoretical and experimental inquiry are alike directed.&quot. Its fundamen tal thought. which protects it more than any other physical view from the danger of an immediate hypostatization of abstract principles.) is done by dogmatic materialism. unless we are to revert to the mysticism of Pythago- reanism. and consid eration limited to the reproduction of the empirical facts. but it signifies merely a general point of view. Energy and the concept of number. does not go back primarily to the concept of space. The advantage. could never consist in that it did without these presup positions. but to that of number. or conceptual husk becomes increasingly clear. that the &quot. p. of theoretical physics can be directly touched and difference of both grasped with the hands. and in them consists the real kernel of the fundamental law.matter&quot. we have brought about just such a translation into a foreign language as energism criticizes in the mechanical view of the world. The evolution of the conception of energy offers a concrete physical . both stand same sphere of consideration. In the of this task.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE merely speculative points of view can be 189 strictly excluded. the primal reality itself without abstract accomplishment felt must be with regard to this conception. When we refer sensations to such magnitudes and their mutual relations.

once discovered. in this sense. It is not enough for us to express the individual physical and chemical i properties in a pure numerical value. and thus their reciprocal dependency. and to represent the object as k totality of such &quot. certain abstract types. as long as these series are separated from each other. If this postulate is to find its adequate expression in science. motion. Only then it becomes clear how all the threads of the mathe matical system of phenomena are connected on all sides. so that all these differ ent fields again becomes members of an inclusive system. ordered and graded accord But the real task of knowledge of nature ing to some point of view.190 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION for this general process of knowledge. it was extended beyond this starting-point. chemical attraction mean at first only tions. The insertion of the sensuous manifold into series of purely mathe example first step in the matical structure remains inadequate. the general the conception of energism can be surveyed. among themselves by a unitary law. we must seek a principle. but. The structure of mathematical physics is in principle complete when we have arranged the members of the individual series according to an exact numerical scale. in principle it is not yet begun. This relation was first estab lished empirically in the case of the equivalence of motion and heat. Only when is done is the way determined from one member to any and prescribed by fixed rules of deduction.parameters. The given only becomes an object of knowledge when it is &quot. and when we discover a constant numerical relation governing the transition from one series to the others. by as cribing to it a definite place in a manifold. The conception was soon extended as a universal postulate to the totality of possible physical manifolds in general. electricity.established&quot. so that no element remains without connection. the &quot. in fact. series.thing&quot. it means the unity of the properties. to which we relate the whole of our percep In order to advance from them to a representation of the real process. which enables us to connect the different series. The concept of meaning of the measure of work. a thorough mediation is needed. For the object means more than a mere sum of properties. Heat.&quot. no matter what the other. in which we have first arranged the content of the given. The law of energy this . We saw that the mathematical objectification of the given was to conceive it under certain serial concepts. is not thereby exhausted. of popular experience is not yet wholly grasped in its logical meaning. As long as this is the case. From this point.

In itself. C. In the concept of these determinations of magnitude are related to a common work.from nothing. we have here a number of series A. . all member one quantum of chemical attraction. which we take as a basis. which arose &quot. energy.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE directs us to coordinate every 191 member of a manifold with one and only one any other manifold. can arbi trarily vary without the result being affected. totality of possible relations. . however. would violate the principle of the mutual one to one coordination of all series.0^ All that can be said of it reference on which we base measurement. The unit of comparison. B. We briefly by always coordinat member with the multitude of corresponding but by ascribing to it once for all a certain value of equivalents. of which the members ai a 2 a 3 a n bi b 2 b 3 bn .types since the transformation of the different of energy&quot. into this form relatively easy and exactly measurable. it appears that energy in this form of deduction is never a new thing. but is a unitary system . for any quantity of work. etc. that prevail between the different fields of physics. . then every numerical difference that we find within one series can be completely expressed and reproduced in the appropriate values of any other series. even when we go over to any other series for the purpose of their numerical comparison. on scientific grounds is exhausted in the quantitative relations of equivalence. stand in a definite physical relation of exchangeability. If two elements work corresponds to then this equality must be of maintained. If such a connection is once established. If we wish to represent the system schematically. . . which draws all these coordinations into a single pregnant ex We do not compare the different systems with each other pression. be taken as the basis for expressing the In any case.. .. . In this postulate. any arbitrary series could . directly. to any quantum of of electricity.&quot. &quot. c n . the essential content of the principle of conservation is already exhausted. such that any member of A can be replaced by a definite member of B or C without the capacity of work of the physical system in which Ci 02 Ca . to which they are all that we is equally related. but create for this purpose a common series. It is chiefly owing to technical circumstances traditionally choose mechanical work as this common series. this substitution is represent this relation of possible substitution not ing each individual assumed being thereby changed. denominator. in so far as to any quantum of motion there corresponds one quantum of heat. field are any them in any of equal when the same amount series of physical qualities.

As a principle. it definite &quot. convictions. and yet also nothing of all these.e. in the form of a particular thing. The content . we are led to make a general logical remark. and to stance. The one. as it may appear. If we clothed the principle itself. but it signifies merely an objective correlation according to law.form&quot. which was at once motion and heat. or as the expression of a causal relation. we should create the same dogmatic confusion. we recognize anew penetrate into those of &quot. energy would be a somewhat. in which all these contents stand. even in the form of thing. has always the form of a supreme mathematical law. which have their real origin in itself. Two different views were opposed similar part from a plurality of similar perceptions.matter. to each other in the problem of the concept. however. However frankly the physical investigator intends to stand face to face with nature can nevertheless be shown that in the construction of energism motives have been at work. Its real meaning and function consists in the equation it permits us to establish between the diverse groups of processes. and cannot understand it. At this point. the effect of general logical theories is evident. and how lasting is their influence. here where consideration seems wholly given over to the facts. bases the concept on the procedure of abstraction. Con ceived as a particular thing. electri city and magnetism. Science at least knows nothing of such a transformation into sub The identity science seeks. in the midst of the controversial questions of contemporary philosophy of Paradoxical nature. the all-inclusive substance.192 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION Energy does not appear as a new objective somewhat.formal&quot. that has remained dominant in traditional logic. At how deeply the problems of &quot. such as light and heat.. from which all these phenomena can be meas ured. alongside of the already known physical contents.&quot. depends finally on our general idea of the nature of the scientific construction of concepts in general.the&quot. magnetism and electricity. and thus brought into one system in spite of all sensuous &quot. which demands the definite quantitative correlation of the totality of phenomena. which it connects the chaotic individual phenomena. of an all-inclusive and thus ultimately propertyless and indeterminate object. not. Whether we conceive energy as a substance. i. it signifies nothing but an intel lectual point of view. on the separating out of an identical or this point. The formal presuppositions of energism. diversity. that energism charges against materialism.

The meaning of this opposition (Cf: above esp. only here do we remain purely in the field of the facts themselves.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 193 thus gained is.presentation of the common. that belong uniformly to definite classes of objects. first procedure strictly corresponds to the demands of and philosophic criticism. of the same property and nature as the object from which it is abstracted. For only here are we sure that we do not falsify the observations by arbitrary interpretation. it is this opposition.abstractive&quot. proceeds from purely methodological considerations in his treatise devoted to the first establishment of the conception. Physics. as he explains. strictly speaking. by the fact that the definitions fundamental in the new an abstract science do not necessarily correspond to and the theorems deduced from them need not necessarily be laws of real processes and phenomena.&quot. and which belongs to them directly in their sensuous appearance. and therefore possesses a concrete existence. it is the unification of those individual features. or we can go behind the phenomena to certain &quot. that is noticeable in modern discussion as to the formula tion of the principle of energy. p. a properties common to a class of real objects. Only the scientific hypotheses for the explanation of the field of physical facts in question. that are isolated. is another that is founded above all on the In this concept. development of any existing things. rests. its organization these are investigated in their characteristic relational structure. such characteristically separated as geometry. we do not analysis of the mathematical concepts. We can. separate from a group of given things or phenomena that group of determinations which is common to all members of the class. by a pure method. Here it is not so much the particular parts of the given. Rankine. however. in general.energetics. while the true scientific concept is to be nothing but the designation of certain There is.) but rather the connections and relations on which in views of the concept now appears from a new angle. and 81 ff. 14 ff. to separate the given by comparison into classes whose indi attempt vidual examples all agree in certain properties. The concept is accordingly the &quot. two-fold way to separate out such properties. yet which can always be pointed out as a constitutive part in these objects. is from the purely abstract sciences. for .&quot. but to construct the given from a postulate of unity by a process according to law. Opposed to this conception. who first created the name and concept of a general &quot. it represents a property that in general is not isolated.

which we have called energy. we would merely separate out those properties. and in this way define more inclusive classes. It signifies nothing else than the capacity to bring forth changes. 68 known of as real deduction Rankine. and without they would cease to be physical phenomena for us. In this way. and proves these rules concerns merely the historical development of 59 but the logical form he chooses for his thoughts is of the physics.194 while SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION we divide the facts into definite classes. since they are merely inductively derived from the facts themselves. Paris 1907. especially on Rankine. the phenomenon fluid. The laws of energy. and this Rankine s capacity is the most universal determination that we can it distinguish in the bodies of our world of perception. deduction of energetics. It movements. Rey. Vol. also A. . we add no foreign an advantage in principle of the new science that from the beginning it uses merely this abstractive does not refer the phenomenon of heat to molecular of magnetism to any hypothetical in the simple form in which they are procedure. and somehow attaches to every body as such. are free from that uncertainty. Proceedings of the Philo sophical Society of Glasgow. that these classes have in common. 49 ff. but it grasps both merely &quot. which always attaches even to such mechanical hypotheses whose consequences seem com and which. 110 ff. Die Energetik. London and Glasgow. which we represent by appropriate terms. of energetics. we see. Oullines of the Science of Energetics. p. they must be applicable to every branch of physics in general. If we discover definite universal laws concerning this property. of physical processes in some obscure way out of motions and forces. Helm. It is feature to them. pletely confirmed by experience. 381 ff. then.. No part of reality can escape these laws. owe their universality to the circumstance that the property of things. and must represent a system of rules.Instead of compounding the different classes offered to perception. p. La Theorie de la Physique chez les Physiciens contemporains.&quot. 69 Cf. is spread throughout the physi cal universe. because each part is This form only by this distinguishing property. most general philosophical interest. we finally reach a group of principles applicable to all physical phenomena in general. p. allowing for particular circumstances. Ill. which every natural 58 The way in which Rankine establishes process as such obeys. The first result gained from this mode of investigation is the general concept of energy. 1855.

analysis. And even if we grant the &quot.abstractive&quot. If we define a symmetrical and &amp. it is must escape it. Thus. Energy is. abstraction in modern logic. under which energy is conceived here. the one indestruct Criticism of the method of physical abstraction. It stands in principle on the same plane with the perceptible things.power of producing effects&quot. Modern logic. whose essential being it constitutes. is the capacity to produce and to receive effects. The unprejudiced.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 195 already determines the general intellectual category. concepts cause and effect. between concepts. rationalistic is clear that precisely that aspect only a division and grouping of the material of perception. . the procedure relations but from is not from things and their common properties. as here understood. the gap to be pointed out is not so much in point Rankine s physics as in his theory of method. the most general property by which the objects of physical reality are distinguished. we are referred to a system of intellectual conceptions and conditions. but with the fact that it can be exactly measured. as it were. According to Rankine. if abstraction. From the stand of epistemology. itself. Both and empiristic criticism agree at least in one that there are no direct impressions corresponding to the conclusion. which Rankine regards as the ideal of true science.gt.construction of series. which can never be adequately grounded from the ordinary standpoint of we abstraction. at any has substituted for the old principle of abstraction a new one.&quot. as has been shown on all hands. which has no sufficient basis in the purely abstractive procedure. to be a quality inhering in bodies just as does any other sensuous property. concrete substantiality ible and eternal being. even so the real problem would not yet be solved. on which the concept of energy is founded. are not concerned as to whether this power of producing effects can in general be shown to exist. such as their color or odor. The problem of rate.&quot. The mathematical foundation of energetics already involves all those methods of &quot. shows with certainty that causality is no property that can be pointed out as an immediate part of perceptions. which may be introduced here. Things first ceived as members gain their real objective character. In the construction of energetics. But as soon as we enquire as to the methods by which this numerical determination is made possible. when they are con of actual or possible causal relations. In this new principle of abstrac tion. &quot.

166. If we now apply this result to the physical construction is an essential feature of the modern concept of energy Here also we start from the establishment of clearly revealed. ( /. many-one relation. 61 can stand in the corresponding relation We have an example of this procedure in the relation between series. have discovered a new self -existent . relation. Here we have a symmet precedes s. Principles of Mathematics. while x. f if in the series in s (x (n) x } precedes a member y.b. that we do not claim to thin^. bR x. and transitive etc. cRb and aRc follow). with reference to which we can make our assertions regarding the relations of the the series uniformly. cR x. the pos sible relations between the serial establishing the relation of each to this tions members can now be represented by x.type of order&quot. s . 219 ff. and thus forming the rela aR x. c can stand in the relation mentioned to no other term than x. a new concept call the common &quot. which stands in a definite relation R to every member of our original series. The relation R R is here an asymmetrical. concentrated judgment. On the series bound together in this manner.&quot. It is clear. We replace the system of coordinations by the assumption of an identical property. .196 transitive relation SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION R for a number of members a. given series more pregnant. Ch. the correlate of the correlate of y(y ).. on the contrary. and bring them to a single. we ascribe one and the same conceptual property. Two series s and s are said to be similar to each other in the ordinal sense. of concepts. II.similarity. then the connection produced in this way can also always be expressed by introducing a new identity x. of all these series. with several members. dis- We 80 For the concept of the transitive and symmetrical relation see above. . by which a plurality of series s. s can now which we all the basis of this relation. the relations bRa. 61 more particularly Russell. which we call their &quot. which belongs to all however. .. when there subsists between them a definite. so that the members a. and when. To can be connected. certain dependencies between empirically physical series. reciprocal relation of such a sort that to every member of s one member of s corresponds (and conversely). (so that from 60 the relations aRb and bRc. etc. . p. b. . by the principle of abstraction.c. a member x rical s&quot.oui claim is only that a common ideal point of reference is thereby produced. Instead of comparing the members directly with each other in their possible relations. we produce.

^^ ^^*~&quot. to every individual of the series. then from aAb.equivalence. .being&quot. &quot. If we follow the traditional doctrine of abstraction. tents. which at first seem to stand side by side and independent. in which it has arisen. itself. a certain quantity of energy. are connected with each other by a rela &quot. M &quot. actual oppositions may be concealed recognize&quot. thus the condition of symmetry and transitivity is fulfilled. is not ivthat of an the isolated &quot.Tn^^~^^ &quot. behind the differences regarding the logical schema. In the one case. then we are almost neces it is i M^^^Eiffi^^^^^&quot. transitive and symmetrical relation between physical con going 62 and it is the validity of this universally applicable relation._ in i r At this point. in the other case in the creation of a highest common standard of measurement for changes in general.reality. * sarily forced to a substantial interpretation of energy. The being.&quot. The transformation of force into motion. tion of by in one series one and virtue of which there corresponds to a value extend this only one value of the other.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 197 isolated cover that the manifolds. which he introduced. and. which leads us to introduce a new being by coordinating a certain work-value. bAa evi dently follows. as he emphasizes. nothing but the establishment of the fact that certain quantitative relations are found between two different groups of phenomena. . that whenever any arbitrary groups of physical phenomena are given. sensuous propertv to be perceived for of certain laws of connection-. would obviously lose compared all meaning. We connection by taking more and more fields of physical process into account. Some of the representatives of energism have already made the latter logical interpretation.&quot.&quot. member This being. meant for him. posited in it. however. while the functional theory of the concept finds natural correlate in a functional determination of the supreme physical &quot. who also determined the general theoretical position of the new concept. &quot. until finally on the ground of observation and general deductive reasons we draw the conclusion. of motion into heat. definite relations of equivalence must Here is given a thorough prevail between them. 1 i _. Here we must remember above all Robert Mayer. if we wished to separate it from the whole system of judgments. as on the other hand the validity of aAb and bAc also involves that of aAc.How heat arises from disappearing motion all 62 If we denote the relation of equivalence by A. as the example of its Rankine shows. % but j we anew what deep. consideration ends in the assumption of a property common to all bodies. Energy as a relational concept.

this &quot.As 64 quantitative relations among the phenomena of nature. if we saw an absolute in energy. contradicts every definition that ascribes to it the properties of a substance. H when he understands that the resulting amount of water can be precisely determined from the disappearing amounts of oxygen and hydrogen. Heft 2). in SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION my manner How to demand an of speaking. 1904 (Abh. &quot. that is the formula of energetics. are subjected. how answer to this is to motion is transformed into heat of the : demand too much human mind. 85 See H. which even in its general name points to a peculiar logical problem. (Kausalmass) is given by H. above p. of relations/ and is not to establish a new absolute in the world. // changes occur..&quot.&quot. is more and more divested of all sensuous Thus mean This (Cf.&quot. Driesch. that our questions can find their answer in the atoms.) ing with the advance of knowledge. 217 ff. 85 can. 187). development appears most clearly in the concept of potential energy. the sense of its cannot be questioned. and not rather the temporarily most adequate expression of &quot. 26. Die Prinzipien der Mechanik. that the alleged substantial energy should exist in such diverse forms of existence as the kinetic and the potential form. but yet it is a dream. why a material of disappearing O and does not result. in fact. Naturbegriffe und Natururteile. to which his objects. The same definition of energy as a mere &quot. as the spirit of investigation has rested in the bed of sloth of an It may be a comfortable dream absolute. like the atom. would trouble no chemist. p. Berlin. according to 43 64 Such a relation Gauss theory of negatives. as it is ordinarily conceived. energy.causal standard of measurement&quot. while the totality of potential energy in a system is under some circumstances to be expressed by a negative value. Helm. for the quantity of a substance must necessarily be a positive magnitude. then this definite mathematical relation subsists such connection. Die Energetik. Potential energy. 63 Helm justly remarks here. 20.&quot.In between them. give water. . it has been undone. than when he is conscious of no the materials.energetics is a pure system founder. But other properties whether he does not come closer to the laws. only be explained Mayer to Griesinger (Kleinere Schriften und Briefe. and certainly it is often also the only formula of all true knowledge of nature. As Heinrich Hertz has emphasized. Hertz. 562. Philos.198 or. der Naturwiss. p. zur Didaktik u. there is a peculiar difficulty in the assumption. p. And it would be no less a dream.

then it is clearly evident that no immediate substantial standard is applied to both. such a motion can be trans formed again into the elevation of a weight. &quot. without previously having reduced them to processes of movement.where not sub stances (objects conceivable in themselves) but relations between two objects are counted.&quot. this very category of object gradually assumes a new mean ing.when it is transformed into motion. . i.e. The atom. and thus can be substituted for each other from the standpoint of pure magnitude. on the other hand. but not merely as abstract measuring values. The two are the because they share any objective property. (Cf. Kleiner e Schriflen und Briefe.The eleva content. sensuous intellectual moment.. and that they are not compared with each other according to any similarity of factual property. 66 Mayer. as ordinar understood by its adherents. the reduced model of the empirical. and posit that new we call energy as an expression of this relation. duced as a unitary and indestructible object. The processes remain unaffected ily our assertions are merely directed to But. advantage of energism over the &quot. always appears as the meaning gradually analogue. We begin with the discovery of an exact numerical relation.) Even where energy is at first intro Energetics and mechanics.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 199 where that which is counted has an opposite. as in the case of Robert Mayer. as all their causal connection. in so far as it permits us to relate two qualitatively different fields of natural phenomena.same&quot. precisely this exclusive reference to the numerical rule of relation involves a new in their specific character.&quot. says Robert Mayer.and the movement of such a weight with a velocity of 10 meters per second. 178.mechanical&quot. in opposition to atomism. 66 If mere elevation above a certain level (thus a mere state) is here assumed to be identical with the fall over a certain distance (thus with a temporal process). as it were. are one and the same object.object&quot. even while its purely conceptual becomes more pronounced. tion of a kilogram to a height of 5 meters. but then naturally ceases to be motion. . &quot. but because they can occur as members of the same causal equation. hypotheses. and thus having divested them of their specific character. &quot. above p. which appears in a double form of existence. just as the elevation of a weight is no longer elevation of a weight. is that it keeps closer to the given facts of perception. p.&quot. The real radically new turn is taken. 56. Here a &quot. this new meaning is for the purpose of doing justice to the new &quot.

But it is an error to see in this tendency to a &quot. which energism makes to understand the different groups of physical processes in their specific character (instead of transforming them into mechani cal processes and thereby extinguishing their individual features) is one that now seems limited although justified within a certain sphere. while energy belongs to another field in its origin. of which the geometrician treats.We &quot. tative&quot. because. intuitive picture. as long as the indefinite sensations of warmer and same time. and what is the condition of its existence. we must abandon all the attempts that have con tinually been made since the time of Descartes. the claim. without our being obliged to require represen tation of this system in a unitary. and have thereby received a new logical form and character.quali a reversion to the general Aristotelian view of the physics are forced. But the of a deeper connection. entirely different further working out of the thought destroys the appearance The qualities of Aristotle are something from the qualities of modern physics. the latter have already passed through the whole conceptual system of mathematics. electrical or magnetic. The question whether heat is motion can remain in the colder are replaced at the degree of temperature background. we must face the danger that we shall energism. and thus to agree that matter has qualities. by which a body is warm or bright. as an original and not further reducible property in it. Energy is able to institute an order among the totality of phenomena. in other words. What energism abandons is only the &quot. says a prominent. the general logical possibility appears here of our shaping nature into a system. lacking concrete existence. What is here retained of .to take up into our physics other features than the purely quantitative elements. From the epistemological standpoint. by the concept of an exact and objectified in it. modern advocate of &quot. for while the former signify only hypostasized sensuous properties.200 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION body. such as is offered by mechanism.&quot. of recognizing the quality. and connect our theories again with the essential concepts of the peripatetic physics.explanation&quot. because it itself is all on the same plane with no one of them. is the expression of quality in a definite number which fully represents and replaces it in our consideration. energy only expresses a pure relation of mutual dependency. world. In fact.&quot. on the other hand. what it retains. be accused of a reversion to the occult faculties of scholasticism. of the particular quali ties out of certain mechanical motions.

Levolution de la Mecanique. Energism (Cf. physics only completes and applies a thought already recognized in the general doctrine of the principles of mathematics. tances shows how it is possible to place the elements of a spatial manifold in exact correlation to fixed numerical values. There is. whose judgment regarding the connection between the energistic and the peripatetic physics was just cited. cit. 67 says we can develop a theory of heat and can define the expression &quot. who first saw the essence of mathematics in a doctrine of the possible forms of deductive con nection in general. Duhem. 84 ff. a &quot. general problem of mathematical determination can be worked out without any necessity for this sort of concrete composition of a whole out of its parts. up to modern projective geometry and the theory of groups.) shows that this form of numerical order is not necessarily connected without analyzing the things and processes into their ultimate The intuitive parts. it quality clearly appears that there are wide and fruitful fields perfectly accessible to mathematical determination without their objects being extensive magnitudes which have arisen by the repeated additive The projective theory of dis positing of one and the same unity. There is a continuous development beginning with Leibniz. 197 ff. and who therefore demanded the completion of ordinary algebra (as the science of quantity) by a general science of (Scientia generalis de qualitate). and can be. above p. 51 Duhem. The gradual development of this latter can already be traced in its general features. above p. as also H. the definite empirical system under investiga tion is replaced by a system of numerical values. 68 In the schema of theoretical physics. because and in so far as there is a mathematics of qualities. (Cf. p. but merely the peculiarity of mathematical serial form.) This thought is carried over by universal energetics to the 67 Duhem.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE quality its 201 is not its sensuous property. without borrowing anything from the specific perceptions of cold and warm. p.. f . without applying the ordinary metrical concept of distance. 233 f . however.&quot. op. In this whole development. which express its various quantitative elements. 150 f. and recompounding them from the latter. Naturbe- griffe 68 und Natururteile. ..physics of qualities. Physics as a science of qualities. p.quantity of heat&quot. Driesch. In this conception. and to imprint a definite order upon them by virtue of this correlation.

measure&quot.measurability&quot. (Cf. and can thus be represented by repeated addition of the same Every measure would thus necessarily be a determination of extension. under which we can still speak of a &quot. chez les Physiciens contemporains. Rey. etc. this criterion is satisfied. however.202 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION It is sufficient for the numerical totality of physical manifolds. 81 ff. its is based purely on the concept of number. in the one case. is &quot. Abstracting from this. Theorie de la Physique Here. 69 Only those princifinally thai has been objected occasionally to the logical possibility of the goal general energetics sets itself. energism is in any case of preemi nent epistemological interest in so far as the attempt is made to establish the minimum of conditions. however. retained independently of any mechanical interpretation of particular groups of by an and the phenomena. not only such contents are share some intuitive property that can be given for itself. while. of a obviously taken too narrowly. that every measurement of things and processes involves the presupposition that they are compounded out of homo tt 9l unit.&quot. (Cf. can be established objective law. The objection frequently raised against energism. that it destroys the homogeneity of process since in it nature falls into separate classes of phenomena. the difference only consists in that.) of &quot. reference to a unit of measurement would thus already contain the transforma tion of all qualitative differences into extensive distances. in the other case. the values within these different scales are reciprocally coordinated with each other This connection. p.) Here. the connection of concepts pro duced by the equivalence between the different series gives a no less definite logical connection than reduction to a common mechanical fixed conceptual rule. of phenomena in general. for only history can show which of the two views can be most adequate to the concrete tasks and problems. but all which can be deduced from each other by a structures are &quot. above especially however.&quot.like. 264. 286. manifold only its mathematical determination in general. is not conclusive. and if. the concept If we understand under the La . genous parts. however.like. model. it also requires the concept of space. formulation of processes if a definite scale of comparison is provided for the individual qualities. The conflict between these two conceptions can ultimately only be decided by the history of physics itself.measurement&quot. further. The intellectual postulate of homogeneity is just as effective in the energistic as in the mechanistic conception of the natural realization processes. and thus reduction to a spatial and mechanical scheme. p. If we take the mathematical general concept as the starting-point and which standard of judgment. &quot.

then mathematics itself shows that such a correlation is also possible where the objects of the group in question are not compounded out of spatial parts.in knowledge are rather satisfied when a way is shown for relating every physical process to values of mechanical work. That the different forms of energy themselves&quot.meta physical.essence. which serve only in the treatment of a field. &quot. but. the more it composition.&quot. be gained in this way. principles of knowledge of nature special hypotheses. from those particular because mathematical. But it is of logical value to separate the general presuppositions strictly from the particular assumptions. between heat and motion. relation. on which rests the numerical deter mination of any particular process whatever and its numerical comparison with any other process.&quot. The comparison itself. but the further i. and to separate the &quot. the it also tends correlation of its elements with the particular members of the series of numbers. are of kinetic nature is a proposition that the theory of knowledge cannot defend. VIII The problem of the construction of concepts in chemistry. . on the basis of which it also maintains the homogeneity of such processes as can in no way be sensuously reduced to each other.. in which each individual process has its definite place. A representation of the processes of nature absolutely without hypotheses cannot. mathematical physics begins by establishing an exact numerical trary. however. indeed. on the con &quot.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE pies 203 and rules are truly general. involves a theoretical transformation of the empirical material of perception. not on those of absolute being. and thus for producing a complex of coordinations. purely empirical description of the particular substances Chemistry seems to begin with the and their advances. The exposi tion of the conceptual construction of exact natural science is incom plete on the logical side as long as it does not take into consideration the fundamental concepts of chemistry. for trans lation into the language of the abstract numerical concepts. for the latter is merely directed on the fundamental aspects of know The demands of the theory of ing.e. no less than translation into the language of spatial concepts. The epistemological inter est of these fundamental concepts rests above all on the intermediate position which they occupy. does not presuppose that we have already discovered any unity of for example.

70 Nernst. The limits of purely empirical and of rational knowledge stand out very clearly in the constant shifting. Chemistry places the problem of the individual thing decisively in the foreground. in the specific has in mathematics and physics. It is. belong to the same purely mathematical type as the propositions of theoretical physics. Die Ziele der physikalischen Chemie. is not available for this For it is only the symbol of a certain form of connec tion. on the basis of the empiri toward is fact cal data. that has more and more lost all material content. of special interest to trace the way in which the ideal. power of scientific moulding is especially striking with the The more stubborn material. But the &quot. has only been gradually reached in chemistry. The intermediate terms and con ditions of exact understanding are brought into sharp relief. not the &quot. ranged. Ultimately physics is only apparently concerned with thing-concepts. for its goal and real field is that of pure law concepts.concept. which they investigate. Its funda it stands on no other ground logically than physics itself.what&quot. a leading representative of this discipline is able to give as the connecting feature of physics and chemistry. mental laws. this goal in constructive concepts. Are we here concerned with a gap that is to be filled out by new determinations belonging to the same logical direction of thought. that both create the systems. of the elements ar meaning it new problem. 70 In so far as chemistry has reached this modern form. The chemistry of sensuous qualities and Richter This question can only be answered s if law of definite we follow the concrete historical development of chemical doctrines themselves. Here the particular materials of empirical reality and their particular proper ties are the object of the enquiry. . In fact.204 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION In physical chemistry. or must we recognize and introduce at this point a form of knowledge different in principle? proportions. Gottingen 1896. which they undergo in the progress of chemical knowledge. however. which was realized in theoretical physics from its first beginnings in Galileo and Newton. as for example the law of phases (Phasenregel) of Gibbs or the law of chemical masses (Massenwirkung).&quot. not grasping the vast wealth of their content in detail. according to which the development can be divided and surveyed in all its diversity. with which chemistry works. reached. a few general characteristics soon appear of themselves. but laying bare the great logical lines of direction of their advance. it only signifies a type of possible arrangement.

that the series of weights of the bases forms_an arithmetical series. and a series of bases BI B 2 B 3 there prevails between the two a certain relation. . which 71 is assTimecTtb be analogous to that of the distances ff. m . salt the property of solubility. .THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 205 The older form of the chemical doctrine of elements.. The manner. Here the elements are only the hypostatizations of the especially striking sensuous qualities. we coordinate with each member of the first series a definite number while we let correspond to the members of the second mim 2m3 series other constant numerical values n^ns. J. cf. Thus sulphur by its presence confers on any body the property of combustibility. p. still incomplete D. and in particular inde pendently of the atomic hypothesis. which are found empirically in any material. conceives the element as a generic property belonging to all the members of a definite group and determining their perceptible type. 213 . and that of the acids a geometrical series. form. It is interest ing that this law is at first conceived entirely independently of any conception of the constitution of matter. in which the different elements are connected with each other. acids A! A 2 A 3 . 71 This conception is only tran scended in principle when along with the task of dividing bodies into classes according to their generic properties is added the other task of gaining exact quantitative proportions concerning their mutual relation. The demand for strict numerical determination here also forms the decisive turning point. these numbers. and that a law is thus found here. con stitutes the starting-point of modern chemical theory. Leitlinien der Chemie. in which an element of the first series combines with an element of the second. p. Identite et Realite.. which is expressed by saying. in In the original. according to which an acid A p combines with any base B q are related according to the correspond Richter seeks to prove in detail ing numerical values p and n q . also Meyerson. 4 ff. Richter. to be gained by observation. See Ostwald. and which found its last characteristic expression in the theory of phlogiston. while mercury is the bearer of the metallic properties. which pre dominated up to the time of Lavoisier. the two weights. that primarily nothing If we consider a series of prevail between different series of bodies. is definitely determined by . it signifies by but the validity of certain harmonic relations. . The law of the definite proportions. that which it was first asserted .

Richter is to be compared with Kepler. according to however. Braunschweig 1902. that is. Here it is actually at only asserted. if we consider not his whole achievements but merely his intellectual tendency. numbers of the individual bodies. 3rd. but it is nevertheless characteristic and significant in its general tendency. Die modernen Theorien der Chemie. is combined by Dalton with a certain interpretation. determine that of oxygen by the value 72 O= 8 instead of O = 16. Breslau 384. Paris 1902. especially Wurtz. for with Kepler he shares the conception of the thorough-going numerical arrangement of the is present at the cradle of modern physics. while within the atom is means. La Theorie atomique. 5th iiber die On ed.harmony&quot. It is. assertions appear regarding an essential property of their ultimate constitutive parts. their masses are related as whole multiples of these numbers. 53 ff .multiple proportion&quot. as it is also at the cradle In this connection. our knowledge only concerns the relations. Vortrdge Entmcklungsgeschichte der Chemie. which here be satisfactory of modern chemistry. universe. that there is a characteristic equivalence-number for each element. no definite determination all is possible of the absolute values of the atomic weights. If we take the atomic weight of hydrogen as a unit of comparison. Duhem. 69 ff. p. 72 This conception has not proved to empirically. Since. without contradicting the known facts of composition. then we can.. For the following data from the history of chemistry. that the atoms of different simple bodies are same chemical genus the one and the same constant mass. p. besides the well- known general historical works. the general Pythagorean doctrine of the &quot. Ladenburg. Le Mixte et la combinaison chimique. The concept of combinationweight is transformed into that of atomic weight. see espec. as we see. . But this rule of &quot. Lothar Meyer.206 of the planets SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION from the sun. of the cosmos. The interpretation of the law of constant combination-numbers by its real scientific new first concrete feature to this general view.. which is continued in all particular fields of phenomena. Ladenburg. Paris 1879. and enters only in this form into the system of chemical doctrines. ed. and always unchangeably thus the mass suffices to characterize a given simple material in its In place of the empirically gained proportionspecific character. when two or more elements enter into a combination.. whereby we would cf. and that.. which the elements enter into combinations. The law of multi ple proportions different in their masses. Richter. Duhem. founder adds a Dalton s law of multiple proportions.

which are only gradually worked out in the history of chemistry. Bk. and tion-formula. One of the most important criteria is the rule of Avogadro. which is hereby made possible. so much the more The substantial definitely the wealth of these properties appears. We see how in their combination they generate. and thus lays the basis of a definite system of chemical formulae. and also the determination on the basis of isomorphism. we . II-IV. which rests on the law of Dulong-Petit. of the atom is revealed and takes on fixed and tangible for us. I. 73 The development here completed concept. It is only the totality of all these different points of view. . Lothar Meyer. how they are mutually connected in the unified structure of the molecule. Ostwald. according to which similar quantities of molecules of different combinations occupy the same volume as perfect gases under the same conditions of pressure and temperature. Lpz. form We trace. 16. &quot. a general logical problem.. The decision between all these made on the basis of several criteria. Along with the determination of atomic weights from the density of vapors. indicates an equal number of atoms connected in the same way. and to define more them more exactly. if we abstract from all details. how especially in the involved chemical constitu the atoms are situated relatively to each other. resting on the law of Mitscherlich. If we asked merely the individual investigators who cooperated. there is their determination from heat capacity. in all our formulae.inwardness&quot. for example..THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE have to double the number of 207 atoms of oxygen 8. is Cf. The presupposed. by their number and 73 relative position. and thus. Grundriss der allgemeinen Chemie. in so far as we formed the chemical formulae in agreement with one of these assumptions. it is objective existence of the different types of atoms only necessary to discover their properties. as the atomic weight of sulphur. that the same crystal form having different combinations. mutually confirming and correcting each other. a certain structural outline. 1909.. such as esp. 4th ed. more particularly Pt. that finally after many experiments gives a unitary table of atomic weights. The further we advance and the diverse groups of phenomena we consider. characterize sulphide of hydrogen according to our choice by the could successively take the values S = 32 expression HS 2 or HS or possible determinations is H 2S. it would seem to possess only one perfectly definite and clear meaning The atom as a relational offers for is them all.

according to the law of Gay Lussac. series. speak of the number of atoms contained in a atom itself We of a gaseous substance.208 expressed. It becomes clear that the atom is never the given starting-point. Here again appears the same intellectual process. As we apparently investigate the in its manifold determinations.. The characteristic logical function of the concept of the atom appears clearly in these examples we may abstract from all b&quot. but is related to another kind of empirical &quot.) The attempt to determine exactly the atomic weight of the individual elements compels us to appeal constantly to new fields of chemico-physiml phenomena as criteria. we at the same time these different groups of circumstances in a new relation to place each other. (Cf. as rather with relating them reciprocally to each other through the mediation of the concept of the atom. The wealth of content it gains in the progress of scientific investiga tion never belongs to it fundamentally. however. the complicated truth. . a b etc. subsists between the numerical value of the density of the gas and the value of its com bination-weight. a&quot. In &quot. above p. The atom functions here as the conceived unitary center of a system of coordi nates. .&quot. 196 ff .subject. metaphysical assertions regarding the existence of atoms. . then there is a definite correlation between these two . . bn .&quot. in the forms of crystals.bearer. b&quot. that we previously met. We ascribe to the atom of all simple bodies the definite volume that. in so far as the products ab. . and thereby express a relation. but always only the goal of our scientific statements. if we arrange a&quot. the general picture soon changes. If we look into the closer empirical grounding of these assertions. in which we conceive all assertions concerning the various groups of chemical properties arranged. same heat-capacity and thereby express the fact that. The particular property only apparently connected with the atom as its absolute in order that the system of relations can be perfected. To the extent that this . combination-weights of the chemical elements in a series a a and the values of their specific heats in another series b b an . but by putting them all in relation to one and the same identical term.g. relations between certain systems are not expressed by our comparing each system individually with all the others. SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION e. possess the same constant value. The diverse and originally heterogeneous manifolds of determinations gain a fixed connection when we is relate them to this common center. we are concerned not so much with relating the diverse series to the atom.

on the other hand. is clearly evident in this example. its exposition unwieldy and tiresome. The what is empirically known is condensed. the circle of empirical relations is extended. in this sense is tion. the direct. that the enter into among themselves. The real is in the systematic confused factual material originally is organized. then in the &quot. if.regulative&quot. The totality of the &quot. it had every time explicitly to repeat the wealth of previously gained material and to present it in all details. on heat capacity. If we conceive this progress completed. mental point of connection. as it were. while it can take known facts as a given condition needing no further analysis. and it is this unity of the funda unknown.&quot. . The etc. that But. although genuine philosophical progress in such knowledge is in understanding and evaluating it as a concept. on isomorphism outcome of chemical knowledge here analysis of these relations. The progress of science would be slow. in new empirical content.. is they thereby enter into true conceptual relation. but is arranged around a fixed central point. atomic weights particular positive all series could possible relations would be expressed. indeed. it it describes and unifies productive. previous observations.subject. True. and grasps the problem as if from another side than that of epistemological reflec Investigation finds its interest in the new fields of facts to be mastered. Empirical knowledge cannot avoid the concept of substance. use of the concept of the atom. living work of investi gation has another standpoint from the beginning. not the only logical value of this &quot. and indicates a definite direction for these. it retains their essential content. it leaves all the forces of thought free to grasp the totality of a single tion. While the concept of the atom concentrates all these features. which renders possible our assumption of an ultimate identical subject for the totality of possible properties. The meaning. This unification is rather directly it produces a general schema for future observations. on approach ing a new field of facts.factual&quot. belonging to the general concept of substance within the actual processes of experience. it is no longer unrelated. to point.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 209 determination advances. When we ascribe to one and the same subject the observations on vapor density. and from this point issue the different lines of direc accordance with which our knowledge advances into the Those manifolds already discovered and defined accord ing to law function as a fixed logical unity in opposition to those manifolds newly to be discovered.absolute&quot. The &quot.

the two standpoints. Thus the of chemistry is an. Idea.&quot. The rests concept of the atom also shows a different form. but particular conceives this product as necessary for certain backwards on the origin and foundations of knowledge. which gives the fundamental What has already been reached at any point.bearer.properties&quot. in directing the understanding to a . for only thus is it possible to move the field of the problematical to another point. according to the way we approach it. con from the standpoint of the critique of knowledge. it is justified and unavoidable. point. its conditions of existence. for which the concept of the atom is created. This is done because critical thought is not directed forwards on the gaining of new objective experiences. must be taken by the investiga tion as something assured and given. and their mutual relations form the real empirical / data. so that new questions are always coming in for considera Thus the passive fixity. and therewith the constant alteration of standpoints. while. established by science at certain tion. The critical self-characterization of its thought. We cannot use functions in the construction of empirical reality and at the same time consider and describe them. united in a sipglefocusVith that which is conceptually and by virj/ue of a natural illusion this focus appears as- unitary object. the atom appears as a fixed substantial kernel.&quot. it can be understood that the chemical points. \ / material is y anticipated. although it purposes of knowledge. The two tendencies of thought here referred to can never be directly united. further on. and in the permanent logical peculiar character of knowledge on the tension and opposition remaining between these stand In the light of this. what has been won. are desirable. in so far as it possesses most admirable and indispen real. into the assumption of a particular thing-like &quot. the conditions of scientific production are different from those of critical reflection. (instead of a mere &quot. is an element in its own activity. and to push it mould for all further observations. in order to judge knowledge as a whole in the motives of its advance. in the strict meaning Kant gave / this term. precisely those &quot. must analyze this product once more into factors. Nevertheless. that science should condense a wealth of empirical relations into a single expression.a sably necessary regulative use. points. however. The given factual versely.virtual&quot. In fact. To the first naive consideration. a atom &quot.210 fixed. from which different properties can be successively distinguished and separated out. it is the SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION permanent substratum.

towards which all the lines of its rules . but that it is a formal concept. which we attach to each element along with the numerical value of its combination weight. Kritik der reinen Vernunft. The &quot. 2nd. is to connect according to conceptual standpoints the various. and a new characteristic constant for each simple material. while an atom of oxygen always replaces two. an atom of nitrogen three. the atom of matter becomes the atom of Precisely this sort of change shows that electricity. thus e. ed. of the elements is the expression of a definite property in them. the electron. that if we belongs to them independently of their chemical affinity. that an atom of chlorine can in certain combinations replace an atom of hydrogen.. after the concep tion of the atom. although its content may completely change.. 518. as lying completely outside the limits. The form of substitution can be determined once for all and expressed by certain numerical values. The empirical facts distinctions and combinations within the the relations of chemical substitution. certain fun damental rules result governing this form of relation. an atom of carbon four atoms of hydrogen. Thus a new point of view is achieved for the correlation of the individual elements. and to collect them into classes of definite character. teristic concept of the atom. of the what is essential in the concept does not consist in any material properties. p. though it is an idea only (focus imaginarius) that is. of possible experi certain aim. serves nevertheless to impart to them the greatest unity and the 74 This function remains as a permanent charac greatest extension. the concepts of the understanding do not in reality proceed. .valency&quot.&quot. leading to such relative system are given in If we trace how the atoms of total various simple materials replace each other in combinations. 672. p. Muller s trans. The concept of valency and the theory of types. and how they can be reciprocally substituted for each other. originally separate determinations thus gained. it appears. that can be filled with manifold concrete content according to the state of our experience.g. ence. a point from which. The second impor tant step in the construction of chemical concepts.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE / 211 iX converge and which. for example. Now arrange the chemical combinations according to this 74 new principle. If we take the atom of hydrogen as unity. and after the value of the atomic weights of the individual elements has in general been established.

Le Mixte.. of this view appear even more sharply. Logical aspects of the concept of type. chemistry. demand for cit. 189 . way. islajsa . the more the converse view gained acceptance. ff. which seem entirely different from each other in their nature and than The conception of substi properties. the theory of substitution made electricity. was at first rejected by Berzelius as paradoxical and inconsistent from this point of view. p. which can be substituted for each other. generic combinations. as formulated by Dumas.ot formed on the pattern of the The different concept. are not so conceived because The chemical concept of the external similarity of their sensuous properties. In fact.. but on thatXff the serial concept. which Berzelius advocated. which subsists between the valency of the individual atoms.) is negatively electric.212 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION they are divided into various types. as the former (according to the theory of electro-chemical dualism. here comes in for consideration not in its significance for the special problems of chemistry. of the valency of the partic The concept of the &quot. while the remote members of the series need no further analogy 1 In the history of is established by this law of derivation itself. Duhem.n. the concept of type was only gradually separated from the concept of chemical analogy. Here also the ff. more particularly esp. viz. however. while hydrogen possesses positive The more. but the whole group of materials. p. 75 is considered. it displays most distinctly a characteristic feature already established in general by the of type analysis of the exact scientific concept. without altering the nature of the combination. are contrasted individually. that entirely dissimilar materials can replace each other in certain com The binations. when not only consequences the elements. since here elements. Cf. which take place according to the rules ular atoms. in which the members belong ing to the same type are characterized by the fact that they can all be produced from a certain form by progressive substitutions. 75 The first step in this separation is found in the relation of substitution itself. or because of the direct agreement in their chemical functions. op. tution. They belong together in so far as they can be changed into each other by means of the relation. can replace each other.. belonging under a type. 97 Wurtz. but as a paradigm of certain logical relations. that can issue from its repeated substitutions.type&quot. chlorine cannot take the place of hydrogen in any combination.

which includes materials of very different properties. which prevailed from member to member. for same lishes is true here.valency&quot. and thus with shaping the latter aggregate into a system.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 213 analogy was at first upheld. to construct the manifold of bodies by adherence to a few general principles. Here. within which we grasp the reciprocal action and interdependence of the particular members according to fixed rules. can contain members completely different from each other in all their perceptible properties and in their essential chemical determinations. and how to group them around fixed central points. from certain starting-points. is discovered as an empirical relation between the various elements. until further investigations showed that the series. since it shows us how. which accordingly does not rest on a simi larity in the content of what is connected. The sensuously heterogeneous now constitutes the . systems and groups of systems. whose elements were not connected by any intuitive feature common to them. but merely by the definite rule of relation. The chemical concept is indeed distinguished from the mathematical. once a general principle of co we ordination has been defined. However. thus correspond throughout to those that we found realized in the field of the con Then there were geometrical struction of mathematical concepts. variation according to law of this &quot. and the Dumas. The chemical concept as a relational concept. the theory of types first approach to chemical deduction. while the relation of equivalence. in that the relation by which we proceed from one member to another is established by mathematics purely constructively. is recognize that. The conditions. once the decisive property for comparison gained. our concern is with carrying this principle through the whole manifold of materials given by observation. of To the &quot. which he demanded similar fundamental properties in all members. there is now opposed the &quot. if we abstract from this difference of origin.molecular type&quot. the further conceptual construction on both sides takes exactly the same direction. In this regard.chemical type&quot. on the other hand. The among them such &quot. but on the type of- connection. generates and founds the form of the concept.parameter&quot. on which the unity of the type rests. of Regnault. and considers these materials as issuing from each other by substitution. of the particular elements estab a relation as produces in its continued The application definite systems of characteristic serial types. which arise in this way.

which it implies. La Theorie atomique. The &quot. Since the constitution-formula ence. but what it finally achieves is not such a knowledge of the ultimate. here esp. 175. which is here .) p. and thus refers to the totality of such structures. but inserts it into various typical series. if it is conceived as a substantial quality in them. Ch. of valency from all scholastic qualities is the intellectual renun cept It does not seek to penetrate into the ciation. We do not know the peculiar property of the atom of chlorine. a direct intuitive picture of the serial order and atoms among themselves.214 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION relations. this formula is indeed the real scientific expression of the empirical reality of the body. as rather a general analysis of the bodies and materials of experi first seems to offer position of the of a definite compound does not teach us to merely in its composition. 76 or particular event stands with the totality of real (Cf.thing&quot. which are alone known. And this riddle is not solved when. that can arise by substitution out of a given combination. by which it can only be combined with one atom of hydrogen. The chemical constitution-formula at 76 entirely definite relation. absolute elements of reality. Wurtz. . and possible experiences.val ascribed to the particular atoms. but merely to represent the facts of this connection according to universal quan titative principles of order.&quot. VI. when we organize it into certain numerical It is the numerical and relational aspect. must at first appear as a real qualitas occulta. in which an individual &quot. in explanation of the different relative valencies. reference is made to the states of motion of the individual atoms. Cf. for it means nothing else than the thorough-going objective connection. The formula know it represents this connection. substantial nature of the connection of atom and atom. ency. again decisive for it constitutes the genuinely characteristic property of the scientific interpretation of the chemical concepts. and it can issue from the group by variation according to law of certain fundamental parts. becomes homogeneous. which states are supposed to agree or to be opposed to each other in such a way that they can only combine with each other in an For here something absolutely unknown and empirically undemonstrable is substituted for the relations of What distinguished the con substitution. we do not know by what force the atom of oxygen combines with two atoms of hydrogen. and the atom of carbon with four of hydrogen. The individual member becomes the representative of the whole group to which it belongs.

connection with one or another group of compounds. which give taken as a but is different results. in compounds. merely the measurable relations. Traite de Chimie organique. the relation realistic sense. when it is applied not merely to the individual atom but to whole groups of The theory of the &quot. there is nothing to prevent us. which we make. this view is more and more superseded. in so far as it can be replaced in the latter by other simple bodies. Regarding the manner in which the radicals &quot. (Cf. in order instead to discover represent. according The conception of substitution to the definition of Liebig.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE The concept of the &quot.the meant to express what Gerhardt calls relations. according to general rules. becomes especially significant. there is disagreement at first. op.kernel theory&quot. since they are not intended to represent what bodies are in and for themselves. but only what they were or could become. which arise from them by their combination with other atoms. 194 .composite radicals. 215 and the theories of &quot. it is now urged. &quot. cit.&quot. then the conception tures. In the &quot. by which or groups of atoms replace each other. that subsist 77 between the initial and final conditions of a Gerhardt. Since the of the real existence of isolated groups is destroyed. in particular. Here.composite radical&quot. The conflict concerning the nature and absolute properties of the radical is thus resolved for the radicals now appear as the result of certain ideal analyses. comparison The radical now possesses no independent reality. p. When Gerhardt.radical&quot. they preexist with respect to the more complex struc a thoroughly The In the further development of the theory. 77 We thus stand elements at the beginning of a conception.exist&quot. the radical is considered as a constant part in a series of compounds. formulae of chemistry are only meant to express by equations certain relations of structure and reaction. from erecting several rational formulae according as we wish to express its for one and the same body. becomes the real foundation of organic chemistry. of Laurent. is at first conceived and described in kernels are as such present in a plurality of bodies. or in so far as in its combination with a simple body this body can be excluded and replaced by equivalents of other simple bodies. 235.) cited by Ladenburg. ff.&quot. now arises and atoms. which in general abandons the questions as to whether and how the elements continue to exist in and the compounds into which they enter. shows that it is possible to assume two radicals in a compound. p. and . according to the standpoint of basis.

78 . Elemente und Verbindungen. see esp. 1904. which point to this reconstruction in systematic form. conception and treatment of chemistry.. The first phase of the determination of the material manifold is marked by the fact that every element is characterized by its atomic weight. etc.energetic&quot. As soon as this phase is reached. in we going over a certain period. IX and X. Faraday-Vorlesung.nature. and its this number is taken implicitly as what brings the wealth of complete expression. but represent them in their sequence it must be possible to and gradual transformation by an exact law. If we conceive all the elements arranged in a advancing in the series. As the real methodological advantage of the field of number is that each empirical properties conceptually to This representation of the material manifold member in it is deduced and constructively developed from an initial according to unified rules. in the expression of Leibniz. the same properties recur. The various properties of simple bodies. their fusibility and volatility. The periodic system of first the elements. this demand henceforth is extended to all physical and chemical determinations. Chs. and thus passes from the circle of empirical descriptive sciences into that of mathematical science. their hardness and malleability. the properties of the various elements change from member to member. The place of an element in this fundamental systematic series determines in detail its physico-chemical &quot. a definite number. in a manifold of numbers already indicates a new problem. before this subordination of chemistry to a more general scientific problem occurs.&quot. but that after find that. Ostwald. However. series. now appear as periodic functions of their atomic weights.&quot. One of the founders of the periodic On the &quot. Leipzig. their conductibility for heat and electricity.characteristic gains. such as are known to be dependent on certain numerical values. 78 however. also Duhem. They must no structure longer be conceived as a lawless aggregate. This general demand has its fulfillment in the establishment of the periodic system of the elements. Thus every simple body &quot. certain standpoints and tendencies appear within it.216 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION process of chemical transformation. chemistry takes its place in the general plan of energetics. Le Mixte. The reconstruction of the systematic form of chemistry.

temperature. is here removed from the field of scientific constants into the field of variables. and a few other magnitudes. matter appeared. that enters into chemistry. which are dependent on the material nature of the substances.. has clearly characterized the new principle involved in it. by which the substantial nature and the properties dependent on it are deter The qualitative nature of the particular material is made mathematically conceivable by discovering a point of view from mined. and that advancing experience confirms this demand. op. 79 which the material can be arranged in progression. Chemistry and mathematics. with the ideal of deduction developed. Thus Locke. The influence of the nature of matter had previously been considered in physical phenomena by determining the physical variables constants for the most various substances.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 217 system. the problem of matter has repeatedly had an important it when we compare epistemologthe history of philosophy.Up till now there have been introduced into the calculations of physics as variable magnitudes. But this material nature always remained something qualitative. its quality was only considered in that the constants for each kind of matter had a differ ent value in the differential equations. only as mass in the equations. the possibility was lacking of introducing this fundamental variable expressed in number and measure into the calculations. electricity. and. on the one hand.Matter&quot. can be demanded and predicted on the basis of the general systematic principle. An approach to such an introduction. cit. If we abstract from the part played by the problem of matter in the philosophy of nature. develops his whole view of the problems and limits of scientific ical role in 79 Lothar Meyer. . but this advance has now been made. in mathematical physics. &quot. under certain circumstances. that were hitherto unknown empirically. Lothar Meyer.. The deductive element. and on the other hand. although a very primitive one. in the speculative and metaphysical view of nature. 176. place and time in particular. can be understood in its peculiar quality most clearly. &quot. as was hitherto not customary. To treat these magnitudes. as expressed in magnitude and number. for instance. p. in that now series with a definite law of The significance of this point of view appears especially members of the manifold. heat. on which phenomena depend. has now been made by proving that the numerical value of the atomic weight is the variable.&quot.

where we are merely concerned with the collec and description of various facts of perception. Essay on Human . Modern science agrees with Locke. as definite properties of another kind. thus with an object to conclude where it is possible from acquaintance This postulate.218 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION investigation in connection with the example of chemical knowledge For him. that the deduction of the particular properties of a material from its &quot. we could grasp the problem &quot. whose members succeed each other according to a definite principle. which Locke here abandons. transcends the problems of exact and empiri cal knowledge. 80 Modern science has in part fulfilled the ideal. is not satisfied in our scientific knowledge Here. and we can never understand the form Such an of connection. judgments regarding however. which is fulfilled in all our &quot. IV. in the strict sense. is only attainable where it is possible to gain universal can speak of genuine knowl insights into necessary connections. directly and to determine a priori all its properties. by which definite properties of one kind always correspond to other insight. still we cannot discover from them one single new deter mination. No matter how many properties of a substance we may dis cover by observation and investigation. if we could start ties.. If we collect ever so many properties of gold.intuitive&quot.&quot. Bk. 6. by which alone they could become a rationally connected of nature. to deduce from the totality of secondary properties. its malleability. Understanding. but it does not thereby disclaim all conceptual con nection of the empirical data themselves. and then de termine the individual properties of bodies as functions of their position in this series. tion whole. its non-combusti bility. Locke. genuine of the fundamental elements and their properties. mathematical relations. would only be possible if.substantial essence&quot. all the properties of the object edge. the question as to their inner connection is not advanced a step. but it had first to it give this ideal a new meaning.at from some sort of determination of the essence of gold. only where knowledge We are certain and perfectly intelligible from its original nature. 80 How from the assumed fundamental property. instead of merely collecting observations concern ing the empirical coexistence or empirical incompatibility of proper the other end. its hardness. etc. would make our knowledge of nature a genuine science like mathematics. Science today collects the plurality of elements into a fundamental series. Ch. it remains forever impossible to establish that dependence of the individual members on each other.

above p. at any rate. (Cf. become the physical concept. which thought makes in the relative resting-point continuous flow of process. the fact of this dependence itself is used in the attempt to calculate and predict The certain special properties on the basis of certain special data. analogue of mathematics. instead of a number of rules concerning the concomitant appearance of properties. for here science assumes a continuous transformation of the elements into each other. fusibility and volatility. When the chemical atom is resolved into a system of electrons. Chemical research begins with a plurality of actual observations. of determining the law according to which. The atomic weights. then we would have unitary. from a definite atomic weight. and for it the particular material with its sensuous definiteness is only a transition-point in a dynamic process. mathematically representable law of causal dependence be tween the variations of different magnitudes. However we may judge of the positive truth of such assumptions. If we regard this problem entered a new form of con logically ceptual construction. by which we express the special character of the elements. time.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 219 the further properties follow. The latest phase of natural science. and appears as a mere as a cross-section. that now arises. as solved. nevertheless. that were first introduced as discrete and values. seems to attest such a change directly. and thereby an analogue of exact and &quot. less than functional connection metaphysical insight into ultimate essences. we would have henceforth a the dependent properties must change. 207 ff. but at the same time it more than a mere empirical collection of disconnected particu The order of elements. how. would no longer stand next to each other as rigid. of bodies by this means.) There arises the problem this solution leads to a new problem. but could be traced in The chemical concept would have their origin out of each other. remains indeed unanswered. offers at least an lars. which at first stand . offers of allowing the atomic weights. in such a variation.intui We penetrate no deeper into the absolute being tive&quot. given values. there results a definite malleability and hardness. to proceed from each other by continuous transformation. indeed. which has resulted from consideration of the phenomena of radio activity. they show very distinctly the way in which the scientific concept advances. knowledge. thus established contains. it loses the absolute fixity and immutability previously ascribed to it. but we grasp the rules of their systematic Yet at the same connection more definitely.

but to the individual sub All stances in the dynamic succession of their realization. the sharper the separation becomes between the system of our concepts and the system of the real. empirical manifolds are transformed into rational ing. and the later members can be determined from the precedAs. and of com In this progressive pletely grounding the former in the latter. that took place regarding the Aristotelian system during the middle ages and far down into modern times. The real methodologi cal interest of the construction of the concepts of chemistry lies in the fact that in it the relation of the universal to the particular The consideration of the physical concepts and is set in a new light. The further this scientific problem is followed. this way. according to its function. turns aside from this concrete totality of particular features. are for the most part to be explained from this point of view. and &quot.reality. mastery of the empirical material. the peculiarity of the logical proc ess is revealed. in so far as they are taken into The Account. represents only a further development of the problem. in which these laws are represented and illustrated. methods allows only one side of this fundamental relation to appear goal of theoretical physics is and remains the universal clearly. the concept. IX The concept of natural science and 9 &quot. Here is again re vealed the antinomy that found its first striking expression in the system of Aristotle. while true and original being does not belong to the universal. and is only fulfilled in this goal. through it. while obeying the facts.realism&quot. The conflict of &quot. and these it defines in fixed determinations These numerical values gained through of number and measure. already latent in the first beginnings of the Aristotelian metaphysics and theory of knowledge.220 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION i unconnected side by side. . and thus in a vast manifold of particular features. The particular cases.nomi nalism&quot.reality&quot. while all conception. laws of process. serve only as paradigms. knowledge seeks to be knowledge of the universal. is offered to us in individual shape and form. The historical struggles. the series proceed according observation are to a rule. soon arranged into series. For all &quot. there arises the problem of reducing the laws of struc in tural relations to a deeper-lying causal law of process. at the same time gains intellectual dominance over the facts. however.

facts. which conception undertakes with regard to the intensive and extensive manifold of things.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 221 In con Rickert s theory of the scientific construction of concepts.&quot. means a continuous impoverishment of its significance for reality. its task.concept. direction upon the facts real. constantly increases it. but it is science. that all reality is always and everywhere the same. it follows that nothing real enters into them. and further that the particular. and to raise it to more definite intuition. which is different for each individual observer. it stands in the most decided opposition to the empirical world of The individual in the strict sense dis the intuitive appears even in the most primitive construction of concepts. p. must come to mind. 235 ff . and still believe. and natural science finally comes to the view. which first creates this gap and and natural sciences to remove empirical &quot. &quot.&quot. the intuitive and the individual. mutually exclude each other. 81 is thus a gap between concepts and reality in general.&quot.Whatever the content of the concept may be. and as individual soon as we only consider that every bit of reality in its intuitive form is different from every other.thoughts&quot. a more perfect survey of them should be gained . In place of an accidental and fragmentary consideration of things. and its of concepts. Criticism of[Rickert s theory. which is produced by natural science. Die Grenzen der naturwissenschafllichen Begriffsbildung. fulfills For to the field extent that the concept progressively perceptible recedes. and thus contains absolutely nothing But this is universally not the case. their concepts. the opposition here referred to finds its temporary philosophy. then If this logical consequence is justified. sharpest formulation in Rickert s theory of the scientific construction The direction of thought upon the &quot. then the significance of the fact. that the task of their science is to permeate the real more and more with knowledge. If nothing individ ual and intuitive enters into the content of scientific concepts. scientific investigation has hitherto been entangled in a strange For all the great exact and empiri self-deception regarding its goal. The gap between the concepts and the individuals. . The final goal of is the material sciences and of intuition all other from the content of Science does not bridge the gap between &quot. 81 Rickert. cal investigators believed. that all conceptual construction annuls the individuality of reality. Tubin gen und Leipzig 1902. is the only reality that we know. the of The simplification.

&quot. while permitting us to trace them in detail. then it is incapable of grasping necessarily the particular as particular. The apparent variety of the conceptual function. is ment it? of investigation. pale residua of them are always found. The indefiniteness of the memory-images of our actual sensations involves that. As Sigwart explains.bird.the more indefinite. so that a child may call a flying beetle or butterfly a bird. which retain only one or another feature of them. sensuous intuitions in the real process of consciousness. the scientific concept. that what ought to sharpen our appre hension of the details of empirical intuition. a more compre hensive insight should be achieved. also less perfect and definite contents of is what the word as such.&quot. expression for this inwardly present of The meaning presented is For instance. From this indefiniteness results the capacity of the presenta tion to be applied to what is different. the same is originally true of all our universal presentations. Its function then is not essentially different from that of the word. can be thought of as existing in any group of individual things or cases.presentation of what is common. along with the vivid and immediately present. its ability to intro- . ceptual understanding of reality amounts to the annihilation of its Peculiar as this result may seem. nothing but a &quot. But how can this demand be satisfied.&quot. if the logical instru in direct conflict with We must now recognize.222 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION and in place of the narrow naive picture of the world. consciousness. rather separates us The con further and further from the real kernel of the &quot. and in this case it is called univer sal.factual. which contain the real psychological material for the construction of the universal presenta tion. If the concept is. in so far as what is presented.&quot. there is no entirely definite intui tive content corresponding to the word but rather only a certain vague outline of form along with a vague presentation of wing movement. as inwardly present. with which it is placed on a level by Rickert. They are only possible because we have. and it is these latter. not merely in space and time but in content: &quot. what the dominant logical doctrine holds it to be. it follows characteristic import. such as to reveal to us the finer structural relations of the real. . the easier the application. in this follows Sigwart. along with the concrete and complete sense perceptions. all that is presented either exists individually or in abstraction from the con who ditions of its individual existence.&quot. dulls it that what seems to confirm and extend our knowledge of facts. from the premises of Rickert s theory.

on the other hand. I.&quot. the purer it is. As we have seen. 325. I.. this content. the achieve ment of science is to remove this ambiguity by establishing by uni versal definition certain rules for the selection of the perceptual material. which is in entirely different presuppositions. according to a prescribed law. that enables us to connect the manifold of intuition it in a definite 82 way. for from the beginning they stand on other ground and are rooted thought. in which it logically arises. the more it frees itself from this final residuum of intuition. word-meanings.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 223 duce constantly new and more remote elements for comparison. (See also Ch. The exact scientific concepts only continue an intellectual process already effective in pure mathematical knowledge. that is there unconsciously effective. they always contain reference to an exact serial principle. p. are very involved. What first strikes us in \Yord-nieanings and mathematical concepts. while in the case of the scientific concept. although it need not be explicitly clear. The various abstract forms thus gain an exact delimita tion with respect to each other. op. is here practised with critical awareness. Cf. reality. all of them have an element totally foreign to the word as such. and to run through Logik. since each of them comprehends a The essence of the concept is found in single group of properties. this deduction is that it separates the scientific concept from the connection.. Criticism of popular word-meanings does not affect these concepts. thus rests rather on the poverty of the psychological substratum.) . conditions. 47 ff . cit. See Sigwart. living intuition of the particular facts constancy and all-round differentiation of the presentational 82 But remoteness from the is even greater than before. when left to themselves. the concrete presentation of still stands in the background of consciousness. The theoretical concepts of natural science are in no sense merely purified and idealized wordmeanings. 1. Rickert. etc. The methods of natural abstraction.. 45 ff . and never attain a complete. signified by a definite word. definite result. and from which it continues to draw its real force. 32 ff. The scientific concept arises in the same way and under the same It differs from the naive concepts of language and the popular view of the world merely in that the procedure. but. The scientific concept thus becomes a whole that can be completely surveyed and mastered by in the case of the For the content they are to signify it must fail to grasp and reproduce always present only in individual form.

224 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION in this sense. here it is enriched by a wealth of new relations. from the standpoint of the developed .conceptually&quot. because &quot.concept&quot. and the &quot. Every new standpoint (and the serial connections. every true scientific concept is new specific property. the rule involves not only the form of the existence of the material at a definite moment. In fact.&quot. antinomy on which Rickert founds his argument does not arise. grasped as a particular material in its character same time brought under the various and is thus set in a definite relation to the totality at the The ordinary chemical formula only gives us the composition in general. Here logic again unites with the view of concrete science. to concept proves its fruitfulness &quot. that any concrete content must lose its particularity and intuitive character as soon as it is placed with other similar contents in various and is in so far &quot. which were called similar. proceeds. Here no insuperable gap can arise between the &quot. without \ going over into each other and in any way being confused. the opposite is nothing but such a standpoint) permits a new aspect. The general rule now in our possession enables us to trace how and according to what law the given material is transformed into another. of remaining bodies. Materials. but always shows us a direction which. but the totality of its possible spatial and temporal phases.&quot. shaped.types.particular.concept&quot. Rather the case. from the standpoint of the undeveloped concept. the further this shaping proceeds. the The further the chemical construction of concepts more sharply the particulars can be distinguished. for the univer has no other meaning and purpose than to represent and to render possible the connection and order of the particular itself.&quot. just by pointing the way to hitherto unknown In turning aside from the particular material of intuition.isomeric. it it is is chemical &quot. still It is not evident refer throughout in their function to each other. a become manifest. Thus if the chemical &quot. if followed further. it is at once clear that the two moments. the scientific concept does not lose sight of it completely. the more clearly its peculiar character is revealed. in which istic structure. of a certain body is given by its constitutionfields of formula. but not the type of construction of the individual elements.universal&quot. and the more systems of relations the particular enters into. teaches us new peculiarities in the manifold of intuition. the For the &quot. If we regard the particular as a serial member and the universal as a sal itself \ serial principle.facts. are clearly separated and distinctly defined in character.&quot.

unconditionally universal connection). 225 of Thus we never meet here the vague &quot.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE concept. i. it has before it in the first beginnings of the con &quot. Die Grenzen der naturwissenshaftlichenBegriffsbildung. that are mere complexes of properties. its relation with other members of a group possesses a sharply . popular word-meanings. p.&quot.&quot. but for that very reason the meanings cannot be presenta tions. The particular serial member. whose place in the system is to be determined. denned meaning. Thus Rick~ert7s criticism ultimately concerns only a that he himself recognizes as unsatisfactory. it is thereby implicitly admitted that the real logical value of the concept is not connected with the form of abstract &quot. The relation of the world of meanings to the world in of perceptions assuredly constitutes our knowledge. Arch. or at least represent the preliminary stages of such concepts. with Rickert. f. 83 . tual construction comes under the &quot. XII. it is The individual in its peculiarity distinguished from other forms of is threatened only by the universality of the blurred generic image. it will always seek to abandon the purely classificatory construction of concepts as soon as possible. If we recognize. (1906).universality&quot.e. the pertinent critical remarks of M. that all the thing-concepts of natural science have a tendency to be transformed is concepts more and more into relation-concepts. while the universality of a definite law of relation confirms this peculiarity and makes it known on all sides..&quot.universality. which nevertheless rejected as far as the foundation of the exact is concerned. Frischeisen-Kohler.A with regard to knowledge of the whole of the corporeal world.if struction of its concepts the final goal of all natural science.meanings&quot. it will never be satisfied with concepts. Rickert s confusion of &quot. system. as least in so far as we are concerned with knowledge in the sense of the natural sciences. Philosophic. by which relation. science can only be valuable &quot.presentations . 225 ff.theory form of trie concept This form of concep of 83 subsumption. and must either Cf. Rickert says. but must be judgments in their logical value. law is which a necessary connection according to natural expressed. can be retained throughout never theless.e. that the elements either stand directly in a necessary connection according to natural law (i. If a science has this goal before it. but any collection of such elements into a concept occurs only on the assumption. and &quot. insight into the necessity of things according to natural law..

A peculiar kind of object is is not given a new categori cal form. Ac cording to this view. until they are finally reduced to mere schemas without Judgments. we thereby change nothing in its material represent it from a new standpoint. itself.meanings&quot.individual&quot. can be reduced to the idea of universal lawfulness. the critical point in Rickert s theory can soon be pointed out the center of the problem is falsely shifted from the . 73. this clear explanation. on the contrary. to the universality of the generic Only of &quot. to conceive an event causally means to subsume it under general laws what is known in this way is thus never grasped in its absolutely I find . can it be said. The proposition P is When we tific conceive the given of sensation as made necessary by scien content.universality&quot. . the transition to &quot. The transition to &quot. but the quality of the judgmental connection. tit.universality&quot. 15. that the more general they become the more they lose their intuitive sharpness and clarity. so that judgments concerning individuals can be completely universal. &quot. individual the more exactly the wider the sphere of comparison and correlation to which they relate it. universality of a S is P.hidividuelle Kausalitat&quot. The causality. (Ergdnzungshefte der Kantstudien. Hessen distinguishes two different forms of causality. necessity of conceptual presentations. Increase of extension is here parallel with determination of the content. 71. but that it belongs uniformly to this particular subject unconditionally and with objective necessity. thing.) The judgment does not signify the quantity of the judgment. does not signify that the property contained in a plurality of subjects. In order to reveal clearly the opposition between the scientific and the histori cal construction of concepts.universal&quot. demanded by the problem of scientific knowledge p. In so far as it enters. thing does not pass over into a whole &quot. in this case. Berlin 1909). (See above Ch.presentations&quot. but merely laws. &quot. A whole &quot.226 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION 84 In connection with contain laws or prepare the way for them. but a relatively loose aggregate of empirical determinations is united into a system of objectively valid connections.. which is contained in the writing of Sergius Hessen. 85 84 85 Op. which natural science affirms and makes the basis of its explanations.&quot. which does not concern the real tendency of the construction of concepts. I. is thus a secondary aspect. Nr. produced. but the very same empirical reality is only a is which posited and symptom and expression of that transition to necessity. determine the significance for reality. an indirect confirmation of this view in the latest exposition of the theory of Rickert.

it thus appears that the methodological distinction of the &quot. None of the fundamental concepts of natural science can be pointed out as parts of sensuous perceptions.p.reality&quot. 73 ff. temporally deter mined process. concepts of natural science from the &quot. and thus verified by an immediately corresponding impression. which can thus never recur in precisely the same way. but only as an example of a general con cept. cil. is concepts. concepts of history does not exclude a connection between the two. esp. Hessenop. scientific has become increasingly evident that. whoever grants it a particular form of . (Cf. but at the same time it is asserted that.objective reality.concept.. given us in sensuous impressions remains. whether in the direction of the scientific or the historical laws.&quot. If we hold to the latter thought as the truly original and decisive idea. in one The concept as the ex^ression^of individual -relations. but rather requires it.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE 227 True.p.&quot. however. respect the separation between the scientific concept and the &quot.universal&quot. we must postulate such a necessity also where we are concerned with the succession of purely individual events. can never become an unconditional opposition.universality&quot. thus in so far as we assert that this individual tions toward a A necessarily demands and draws after it this individual B. it is further clear that the distinction in degree of &quot. but as a regulative idea. as soon as we insert the idea of necessity and determinateness into a unique.necessity in the temporal sequence of the parts of reality. without attempting to conceive it as a special case of universal Here it appears that there (Cf. For causality ultimately signifies nothing else than the &quot. esp. etc. In so far as we apply the idea of necessity to a particular temporal occurrence.. Hessen himself ascribed this necessity at first to the &quot. For in this judgment. that this reality is not takei* in the sense of an absolute metaphysical existence. however.individual&quot. The specifically &quot. from which both are deduced. the case is excluded of the total complex A ever recurring in precisely the same character. when we exchange this standpoint with that of necessity.) an inclusive unity for the scientific and the historical &quot.&quot. the more thought extends its dominion. what is logically distinct from the standpoint of &quot. which as such is to be conceived as free in principle from every form of concep tual interpretation. 32ff. the more it is forced to It intellectual conceptions that possess no analogue in the field of unique and unrepeatable character. if A were repeated in this fashion. p. 88 ff. unique state of affairs. and this unity is constituted by the idea of necessity. Whoever sees more in history than a mere positivistic &quot. then B and only B would be demanded as real.descrip tion&quot.universality&quot. The content of the idea of causality in general is. we implicitly assume an element of universality even in this establishment of a. A more exact epistemological analysis shows. not ex hausted by this one-sided scientific schema. methodically separate concep common goal. tends to coincide. which guides our diverse. is founded on the application of this point of view.) In other words.historical causality&quot. of the sequence of various events. its concept arises.

seeks verification and application in the unique reality.As reality.). that the separation of the concepts of natural science from those of history. and are thus as little perceptual as the concepts of the natural sciences. withdraws has already causal judgment. can occur under differ ent points of view and according to different motives.&quot.real.shaping&quot. the direction of the is different. Here it appears from another angle.&quot. but in the serial concept.universal. but with a distinction wholly within the cept&quot.not-real. just as. elements of perception cannot do without the purely ideal limiting scientific concepts not given in direct experience. form of necessity. while the correla two moments is seen to be necessary in both cases. An essential task of the historical con the insertion of the individual into an inclusive systematic connection. This insertion&quot. such as has constantly established itself more distinctly as the real goal of the &quot. which is unavoidable for any sort of of the perceptually given.particular&quot.The opposite opinion.&quot. reference of the tion of the &quot. an individualizing science of civilization. 120 ff. Hessen himself emphasizes this fact. along with the (See above p. The conceptual function as such must be understood and derived in its unitary form before the differentiation into various types of concepts can begin. which seeks to grasp this reality. but purely empirical concepts.con and absolute &quot. and therewith the conceptual character also belonging to history.given&quot.in &quot. is not found in the generic con cept. The historical concepts are general products of a more or less intense abstrac tion. which can be defined and isolated as the essence of &quot. it also works with concepts. on the other hand. show that scientific investigation along with the &quot. The historical indirectly refers to the universal temporally limited particular case. cepts is scientific construction of concepts. &quot. the form of connection of A and B is ideally projected into universality. . Not only the hypothetical concepts. although the particular elements possess only a The concept.the&quot. Thus we are not concerned here with an opposition between the &quot. recognized in history this form of the universality does not belong to the categorical but to the hypothetical part of the assertion. This must be especially emphasized against historical concept-realism&quot. and indeed with individual concepts. This fundamental form. like the atom and the ether. to the &quot.&quot. Nevertheless it owing to this would be a mistake to assume that exact science. which makes history a perceptual science and connects it with reality. it stands in principle as close to reality as the natural sciences. characteristic feature of its concepts.reality. the exact concept of natural science.) investigation must have the &quot. in the two. Only. presupposes a certain connection between the two. is guilty of an historical concept-realism as dangerous as that of natural science. system of concepts. however. like matter and motion. (p. 27 ff. which is meant in the first place to be an expression of a universal connection.&quot.universal&quot.228 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION concrete sensations. &quot.&quot. nevertheless it has com mon logical features. &quot. concept. history implies a removal from &quot.

above and emphasized from the The I. and such identity is only found in the manifold of serial members. Thus energy. indicates a new way from the given to the not yet given.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE more and more from the tasks existence. for thought only separates itself from intuition in order to return to it with new inde sions. which must be retained as such. although they themselves can never be perceived after the fashion of isolated objects. have a neces sary function in the shaping and construction of intuitive reality. sharper conception&quot. for example. It is thus true indeed that the relational concepts of experience.) &quot. but it is a unitary principle of connection. thereby to enrich it in itself. science by concrete empirical apparent turning away from the reality For those directed upon them in a new way. offered very concepts. 86 Reference 88 whn we 15ring it back to the The problem gains field of mathe hafe justly been made. natural science have no immediate copy in the individual things. in which all inner differences of the different types of energy are cancelled. that have no direct intuitive content. The determinations expressed by the scientific concepts are not perceptible properties of the empirical objects. The methodologi becomes metaphysical. to take the place of the other. which theory has discovered and given mathematical form. on the other hand. does not signify a homogeneous thing. The judgments thus formed. but what they lack is not so rather the thing-like character. much the element of individuality as They render insight into relations possible. the mathematical concepts Ch. matics. they are relations of these empirical objects.possible&quot. 229 Precisely in this is of things. Every relation. Identity of serial form is concealed behind every assumption of identical objects in natural science. _ The problem oftiie constants of natural science^. although they cannot be resolved in their content into mere aggregates of sense impressions. from real to &quot. that as such can only be verified in the qualitatively different. has also incidentally been recognized . are nevertheless related in their use to the totality of these impres which they seek to give systematic form. because there is ultimately no rivalry between the two. belong to different logical dimensions thus neither can seek directly . but. There is thus no contradiction between the universal validity of principles and the particular existence of They things. of in opposition to Rickert s (cf. and guarantee it. to cal opposition thus never pendent instruments.concrete universality&quot. like their color or taste.

6. procedure. 40 f. for example.deduction&quot. not a posteriori like the material of sensation it is a logical unique! something We individual. &quot. 5.nature. cit.abstractive&quot. to the significant rdle due to the establishment of certain magnitude. The insight once gained for mathe matics would have had to be transferred to physics for precisely here lies the real problem that mathematics is no &quot. The individual cases real izing the mathematical concept can be generated by the concept itself.and the consequent irrationality is bridged in the mathemati cal view through the possibility of construction. empirically established. rather than as results of &quot. p. 255. says Lask in his work.&quot. which recognizes the concept only as a generic concept and as comprehending a plurality of or the does not exist as a examples under it. The &quot. Fichtes Idealismus und die Geschichte. The form of mathematical &quot.two&quot. (Cf. when the general principle of the conservation of energy is supplemented by giving the fixed equivalence-numbers. 88 The definite number breaks through the traditional logical schema. esp.230 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION facts of theory.&quot. (p. .logical unique. 87 I. p. From the concept of the circle. esp. quantitative values for particular groups of processes: as. Frischeisen. cf. Bemerkungen iiber das mechanische Aquivalent der W&rme Mechanik der Wdrme. also. that the manifold of experiences gains that fixed and definite struc The scientific construction of reality ture. (1851) (Die R. we can attain by construction the mathematical individuality of the particular circle. is only completed when there are found. It is only when the values of these constants are inserted in the formulae of these general laws. 101 f .&quot. &quot. and thus the same methodic mastery of the particular by the universal is achieved.&quot.special&quot.).Kohler. that makes it &quot. 88 Ch. standpoint of Rickert. but that it progres sively provides the &quot. in accordance with which the exchange of energy takes place between two different fields.induction. Riehl. &quot. these numbers are the desired foundation of an exact investigation of nature. As Robert Mayer has said. 237). definite. is already contained in the form of physical &quot. see here also that Rickert s criticism would have taken another form if he had conceived the concepts of natural science decisively and from the beginning as products of constructive mathematical procedure. but at the same time capable of being construed a priori&quot. op.) Cf. natural sciences with its own characteristic form of concept. to the establishment of certain numerical con 87 stants in the structure of natural science. and thus go from the universal to the individual in its individuality In mathematics. but it is given a priori. Mayer. Logik und Erkenntnistheorie (Die Kultur der Gegenwart. concrete and given object.The gap for conceptual knowledge between the uni versal and the particular.) .four&quot. along with the general causal equations. by which we grasp the empirically real. the intui tive object is an individual. p. .

and the attempt is made to understand numbers as an ordered sequence. Theory considers and defines the possible forms of serial connection in general. taken by an empirical being or an empirically real process in this connection. Gorland. which it discovers and which are represented by definite 89 number-individualities. . (See Ch. Even those who start from the opjxr!^tT6n. 1909. conception of the world. constants. but it is and occurs only once. although there can be no doubt that it possesses no sensuous. it appears that the scientific concept is in no way denied the establishment of the individual. the two elements are The universality oL^he&quot. nor can it establish them without the decisive concurrence of the idea of law. and the particu represented developed scientific larity of the numerical constants is only represented in the universal This reciprocal relation is ity of a law mutually connecting them. while experience shows the definite place. In the of chemical &quot. as the example these knowledge shows. but only as a particular element in an ordered realized in all concrete a fixed member in the series of unities Instead of ascending to abstract and empty genera of being and process. Aristoteles und Kant beziiglich der Idee der theoretischen Erkenntnis untersucht.being. Giessen. when the problem 89 Cf. von Cohen u.oj:j[&e^h^ _the individual and the scientific^ generip/concept have to agree ex pressly. II. and questionable by what right we can characterize a type of problem and the treatment of it by the name of one science. The essential object of scientific consideration is the &quot.) On the one hand. Arbeiten hrg.. investigation seeks to connect the empirical manifold. into series according to necessary laws. then it is it is interpenetrate. but a purely conceptual &quot.&quot. But if this is the case.structural relations. Everywhere the two motives only by the dominance of one or the other that the position of a particular science in the general system of knowledge can be ascertained. No natural science renounces the establishment of particular facts. functional rule is only united. 2). that is 231 twos or fours of objects. that this intellectual division corresponds to no real separa tion in the sciences themselves. along with the laws of causal dependence. here especially A. inseparably in the particular numericalTconstants. 433 ff.. on the other hand. it never grasps the individual as isolated.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE genus. (Philos. Natorp II. p.&quot. These struc tural relations are finally reduced to definite numbers.real&quot. although. also repeated and confirmed within the special sciences.

part by a genuine inner dependence. deter mines the direction of knowledge. 142 ff. generic concept of the &quot. Here also it proves to be impossible to divide our knowledge in such a way that. by which it loose connection.theoretical&quot.necessarily pre supposed. that they attempt this task in spite of the impossibility in principle of its completion. is indeed indubitable. and on the other side. on the one side. Only the relations of the two moments. gives a true ground of division. and also gives the judgment of fact its definitafo^jg^ Thus every astronomical &quot. in fact. For the establishment of facts occurs in the different special sciences under very different conditions. for example. forms a Each new construction. is the characteristic merit of the true scientific relational concepts. there should be purely the universal. JThe unieral theory of the special discipline is always. biology definitely determines and selects its empirical material. Magnitudes and other forms of relations.individual&quot. while between the descriptive parts of two different disciplines. but it is sharply and distinguished from the way in which.&quot.factum&quot. part of each physics.individual&quot.historical&quot. that beyond every solution a new problem arises. all those scientific procedures. The procedure. on the other hand. since it is connected new step in the determination of being and process. by which astronomy gains its facts. The individual. and further the funda mental doctrines of optics. of natural science includes and exhausts neither the individual of aesthetic consideration nor the ethical personalities.historical&quot. is conceptually connected with the procedure. with the preceding. involves in its formulation the whole conceptual apparatus of celestial mechanics.) |The &quot. But it reality shows its fundamental character of inexhaustibility. constructs its general theoretical conceptions. there subsists only a The unity here is not one of principle. science is methodologically connected with its &quot. in fact aJLihe essential parts of theoretical (See above p. The &quot. That this function is completed in none of its activities.facts. This last and highest goal points indeed beyond the circle of scientific concepts and methods. only the function fulfilled by the universal in connection with the particular. but is merely classificatory. Here. . even so it is by which are directed on the gaining of pure &quot.232 is SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION V ^\ If we collect under the shared by the most various disciplines. V no means shown that the concept thus produced represents a true methodological unity. as an infinitely distant point. purely the particular. the &quot.

which go beyond natural science. such as only in their totality and co operation can grasp the problem of the real.particular&quot. the individual taken up and shaped by different forms of relation. although it from one dominant standpoint. are not in contradiction with it. and in which the individ?ual is first gains its full meaning. that is added to the mere quantitative order. and the &quot. They also do not approach the individual as The a separated and isolated element. The con flict of the &quot. Logically speaking. 233 For all particularity in natural science reduces to the discovery of definite magnitudes and relations of magnitudes. but in a relation of intellect ual supplementation. but they produce new and signifi cant points of connection.universal&quot.THE CONCEPTS OF NATURAL SCIENCE which are the subjects of history. and mination. selects consciously regards intuition one particular form of deter other types of consideration. resolves into a system of complementary conditions. The natural science does not deny the object of ethics and aesthetics. But this delimitation of the different methods produces no dualistic opposition between them. while the peculiarity and value of the object of artistic consideration and of ethical judgment lies outside its field of vision. although it cannot construct this object with the means at its disposal. . it of judging concept of does not falsify intuition. It is a new teleological order of the real.

.

PART II .

.

in the former.induction&quot. since it first entered &quot. related to each other as means and end. parties concerning the rights of &quot. functional connection. there is a metaphysics of the particular along with the metaphysics of the universal. but they stand in living. has itself taken no considerable part in the struggle of the philosophical &quot. appear in unconditional opposition.&quot. which sions resists every analysis. partial aspects of certain all of fundamental ways of which signify only knowing.the sure course of a science. &quot. and to resolve all assertions regarding being into it more their and completely. What being and becoming. unity and plurality. the simple sensation in its individual character is made the bearer and content of true reality. The law and the fact appear no longer as two eternally sundered poles of knowledge. Advancing intellectual serves only to bring out more clearly this fundamental exist insight ence. The real content of existence.&quot. concepts expressing the necessary connection of experiences are raised to independent realities. The real knowledge is to deprive the opposition of the universal and the particular of its metaphysical character. While in this latter.CHAPTER V ON THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION The metaphysical tendency in induction and deduction.deduction. Permanence and change. is peculiar to all metaphysics of knowledge appears and acts in the process of knowledge as an inseparable unity of conditions is hypostatized on the meta physical view into a conflict of things. which is not concerned with the connection of the given and with inferring not-given groups of facts. on the result of the methodological analysis of scientific other hand. and empirical science examines its own procedure. is and receives its definite established with reference to a hypotheti character through this reference.fact&quot. Empirical natural science. The motive here revealed. as. it has to recognize that there is in this struggle a false and technical separation of ways of knowing that are alike indispensable to its When very existence. 237 . There is no empirical law. each cal law. is sought only in the isolated impres Qualitative properties. Thus in the philosophy of nature.

The past is conceived as present. is always the same for the different disciplines of knowledge. so the concept must recognize Present these natural limits. that have occupied consciousness at an earlier point of time. while one corner of the square is to coincide with the lie and the three other corners are to on the sides a. may cite an instance from Mach. &quot. If. we have already This into the &quot.not-given. The method of observation and of investigation is independent of whether we experiment with things themselves.exist&quot. The form of judgment must be the same everywhere.thought-experiment. that the step may remembered perception is like the actual one in all essential parts. given here and now.&quot. the motive of particularization must be sharply and clearly carried through. if it is not to lose its definite character. physics and biology are. Consistent &quot. The validity fall into the field of mere fiction. and conceived merely An assertion reaching in its spatial and temporal particularity. Mach s &quot. and the We hypotenuse right angle. but the psychological analysis of the act of judgment. b .&quot. having the two sides a and b.given&quot. Judg ment rests solely on the comparison of actual and reproduced con tents of perception.empiricism&quot. is obliged to extend this consequence to all fields of knowledge. and with all the definiteness of the immediate impression. Mathematics and physics. which has led to this explanation. When we compare a temporally present impression with others. for the past does not &quot. Indeed the element of past sensations already threatens to break through the general for consciousness in the same schema. in spite of its temporal remoteness. c. both the rational judgments and judgments of fact. equiva lent. from this point of view. beyond this would claimed by any true judgment must be strictly limited to the moment of making the judgment. If this demand is to be satisfied. on which its form exclusively rests. taken the first step from the be taken without danger. for as the perception. and past sensations constitute the kernel of all our judgments. because the presentational material. for example. or with our presentations and memories of things. the geometrical problem is proposed of inscribing a square in a right-angled triangle.238 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION The empirical theory of judgment. All our judgments can mean nothing else than the estab lishment of a state of fact. as a real process. in so far as it is assumed. does not go beyond this instant of time. sense as that in which the concept of reality is here taken. for it is not the analysis of the object.

and the corresponding square to be constructed.. in the strict psychological sense can produce no new content. and is thus The absolutely inexhaustible for concrete sensuous imagination. outside or inside the surface of the triangle. with memories Criticism of Mack s theory. Between these two possible cases. p. that have been intuitively presented to us. Consequently if we draw this bisecting line from this known point. division of the field of presentations.ON THE PBOBLEM OF INDUCTION and c.Such a tentative represents the point demanded by the problem. judgment of memory as such can never survey an infinite group of 1 Mach. without having run through the particular examples possibility is excluded by the nature Yet this latter individually. shortest and most comprehensible solution. but to the right or left of it.. in order to find a solution of the problem. approximate solution. Now if we conceive an arbitrary distance to be measured off from the vertex of the right angle on one of the two legs. but it is incomprehensible how it can venture any assertion regarding a whole group of forms. and thus marking a point on it. . then the corner of this square will not in general fall on the hypotenuse. in which we (tatonnierende) have to seek the solution of the problem. as the line which divides the two parts of the plane of the triangle. even this example reveals a &quot. However. when we remember that all inscribed squares have the line which bisects the angle at the intersection of a and 6 in common as a diagonal. naturally precedes its Popular thought may be satisfied with a practically perfect solution. Experi ence directly shows that this movement cannot take place except by crossing the hypotenuse once. Simple as this purposely chosen example is. It can thus recall into consciousness those cases. experimen 1 tation with thoughts. which &quot. as is further shown.Memory&quot. we can move its end-point from within the triangle to a position outside the triangle. the number of possible squares is infinite. since by continually increasing the originally chosen distance. it can only repeat what has been offered by sensuous presentation. there is a continuous transition. .. we can complete the required square from its point of intersection with c. latent presupposition at the basis of the whole argument. &quot. it brings out clearly what is essential in all solution of problems. sufficient. Science demands the most general. We obtain this. of the problem in the case mentioned. 39 f . Erkenntnis und Irrtum. 239 then thought must submit the given conditions to an investiga tion.

are obliged even this standpoint to recognize the logical from and methodological &quot. The unprejudiced verdict of experience&quot.radical most decidedly within psychology. as ideal connection. certainly as a mere psychological phenomenon. which do not satisfy the assumed condition. if we commit ourselves solely to the described method of experimentation with presentations and memories. do not proceed We here from a plurality of particular cases to the connecting law. Mathematical and logical relations do not report this point to the whether and how often certain empirical contents have been found in existence in space and time. it breaks through the scheme of it is A knowledge of the consistent sensationalistic view. found in consciousness. Thus those thinkers. is opposed on dogmatic deductions of sensationalism. erties. who proclaim the postulate of &quot. which the bisecting line arises and it gains its mathematical prop In becoming aware of this unitary rule of construction. From this point of view. absolutely. for these determinations arise only by virtue of the generating law and can be deduced from it in all strictness. there are points that fulfill the condition without belonging to this line. the validity of which is to remain . when we go back from the particular example to the process of construction. but only a limited number of actual cases. points of the line bisecting the angle we may have investigated. or that conversely.the triangle&quot. matter whether this claim can be finally justified. Unprejudiced analysis of the facts of knowledge shows clearly that to reduce mathematical and logical relations to assertions regarding the frequent empirical coexistence of particular presentations is a vain endeavor. but rather establish a necessary con nection between ideal structures.240 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION many However possible cases. but a permanent presupposition is established which is meant to hold not of this or that individual triangle with its It is no particular properties. empiricism&quot. but of &quot. we thereby grasp the totality of determinations of the complete struc in ture.pure difference here. Only in this way is a relation posited. there is nothing to hinder the assumption that in further advance there might be found points of the line bisecting the angle. but from the unity of the geometrical procedure to the particularities of application. decide whether the next point that we can never we select will show the same characteristics as those previously observed. that affirms not only the present presentation. The solution first gains the character of necessity and determinateness.

etc. 654. is to falsify the real The more sharply this theory of empirical judgment. a logical or mathematical proposition as a mere repro interpret duction of particular. The character Locke s of this latter seems to consist in nothing else than a conscious limita tion of the validity of the judgmental connection to the temporal moment of two kinds of truths making the judgment. but is only meant to be an accidentally selected sensuous image for a lectual objects. the validity of mathematical knowledge rests on the principle of the immutability of the same relations between the same intel What is proved of one triangle can be carried over without further mediation to all triangles. which go beyond the field of our intellectual presenta tions to the existence of things. however Genuine psychological &quot. separation the character of the empirical judgment is revealed. actual &quot. London 1901. judgments concerning the exist ence of things have only relative and limited truth. by the nature of the subject to which it proposition No metaphysical construction refers. such empirical properties.impressions&quot. on the other hand. This insight is denied in all the judgments. can set aside the psychological and logical phenomenon of this differ ence. their certainty can thus be of no other kind than that of these impressions themselves. for a particular intuitive presentation of the triangle does not stand for itself in the proof. 661. is carried through. Vol II. Once this is removed we all is lose our only criterion for the existence of things and the basis of assertions regarding the more exact properties of this existence taken from us. universal and permanent relation.) . and their empirical by To meaning of the proposition in the an interpretation ascribes to the a sense.empiricism&quot. this esp. In this sense. the was already grasped by Locke. which. 2 out. maintains this separation through is brought out with especial clarity by James in his polemic against Spencer and Mill on this point. The existence of sensation reaches no further than its immediate presence.ON THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION unaffected 241 all changes in the world of existing sensuous objects. Consequently. relation of the According to him. are separated in principle from purely factual determinations of the coexistence and sequence of particular attempt to discover its origin. (The Principles of Psychology.relations between ideas&quot. it neither does nor can possess. External things manifest themselves to consciousness in no other way than in the sensuous impressions they arouse in us. the more strongly. &quot. 2 relations. for. 645.

renounce all concrete reality. natural science is limited to establishing what sensuous impressions are found in the consciousness of an individual observer at a definite. the character of knowledge completely changed. but it No judgment of certainly does not touch what they are in reality. we have no assurance that the momentary witness of sensation will ever be repeated in exactly the same way. tions. may which is now ascribed to the judgment. Locke s account. which has been frequently repeated since with slight varia &quot. first of all. The change. distinction is might appear as a correct account of what the purely empirical and inductive propositions of natural science ought to be. is all further metaphysical assertions that be added. it offers a difficult problem when we consider it in con nection with the concrete procedure of natural science. permits nothing in his state ments regarding the properties of the particular presentations.transcendence&quot.properties&quot. this. Although this from the abstract standpoint of theory of illuminating knowledge. who treats of the relations between geometri theoretical cal forms or between pure numbers. Accordingly there is necessary knowledge only of such objects as. In this advance from the mere process of sensation to definite assertions. only transforms the data of sense into a new mode of being in so far as it imprints upon sense-data a new form This element of knowledge can be separated out and of knowledge. of constant things and proc esses. and not the and descriptive judgments of general natural science. who gives out the results of an experimental research. in which he sensuously represents these relations.objective&quot.242 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION convincing and evident they may seem as long as the direct sensation is given. indeed wholly absent. constantly What goes beyond a simple report of his particular perceptual experiences. but the constant &quot. that makes possible the judg ment of natural science. while at the very moment is this reality is taken into account. It is. like the objects of pure mathematics. a new sort of temporal validity. so also the investiga tor. in all empirical judgment.element The of eternity&quot. he establishes is not the sequence and play of certain sense impressions. the metaphysical concept of &quot. If there are judgments that speak of they are the narrative judgments of psychology. As the mathematician. that have occurred in him and again disappeared into nothing. &quot. Even the simplest judgment concerning any empirical matter of fact ascribes to the latter an retained independently of . strictly limited point of time.

a definite indestructible residuum of that first knowledge remains. as often as the conditions concept will be always and necessarily connected with them.subjective&quot. only the thought of the necessary determinateness of phe nomena. But however science may be transformed. &quot. the consequences expressed in the predicate concept It asserts that.e. and abstracting from the various theoretical assumptions contained in the mere concept of &quot. . long as 3 human science will exist. i.objective&quot. here and now.which have once been known. since they were then unknown. who think they stand exclusively on the ground of empirical and who repudiate all independence of the intellect with respect to the data of immediate perception. happen that the form in which such relations were first expressed is seen to be imperfect. something that is to be limited to no isolated temporal moment. For thought. facts of scientific judgment. facts of sense-perception changed into the seen for &quot. which alter them. Grundriss der Naturphilosophie. p.&quot. it exists as &quot. all that is factual is already theory. Only through this principle are the &quot. and establish it as a fact. as Goethe said. and indeed often does. which gives each experiment its peculiar as proof. the moment of immediate perception is extended to the whole course of time. that water freezes at a definite temperature. that sulphur melts at a definite temperature. it is seen that the rela tions are not to be maintained as wholly universal. of which no thought could be taken at their discovery and first formulation. remains valid for all places and all times. Even investigators. embraced by the subject are realized. Each scientific conclusion based on an experi significance ment rests on the latent assumption. &quot.&quot. but are subject to other influences.tempera ture. says Ostwald. which is surveyed in its totality at one glance. From a new side. conviction is occasionally expressed.. &quot. The postulate of necessary determinateness. remain as indestructible parts of all future science. The proposition.&quot. in so far as the conditions of investigation are unchanged. that what is found to be valid It is this logical function.eternity&quot. 3 This element of 15. have expressly attested to this In spite of all supposed scepticism this one intellectual function. that leads us to arrest a single transitory observation. and a truth once gained by science has an eternal life in this sense. It can. means even in its simplest terms.The relations between differ ent phenomena. which the fleeting sense-experience as such cannot establish. it is how it is far.ON THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION existence 243 and a permanence. is Ostwald.facts&quot.

Just as.244 also SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION No characteristic of empirical judgments concerning facts. which the judgment must undergo. the later moment would with it all the &quot. is not invalidated by its opposite &quot. connection between observations. advance in analysis. once it has been established objec tively. but we consider it as modified by certain Thus the conditions. do not displace the earlier in every sense. body has an identical structure and character. which we discover. if we conceive a certain material as determined by the scheme of its physical and chemical properties. each inner change in the empirical laws of the thing. For example. then a simple relation of annihilation prevail here. and re-creation would earlier. which we ascribe to it once for all. moment as was previously offered. but by calling the identity of the observed object into question.&quot. in the real course of phenomena. thus concerns only the subof the given under an ideal case. we trace the transformation. as rather the subject to which it refers. tion. when S passes into S The advance of observation thus involves a continuous . The new judgmental connection. while maintaining the first proposition. The element of uncertainty. it distinguishes with increasing exactness cases which on first vague consideration appear wholly similar and reveals the characteristic differences of each individual case. so also it would involve an But in truth.truths. then the determinateness of this subject will also involve in it the determinateness and necessity of the judgmental connection. truth of the earlier judgment is P&quot. the previously affirmed connection in the determinations of the material is in no way set If the empirical judgment were bound to a single moment of aside. but.S is not P. can be absolutely annulled in the further course of investiga facts. time. and which were indeed only established and set aside the asserted of the earlier.&quot. or what change may appear in its action. the later replaces the earlier. We never express divergent results by assuming that one and the same body has changed in its fundamental proper ties. What we now see standing before us is not the same empirical object. contained by the empirical judgment sumption in contrast to the rational. but only add to them a definite concep experiences And this change really affects not so much the tual determination.S &quot. that are to be discovered and established. If we conceive this work of analysis as complete and a wholly determinate subject therewith gained. then no matter what contrary instances may arise in the course of advancing observation. The question is not .

For Kant. but whether x. are to be called judgments of experience. Here lies the real superiority of the mathematical construction of concepts. to which Kant appeals. Locke s analysis of the empirical judgment is thus seen to be intrinsically inadequate. it than a report concerning a momentary and individual does not connect subject and predicate according to any standpoint of intellectual dependence and coherence. it is to be Judgments of perception and judgments of experience. but whether a given content satisfies all the conditions of the The concept a. we only establish the coexistence of two contents. not. and is intended to be nothing experience. systematic. the more it appears that the judgment of perception is only meant to be a methodologically constructed limiting-case. that are only subjectively valid. of mathematical construction are only . The &quot. while those. The latter concept thus includes everything that dogmatic empiricism regards as the genuine mark and character of experience. or is to be determined by a different concept a problem is not whether a is truly b. which gives real is them also characteristic of assertions concerning facts. without setting them in any relation of mutual depend ence. according to the &quot. while every empirical content conceals unknown determinations in itself. but only takes them as they are accidentally found together in an individual consciousness. so as to gain from it a new meaning and a deeper interpre tation. In the judgment of perception. Empirical judgments. for it conceals that element of necessary connection. however. else. which is offered by mere perception. what ou^Jde^xonstmctioBk makes them.subjective&quot. rules of association. at least is nothing else. as a didactic meaning.judgment of perception&quot. this necessity was the fundamental problem. yet in first introducing his critical ques he still appears dependent in one point upon Locke. tion. I . for the objects. in so far as they have objective valid ity. it joins on to the sensualistic conception of judgment. and which their real meaning. and therefore we can never decide with full certainty under which of our previously developed hypothetical concepts brought. to throw light upon the newly gained concept of scientific objectivity by force of con-. The further the Kantian distinction proceeds.ON THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION whether to a strictly defined content 245 a the predicate 6 belongs or . is truly a. The dis tinction between judgments of perception and judgments of experi ence. are to be called judgments of perception. has not so much a direct.

we draw a conclusion from several observations regarding all the cases. and thus enters as a necessary factor into every assertion regarding an individual. by giving it The sphere a fixed place within the causal process ruled by exact laws. &quot.&quot. Experience as aggregate and as system. we do not step outside the objective necessity into that of mere &quot. heterogeneous classes. which is given here and now. does not begin where The &quot.trast. that.a Even the 1 individual &quot. often referred to. but the subordination of this fact to the whole process of nature. that body is heavy.contingency. on the contrary. certain touch and pressure sensations have been felt. is not the absolutely isolated. . judgment always contains an priori&quot.&quot. which it affirms. 141 f . hence a state of being. the other is taken as required.a posteriori&quot. problem of induction can only be sought in this broadening of In fact.246 but that the judgments into two a certain measure sphere. The real goal of &quot. we determine the astronomical position of the heavenly bodies for a of time in this sense. by taking as a basis the universal given point relations offered by the principles of mechanics.. field of But in this case also. temporal fact (Setzung} as such. of the necessary is narrowed until it is adequate for &quot. empiri &quot. The solution of the its 4 import. no matter SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION distinction carries with it ^. It is never satisfied with establishing a mere coexistence of presentations. as well as by the law of gravitation. element in the necessity of the connection. we seek to conceive the particular itself as necessary. as often as I have hitherto lifted a body. p. it cannot be understood how the mere repetition 2nd ed. Cf. of objectivity within no real separation of Every judgment claims self-chosen narrower its limited its subject-concept. The of the copula is the expression of this connection. Kritik der reinen Vernunft.induction&quot.is&quot. the instrumental concept of the mere judg ment of perception is transcended and excluded. closer determination of the apparently For example. In the final conception of the system of experience. constitutes the con tent of judgment. based in the object and independent of the condition of this or that sensing individual. but it erects a functional coordination between them. The proposition. but is already fully contained in the establishment of any individual case. Indeed the indi vidual as individual can be the object of a scientific statement. so that whenever how the one content is given.secret of induction.contingent.&quot. but it is meant to establish a connection. does not mean cal object.

identical re-creation. indivis moment.ON THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION and arrangement lar a 247 new logical value. What. It is only by conceiving all phenomena _ajL connectedJpynecessary relations. in so far as some way it determines the totality of Thus each individual judgment involves an its constant empirical properties is. is that by means of which we trace an empirical content beyond its given temporal limits and retain it in its determinate character for all points of the time series. spatio-temporal experience. that constitutes the real kernel of inductive procedure. which every inductive inference claims for itself. no matter how scattered and detached it may appear. it distinct the determinations already contained in the elements. always the integral of the momentary properties. can only render more There must be a factor concealed in the individual case. and is continued through this totality as if by constant. Each particular experience. now with another circum- . The ible relation.. The task of induction is to unify these various assertions. that raises it out of its limitation and isolation. that has been established according to the objective methods and criteria of science. of which the indi vidual enquiry gives evidence. to the ordinary sensuous view. did not always involve reference to its permanent laws (gesetzliche Form). in mathematical language. by indicating a definite sphere of validity for each of them. that has to be retained as a permanent feature in the intellectual structure of empirical reality. The function. can never be entirely logically annulled. is an identical group of conditions connected now with one. of particular observations should lend the particu The mere accumulation of elements c_annot entirely change their conceptual meaning .e. i. if the varying content of experience. It is through this reference that our limited. claims to be absolute. if there were not a reference to the whole already in the element. what methodically tested experiment has once shown. which only manifests until in itself at first for a single. circle of that we can use any individual j)hase as a representation and symbol of the total process and of its universal rules. It is this symbolic meaning. which frequently seem to cross and contradict each other. The permanent empirical object along with future points of tune. the particular determination offered by the sensuous impression becomes a norm. element of infinity. grows its content is transferred to the totality of times. which is all we have. becomes the test and image of the system of reality in general. But the logical process of integration would not be possible.

&quot. &amp. the thought of the thorough-going determinateness of natural processes as a final result of the completed system of experience.discrete&quot. are possible and dis-_ The &quot. the .wholes. it gains its content only from relations to the totality of the system.gt.*^*i&quot. The logical act of &quot.A In the ~&quot. inheres in the individual point. but this definition is only possible. these cases vary in some theoretically-discoverable circum stance. and apart from it loses all meaning.. wholes. so the character of a universal law this dependence inheres in the individual experience. thus contains no paradox and no inner difficulty. it can be said that the law of experience only results&quot. Every assertion regarding a mere coexistence of empirical determinations points to the thought that these deter minations are somehow grounded in each other. in which f. represent the forms of spatial-temporal and causal connection. from the particular cases because it is already tacitly assumed in them.wholey/^hat is not merely the sum of its parts. is here separated into definitely distinguished.lt. because the itself has been previously conceived as the expres sion of a pure relation of position. &quot. Logic traditionally distinguishes between first.integration. and this kind of connection presupposes a system of spatial and temporal positions. In the relation of the inductive individual ealseTftythe totality of scientific experience. as well as a unitary whole of causal coordinations. &amp. (/3). of the continuum. &amp. and &quot. but is a systematic totality arising from their relations. \f/ (7). The individual empirical judgment contains within it. to which it belongs. although the form of is not directly known.lt.&quot.point&quot. which enters into in every truly induc tive judgment. near or remote elements. is opposed to any such separation. and thus the relation or spatial &quot. Discrete and continuous &quot. and their variation is thus conceived as necessary. with other similar elements is contained in it .coexistence&quot. The fact a is only accessible to us in a functional form as different f (a). and./-. on the contrary. tinguishable as independent pieces. independently of the con nection into which they subsequently enter.J&amp.lt. but is only to be gained pro Just as the relational character of position and distance gressively.continuous&quot. as an undeveloped demand. a characteris tic recurs/ which can always be established where the problem is to define a (&quot.^ same sense. Thus a line can be defined as an infinite manifold of points.SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION stance.element&quot. &quot. The individual cannot be experienced save in connection with other spatial and temporal. particular cases. In the the parts precede the whole.

sensuous phenomena. until we establish what is to be understood by like causes and like effects. but only on differences in the nature. that like causes always expresses this demand. that the 5 Maxwell. when the causes are merely distinguished from each other with reference to absolute space and absolute time. the same is true of the effects: &quot. The two do not It goal.causal law&quot. XIX. Maxwell incidentally gives the general &quot. . is possible because the reference to the whole is from the first not excluded but retained. involved here. a turn that The proposition. As each occurrence only takes place once.) fundamental logical relation now appears in a new light. 88 ff.&quot. (See above p. 5 Here it becomes clear. but only relatively to a definite point of view. has no sharply defined meaning. the likeness here in question cannot be meant in the sense of absolute identity. and is thus fully individualized by the time of its occurrence and distinguished from all others. he explains. Each special form of geometry then coordinated with a definite group of transformations as its appropriate theory of invariants. Each assertion concerning an empirical connection of elements is meant to be valid independently of any absolute point of space or time. but in their means for reaching this goal. in and at which they take place. Art. and only needs to be brought separately into conceptual The tendency to something the theory of invariants. such as needs to be expressly isolated and formulated. and these can be strictly defined is and set over against each other.the difference between two occurrences does not depend on the pure differences of the times or places. in so far is prominence. less differ in their as they are brought under the general standpoint of the &quot. bring forth like effects.theory of invariants&quot. Induction and than of mathematical thought. The real kernel of the causal principle lies in the assertion that. The conceptions of constancy and change are seen to be mutually conditioned by each other. Matter and Motion. and characterized by it. to something permanent in the coming and going of unchanging.ON THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION 249 advance from the individual to the whole. is thus characteristic of inductive thought no possible to trace in the development of geometrical methods how the manifold tendencies of modern geometrical thought can be unified. the permanent connections affirmed by geometry can only be formulated This with reference to possible changes. configuration or move ment of the bodies involved.

Deeper analysis reveals here also how far the apparently purely receptive classification of particulars is dominated by ideal pre Claude suppositions. Thus tions. but the reaction to these forces could not be represented in the form of law. that belong to it independently absolute position in space and of the absolute magnitude of Just as all parts. certain form of its its we characterize as the geometrical properties of a those properties. A . Bernard especially has thrown light on this reciprocal relation of idea and observation for physiology and the whole field of The order of the and factual &quot. tions. rela The conception of the empirical natural object originates and is grounded in this procedure. called forth by external forces.250 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION content. Thus it is always a function of judgment. functional relation and removed from dependency on any individual moment of observation. &quot. and the judgment separates out those moments unaffected by this change. is at first sub jected in thought to a certain change. but also &quot. directly established for one point of tune t discrete times ti.real&quot. We must indeed con ceive each natural object as subject in principle to certain physical changes. is freed from this limitation is applied that is only (a. #11 and experience is directed on gaining certain first in these reaches its real conclusion. which constitute the fundamental frame-work of empirical factuality. b). for it belongs to the concept of this object. any arbitrary moment .invariant&quot. without a conceptual anticipation of a possible order. Although it .&quot. if we were not able to recognize the object as logically permanent and provided with the same properties. This fact finds its expression not only in the inductions of mathematical is clearly shown within descriptive natural science. so that involves a decision for the past and the future. that can be constantly affirmed. we produce fixed connections In the midst of the temporal chaos of sensa and coordinations by abstracting from time. that it remains &quot.experimental medicine. . that assures us of the permanence of empirical being. with regard to time.. referring to the structure of the whole. so here an analogous mode of consideration f . Induction and analogy. t 2 t 3 . cannot be discovered without an ideal standpoint of comparison. or for a plurality of of time may the present moment be taken as equivalent to that first given to us. and it is these fixed connections. So far as the remaining conditions are unchanged. in the flow of tune.identical with itself&quot. on which the physical judgment is directed. physics.

The conceptual construction of exact physics proves to be dominated by a corre sponding logical procedure. &quot. 7 But the scientific value of analogy remains incomprehensible. and not the in which these inferences themselves proceed.&quot. Paralipomena in Vitellionem. Hitherto the analogical inference has these elements. Ch. yet though there again must work out the scheme of experience beforehand. Manifolds. 6 This unity of principle is especially clear in those limiting fields. and especially of the inductive procedure.ON THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION is 251 to experience that we owe the definitive establishment of this order. from which no secret of nature is concealed. Is to separate cases. Paris. Mach. Introduction a V etude de ff. The prin ciple of inference remains the same in the two cases. 83 7 Kepler. II. IV. We saw how the progress of geometrical thought tends more and more to allow the subordination may The real object of geometrical interest is seen to be only the relational connection between the elements as such. concept of analogy. and not the individual properties of of the particular intuitive figures in the proof. we characterize the apodictic assertions of the mathematician as deduction. as there is for the body only one way of going.&quot. been considered an essential part of the method of physics. p. that appear in direct perception as similar and analogous. but this is only a difference affecting the certainty or while manner course uncertainty of the starting-point of our inferences. The induction of the descriptive sciences is thus always a &quot. 1865. esp. by which it is distinguished from the naive view. p. 218 ff.&quot.provisional deduction. 4 (Op. intuition. no less a thinker than Kepler commends it as his truest guide and preceptor. as it were. call the tentative thought of the experimental investigator inductive. although its run in two directions: &quot.there is for the mind only one way of concluding. On the . which are absolutely dissimilar for can be brought to unity in so far as they offer examples and expressions of the same rules of connection. 187). with experimental investigation. theoretical physics. cf. beyond doubt. Erkenntnis und Irrtum. as long as one merely bases it on a sensuous simi Indeed the precise task of larity between the individual cases. la medicine experimentale. by penetrating analytically further into the conditions 6 Claude Bernard. if we will.We can. where mathematical thought comes in contact.

&quot. 8 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION The genuine and truly frnjf.&quot. une loi d une autre meme ouvrage les lois de la dispersion . des analogies toutes superficielles qui ont conduit des observateurs a rappro. and &quot. 32 f &quot.252 of their origin. but on a conceptual agreement When we sort. this identity Thus is isolated as a logical &quot. (See above p.concept. which at first seems concerned with the sensuous particu goes over more and more into mathematical &quot.. La th^orie.compositive&quot. rejoindre les de couvertes par Young et par Fresnel. . according to the assumptions of exact physics. 6troitement serrees. in consider electricity and light as phenomena of the same the electro-magnetic theory of light. sur un meme plan. and thus unify what is most diverse.invariant&quot. &quot. methods. loi. rule the whole of being. first result claimed by the inductive &quot.resolutive&quot. &quot. . dans un meme groupe. Ainsi. and considered for itself. elle range les lois auxquelles ob6issentles couleurs de l arc-en-ciel.ful. mais les lois selon lesquelles se succedent les teintes lois Newton vont. en deVeloppant les ramifications nombreuses du raisonnement d^ductif qui relie les principes aux lois experimentales.analogy. based on an agreement capable of being grasped but on the form of the equations. . pour ainsi dire. des anneaux de des f ranges . both as a quantitative expression of the phenomena.&quot. the doctrine of Kepler offers the classical example of this. en une autre region. lois qui regissent le spectre fourni par un prisme. . . in the strict : 8 Here is an example from Duhem. par les soins du theoricien.Analogy&quot.&quot.harmony. 163). as in pure mathematics. il en est qu elle s6pare les unes des autres et qu elle place en deux groupes extremement 61oign6s. dans leurs recherches. The comparison thus does not rest on a mere indefinite similarity.La Phy sique expeYimentale nous fournit les lois toutes ensemble et. lar. passes into a view of the unitary quantitative structural laws which. of properties. Bien souvent. ce sont des causes tout accidentelles. sont. Newton a fixe dans un de lumiere qui traverse un prisme et lea lois des teintes dont se pare une bulle de savon simplement parce que des couleurs 6clatantes signalent aux yeux ces deux sortes de ph6nomenes. il en est qu elle r6unit. which we establish in by perception. classees et ordonnees. as well as on the relations between the numerical constants characteristic of the two fields.ajmlngy: is n on a sensuous agreement in relational structure. . but upon a true identity in the mathe this assertion is not matical system of conditions. ii The Induction and analysis. La Theorie Physique. pres des cher. . Les lois de tous ces phenomenes que leurs eclatantes couleurs confondaient les uns avec les autres aux yeux du simple observateur. au contraire. &quot. p. 6tablit parmi celles-ci un ordre et une classification.

and shows the same character of necessity advance from member to member. to the stages of its construction. that is here used in the numbers. which at first appears as a mere unrelated coexistence of particular can realize the meaning elements. and the way is indicated. involved. in place of this.. by reducing as it in its in all the particular phases of its construction. first characteristic of the true scientific fact. 81. its construction. not deduced from identical rules of progress. when considered purely materially. If any sequence of numbers according to a definite rule at first the sequence of fourth powers 1. but not determined according to its simple beginnings. which are connected unknown. can be simply established. inductive inference. the given sequence must be resolved into a complex of series. then we can estab lish the relation connecting the particular serial members. for example. data by another kind of connection. 625. the series becomes. and further the differences between . transparent. i. into some fixed serial form. method. 256. which form an exact example and analogue of the logical relation here is given. theoretically guided induction is never satisfied merely with estab It replaces the factual coexistence of sensuous lishing facts as given. The real object of scientific investigation is never the raw material of sensuous perception. . Thus we are led back to a completely known serial type. field of The same is &quot.e. It appears at to thought as impenetrable. 16. Every experiment we inferences. works in and on which we base our inductive this direction. by finding first the differences between them. .resolutive&quot. This given series is now plainly revealed to us in the conditions of its structure. these differences series a simple arithmetical individual members. science substitutes a system of conditions constructed and defined by itself. . as was shown by the primi it and tive series. is that it transforms the manifold of observations.ON THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION 253 sense of this word. We of this task by referring to certain elementary problems of arithmetic. but which can be more clearly surveyed according to the principle of institute. If we have before us.. that obey relatively simpler laws. by which from this fundamental form we can again etc. . until we finally reach with a constant difference between its reach the given series through continually more complicated steps. which indeed seems poorer in elements. The given as offered if by immediate observation. were. then in order to discover this rule. But genuine.

etc. 1906. there is the characteristic difference that. eal beginnings of scientific induction furnish the classical example Galileo did not discover the law of falling bodies by collect of this. more particularly Erkenntnisproblem I. that seems to remain. we advance from the simple series. such as proceed according given Henceforth we to a fixed rule. ing arbitrary observations of sensuously real bodies. As in the arithmetical example.254 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION Experiment as the means of analysis. . as opposed and progressively conditioning each other. The uncertainty. for example. but only appears where the whole theoretical construction diction here 9 is compared with the actual observations. nevertheless there is always the possibility that some cooperative factor in the total result has not been calculated. connected according to law The sensuous appear ance of simplicity in the phenomenon yields to a strictly conceptual system of superior and subordinate relations. does not affect the relations within the particular series. A contra would not be resolved by our giving up the principles of Of.strata&quot. so we analyse the real into various orders of relations. of relations we may superimpose But no matter on each other. to series of the second. must attempt to advance to the actual process sive consideration of the excluded : as. which we substitute for it. by a progres that were originally complex determinations. However. and as such only holds what is gained in order to use it as a starting-point for new determinations. in experience it is how many &quot. and will analysis. 294. the experiment never concerns the real case. time-values a series of space-values. as it lies before us here and now in all the wealth of its particular determinations. in principle incapable of completion. Beitrdge zur Erkenntnistheorie u. while in mathematics the construction reaches a fixed end. but the experiThe ent rather concerns an ideal case. third and fourth order. Methodenlehre. to the mathematical concept. but by defining hypothetically the concept of uniform acceleration and taking it as a 9 This concept provides for the conceptual measure of the facts. in which the differences between the members are constant. only be discovered with the further progress of experimental Each result established has thus only the relative value of a preliminary determination. and however close we may come to all particular circumstances of the real process. also Honigswald. Leipzig. that can be grasped once for all. retardation by the resist ance of the air. the variation of acceleration according to of reality the distance from the centre of the earth. Strictly speaking.

rather they must all be fulfilled perfectly and without limitation. precisely by the fact that it leaves this question open. changes nothing in the meaning and value of the earlier determinations. and anticipate their future possible determination. such as correct the first result yet enable us to retain it in a new meaning. admitted and foreseen in principle.particular&quot. phenomenon of falling in the case of a definite resist but merely requires a conceptual extension already &quot.universal relations. in the universal ceases to be a metaphys- . but by our adding to these investigations new factors. and this compatibility And tacitty assumes the validity of the latter. the truth of the individual determinations remains in general unaffected. The re_^ionof &quot. Thus the subsequent addition of a new stand which places the phenomenon under consideration in relation to a new circle of facts. that direction does not lead away from reality. and &quot. that it establishes. viz.&quot.universal&quot. The &quot. which results from their totality. Each of the fundamen from which a more complex law is built. and by this combination to become more and particular. way is shall be com assured in prin ciple by the fact. that the relations progressively established in this patible with each other. do not indeed contain the special properties in themselves. but neither do they deny them. it cannot be tal series. that the determination of the particular case takes place on the basis of the determination of the general case. Each universal relation. Only one thing is demanded. If we conceive a particular process as a synthesis of various laws.ON THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION 255 the earlier investigations.. In so far as we abstract from subjective errors of observation. the question as to how the particular can &quot. law of falling bodies needs no correction of its content. more useful in the mastery of the individual. if the given to be possible. that these conditions are only partially or inexactly fulfilled by the concrete process. case is point. signifies in itself indeed only a certain sphere of conditions. However. but more closely to it. What is always being questioned anew is only the sufficiency of these determinations for explaining the com But the inductive concept plicated factual relations of reality. in order to represent the ance of air. They rather leave room for them from the begin Galileo s ning. its proves. In this tne^oncept^ of natural science in ho way abstracts from the but brings out the particular all the more sharply. which are at first brought out. said. relations. has a tendency to connect itself with other relations.sense.participate&quot.

and of &quot. B. . by inserting determine a particular natural occur into various functional connections f (A. in which the type of de10 See Volkmann. as is shown in many places in the theory of knowledge of modern natural science. above p. . . The complete picture of the total process arises when we connect the This partial system and place them as it were upon each other. that is. of the total process appears not merely as a unitary intuition. thought de mands the separate consideration of each particular moment and the reality results. to free the phenomenon under consideration from all accidental circum stances.256 ical SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION problem. implicitly assumed in a more inclusive system of rence A. in which each is fully retained. in general. methods.resolutive&quot.&quot. stance&quot.compositive&quot. but it is a logical moment. these connections. which Galileo contrasted as the &quot. and to determine them reciprocally by each other. in their It is only when this separation is strictly carried through. Leipzig.isolation&quot. The real problem of induction lies here. We it .&quot. The question now is not how is the individual in its &quot.participa of the individual in the universal thus appears no more of a riddle than the logical fact that.. present. While reality presents us a mixture of heterogeneous circum stances seemingly inseparably interwoven and confused. .superposition. relations. C . various conditions can be united intellectually into a unitary result. . C&quot. are sometimes distinguished in modern discussion as the 10 The first goal principles of &quot. (A. But this goal can be achieved only through a technical separation of what is factually connected. 1896. 226 ff. for the universal is no longer something substantially which somehow enters as a factual part into the individual.sub separated from it. . The two tendencies of scientific thought.. Erkenntnistheoretische Grundzuge der Naturwissenschaft. but how it is possible for knowledge to bring the rules of universal connections into relation. establishing special conditions. and the &quot. B C . . &quot.). of experimental enquiry is to gain a pure phenomenon. only by which enable us to trace the individual factors for themselves action. exact determination of the part it plays in the structure of the whole. .Isolation&quot. so issues from the universal and that conceptual insight into the particular relations of physical (Cf. picture but as a differentiated conceptual whole. that the constructive unification is seen in its clarity and sharpness.) etc.) $ (A. and conceive it as subordinated to the rules of tion&quot.superposition. The &quot.) and &quot. all B&quot.

Le fait est explique lorsqu il apparait identique a un des phenomenes qu engendre La un des ces sorites indefmis que nous appelons theories ou formes. it appears anew that the mathematical point of view is not so much the opposite as the necessary correlate of inductive conceptual construction. experiment. in the collective volume De la Methode dans les sciences. Bouasse. The system of &quot.La physique ne separe pas 1 etude des formes de 1 etude des fails. . on the other hand. Physique generate. 95 ff. answer can only be given when the question has previously been clearly stated and this process of stating the ques tion goes back to conceptions. physique n est done pas mathematique.. to particular mathematical theory belongs the determination of the form by which these elements are combined into a unity of law. deduction prevoit les faits que 1 experience confirme. this relation has received new confirmation and an unusually clear presentation from a modern physicist. according to conceptual standpoints. For that very synthesis of relations. which thought seeks in the material of to which of the possible relational connections are actually realized in experience.. entrer dans une forme. gives its the real.&quot. has its ultimate abstract foundation and the guarantee of its general validity in the system of mathematics. If the problem of physical induction is conceived in this way.. toute experience devant. which analyse immediate intuition But this . 100). 91.possible&quot. in its result.ON THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION 257 )endency between the individual elements is exactly defined.) Thus the two scientific tendencies here have a full point in common. parce qu on y trouve des algorithmes algebriques. If the real is represented as the result of the interpenetration of elementary series of dependencies. &quot. p. 11 ]1 As I subsequently discover.Qu est-ce done qu expliquer? C est tout uniquement faire rentrer un fail dans une forme. which is required and which forms an essential part of experimental enquiry. Though experiment is necessary to analyse an into its originally undifferentiated perceptual whole constitutive elements. cit. Paris 1909: la . 76 f. &quot. (See above p. As we have seen. toute physique est mathematique (op. en definitive. toute forme se developpant naturellement sous les symboles mathematiques. then in principle it has gained the form of a mathematically deter- minable structure. relational syntheses already developed in mathematics affords the fundamental schema for the connections. the object of mathematics in the universality of its concept is not the compounding of magnitudes. but the connection and reciprocal determination of relations. As answer.

p. In the SeeVolkmann. which subsists between &quot. of gravitation contains in itself the field of facts. the real epistemological meaning of We cannot be concerned here with the but only with the origin and character of our insight as it is grasped in the sensuous impression. difference has occasionally been the mere &quot.rules&quot. op. we with the advancing universality of the fundamental laws. See Volkmann. and ascribes empirical rule of planetary stand in loose conjunction 12 13 the merely motion allows the particular cases to without sharp delimitation.258 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION principle of &quot. the thought is concealed. &quot. Thus when the and &quot. whose general structure can be mathe logically analytic much a matically deduced. cit. duced into different systems. cit. and is to be conceived as having issued from these laws. strict division to its field. ellipse not merely as a real form of the orbit of Mars. far as we thereby increase its determinateness. work of the concept. .rules&quot. orbits. but first appears is not in and for itself a to us as an absolutely simple and unanalysed whole. The into things. .. that diminishes according to the square of the s distance. in so define its position in the general plan of our thought with The advance of experiment goes hand in hand increasing exactness. The methodic indicated. 59. reality. of Kepler on planetary motion express only generalized the fundamental law. predetermined the magnitude of the initial velocity of a moving body decides (independently of the direction of this velocity) whether the form of its path is to be an ellipse or a hyperbola or a parabola. p. 89.real.isolation&quot.possible&quot. was of process.sum&quot.&quot. This original of intuition is only transformed into a manifold by the &quot. while first formulated in Newton 13 In Newton s theory we find the theory of gravitation. but we survey at a glance the whole of &quot. op.simplicity&quot. on which they rest.superposition&quot. &quot. 12 origin of things.laws&quot. by which we explain and construct empirical Laws and rules. Thus the which it &quot. of nature and the truly universal of nature. leads to a perfect disjunction of the empirical cases in The transition between these cases is henceforth exactly general.law&quot.. while rules. The Newtonian concept of a centripetal force. of various elements. is explained by the fact that all reality represents only the sum of the manifestations of particular laws of nature. The concept is here just as source of plurality as it elsewhere appears to be a source of Since we conceive a particular process as successively intro unity. The inductions &quot.

e.really&quot. and subjected to a then it is If we may call the first procedure fixed principle. while on the other hand. changed material conditions a changed manner of connection. or by tracing the series beyond its original limits. itself to the form of law. . remains the same. tion. we can seek to enrich the material of this series by inter polation arid extrapolation. but blend imperceptibly into each other. which work in the inverse square of the distance. a double problem is forthwith offered for consideration. and thus belongs to the real &quot.deduction. and the second that of &quot.. our concern is to unite the manifold of members into an ultimate identity. an is given. 146 ff.. but in this case also. is assumed in the concept of particulars experience itself. of its possibility. while the general function of this connection. above p. the deduction of the intellectual limit for the new that is lish this limit in a new from a supreme serial principle. Here we face the apparent circle. If we conceive the motion of the planets to be deter mined by gravitational forces. require the same We field. other. On the other hand. however. On the one hand.) fection. by inserting between the given members hypothetical intermediate members.ON THE PKOBLEM OF INDUCTION 259 actual progress of science. however. to which the earlier is subordinated. since &quot.&quot.conditions . revealed. that everywhere confronts us in the relation of law and fact. forced us to forego this assumption hereafter by adducing new mate rial.&quot. When any series of observations ai a2 as.rule&quot. evident that the two mutually cooperate and condition each The completion of the series by the introduction of new . viz. This very function. by which the transition from ai to a 2 from a 2 to a 3 etc. the conceptual per which the law achieves. then the pure concept as such could not prevent it. it cannot be established that this determination holds with regard to the kind and magnitude of attraction except through this methodic necessity just referred to. then it is evident that the form of a conic section is necessary for their path.induction&quot. by the power of this assumption to unify observations and to If experience give them definite meaning. (Cf. the two views thus logically distinguishable are never strictly separated. and seek to estab The law. The already contains a tendency to raise &quot. by providing a rule. is determined . the form of the empirical concept would by no means be submerged along with its particular content. and not its temporary and varying concrete expression in particular theorems. preeminently that of &quot. i. remains a mere provisional assump it always contains a hypothetical element.

by the most diverse geometrical curves and with these curves as known ideal norms. no matter how necessary complex assumptions may prove for the representation of a limited concrete field of facts. the facts regarding the positions of Mars.by future investigation. illumination and temperature. for no matter how many points of the path of the planet might be given. until he finally reached the ellipse as that line.&quot. &quot. the same images recur. This reduction to simple rules is comparable to the manner in which we gradually reduce arithmetical series of any higher order to the funda mental type of a series with a constant difference between its members. all these sensuous elements so hang together. The concept of the &quot. reached an absolute limit. then we would say that the body subsists in the realization of certain equations. that is involved we could measure all the sensuous elements. that with the same position. and we measure the truth of this law by its success in characterizing the places left vacant by immediate perception.&quot. that in the last analysis the processes of nature be reduced to definite simple rules. which hovers as a problem before thought.looks differently in each illumination. This reduction of the manifold and ceaselessly changing material of perception to ultimate constant relations must be granted without limitation by even the most radical &quot. body. gives a different tactual image with each temperature. and thus of the con cept of nature. Even where we cannot .empiricism. which enabled him to deduce the greatest number of . that hold between the sensuous elements. relation and the relation of mathe matical necessity. If of the connection of sensuous elements. For the assumption of this fundamental relation is all that remains for empiricism of the concept of the &quot. left by Tycho de Brahe. We seek to trace a law of known conceptual structure through a given sequence of observations. Only the methodic requirement remains permanent. and in anticipating their filling-in In this sense. observations from the relatively simplest geometrical principle of Due to the nature of the problem. this work never progression.object. etc.260 individual SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION follows the direction of a unitary law of deduction. It is thus a &quot. to connect plicated it is nevertheless always possible them by any number of lines of different and more com form. Mach says. he compared the facts. Kepler successively connected .A permanency here.fundamental&quot. The selec tion and sifting of the material is under the direction of an active members always standard of judgment. gives a different optical image in each position.&quot. However.

is clearly distin guished from the certainty of a particular sensation. p. 2nd ed. conditioned. by which a definite object is given us. . by which we gradually transform the given according to definite logical requirements? In the light of our earlier developments. ture of the world.. Is the permanence a property really of the sensuous impressions. The logical development of natural science tends more and more to a recognition at that the original. of the facts of conscious ness. that all that we know of matter are mere relations.phenomenology&quot. it is something entirely different whether the various contents of consciousness merely follow each other factually. is to be determined more closely in its logical meaning and logical origin. nai ve representations of matter are superfluous. or whether the 14 15 Mach. Opposition sets in. 261 the expression may be retained symbolically. Permanence is never found ready made in the sensuous experience as such. Even from the standpoint of a mere &quot. Die Prinzipien der Warmelehre. 1896. the impression of materiality recognize the relations between condition and field.e. when this concept of permanence. Permanence only appears to the extent that we are able to transform the sensuous manifold into a mathematical manifold. 341.&quot. These equations or relations are thus the really permanent. the equations which rule a larger or smaller constituting is as permanent and substantial. 14 So far modern empiricism is in complete agreement with the critical interpretation of the meaning and pro The Critique of Pure Reason gressive tendency of natural science. limited to a single moment of time and never recurring in exactly the same way. We what are known. that prevail between phenomena. The kind of certainty. and as con the discovery of which makes possible a stable pic stituting that. that belongs to these rules. for the sensuous experience gives only a conglomeration of the most diverse impressions. however. in so far as we let it issue from certain fundamental elements according to rules held as unchangeable.To the extent that the conditions of a is phenomenon reduced. to which the concept of the object is reduced. or is it the result of intellectual work. the answer cannot be doubtful.&quot. most we grant them the value of pictorial representations.ON THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION measure. p. 422 ff.. Leipzig Kritik der reinen Vernunft. as what is truly substantial in them. immediately inhering in them. and recognize the quantitative relations. clearly taught but among these relations there are some that are independent and 15 permanent. &quot. i.

Leibniz illustrated this difference incidentally by pointing to the example of the theory of numbers. i. we discover that the correlated values of space and time. So far as the mere facts are concerned. member of the series. that a square will result.262 succeeding ones are SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION known &quot. we may expect that when we proceed from the last given member of the series of squares. form of certainty is to be gained when we proceed from the &quot. 3. then by making numerous we can establish purely empirically the fact that the differences between the individual members can be represented by the progres . and thus the particular value can vary arbitrarily without affecting the meaning of the proof itself. us in taking this psychological expectation as the same as a logical No matter how many members have been tested and necessity. The totality of squares and that of the odd numbers are now taken up into one system. no matter how great... since in its deduction and proof no account is taken of the particularity of any definite number. found to correspond to the rule. in which the one is known through the other. When once it is grasped. but are taken as conditioned by each other. but nothing justifies tests. If we consider a law. while hitherto. for example. 1Y and without the necessity of several tests. The formula (n n 2 = 2n 1 shows at one stroke. This same fundamental difference can also be shown in the case of every true physical law. of pressure and volume. On the basis of sive series of the odd numbers 1.universal&quot. it always remains possible that at a certain point the previously constant type of progress may be broken No accumulation of observations regarding particular numbers. which sharply marks the general relation involved here. such as Galileo s law of falling bodies or the law of Mariott. could ever enable us to reach a new form of This certainty. the two were merely in conjunction. from its identical law of construction.e. it is true that a off. rather than from the enumeration of its particular members. the constant and necessary relation. + + list of numerical values might accomplish purely materially all that . their predecessors according to some pervading logical principle. 5. no matter how far we traced their reciprocal correspondence. are not simply registered in conjunction. and add the corresponding odd number to this member. this formula holds of any arbitrary n.from&quot. 7 this fact. If we take the series of squares as given.. that subsists between the progression of the squares and that of the odd numbers. that would give us more assurance in this regard.

) natural process in quantitative equations. belong to a common system of causes and effects. to grasp the two series in their law of construction and thus in the totality of their possible determinations. and for each time-value the corresponding space-value. in the sense of mathemati phenomenalism.consequence. for the equation is the pattern of a purely conceptual insight. without making character cal To &quot.ON THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION 263 the mathematical functional rule could ever give us.superposition&quot. it represents what experience knows only as a complex coexist ence of members. The two fundamental types of knowledge. 137 f. and to compare them with each other.explain&quot. of conditions and conditioned. would be rectly stated. this type of determina tion is clearly evident. but we seek. at least hypothetically. in which rests the meaning of law. in opposition to the theory of this it is necessary to maintain the purely logical character of the relation of ground and consequence. means also to &quot.&quot. And to this mathematical connection. along with those of the independent variables. established rules.ground&quot. (Cf. a ontological. for the quantitative equation shows by what purely algebraic operations from universal. to the mathematical &quot. physical theory adds a corresponding. is obviously free from all meta Here again. above p. And yet such an accumulation of particular numerical data would lack precisely the characteristic element. and they are thus connected with each other in such a way.description. we do not indeed thereby increase our knowledge of the absolute and transcend- . argument. as being a resultant of simpler series of dependency. the value of the dependent variable is to be gained from the value of the from another. This application of the concept of ground and consequence physical implications. &quot. Here the values of the function.describe&quot. Here also we do not place the particular values of the one series simply in conjunction with those of the other. provided that for each particular pressure-value the corresponding volume-value was noted in the list. represent mathematically a given totality of several series. even if the result were cor In the quantitative equation. For the decisive element would be gone. the type of determination by which one magnitude is conceived to issue left in darkness. Methodically guided induction tends to this goal.&quot. it in the only scientifi cally admissable sense. objective and causal connection. that the assumption of one draws the others necessarily after it. and these for their part progress according to the strict relation of the mathematical &quot. If of observations by the we &quot.

p.. the rules of these permanent relations we can call to mind independently of change of the momentary scientific material. ultimately combined. relation into another. The concept of only justified and admissible when we take it in To describe a group of phenomena. pre the very concept of this reality. which the sensationalistic explanation pletely determined explicitly denies.description&quot. Prinzipien der Warmelehre. but it means to transform them intellectually. if we are able to establish certain permanent relations in the flux of sensations. means not logically equivalent to merely to record receptively the sensuous impressions received from From among it.&quot. a definite effect issues from a definite cause. Analyse der Empfindungen .&quot. and that this only can happen only in one way. and thus a system of intel supposes lectual postulates. 16 However.264 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION ent causes of the process.222ff. says Mach himself. This goal can only be reached. The biologif.stability&quot. by which of knowledge. 16 Mach. p. and can thus take place in only one way. cf. the concept of nature develops and is confirmed. or under whatever names The &quot. The logical moment given here cannot be denied even in the theories of empiricism.I all. a selection and combination must be made such that the elements given here and now appear as constructively deduced elements in the system. It is in the principle of the unambiguity (Eindeuit may be concealed. which differ and have their truth limited to a single moment of time. that &quot. All physical process is thus com by the momentarily effective circumstances. which the intellectual labor of science seeks to have this content approximate. To the extent that this takes place. that all these postulates are am convinced. of being obviously first not in the content of perception as given in our immediate experience. 392 2nd.. The conception of the unambiguity and is &quot.adjustment of ideas to reality&quot. but we comprehend the progress of each step of the theory to the next as strictly and as exactly as we grasp the transformation is of any quantitative it. if we analyse the grounds of this conviction. from among the forms of pure geometry).that in nature so much happens as can happen. then. &quot. but we have raised ourselves to a new type It is true we do not grasp the force in things. the theoretically known and developed forms of mathematical connection (for instance.ed. we are implicitly led back to all those fundamental conceptions. but it indicates the goal. is an active sense. tigkeit) of natural processes above &quot. which arises.

Progressive analy sis leads to increasingly exact confirmation of this fundamental natural object. what may be called constants of a higher order. that is established in a . permanence of our environment is spoken of. Even the establishment of a particular. it has been admitted and emphasized that the conception of a constant law is indispensable in the definition of a It only remains to perceive that this conception is a perfectly independent element of knowledge. seeks to preserve the constancy of being through the theory that all knowledge is a pro gressive adaptation to being.facts&quot. the sweet and the bitter.laws of nature&quot. and the connecting of these motive of thought. From the beginning. such as rise above the mere existence of the individual fact. that in the changing process. Along with the content of these elements. sense impressions. go cases.superposition&quot. there is recognized a form of their con nection. The and are exhibited dependencies. which are formulable between the elements of experience. logical character of the pure concepts of relation is revealed to the extent that they arrange themselves in a fixed system difference.) The scientific explanation of any involved group of phenomena by means of the &quot. on the other hand.isolation&quot. which at any rate can in no way be reduced to the material oppositions of sensation..simple&quot. i.e. of simpler relations carries the task imposed step further. that is back to the same to raise from the grasped and retained. and here a &quot. It has been shown that the two fundamental moments of induction: the gaining of particular &quot. the problem can be used as constants of theoreti cal construction.laws of nature. to the bright and the dark.ON THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION cal 265 theory of knowledge. We discover in the ultimate empirical &quot. tempo rally limited occurrence reveals this fundamental feature: viz. out of which a corre A sponding permanence of thought is to develop. in the whole wealth of their ramifications and mutual in ^ The^rjjMem. yet it is not able to ground the assertion of this constancy in an appropriate instrument of knowledge. and resists all reduc tion to the assumed &quot.. But all conflict is herewith in principle removed. etc. But it is overlooked that ultimately nothing else is meant by this permanence of the environment than the persistence of fixed functional relations. (p. 243 ff. In both facts into laws.jtfv. certain permanent connections can be flux of experience elements.

constants of the second level&quot. but regarded from another point consideration. This very comparison. In the successive phases of science. and without this inner connection. they could not be grasped as contents of the same consciousness. seems to escape us. but only as a continually renewed illusion. in which the fixed form of being and process that we believed we had gained. All scientific thought is dominated by the demand for unchanging elements. to change their import. They are only valid relatively to a certain sphere of experience. this postulate is most purely and Each change in the system of scientific concepts perfectly realized. points to a necessary limit in radical scepticism. but certain fundamental determinations on which rest the homogeneity and uniformity of the series. to which the particular phases of science are here compared. of natural science seem at first to result. The images in the presenta life of the individual. the empirically given constantly renders this what we call science appears not as an approximation to any &quot.abiding and permanent&quot. Thus we stand before a ceaseless progress. Laws and constants. places in a clear light the permanent structural elements to be persist. they must nevertheless agree in those determinations. of all empirical processes. when this sphere is extended. they serve only as the material for further In the further process of knowledge. this standpoint. the preceding member is not absolutely destroyed by the entry of the succeeding member. the general procedure. however. and this one feature suffices to give them a funda mental common character through all diversity of individual form. in lose it again. on which the serial form rests. as a phantasmagoria. We grasp permanent being only to which each new picture displaces all the earlier ones. and must be ready. only itself to disappear and be annihilated by another. always have a certain inner form of connection with each other. Nevertheless. these &quot. reality.266 definite SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION magnitude. participate.fundamental laws&quot. most slack succession of members. in which they all Even in the loosest. .form&quot. in a definite relation of and later. No matter how much the particular elements may differ from each other in their material content. while on the other hand. only reaches apparent completion in this The &quot. no matter how variegated and diverse in their tional succession. represent the final &quot. They all stand at least in earlier an ordered temporal connection. of view. demand From fruitless. are resolved into variables. which is here everywhere effective.

which ascribes to each indi vidual factor its definite place with regard to the others. to be remembered that what appears in this expression as an element may prove. at first. while retaining the more inclusive relations F. complex whole of which stand in a and subordination. that are to be expected and calculated on the basis of this most general theoretical formula. (Cf. never a mere aggregate of perceptual data. by an expression F [$i (^i ^ 2 ). otherwise considered. C. The funda F is analysed for thought into a structure of mutually dependent determinations. . no single assertion concerning facts. . D ). the special &amp. relations ^i. without such points of view. ^ and way. would be transformed. for the correction must proceed according to a definite principle of methodic advance. . these laws are again mutual relation of superordination A . ].&quot. The mental form $&amp. 140 ff. as it is only under the assumption of these elements that it can be described.. . which reproduces time. . 2 attempt to establish again the unbroken . so that the member A would be replaced by f (EI. 2 etc. but is divided and unified according to definite theoretical points of view. we have some such form as F (A.. \f/ . as this whole is it is represented in any definite stage of knowledge. a z a 3 ).. above p. It has already been shown on all sides that. bn) etc. 2 (j8i. Two and B are first united each according to a phenomena particular law \f/i (i. . . $1. Thus there arises a overlapping certain fields of (ineinandergreifender) syntheses. in particular no single concrete measurement. then this formula needs correction. and the institu new experiments occurs as part of the intellectual tendency . B.from within outwards. tion of The insertion of intermediate terms. If it is found that some wholly assured observation does not agree with the determinations.gt. the member . 2 (^3 ^4)^3 . &quot. as it were. But this correction cannot involve the removal of any element indiscriminately from the formula. until we finally reach the most general relation. which would be symbolically represented. . transformation occurs. for example. ^ 2 ). would be possible.J&amp. . the characteristic relation according to which we conceive the indi vidual members arranged in mutual dependency. . .gt. Generally speak ing. to be a very complex system.lt. If we take as given the whole of experience. in which it is Thus .b(\l/i.ON THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION 267 ascribed to this system.) if we view the totality of empirical knowledge at any point of we can represent it in the form of a function.lt. /3 2 j8 3 ). B by $ (bi b2 . a 2 a n ). connected among themselves by a new relation &amp. we would agreement of theory and in this observation.

itself. Also such principles as. The general form of experience. &quot. for leave a certain body of principles undertaken merely for the sake of preserving body of principles. which remain unchanged by certain transformations. for example. geometry.form&quot. The procedure of the &quot. the theory of experience would constitute the universal invariant and thus fulfill a requirement clearly urged by inductive procedure itself. that changes into another. criticism is directed back to the presuppositions them selves and to the demand for their reshaping.facts&quot.&quot.save&quot. so here the attempt is made to discover those philosophy&quot. as long as any less sweeping variation. we need for this progressive comparison an ultimate constant stand ard of measurement of supreme principles of experience in general. can reestablish the harmony between theory and experience. proposed within the older form. But if this way has been closed.rules&quot. Since we never compare the system of hypotheses in itself with the naked facts in themselves. this The transformation must it is unaffected. concerning a deduced element. by which we establish the unity of experience. more radical system. &quot. it is found even when the and their purely empirical necessary revision goes beyond the of connection to the principles and universal laws themselves. they can rather be regarded as the temporarily simplest intellectual We &quot. do not need to be taken as absolutely unchanging dogmas. of experience is &quot. this one feature establishes a logical connection between them.func tional form&quot. do not relinquish the content of these hypotheses. Thought demands the identity of this logical standard of measure ment amid all the change of what is measured. those on which Newton founds his mechanics. and another absolutely new form arises in its place. to which both are sub jected. In this sense. and points to a common forum of judgment. but always can only oppose one hypothetical system of principles to another more inclusive.268 to verify and to SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION &quot. the more inclusive laws. can be directly compared at this point with that of Just as the geometrician selects for investigation those relations of a definite figure. Here it is the &quot. The preservation of a general evident here.hypotheses. by deducing the diverging result from the laws themselves through addition of a new determining factor. and these reveal its real goal. The new form must contain the answer to questions. but this transition never means that the fundamental form absolutely disappears. .transcendental critical theory of experience.

was not necessary. the evolutionary Cf. of magnitude and the functional dependency of magnitudes. . The reached. In fact. structure was found in mathematics.. along with the immediate contents of sensuous data and ele differing from case to case. that we should actually carry out these changes. if we succeeded in isolating in this goal of critical analysis would be way the ultimate common element of all possible forms of scientific experience. When.&quot. this funda mental relation has never been seriously denied by even the most ments were. 239 ff.&quot. we find.e. as it of which the assertion involved &quot..ON THE PROBLEM OF INDUCTION 269 universal elements of form. we find. in order to prove the independence of certain changes. Also the method followed here shows the same as &quot. clearly Only those ultimate logical invariants can be called a priori. that persist through all change in the The &quot.empiricism. something permanent. above p. etc. and pre scribes a fixed direction to the continuous unfolding and evolution of the systems of experience. but because and in so far as it is contained as a necessary premise in every valid judgment concerning facts. the a priori and the &quot. of particular material content of experience.rational&quot. For example. Here as there.invariants of experience. remains unaffected by any change in the particular causal principles. From is this point of view.categories&quot. are established as such elements of form. the validity of a space- time dependency of the elements in natural processes expressed by universal causal law. The concept of evident. for instance. which lie at the basis of any determination of a connection according to natural law. nevertheless it remains as a demand. A cognition is called a priori not in any sense as if it were prior to experience. if we suc ceeded in conceptually defining those moments. which persist in the advance from theory to theory because they are the conditions of any theory. represents an appropriate functional value. 17 We prove that the meaning of certain functions of experience is not affected in principle by a change in their material content. At no given stage of knowledge can this goal be perfectly achieved. which cannot be lacking in any empirical judgment or system of judgments.arguments. but it was sufficient merely to grasp the direction of the change once for all. a system of convinced 17 &quot. i. a conceptual relation from it in making the decision. If we analyse such a judgment. the strictly limited meaning of the &quot. space and time.a priori&quot.&quot.

objective presupposes. and not to the existence of any sort of presentations in us. It must now be asked whether there is a path within knowledge leading from the pure logical and mathematical systems to the problem of reality. but proceed &quot. remain that the concept of the a priori is alone applicable in its purely We are not concerned with the existence of psychic logical meaning. a mediation between them on the other hand. other in arbitrary. in the concept of &quot. and in what direction is its solution to be pointed out to thought? itself. connection.out of each other&quot.&quot. according to a definite rule. this uncontested and incontestable proposition contains the very factors here in question. It is herein assumed. Necessary as their separation is. their superordination theory of knowledge. what new meaning does the problem gain thereby. And it is to the truth of this judgmental tion. and that events do not succeed each &quot.is&quot.environ &quot. which it a fixed. And if such a path can be shown. space and subordination. capricious fashion. and not color is According to the critical because only priori.in ment. if the conception of evolution is to have any justifica indeed any meaning. the more clearly it is shown to contain an unsolved problem.a space forms an invariant in every physical construction. . if knowledge is to be brought into a unitary system. The truth of this assumption must fixed. must be assumed. that there order of time. But the more sharply the opposition appears between truth and reality.&quot.270 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION theory of experience lays weight on the fact that the sensation of time and the idea of time evolve adjustment to the temporal and spatial environment. but only with the validity of certain relations and with contents. &quot.

and thus trans forming what is logically correlative into an opposition of things.&quot. above. which persists in spite of all these oppositions. the conflict constantly grows sharper. it must make itself intelligible entirely on the Thus the basis of experience and its characteristic principles. the question merely is from what standpoints and by what 271 .but in separating correla tive standpoints within the field of knowledge itself.CHAPTER VI THE CONCEPT OF REALITY The separation of teristic &quot.presentation&quot. This one opposition conceals and can progressively develop into them. into an inner and an outer world. No dialectical solution can ever fully transcend these separations. 237 f. if the element of change and motion belongs to the essence of reality. which are already present in the original formulation of problems.object. And then it is identity and unchangeableness. they fall into two separate spatial spheres. yet at least the system of empirical knowledge has an original unity. The charac procedure of metaphysics does not consist in transcending the field of knowledge in general. p.outer.&quot. all the others within &quot. The constant progress of science is not diverted from its goal by the varying fortunes of metaphysics. then for the subject the postulate of unity is essential. and the &quot. between which there is no intelligible causal connection.inner&quot.mind&quot. without presupposing the dualism of the metaphysical concepts. without being able to deduce the one from the other.subjective&quot. If the objects only exist as a plurality.objective&quot. It must be possible to gain clarity regard ing the direction of this advance. In so far as this dualism is applic able to experience. the &quot. At no point is this feature so significant as (Cf. of the subject and object of knowledge. for beyond this field there would not be even material for a possible question. the history of metaphysics wavers between opposing tendencies. and &quot. If become conceptually separated.. and the &quot. or to reduce them to each other. And question is no longer what absolute separation underlies the opposi tion of the &quot. it once and the &quot. that is demanded of the true concept. reality.) in the old question as to the relation of thought and being.things&quot.

objective&quot. though concealed. as yet there is no definite point of view. tinction. Every critical doubt. in particular.&quot. are these concepts merely intel lectual phantoms. the past. but to distinguish their The fleeting. that refer to the individual s own body. The .outer&quot. The separation and reconciliation of these concepts has been a problem throughout the whole history of philosophy. things. If we characterize this level at all by the opposition of the subjective and the objective (and it can only be done in an extravagant and unreal sense). and this includes all contents uniformly and without dis ence.subjective&quot. is shown to be wholly For such experience. starts here. there is only one plane of &quot. If consult immediate experience unmixed with reflection. that is directed against the universal validity of any perception.&quot. not simply to receive sensuous data. and the &quot.real&quot. in one plane. is just as The various contents are as the present.objective&quot.subjective&quot. &quot.272 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION necessity does knowledge itself reach these divisions. experiences are to be retained. unique observation is more and more forced to the back-ground.thing. the opposi tion of the &quot. and an &quot. such as recur in a permanent manner. and those that refer to &quot. only the &quot. the experiences. What is grasped by consciousness here and now and is precisely in the form offered by direct experience. however. given and as line of division. which we customarily connect with the conception of the But the very first beginning of logical reflection destroys this impres sion of perfect unity and completeness. bears within it in germ the division of being into a &quot. there is still no fixed The temporal limits of the particular experiences are vague. The fundamental tendency of this is view values. is already present. sphere. When science under takes to shape the given and to deduce it from definite principles. in so far as it is taken up into memory.exist foreign to it. that indubitable givenness. as it were. and under conditions that can be universally formulated and established. or do they have a fixed meaning and function in the structure of knowledge? The development of the concepts of objectivity and subjectivity.typical&quot. and substitute a relation of superordination and subor dination.&quot. Between we &quot. it must set aside the original relation of coordination of all the data of experience. whose growth &quot. The division. for the contents still have that passivity.is. that would establish any preeminence of one over the other. in the first attempts at a scientific view of the world. then we must ascribe to it thorough-going objectivity. arranged.

subjective. in contrast to the later phases. It is the former. and belong to particular any whole field of objects. Only this mutual act of correction remains standing. unique here and now. the various empirical assertions appear of very different value. and remain steadfast in the flux of experience while others dissolve and vanish. A content can only be known as changeable that it with reference to another. The present in the progress of knowledge.objective&quot.objective&quot. which hold their ground through all further experimental testing and through apparently contrary instances. of the differences given in the this field independently find place and definite tune of the observation. but with a moving limit. separating two eternally sundered which constantly shifts fields of reality. no absolutely changeable elements of experience at any stage of knowledge we have reached. Changing and constant elements of experience. The goal of all empirical knowledge lies in gaining ultimate invariants as the neces sary and constitutive factors in each empirical judgment. only . associative connection of perceptions united only under particular circumstances (as. with which first it is compared. there are found fixed connections. and which at claims permanent existence for itself. but as a mere partial expression of being. The result of thus deriving the distinction is between the subjective and the has merely relative significance. and thus may no longer hold as a true and perfect expres Thus sion of objectivity. in contrast to the past. From object this standpoint. At the same time. any more than there are absolutely constant elements. which is destined to resolve the metaphysical division of subject and by taking up into itself its essential conceptual meaning. We finally call objective those elements of experience. For there are objective. Along with the loose. however. under definite physiological conditions). we are not concerned here with a fixed line of division. while designate the latter by the term &quot.&quot. for example. which persist through all change in the here and now.THE CONCEPT OF REALITY 273 analysis of the concept of experience has already led to that opposition. that we call &quot. and on which rests the unchangeable we all character of experience. while we ascribe to the sphere of subjectivity that belongs to this change itself.subjective&quot. phase of experience appears just as &quot. the possibility always remains that this second content will be corrected by a third. as it appears &quot. in a pregnant sense. and that only expresses a determination of the particular. which are valid for We connections.

because it obscures this funda mental relation. a fixed and absolutely closed division of things. never theless within this narrower field. Thus when the qualities are explained as subjective. that previously &quot. they are separated from the pure mathematical ideas of space.&quot. the discovery of the &quot. it means fundamentally nothing but the fact that the colors and tones..truth&quot.subjectivity of the sensuous qualities. the analysis of being into an inner and an outer world. but merely with a change of empirical &quot. that were originally taken as are always being separated out.&quot. They pass from the yvrjalrj yvu^f] into the aKorlrj yvu/jni. The plain. if we consider the best known example This relation can be made of this transformation of objectivity into subjectivity. groups. the sense qualities retain their full validity. they lose this character of fixity. who made this discovery.274 this function of SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION comparison persists. to which alone henceforth physical However.pure forms. rather. &quot. seemed to hold unconditionally. and now that they cannot the test.fixed. The opposition involved here is not of but rather of dynamic nature. ascribed. in the critical evaluation of cognitions. Even for Democritus. which constitutes satisfy the fundamental property of all objectivity. it signifies the differing power spatial.presentations. without thereby being altered in content. but results from the interaction of the physical stimulus and of is &quot. this division does not mean that they are denied all part in being in general. thus insufficient and misleading. are not thereby but a judgment. is in constant flux. the appropriate organ of sensation. subjectivity of the sensuous qualities. is and remains some thing only this reality does not subsist in isolation and for itself. the heard tone. viz..e.&quot. &quot. it establishes instead of a living. .Things&quot. The spatial expression of the i. judgments to withstand continuous testing by theory and observation. form and motion. In this perpetually renewed process. reciprocal relation is realized along with advancing knowledge.&quot.real. by which they are excluded from the scientific construc tion of reality. the smells and tastes have a peculiar character for knowledge. while the material content of the two fields division.&quot. a narrower field is marked off for what previously passed as absolute witness of reality. The seen color. is now limited to a certain sphere of degraded into mere conditions. they fall outside the world of &quot. But it now becomes clear that our concern with this transition into the subjective is not with a change in the substance of things.

so the &quot. The series of degrees of objectivity. the same content of experience can be called subjective and objective. this is no unreal appearance but a phenomenon &quot. In the critical formulation of the question. a logical index signifying the special conditions of its validity. outer.&quot. is itself a part of &quot. is a valid empirical judgment. signifies the real type of the objective. as it were.&quot. holding between a relatively narrower and a broader sphere of experience. and as such expresses with perfect adequacy a complex connection of elements of experi ence. but only a subjective condition of the observer.either-or.things. but not outside of nature as such. in the laws of the refraction of light. The same holds true when we go beyond the sphere of secondary qualities to the illusions and deceptions of the senses. sense perception can become a phenomenon that no longer expresses an independent property of &quot. as we have seen.THE CONCEPT OF REALITY 275 that mathematical physics constructs. the series of degrees of objectivity is clearly revealed. Error only begins when we transfer a determination. As long as we remain at the stage of the metaphysical and outer. Just as a thing cannot be simultaneously at two different places in space. as opposed to the logical points of reference. but between many members. That the stick is broken. for precisely this relation of physical and physiological condi tions. Here there is only a simple &quot. while measured by the schema of exact physics.. hallucination and the dream.inner&quot. which holds of a particular member. In truth. to the total complex. we thus apply a judgment. to experience as a whole. according as it is conceived relatively to different Sensuous perception. from which it cannot be abstracted. on the contrary. Instead of a mere duality of determinations a series of values is given. this limitation is set aside.&quot.wellgrounded&quot. in so far as the phenom we must add can be confirmed and deduced as necessary. the concept of nature is first realized in the reciprocal causal dependency of particular elements. cannot in any aspect be at the same time an distinction of the inner and conversely. we have an opposition that permits absolutely no mediation. only to this judgment. The opposition is no longer between two members. . between relatively dependent and independent judgments. When the straight stick appears in water as if broken. If we survey the whole of enon it refers to these considerations. that has been found valid under certain limitations.nature. indeed. we are always concerned here with a relation. on which the sense qualities rest. apart from any limiting condition.

over against the particular tem poral act. But this intellectual permanence. that arise henceforth. and requires this successor for its own comple points tion. The logical tendencies found in the concept of experience of the ordinary view of the world are now consciously taken up and carried further with methodic purpose. that is given us here and now in a or &quot. elements. strictly speaking. The truly and &quot. on the basis of the It is on the logical demand for its thorough-going connection. even this primitive act of definite nuance.red&quot. the more distinctly their real meaning is comprehended. the content appears. the general procedure is clearly revealed for transforming and enriching the given. that science bases its definition of nature and the natural object.object&quot. thought is led to a . to be metaphorical expres permanent connections of phenomena according to law. is not sufficient simply to combine the sensuous perceptions. Direct perception. only entirely discrete values. and thus expressions of the constancy and continuity of experience This fixity and continuity is never fully realized in any sen itself.&quot. temporally separated masses of perception. on the contrary. Even in the popular and prescientific view.heard&quot.hypothetical substructure of empirical being. the first. which in no combination constitute a continuous in every point of time is whole. and thus.seen&quot. as is essential judgment &quot. prove. always offers us only isolated fragments.green.things. that can be retained as an identical determination. which is latent even in the individual impression. When we charac terize a sensuous impression. impor tant phases of this development can be recognized. &quot. furnishes only disconnected. Even here the content of the sensation (Erlebnis) is separated from its momentary experiencing and is opposed as independent.&quot. whose persistence moments of the continuous sequence of postulated as necessary. sions of suously perceptible object. pletion. as a permanent moment. but along with this mere unification must go an act of logical com The object of experience is conceived as a continuous being. is nevertheless Here it far behind that in the thing-concept of ordinary experience. while the concept of the requires the perfect filling of the time series. to a successor. &quot. requires the assumption of an infinite totality of Thus at this second level. so in order to reach it. continuation of this procedure. The &quot. lending it a real existence.276 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION Each member which progresses according to a definite rule. to all knowledge. as is directed from variables to constants. which however has no .

we are not concerned with what objectivity. but this being does not extend beyond the sphere and time-span within which these con ditions are fulfilled.&quot. 164 ff. a definite experience but with what it worth. in so far as they are &quot. Dream experiences also are not distinguished from wak &quot.being. True. constitute both the presupposition and the form.&quot. We seek to gain permanent contents in place of changing contents. various compleconstruction. process would be completed as soon as we succeeded advancing to the ultimate constants of experience in general. passes into the mere &quot. in The goal of investigation. Insight into the subjective character of the &quot. Here we do not measure presentations with respect to absolute objects.e. Each partial experience is accordingly examined as to what it means for the total system. with what function it has as a particular building-stone in the structure of the whole. but with this question we have nothing to do in the critically clarified conception of the opposition of the subjective and the objec tive.is. above p.is &quot.) ment from the first stages of objectification to its completed scientific itself. is purely limited to a meaning wholly comprehensible to knowledge. ing experiences by any specific character (Ding charakter} attached as a permanently recognizable property.&quot.objective&quot. that every attempt in this direction only partially ful fills the fundamental demand. but at the same time we are conscious. conditions. in dream means nothing else than the reestablishment of a logical gradation among the contents of consciousness.. We . Thus in general. how absolute existence changes into absolute knowl edge. as it were. i.&quot.THE CONCEPT OF REALITY 277 other function than to represent the permanent order of this being Thus there is an unbroken develop (Cf.thing-in-itself&quot. representing. and hence requires completion in a new thus gain a sequence of superordinated and subordinated moments. They also have a sort of grounded in definite physiological bodily states. as we have seen.presentation. The system of these unchanging elements in so far as this term constitutes the type of objectivity in general. The logical gradations of the contents of experience. the opposition of the subjective and objective serves in its development for the increas ingly strict organization of experience. and this meaning determines its degree of In the last analysis. which. but different partial expressions of the same total experi ence serve as standards of measurement reciprocally for each other. which for a time threatened to disappear. it remains an insoluble problem how the &quot.

knowledge reverses the problem. more general point of view. however. which alone are given to us in the beginning. but. the criticism of circle) can lead us out again. We process with only relative stopping-points. The problem of transcendence. can be entirely dispensed with. Such a question is on the same plane in principle with the . no one of them represents an absolutely unconditional solution. higher objectivity than that. no labor on the part of thought (which itself belongs wholly to this On the other hand. None of these of the solution of the same problem. it From is the standpoint of the presentations in us.objective&quot. If we have once enclosed ourselves in the circle of &quot. these presuppositions. The history of philosophy shows. to the &quot.self-consciousness. particular content is a permanent or transitory part of this whole. necessarily connected with the earlier ones. but are rather confirmed within a Each later member of the series is definite sphere of validity. which is given in experience itself and according to its conditions. but how we go from the to the &quot. in so far as it answers a face here a perpetually self-renewing question latent in them. The direction of this progress of experience is also directly opposed to what would be expected on the ordinary metaphysical presuppositions.objectivity&quot.278 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION mentary phases phases. so that the given data are thereby ordered under a new. for this would presuppose a standard that could never be given in knowledge. but it only asks whether a special. not thereby rendered valueless. of which the history of metaphysics offers many examples.objective. the problem is not how we go from the &quot. how all attempts of this sort fail. for it. are not concerned with estimat ing the absolute value of the system in its totality. not even those most remote from the goal. Thus it is true we can never compare the experience of things with the things themselves. as they are assumed to be in themselves separate from all the conditions of we can very well replace a relatively narrower aspect of experience by a broader. Thus it does not ask whether the whole of experience is objectively true and valid. which define the concept of &quot. The earlier results are experience but .&quot. on the other hand. it is the subject.subjective&quot. and it is these stoppingpoints. It recognizes no other and no &quot.&quot. and from them we gain access to the world of objects only with difficulty. The question as to the objectivity of experience in general rests ultimately on a logical illusion.&quot. at any time. but with estab lishing We a difference in value among its particular factors.subjective.

The full measure of &quot. independent of all particular temporal circumstances. as to the absolute place of the world.subjective&quot. but presupposes a compli cated use of intellectual and empirical controls. lose this dominant position. looks beyond the circle of what is given any moment. 246 ff. given out of which the world of objects is constructed by a starting-point speculative synthesis. is not the self-evident. but it is the result of an analysis and pre supposes the permanence of experience and hence the validity of fixed relations between contents in general. although the material retains its right within a limited sphere. which is only valid for the particular parts of the universe in their reciprocal relations. such as the specific content of the particular sensations. Elements.sub jective&quot. as long as it is not displaced and corrected by another.objectivity&quot.&quot. by virtue of its logical function. does not belong to it originally. (See above p. is applied to the conceived totality of their sequence.particu which appeared in the definition of the inductive judgment. but to establish a matter of fact held to be valid in itself. proper for distinguishing the particular phases of empirical knowledge.universal&quot. The meaning of judgment. and henceforth have no central significance but only a peripheral one. This limitation only takes place in so far as there is a conflict between at . The progress of this analysis is evident to the relation of the &quot. there is an increasing exclusion of material from the final scientific conception of reality. The judgment as such. so in the former question a conceptual opposition. Just as in this latter we falsely carry over to the universe as a whole a relation. it does not intend to lar. This designation first arises in the recipro cal criticism of experiences. for instance. The &quot. As a judgment. Thus the designation of an element as &quot. which is only gained at a relatively high level. and to limit its assertions expressly to a narrower circle.THE CONCEPT OF REALITY 279 question. while it affirms a universally valid connection between the subject and predicate. where the changing existence is separated from the permanent. when we turn back describe only momentary sensations in their individual peculiarity. We saw that each particular judgment originally claims uncondi tional validity for itself. these phases and belongs to each particular experience. To the degree that this continual testing and self-correc tion is carried on. and &quot. that at first seemed necessary and constitutive in the concept of empirical being.) Only special motives are able to lead thought to deviate from this first demand.

thus at least one of them confines itself to expressing the &quot. This connection is confirmed anew when we consider the logical character of scientific investigation more closely. not abso ble in content if lutely. according to a well-known proposition of the Kantian theory of space. intersect and mutually determine each other. but only from a special point of view and under certain As the particular geometrical form. each one conceived to be entirely determined according to law. for this is indeed the genuine witness of empirical reality. and presupposes this system. on the contrary. where every thought of experiential entirely intelligible how. The particular judgment of experience arises when a plurality of spheres of experience. What we observe. which far transcend the limited field of facts accessible to us at a particular moment. The &quot. owing to the general demand thorough ordering of experiences according to law. are now set in harmony with each other by being related to different subjects. we are led at first to exclude particular contents.nature&quot.one&quot.transcending of sensuous experience.impres of logical relation is extinguished. of things. which theory Therewith the particular instrument before . The scientific present. all-inclusive space. As Duhem has admirably explained. as the result of the experiment is always an objective connection of physical propositions. must always transform the actual assumes and requires. that constitutes the real kernel 1 of the concept of reality. on the sion. but it only gains its value by bringing the particular data under a definite standpoint of judgment. such as cannot apparently be other hand. is only limiting conditions. it is for a brought into the general plan.280 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION different empirical assertions. Assertions. for instance. and thus giving them a meaning not found in the simple sensuous experience as such. in order to reach a real result in his investigations. in order to deduce them subsequently from a particular complex of conditions.&quot. that would be incompati taken absolutely. There is no road to the law from the absolutely isolated &quot. It is thus a logical differentiation of the contents of experience and their arrangement in an ordered system of dependencies. is a definite deflection of the magnetic needle under certain conditions. what we assert. momentary experiment never makes a simple report regarding the facts of perception. the physicist. judgments in general. so the particu gained by limitation of the issues from a limitation of the one system lar judgment of experience &quot. case before his eyes into an expression of the ideal case.

THE CONCEPT OF REALITY 281 him changes from a group ideal intellectual determinations. but in its place are concepts. to which he refers in his assertions. of sensuous properties into a whole of It is no longer a definite tool. is the wealth of consequences proceeding peculiar out of them. what previously passed as simple. for their part. the of physics 1 Duhem. What imprints the mark of true objectivity is not the sensuous vividness the but this wealth of inner relations.things&quot. and thus becomes an &quot.&quot. the intensity of the current. within which it stands and to a certain extent participates.objectively real&quot. now reveals an inner wealth and multiplicity. for the particular given impression does not remain merely what it is. a thing of copper or steel. which. La Theorie Physique.&quot. symbol and husk 1 of universal The characteristic mathematico-physical relations and connections. It is only by means of this enrichment of its immediate import. content. expands before our intellectual vision into a univer sal connection of phenomena according to natural law. ever with new threads. 190 ff. so that the totality of being can be finally surveyed as the totality of the system of experience. .. Such things of physics only indicate different ways of advancing from one experience to another. cf. in their place appears the conception of a universal order. but merely its logical form. above p.substance. by a continuous progress according to In connecting the particular contents with each other. p.&quot. alter its metaphysical &quot. the magnetic axis. merit of experiment rests on the fact that in it one stroke establishes a thousand connections. are again only the etc. but becomes a symbol of a thorough-going systematic organization. now combines and shows a reciprocal reference. What at first appeared in isolation. What elevates above the things of sense and lends them their &quot. in so far as we can reach from it other and other data of experience. of the impression. that is sensu ously accessible. 251 f.reality. that the content of that perception becomes the content of physics.transcendence. The imme diate indications of the moment are transcended on every hand. however. This change in the empirical impression does not. such as that of the mag netic field. definite rules. of such a sort it has equal validity in the smallest as in the greatest. still as is it were. we give them that fixity. Thus we have to do here with a type of &quot. kind of &quot. The limited circle of facts. of aluminum or glass. and can be reconstructed again from any particular point.. which distinguishing property of empirical objectivity.

the &quot.presentation&quot. of the body. of things. and this concept here receives a new meaning. In &quot. when. (Vorstellung) refers to the object.&quot.282 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION &quot. This reference to the whole would always require a Thus the peculiar function. although in reduced measure. in the immediate content of experience for signs of this reality. is. have even a general certainty of transcendent things beyond all knowledge.images&quot. from data belonging exclusively to the other.representation&quot. in order to become known. which separate themselves from things and undergo many physical changes on the way to our It is. on the other hand. it would still remain as obscure as before how this part could possibly be taken. which stands behind it. which inform us of their being. not as what it was in and for itself. Even if things gave off a part of themselves. not explained by the theory of signs. we might attempt by an analogical inference to carry over the rela tions we find in one series to the other. the real substance sense-organs. that is not deduced but presupposed. but as an expression of an includ ing whole. for here again the unity of experi ence is only apparently preserved. If the absolute object were already otherwise known to us. This difficulty continually reappears in the development of the concept of representation. Once we have assured ourselves of the existence of two different series. it postulates it from the beginning. is . the &quot. In metaphysical doctrines. how this con cept itself arises and what makes it necessary. which are given at least in concept. by which we grasp the being of things. has. Aristotelian and scholastic theory of perception seems to come closer to the real psychological fact. as it were. then at least it might be understood how we could indirectly read off its par ticular properties from the sort of presentations. on the other hand. goal for which it was undertaken. it. that arise from it. The concept of The concept and term.immaterial species. Precisely in this lies the real riddle of knowledge.sign&quot. which enters us in sense-perception and blends with our own But this materialistic account cannot reach the logical being. Thus the here is of an different nature than the signified. persistently the theory of ancient atomism. instead of explaining this func The whole content of the tion. are conceived as material parts. it is incom prehensible how we should succeed in inferring the existence of one As soon as we series. repre sentation. we can seek. &quot. and belongs to another entirely realm of being. in spite of all the attacks against maintained a central position in the history of knowledge.

&quot. &quot. is &quot. and appear to these as the object. which serves as a sign. of things although Thus the species again -become the &quot. assumes a peculiar property.THE CONCEPT OF REALITY accordingly reduced to the act of representation. We do not of the species itself. into a substantial relation of the participation of things in certain all strictness.traces&quot. always threatens to change expression. the content. to another and indirectly represents it. for they are characterized only by this operation of reference. definite meaning. that they are objectorum. and in particular to the judgment. objective properties. is said to be similar to the 2 object. but is reduced to a characteristic function of knowledge. 25.representation&quot.essence. which knows the extra-conscious object by means of the species. of its clear and finally deprives In order to let the operation of expression be seen. is now no longer explained by a particular property of this element itself. species Consciousness performs an act. A weighty new distinction appears here. The living activity of consciousness.formales similitudines ac veluti pic- the most &quot. sed per speciem. they no longer possess complete existential import.&quot. not a perceived. cognoscimus non ipsam speciem impressam. p. that an element &quot. The fact. I. It is true this insight could not be maintained with on the contrary. 283 any determinations know know the relations of outer things. Leipzig 1895. the functional relation of to which the analysis leads. is thus not to be conceived as if both belonged to the same logical category. Schwarz. assimilation of consciousness with the object does not mean for Suarez that elements are thereby brought into consciousness.&quot.&quot. a perceiving. knowledge. must be stripped more and more but only a faded 2 H. which is to be assumed between the sign and the signified.similarity. yet only through it do we &quot. but rather his meaning is that the whole consciousness becomes an instrument of expressa). although concealed in scholastic terminology. an expression. The turae conception. durch die . The species agree in no single actual property with the object to which they refer.The expressly contested and rejected.&quot. for. and in so far an image (better. Die Umwalzung der Wahrnemungshypothesen mechanische Methode. p.refers&quot. 12 ff. The &quot. The conflict of these two conceptions the concept of &quot. cf. and that these elements stand in objective relation to other functions of consciousness. at least in mature and consistent exposition of the theory by Suarez. which of itself directs consciousness on the real object. and not by any property in which they could be similar to other things.

while their isolation represents merely the result of a technical abstraction. It places the individual in the system. But this reference by progress according to rule to the totality of beyond concerns only the transition from one particular serial member to the totality.284 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION same time. and does not misrepresent its essential features? Transformation of the concept of representation and progress to the &quot. for what assurance have we that the symbol of being. at the skepticism. aims to grasp as a definite whole the same field. that give it spatial and tem poral as well as conceptual determinateness. But if we ask further. no mere subsequent determination. given particu lar with the whole.whole of experience.representation&quot. there would also be no presentation. sion of Hence if we understand ideal rule. It is now recognized that each particular phase of experi ence has a &quot. The connection of the particular experience the facts and their reciprocal relation is what is primary and original. to which it belongs. character. we are involved by the question in a reversal of the problem.objective&quot. which we believe we have in our presentation. it is a mere . The new meaning. and to the universal rule governing this totality. for us when we understand how each element is woven into the whole. as to whence the particular empirical content has this capacity of representing the whole. no immediately it is an present content. The content of experience becomes &quot. genuinely reproduces the content of being. as the expres which connects the present. for positing a being outside of all relation to Just as the necessity knowledge can not be deduced from the mere concept of knowledge. in so far as it refers to another and finally leads experience.&quot. The enlargement does not extend into a field that is absolutely beyond. for this latter only exists for knowledge in so far as brought into a system of relations. of which is a part.representation&quot. Without this apparent representation. If we attempt to characterize this whole itself as an illusion. however. then we have in &quot. ing meaning Thus the theory of representation always threatens to lapse into of its thing-like character. which the criticism of knowledge gives to the concept of representation. and combines the two in an intellectual synthesis. but on the contrary. so must the con cept of knowledge necessarily have within it that postulate of connection to which the critical analysis of the problem of reality leads. the objectify ascribed to the content seems to lose its best support. &quot. but a constitutive condition of all experience. removes this danger.representative&quot.

The actual similarity is changed into a conceptual correlation.object&quot. by reducing it to the psychological The concept of association seems to offer explanation. unifies the elements of association. and from individual to individual. which is to be regarded as variable from moment to moment. of connection assumed here and which. Here that constancy and exactitude is feature of the conception of reality. above p.&quot. for it the principles for the formulation and solution of the problem of proceeds from the content of the particular impres is sions to the fixed connections explanation The defect of the when we analyse more closely the shown. for the relations constituting the totality cannot be fully expressed sign.similarity&quot. which serves as a indeed not materially similar to the totality that is signified. with what it signifies The particular element. 273 ff. reality. Indeed the sensationaltheory of knowledge might attempt to bring this fact into its own it. of the empirical sign no further difficulty. between them. istic Association as a principle of explanation. form. for the difference between reality and appearance presupposed here is itself only possible within the system of experi ence and under as to the offers its conditions. comes to If we proceed from the particular content of experience at a light. paths from one element to another are in and for themselves un Which of these paths is followed in real psychological thought depends merely on the preceding psychical &quot. is the distinguishing only through the critical evaluation of concepts that the formation of the &quot. which But it is particular moment of time. such as can be expressed and established in The strict logical identity. lost. The &quot. there are given in it not only certain .dispositions. limited.connection&quot.copied&quot.) The question &quot. by any particular formation.THE CONCEPT OF REALITY 285 play of words. of particular presentations produces not so And this much a connection between them. is and &quot. as rather an appearance of one. and thus upon a circumstance. the two levels of being become different but necessarily complementary points of view for considering the system of experience. according to the concepts of associationistic psychology.association. appears alone admissible. however. in so far as both belong in principle to the same system of explanation. No conceptual principle. but a thorough going logical community subsists between them. without contesting concept of all &quot.&quot. between the particular members of the series here means nothing but coexistence their frequent empirical coexistence. (C .

p. just so it is shown to be the form of connection of experiences that transforms changeable &quot. is merely able to formulate the question. The constant objects. that metaphysics could not reconcile. according to which thought can gradually expand the particular phase into the whole system. then the &quot. &quot. 14 and p. are shown to be the same in both fields of Just as the real achievement of the concept is not in a given manifold abstractly and schematically. opposition. the most general expression of is the same as the most general expression of &quot. In fact. and understood in the most favorable sense.copying&quot. If it is once understood how knowledge attains a constancy of certain predicates and establishes judgmental connections.transcendence&quot. of the object as opposed to the mere presentation no longer offers any difficulty. And the means used by knowledge problems. strictly As science grasps the whole of these it demands more progressively gains the concept of the real. which predetermine and order the possible logical transitions from member to member. and explanation. in accordance with certain points of view. So close is scientific 3 Cf. exactly. In general it appears. the answer lies only in the universal serial principles. In the history of and speculative thought. The advance is not left to individual caprice. is resolved by in going back to the logical function from the application of which both problems arose. but 3 belong to another field and logical origin. into &quot. the more clearly it unites with the problem of truth. . but is demanded accord ing to law.thought&quot. which they must finally find their ii The concept of objectivity and the problem of space. The specific meaning of these points of view must remain constant.being.impressions&quot. Association. above esp. the problem of reality has always been inseparably connected with the problem of space.286 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION elements but also certain lines of direction.&quot. that the further we advance into the particu lar conditions of the problem of reality. but in constituting a law of relation and thus producing a new and unique connection of the manifold. if the advance is not to lose itself in the indefinite. The necessary guiding concepts of association cannot arise from association itself. 261 ff. It has already been shown on all hands that this development must everywhere transcend the sphere of mere association.

conflicts with this. It must be extension. has been finally decided. yet this they always assume a general knowledge In fact.objective&quot. but are immediately only certain determinations of our own body. but it is the supreme and universal principles of empirical knowledge. cal view. what was intended to be a criticism of the concept of experience was misapprehended as a metaphysics of the concept of In truth. that what we perceive are not things themselves in their real shape and real mutual position and distance. cannot proceed from a fixed view of the &quot. process of ences. Sensation in this sense is no empirical reality. in so far as it starts with an axiom of unconcealed metaphysical character. all 287 it governed logical interest. in which sensations are given as inner and separated from all &quot. here again the order of problems must be reversed. in the minds of contemporaries and successors. it &quot. that the &quot. reference. shown how we come to place the sensations given us&quot. by which we pass from this consciousness of the retinal images to knowledge of the spatial order of objects. It is presupposed.unconscious infer move in a circle. Thereby. The empirical-physiologi which was founded by Johannes Miiller.&quot.external world&quot. Even the Critique of Pure Reason and so exclusively has that could only approach its real theme by starting with a transformation of the theory of space. of space. which we can grasp in their real spatial magnitude and The problem of the physiology of vision is to describe the transition. connected with the concept of the real are con questions sidered solved. However. resting upon very complex logical conditions. The object of visual sensation is not the external objects. We tive&quot.nature&quot. of the is &quot. we do not proceed in the states .THE CONCEPT OF REALITY this connection. as soon as the question of the reality of the &quot. in the outer world. there is what is to be deduced.projection. or &quot.&quot. however. space. but only the result of an abstrac We pass from tion. the seen objects to the assumption of certain nerve excitations and the sensations corresponding to them.in soon proves to be insoluble. must finally decide the question as to The theory of projection and its defects. and how we come to comprehend them as a self-subsisting spatial world. but parts of the retina. no phase of experience.external. &quot. which All attempts to reduce the peculiar is assumed.objec character of space and from it determine the concept of empiri cal reality in general.&quot. the fate of its historical effect was in large part decided. to &quot. if we take the problem in this form.subjective&quot.

and any such explanation obviously take the general relation of spatiality as a basis. p.&quot. To determine the concept of &quot. but to the outer.inner&quot. and in this totality no single element is absolutely superfluous.) It is not localization in general. as comprehended in a series of perceptual images. how we are led to determine them not only as in general spatial. if we conceive the different perceptual images. how we are led to regard certain contents of the original external world as finally &quot. 184 ff as well as James. but as in necessary correlation with our (Cf. that is to be explained. it a fundamental relation posited cannot be asked how this form can merely be enquired how the form is but is It more What closely determined and specialized in empirical knowledge. but this particular localization. means also to find a motive of differentiation. .288 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION reverse direction from the sensations known in themselves to the 4 Thus the general form objects.e. II. 8. with certain parts of our retina or our brain. is a mere fiction. the coexistence and externality of the particular ele of spatiality.. i. And yet this thoroughgoing connection does not mean the complete equivalence of the particular factors. must Concept and perception distinguished (Helmholtz). absolute expression of the &quot. 5 arises in and for itself. with the elements themselves. Principles of Psychology. Only the totality of these data of perception constitutes what we call empirical knowledge of the object. For example. enabling us to separate the originally homogeneous totality of experiences into groups of different value and import.&quot. Uber den psychologischen Ur sprung der Raumvorstellung. . 31 ff 5 Cf. ments is no mediated result. above p. of these varying no property can be indicated at first by which any images should have preeminence over any other. bodily organs.&quot. then from the standpoint of immediate psycholog ical experience.reality&quot. it combines into an empirical whole.projection Stumpf.in us.object itself. more particularly . No one of the successive per spective aspects can claim to be the only valid. which may correspond to them. according to our distance from it and according to changing illumination. rather all the cognitive value of any particular perception belongs to it only in connection with other contents. later Ch. needs explanation is not the fact that we go from the inner for the absolutely &quot. 274 ff.object&quot. for the psychological refutation of the &quot. We only gain perception of a definite with which hypotheses.. which we receive from one and the same &quot. 4 Cf.

THE CONCEPT OF REALITY 289 As Helmspatial form. experiences.objective&quot.that we always perceive as present in the field of vision such objects as ought to be present to produce.To use an example. impressions only found in individual cir cumstances.&quot. but only through the living presentation of the law. In this sense.typical&quot.the role of a concept compounded from a great series of sensetain order perceptions. by which a cer and position is ascribed to each in the total complex. however. is at first given the meaning that would belong to it if it were conceived to arise in the ordinary way. the same impression on the nervous apparatus. that the various elements do not lie along side of each other like the parts of an aggregate. however. would never of itself give us the presentation of a corporeal object. It is thus in accordance with the previously established rule. spatial world. in spite of the we . And it is the &quot. &quot. occurring under unusual conditions. which mutually pass into one another. we are led psychologically to nothing else than a series of particular visual images. that we exclusively apply in the construction of the &quot. shows that the mere succession of these images.typical&quot.&quot. let us assume that the eye-ball is mechan ically stimulated at the outer corner of the eye. holtz explains incidentally. while endeavoring to exclude all contents in conflict with them. We also dis tinguish the &quot. however. A stimulation. the presentation of the stereometric form plays &quot. but that we estimate each of them according to its systematic significance. when we break through this equivalence. where they are stimulated by a light coming that we from without. under ordinary normal conditions of the use of our eyes.accidental&quot. We then think In the see a light on the nasal side of the field of vision. Helmholtz account has illumined this process in detail. if light must enter the eye from the nasal a stimulation of the retina in the region of the outer corner of the eye is to occur. if the thought of a rule were not added. according to which the perspective images follow each other. no matter how many we assume. when we ask what is to be understood by a body extended in three dimensions. Here the general rule is first established &quot. from &quot. which. could not necessarily be construed in verbally expressible definitions. the external side. such as we assume to occur uni formly. Closer analysis. experiences. such as the geometrician uses. This ordering by a concept means. that place a luminous object in such a case in this aforementioned position in the field of vision. ordinary use of our eyes.

The apprehen sion of sensation as sensation is conscious reflection. We must first always learn to &quot. 428. but it is a construction. &quot. of objectively valid knowledge. that the whole of objective visual and tactual space arises. and to proceed in the estimation of objects independently of them. The division into circles of objectivity. p.While we attain an extraordinary degree of niceness and sureness in objective observation. we not only do not gain this for tion on our particular sensations. D. 6 contrary. It is the retention of the identical relations in the vary ing content of presentation. the nor from the nasal side of the eye.&quot. that it disappears behind it. And here there is no doubt. . This whole of space is never a mere dead copy of particular sense perceptions. as it were. even where they could easily enough be noticed by reason of their 7 strength. Helmholtz expressly emphasizes that the knowledge of sensations.&quot. to which each particular experience is tacitly referred.290 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION that the mechanical stimulus comes neither from in front in field of vision fact. Handbuch der Physiolog. To the extent that the unchanging elements of experience are separated from the changing elements in accordance with these rules. is really that highly positive function of the concept already seen on every side. the sensa so exclusively directed on the object and enters into it so completely. 432. there results a division into an objective and a subjective sphere. Optik. even the earliest stages. but we rather gain to a high degree the capacity to overlook these subjective sensations. What is absolutely 7 Helmholtz. 26.&quot. cit. objects precedes the knowledge of and that it is far superior in clarity and distinctness. have a fixed system of reference.and always the work of subsequent direct our atten we ordinarily learn this only means of knowledge of the outer world. that serve as subjective observation. that the knowl edge of subjectivity does not represent the original starting-point. but on the from the external surface of the eye and more from behind. The particular observations are thus adjusted to a certain set of In these conditions we conditions. that characterizes every stage. Under ordinary psychological conditions tion is of experience. And it is only through this peculiar interpreta tion of the material of sensation.. that we regard as constant. following from certain universal rules. What is described here as a merely negative achievement. Helmholtz ov. as an act of overlooking and forgetting. for the sensations. but a logically mediated and later insight.

but subjected to definite rules. The real origin of the concept of object proves to be. takes the problem. made by the naive view still holds from the standpoint of critical consideration. conceptually distinguished centers. The particular phenomena do not flow by uniformly. and that is view. is raised out of the flux of experience In this first and distinguished as the &quot. in that it discovers an element of determinability in a material.thing. and only that remains.&quot. teaches that these elements also do not absolutely outside the circle of experience.projection&quot. of being. but are limited and separated from each other. The defect of the nai ve view is not that its it makes this it demand. which are distinctly separated and arranged according to is definite points of henceforth determined not only particular experience the material content of the impressions. which satisfy certain logical conditions of constancy. however. with which we compare each the that is The demand particular experience arid thereby measure its value. Deeper reflection. . but through the charac by teristic function by which some experiences serve as a fixed point of view. particular and in this index its objective value is expressed. as already solved.THE CONCEPT OF REALITY 291 changeable falls away from the momentary content. reference for measuring Each and interpreting others.real. means an obj edification of a higher knowledge level.fixed kernel&quot. the initial surface-picture gains foreground and background. Thus the variable itself. but that it confuses the demand and fulfillment. The given is now divided into wider and narrower circles of objectivity. that knowledge has to work out. not the &quot. In this way we produce definite. By the central tendency of thought.subjective&quot. expressed and partially copied in each of our perceptions. This of the &quot. as it were. of the inner and outer. which can be fixed in permanent conceptions. by a new fall interest of knowledge. distinguished by their systematic meaning. &quot. a certain circle of experiences. on the other hand. that was at first left absolutely undetermined. relatively fleeting contents. but the division of phenomena Each into partial fields. in which no thorough determinateness of experience is expressed.&quot. around which the phenomena are ordered and divided. can be left unnoticed. which signifies its position in the whole. but that they also claim a place in it in so far as their variation is itself not arbitrary. is made the object of consideration. it is For the naive given from the beginning. construction and characterization of the the &quot. Thus the naive view also presupposes a whole. receives an index.

perceptions&quot. it is of especial interest to trace the function of the concept in this gradual process of construc tion. this group tends to be emphasized. while we more and more suppress others. an object before us would give us. that arise under extraordinary conditions and lack the same repeat Because our apperception separates a certain ability as the first. that correspond to &quot. group of experiences in this way from the flux of the others. or some other sense. Principles of Cf.selection.signs&quot. we only retain those contents. of all metaphysical assumptions. The totality of all these possible sensa tions comprehended in a total presentation is our presentation of the body. while all the other contents only have value in so far as they refer as &quot. perception has replaced which expresses the facts of knowledge more purely and sharply. is gradually organized according to a definite plan. 8 we call perception when it it is is and memory-image when of not. this sensations. touch it. if we should move our eyes or our bodies and view the object from different sides. that separates the objective from the The construction of spatial reality has in it a process of subjective. all possible it is nothing else than the ordered totality of these possible experiences themselves. These pass as reality absolutely. logical elimination. Psychology 237 ff. since &quot. it represents According to them independently it.normal&quot.projection&quot. The mass ture. &quot. and without this its result could not be understood. more particularly on the theory II. supported by present In a certain sense. and &quot. &quot. directed. and in this organization gains fixed form and struc From the standpoint of logic.objective&quot.Projection&quot. the presentation of space is not a work of but of &quot. it rests on an intellectual selection &quot.292 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION is The whole. In the homogeneous mass of these impres sions. 8 of spatial &quot. The modern psychology of space the projection theory by another view. to this reality. especially in the field of visual and tactual impressions. but a difference of emphasis.selection.selection. physiological conditions. that even the presentation of a connection of contents in temporal sequence according to law would not be possible without a conceptual rule.&quot.&quot. It is thus no absolute difference in being. which we seek and on which the concept must not be conceived as an absolute being outside of experience . James. Helmholtz touches on this question when he affirms. .We can obviously learn by experience what other sensations of vision. etc. made among our sense perceptions.&quot. &quot.

It was the &quot. and is found even where the content.&quot. must expand beyond temporal narrowness and the total experience. even where only a concrete. that in any asser tion a is b an element of permanence is included.serial concept. persists. that was decisively revealed in the foundations of the exact sciences. as is now seen. but in its true and original meaning. permanence and objectivity derived from the logical analysis of knowledge. logical analysis of the idea of space thus confirms the concept of The function of judgment. in The psycho repetition.&quot. a connection once established logically This persistence is posited with the very form of judgment. such a presentation of an individual object is already a concept because it comprehends the whole possible aggregate of particular sensations. that determines and includes in its become the expression narrower and broader consequences the whole of The procedure of this logical &quot. and that. Optik. is discoverable in outline in the simplest judgment about &quot. that this object can .generic concept. p. 947 f.. is Here Helmholtz different sides. it is enough to point to the fact. on which the judgment is In the simplest schematic characterization directed. The mysterious transition between two different.integration&quot. and this dependency 3 is intended to be valid Handbuch der physiolog.facts. has further applications. 2nd ed. . touched or otherwise is led back to a view of the concept even to him.&quot. The particular moment is the starting-point of an intellectual construction.THE CONCEPT OF REALITY 293 although contrary to ordinary usage. is changeable.&quot. which it brings to representation. Henceforth the content stands not only for itself but for the laws of this experience. Everywhere. partial experiences into an ordered totality. foreign to traditional logic and that at first appears paradoxi But in truth the concept appears here in no mere extravagant and derivative sense. experiential reality. arouse in us that cal when viewed from 9 investigated. of this relation. in order to be called its truly objective. proving itself to be an instrument of objective knowledge. particular property is ascribed to an individual thing. since a dependency is therewith established. in its place appears the simple problem of the connection of the particular. The of particular content. in distinction from the &quot. essentially separated spheres of being now disappears.

things. in which it is apprehended by the act of perception. Only thus does the general schema for the concept of the empirical &quot. but is conditioned and demanded according to law by appropriate changes in another series. can be reconstructed from it according to a definite method. tion needing no further scrutiny. can ascribe to b&quot. circumstances by means of a unitary complex temporally separate.&quot. that could develop from it under definite circumstances. to the realm of the &quot. it at the time the predicate in so far as this at the time ta ti the predicate 6 change of properties does not take . This defect appears most clearly and sensibly exactly where the most strenuous effort is made to break through the limits of the mere &quot. When undertakes to show the inferences. (Cf. b belongs to the &quot.. time to. in order to reach the world of real &quot. The problem of the ll transsubjective.294 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION not only for a particular instant. which thought cannot bridge even though it can leap across it.) Thus at first one and the same determination is posited as absolutely act.property&quot..&quot. in so far as the total experience by which the originally fragmentary and disconnected experiences are gradually shaped into a system of empirical knowl edge. the metaphysical view at some point necessarily reaches a chasm. To this original however.. of causal rules. the seal of being. but is regarded as identically The transferable to the whole sequence of moments of time. the predicate b.thing&quot. place without rule. and this connection gives the individual. that lead from the field of the subjective (at first the only accessible field). In contrast to this continuous process. in which the change of the ment has so it As judg particular elements is conceived as logically determined. thought and being is already raised by this way of stating the ques It is taken as an assump tion.transcendental realism&quot.transsubjective. a not only at a definite point of &quot. at the time ti. for the scientific concept of a definite object comprises in its ideal completion not only the totality of its properties given here and now. 243 ff.&quot. result. another may be added. ascribed to the subject a. that no logical efforts can remove.object&quot.&quot.world of presentation. above p. differential gains objective The content of the particular time- meaning. 268.. We connect a series of different. but also the totality of necessary consequences. capable of repetition and as fixed in judgment. that all consciousness is first directed on the subjective states of our ego and that nothing except these . but it is maintained for the whole series ti t 2 1 3 . in Platonic language. a barrier between &quot.

Without logical principles. No known and experienced as &quot. there is as little a consciousness of the ego as there is a consciousness of the object. presentational idealism but also critical idealism in its ground and root. without contrasted with another content. that is here presupposed.subjective. while sufficient for the consciousness of the ego. in no way suffices to ground the consciousness of the object.realism&quot.immanence. The the it is correlation of the consciousness of the ego and the consciousness of object. not by denying the intellectual postulate at the basis of these deductions of the concept of objective being. but conversely by the fact that it grasps this intellectual postulate more sharply and demands it for every phase of knowledge. He who grants science the right to speak of objects and of the causal relations of objects. after the &quot.&quot. and &quot.mass&quot.&quot. since both arise together and can only develop in constant reciprocal relation. 273. The object of natural science especially cannot be treated by these primitive means. but a strange error to believe that they affect not only psychological. signifies only an abstract moment of a conceptual distinction. &quot.transcendence. are strictly and unmistakably distinguished from all contents of immediate perception.&quot.objective&quot. The thought of the ego is in no way more original idealism.force&quot. is is what to be contested not so much and logically immediate than the thought of the object.&quot. and &quot. which never goes beyond these first. The &quot.energy. even the most primi tive. there is a type of self-consciousness. There is a sphere of &quot. One can fully accept these conclusions so far.transcendence&quot. present impressions. which limits itself merely to taking in passively the content of particular. as rather the concept of &quot. which appears as objective. The objects of science.&quot. here advocated. that this first stage. but they are already implied in its construction. Only this is asserted.subjective&quot. original data.acceleration&quot. &quot. being Thus the conditions and presuppositions of (Cf.) as a supplement. experience cannot be added content can be subjective world of presentations has been completed.immanence.THE CONCEPT OF REALITY states 295 is immediately given. From the standpoint of critical the concept of &quot. above p. Critical idealism is distinguished from the &quot. and as such has no . has thereby already left the circle of immanent being and gone over into the realm of &quot. without adding any new element or logically judging the content according to a definite conceptual point of view. which go beyond the content of given impressions.

of its sort. that we divest ourselves of all connection with the realms of intellect and nature.. 10 of consciousness All consciousness no less than the demands some Miinchen 1906. that is unjustified both from the standpoint of logic and from that of psychology. experience. 10 it This apparently presuppositionless beginning. has a peculiar and. nevertheless worth while to pause over it. that the outer and inner world are opposed as two heterogeneous realities. in which thought in no necessity. Cf. by which the ego comprehends itself. p.in way participates.296 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION its independent existence. contains a premise. unsurpassable &quot. Ch. of the outer object is really guaranteed by the necessity Inner perception. Volkelt. and they exist only in a blending of the similar and the like:&quot. that postulates. Although this relation seems very it is when once the metaphysical difference of subject and object is changed into a methodological distinction. so that we merely retain our individ ual consciousness its whole emptiness and nakedness. but this &quot. intellectual &quot. Only in this way do we reach a type of certainty. When from our presentations. Die Quellen der menschlichen Geivissheit.&quot. The division here between perception and thought negates the concept objective concept of experience. only to find. (Evidenz). is purchased at the price of conceiving the content as absolutely individual.evidence&quot. And as both are different in their origin. For the kernel of all the miscon ceptions among the various epistemological tendencies is found here. all logical order is &quot. of the concept. then and only then can they be taken as self-evident. I.evidence&quot. of all commerce with the common values of civilization. . free from any admixture exclusive validity. esp. Leipzig 1878.all removed. lies in an analogous opposition between experience and thought. they are accordingly related each to a separate sphere of objects. while all knowledge of thought. because logical correlate whole meaning is rooted in its and opposite. 15 ff. Erfahrung undDenken. which assures us of the states of our ego. that we cannot remain with such a must be broadened by logical assumptions and by means of which we posit an object of knowledge. Thus the beginning of every theory of knowledge must involve. cf. The separation of thought and clear. certainty. The certainty of pure experience is taken to be entirely different from that of thought. however. within which they possess unique and It is pure experience. and as merely given in its unique properties here and now. The deeper reason.

Therefore if we characterize every element. nevertheless it is to be characterized as purely &quot. which these principles .) The concept of the object in critical idealism. etc.&quot. but that 12 it is first gained on the basis of intellectual necessity. 186 ff..idealism. The truth of the object depends on the truth of these axioms. It remains strictly within the sphere. . but as the object shaped in progressing experience.. as &quot. Erfahrung und Denken.&quot. by a &quot.&quot. presupposes the insertion of the individual content into some systematic totality. Cf. 32 ff. etc. and every form of connection presupposes a rela tion of the individual to an inclusive whole. p.transsubjective command. we find that there is no &quot.judgment of perception&quot. which is here alone asserted. especially and scientific knowledge. gains its meaning only through reference to the system of empirical judgments. Quellen der menschlichen Gewissheit. The ideality. and has f. Volkelt. and must therefore acknowledge the intel lectual conditions of this system. determine and cal limit.transsubjective.THE CONCEPT OF REALITY sort of connection 297 . When Volkelt repeatedly urges in his criticism. but also the certainty of the subject conceals a &quot. 12 Quellen der menschlichen Gewissheit. (Cf.imma nent. the universal principles of mathemati This simple thought alone constitutes the kernel of critical &quot. that goes beyond the mere givenness of the individual sensation. p. has nothing in common with the subjective &quot. If we determine the object not as an absolute substance beyond all knowledge. 46 p.epistemological gap&quot. For even the mere &quot.&quot.transcendent&quot.. above p. 245 f. to be laboriously spanned by some authorita tive decree of thought. from the standpoint of a. he defends the most characteristic thesis of this idealism.&quot. then the paradoxical proposition holds. tions is a thought. it can never wholly disappear without destroying the individual content An absolutely lawless and unordered something of percep itself. it concerns merely the objective validity of certain axioms and norms of this alone 11 scientific is affirmed knowledge. 11 For this object may be called &quot.transsubjective&quot. for the mere possibility of consciousness includes at least the conceptual anticipation of a possible order. psychological individual from the standpoint of logic and its supreme principles.presentation. that not only the certainty of the object. that cannot even be realized as a methodological fiction. element. that the object is not given in mere sensation. However primitive and undeveloped this system may be conceived to be. even though the details may not be made out.

tion of transcendence is most clearly seen when we &quot.factors&quot. The object of pure mathematics also can in no way be reduced to a complex of sensations it is also characteristic for it to transcend the . on &quot. which virtue of intellectual necessity. as well as the limits of thereby exactly characterized.arguments.object&quot. 33 and 37. we are led to certain logical necessities. which are succes sively reduced to a sequence of logical &quot. is is this which characterized in the language of idealism as the dependence of the &quot. obviously does not mean physical dependency on particular thinking subjects.298 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION no other and no firmer basis. p. if thought. is ultimately a logical necessity. understanding. but signifies merely a purely functional a relation of superordination and subordination in the If we analyse the definition of the validity of certain judgments.It call judgment. and it pure dependence in content of functions on their arguments. science to this certainty.&quot. but logical dependency on the content of certain universal uct&quot. of this concept. The proposition. reason. Everything that we &quot. is compare the object of experience with the object of pure mathematics.&quot.the transwe give to the contents of judgment by Thus it is according to the univer we construct the concept of being and deter every sort This limita mine of it in detail. nothing subjective significance. This sort of dependence is so unmistakable. .&quot.&quot. reflection. 267 ff. of thought. physical causal relation. thus contains no reference to any physical or meta relation. strictly But this relativity speaking. concept. would seem uprooted we acted contrary is By validity of being.thought. which appear as the inevitable constitutive &quot. Experience and its object are conceived as dependent variables. pels me to make transsubjective assumptions. that the certainty of actual necessity dominates me and com reason.transcendence. that being is a &quot. (Cf. no absolute. 13 sal rules of reason.prod principles of all knowledge.&quot.&quot. above esp. The justification. that to be understood except &quot. but only a relative being. It is true that there results. Die Quellen der menschlichen Gewissheit. that has no direct correlate in 13 Volkelt. that the actual necessity by objectivity within The which we go beyond the circle of particular disconnected sensations and rise to the conception of continuous objects connected by strict is in the name of causal rules.object.) pure mathematics. that it is also attested and emphasized by the opposing side. It is finally admitted. p. if we bring to clear consciousness what is assumed in this &quot. given in an intellectual construction.

14 These proposi . . The &quot. and on this fundamental function rests the foreign being positing of any sort of objectivity. of judgment. changing content of perception.&quot. 123. to which the changeable is henceforth referred. Thus is justified when it urges. absolute existences. something given.THE CONCEPT OF REALITY any particular content of presentation. if we were limited merely to the given. Der Realismus und das Transzendenzproblem. only a slight change in their W. is not &quot. but are only the expression of certain universal and necessary ideal connections. 299 yet the objects of And mathematical knowledge. in dis tinction from the flowing. by which it is represented here and now in a real In both cases. is of the same sort and rests on the same principles as the distinction between the mathematical idea of the triangle or of the circle and the particular intuitive image. become tautologies and lead to meaningless propositions. which..realism&quot. and what makes knowledge knowledge. raised to a new logical significance and permanence. but no entirely is grasped by us by virtue of this division in either but a new character of conceptual necessity is imprinted on cer case. If this insight is once gained. The same conditions.We mean anything. that were fundamental in the transition from the empirical data of touch and vision to the pure forms of geometry. the momentary sensuous image is presentation. a constant standard of measurement is introduced. do not constitute a field of self-subsisting. Freytag. are nothing but the result of a logical work. the numbers and the pure forms of geom etry. &quot. as there. that what makes a judg ment a judgment. for all attempts to remain purely within the given in the case of could never meaning. Here. which we ascribe to the physical objects. Each thought ent to itself. as we have seen. what is meant in them is transcendent to the given and thus to them in so far as psychical contents. as present is thus transcend mean itself. it can be carried over to the objects of physics.. in so far as it can never tions are entirely satisfactory. Judgment and knowledge go beyond the given in their meaning. in which we progressively transform experi ence according to the demands of the mathematical concept. but something that is added to the given.&quot. p.transcendence. but 14 they are considered only as given. are necessary and sufficient for the trans formation of the content of mere perception into the world of empiri cal-physical masses and movements.. tain contents. Halle 1902.

which includes the totality of members. we can not affirm that it stands beyond the logical principles of knowledge. which can be grounded and proved by thought. For if judgment were not transcendent. 126: nature of truth. and not on any concrete psychic contents or acts. 16 Cf. and therefore would be also thus given. which leads beyond experience as a total system.transcendence. that is actually judged as not being 6. Uphues. is no other than that which is 15 posited and guaranteed in the fundamental function of judgment. then the converse inference holds. because in the first precisely the a was meant. The &quot. and that all that is means something that is not directly found in itself 16 but it has given already been shown that there is no element in this &quot. gains its existence in conceptual relations. Kant und seine Vorganger. much as judgment transcends the mere content of present. in so far as the law of the whole. is posited and intended in it.&quot.transcendent to itself. in the second the a is meant. The particular appears as a differential. sensuous perception.300 formulation SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION is needed in order to draw an entirely different conse quence from them than the one here drawn. member of experience possesses a symbolic character. for. It was dependence on these principles. and thus would also have been given. did all its meaning consist in what it is as a psychic process. that is not fully determined and intelligible without reference to its integral. then the truth of the judgment would be directly estab lished.representation. . not the metaphysical transcendence of but rather the logical universality of the supreme principles things.. in the sense of psychologism must indeed be overcome in order to reach the concept of the physical object.presentation&quot. had it no mean ing going beyond what is given in it. p. &quot. from which its essence and its definition are inseparable.object&quot. but this object itself. op. whether I judge a is b or a is not b. 15 &quot. 336. p.&quot. that methodic idealism alone represented is. however. which is actually judged to be b. however. while it transcends the sphere of sensa tion. that the of impressions &quot. the transcendence of judgment is involved as a neces sary presupposition. if it belongs to its original function not to remain with the present sensations but to go beyond them. of knowledge.&quot. Berlin 1906.g. The &quot. and demanded.Immanence&quot. e. The fact must be granted unconditionally. Each particular particular . reaches beyond itself. cit. Freytag. To the psychological immanence is opposed. the correlation of knowledge and the object is admitted in the critical sense.in this general conviction of the objective Cf. each judgment would be correct in itself. is just as much and just as little transcendent as judgment Thereby.&quot. If all thought is really &quot.

about.. then a ground for all existence is ultimately lacking. This we can pass from a given starting-point through the whole of experience in a progress according to rule. which is satisfied in the field of the objects of knowledge. totality. that gives a ground and kernel to their appearance.. but not that we can pass beyond experience. these things in themselves can never appear as they are among phenomena.realism&quot. shift of logical meaning else when is it conceives it as a sort of transubstantiation. . can easily lead one (and has led some) to deny real existence to phenomena in general. of which they are both members. independently existing.&quot. Hartmann. fixed things in themselves behind the phenomena. that and therefore does not need to mean. 49. that the ^V world of phenomena is such that one phenomenon can exist only^in and through another. and can lead them to assume. it is &quot. but they rather produce the whole dependent appearance of phenom ena either by external interaction among themselves or by their inner working. But &quot. p. particular content is itself a fundamental function of knowledge. 17 mean something than for what this it is.must &quot. that which belong to a common order. who--. The constant reaching out beyond any given. concerning whose ground we would have to ask anew. rather relation brings it we need not at all be something actually are here concerned with a relation between different empirical contents.THE CONCEPT OF REALITY Metaphysical &quot. if A says. but we can investigate by what rules the individual is united to the whole. not to besought in something particular. &quot. it is Fechner. as a basis for the varying multiplicity of phenomena. and what are the ultimate that is kernel of the whole and of in it the basis of the individual is elements What we can thing never consists in an 17 find objective in a material obscure thing behind and independent of E.The fact. heterogeneous. I can only B exists/ and B in return. has clearly grasped the problem involved here.Whatever to mean anything/ it is. 301 misunderstands this here argued. the whole all is the basis and In the whole. v. Das Grundproblem der Erkenntnistheorie. in something other behind the individual. For it is said: if one phenomenon is always only to appeal to another with reference to the ground of its existence.. it is.other&quot. Among the philosophical physicists. I can only exist in so far as But then both of them are founded on nothing instead of seeking for the ground of the existence of A and B (which neither can find in the other) in something behind them. it is to be sought in the exist in so far as A exists/ .

It defines the object by relation to the &quot. Although these propositions draw the line between metaphysics and realizes a part. 19 Here the attempt to exclude the metaphysical elements of the concept of matter has again led to &quot. &quot. The unity of the physical world. The view stands between the two views. that critical is characteristic of it. as also in that of force or energy.&quot.. Fechner still betrays an inner obscurity in the definition of the object of physics. In order to avoid the conception of matter as a completely unknown. indeterminate something. and it is one of the manifold expressions of these relations. ed. p. like a given sensuous content. Matter is thus it is nothing else than what is perceptible by touch.whole of experience.&quot. For the first na ive view of reality. 106 f . 18 Thought does not need to reach things gradually and by Uber die physikalische und philosophische Atomenlehre. of the sensuously perceivable properties. Fechner. of which no one can be pointed out as &quot.tangible&quot. to be grasped by experience and to be traced further. the concept of thing offers no riddle or difficulty. cit. physics very distinctly. .&quot. p. that is of natural science it is also presented in the concept of matter. 2nd ff. above p. equivalent to the &quot. The reduction of the concept of thing to a supreme ordering concept of experience disposes of a dangerous barrier to the progress of knowledge. which the thing affords.lies .in setting aside the logical element. but consists of a unified connection according to law of the same.. What may lie behind the data of touch and feeling need not concern the physicist. tangibility alone is able to be pointed out.&quot. and this suffices to give the concept the fixed founda tions necessary for his purposes.) IV The historical transformation of the &quot.tangible.&quot. The whole gains its form and system only by the assumption of original relations. which Fechner defines matter by these very sensible properties the matter of the physicist is entire agreement with the most common usage. Ill 19 Op. it is true. to him.thing.302 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION perceptions or phenomena. of which connection each phenomenon but which connection goes beyond the particular 18 perceptions or the particular phenomena. 169 f. at the basis&quot. (Cf. but aware that this whole can never be represented and grounded as a mere sum of particular sense data. Leipzig 1864.

The its &quot. What metaphysics . it never offers us the objects themselves. the relation of representation appears. the thing is to be conceived as free not only from all the properties belonging to our immediate sensations (for the thing is in itself neither luminous nor odorous. all that is knowable. however.thing&quot.THE CONCEPT OF REALITY 303 complicated inferences. but only signs of them and their reciprocal relations. Skepticism and mysticism are united in this one point. but is an expression of the form and manner of conceiving. stripped from is known. The same ground. given as objects. but we know objectively. Thus we do not know as if they were already independently determined and &quot.phenomena&quot. by producing certain fixating certain permanent elements and con nections within the uniform flow of experience. An increasing number of determinations. No matter how ence many new relations of &quot. but is rather the fundamental instrument. instead of identity. To know a content means to make it an object by raising it out of the mere status of givenness and granting it a certain logical constancy and necessity. the real objects seem not so much revealed as rather the more deeply concealed by these relations. No matter how complete our knowledge may be in itself. but also as having all spatial-temporal properties. The concept of the limitations and by object in this sense constitutes no ultimate limit of knowledge. change and causality. The object marks the logical possession of knowledge.objects&quot. lying before us as a bare material. are now changed into mere expressions of being. and can grasp them just as our bodily organs of touch grasp the corporeal But this naive confidence is soon shattered. sion of the object and the object itself are separated from each other. but possesses them immediately. may All this doubt and suspicion disappear. shows them to be incomprehen it. All that sible. is set over in opposition the absolute being of the object. neither colored nor sounding). scientific experi teach us. Following the well-known path of the history of metaphysics. by which all that has become permanent possession is expressed and established. and not a dark beyond is thus no longer forever removed from knowledge. that against assures us of the existence of things. such as plurality and number. that were formerly taken as belonging to being itself. something unknown. when we reflect that what appears here as the uncomprehended residuum of knowl edge really enters into all knowledge as an indispensable factor and necessary condition. The impres object.

that is manifest in the content of scientific concepts of objects. The sign. even where theory of signs. but rather the logical instrument. it retains the concept of the absolute object. From a copy we demand some sort of similarity with the object copied. by which we know. 2nd ed. is realized in different empirical material. What is retained this in the case of in it is relations. and this law is a condition of our comprehending the phenomenon. . which can be established in one group. not the means by which it is satisfied. 947 f. that each connection. Thus natural science. In this connection the peculiar changeableness is explained. 586 ff. which serve as general lines of direction for the progres sive unification of laws. 20 But in this view also no entirely new content is ties. which is unitary in its purpose and nature. there arise different concepts of physical reality.. self-existent proper sations but we rather know the rules under which this real stands and in it changes. This fact appears in significant form in Helmholtz theory of signs. not copies of objects. The manifold of sen- is correlated with the manifold of real objects in such a way. and is the only property.304 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION ascribes as a property to things in themselves now proves to be a necessary element in the process of objectification. can find no other expres sion for its import than the purely formal relations at the basis of experience. the real absolutely in its isolated. but the objective which it stands to others like it. Merely this Helmholtz demand is unchanging.. They signify not so much the known proper ties of things. Handbuch der physiolog. What we discover clearly and as a fact without any hypothetical addition is the law in the phenomenon. accordance with which 20 Helmholtz. While in meta physics the permanence and continuous existence of objects is spoken of as distinguishing them from the changeableness and dis continuity of sense perceptions. which is a typical formulation of the general theory of knowledge held by natural science. but we can never be sure of our presentations. indicates a connection in the other. p. on the contrary. in t not the special character of the signified thing. but only a functional correspondence of the two structures. Our sensations and presenta tions are signs. yet these latter only represent different stages in the fulfillment of the same fundamental demand. Thus by our presentations we do not know. which we can carry over directly to things themselves. indeed. here identity and continuity appear as postulates. does not require any actual similarity in the elements. According as the function of objectivity. Optik.

Helmholtz formulates his view thus: its &quot. in abstraction from all particu When we declare connections. that when separated from the whole it is connections by which satisfy certain conceptual conditions and demands. According to this themselves. are merely concerned with defining its effect on a normal eye. that we never know mutual permanence and change. what we call a property always involves relation between two things. of confirmation and. but always exists only in relation to and in dependence upon the nature of a second being.isf their interactions. The known facts are not changed in their nature our choosing this form of expression. Thus we speak of the solubility of a substance. on which it works. Thinghood is always only such a formula ascribed to them. It follows of The itself logical and the ontological conceptions of relativity. that at first could appear as mere regularities of sensation. not so much &quot. we speak of its weight. we have merely produced a new designation for the universal meaning lar limiting conditions. since we thereby presuppose as self-evident. on which . that is its reaction to water. in their things as they are for themselves. then such an action naturally never depends on the nature of one of the agents alone. and their interactions influence and obscure the never be mastered in its .signs of something objective&quot. and these exist in their unchanging validity for all experience. of the empirical has no significance.THE CONCEPT OF REALITY 305 fact. that this existence can pure and separate form. it must indeed appear as a defect of thought. but they are only known to us in view.Each property or -quality of a thing is in reality nothing but produce certain effects on other things effect capacity to call We such an a property when we hold the reagent. but only a double expression is produced for one and the same The lawfulness of the real means ultimately nothing more and nothing else than the reality of the laws. in mind as self-evident without naming it. as rather objective signs. in their connection according to law. The accredited. objects of physics are thus. but are merely strengthened by in their objective truth. and with the same justifi cation we call it blue. posited. however. but only relations: that we can only establish their relations of But this proposition involves none of the that are connected with it in realistic meta skeptical consequences If we proceed from the existence of absolute elements. that is its attraction for the earth.for- nature of each. that we If. then physics.^hmgs_ea. to be laws of things.

22 recognizes in itself. . 589. German ed. but we concen trate our knowledge of empirical connections into judgments. A closer interpretation of the principle of the relativity of knowledge does not find this principle to be a mere consequence of the universal interaction of things. it This Its is a preliminary condition for the concept of thing the most general and most radical meaning of relativy is I not that we can only grasp the relations between elements of being by conceiving these elements still as obscure. Cf. all sists in removing this dependence more first stage of our physical try to reproduce the content further logical progress con and more. Therefore the &quot. with their striking formulation of the general principle of relativity. have been appealed to as a ground for demanding the exclusion in principle of all ontolog- Yet in truth. Physiologische Optik*. that we are able to grasp.. 321). 4th ed. but ical elements from natural science. p. p. ^1 These propositions. of thing through the category of relation. We do not grasp the relations of absolute things from their interaction. Leipzig 1901.relative&quot. The Concepts and Theories of Modern Physics. It is of especial interest to follow the manner in which this view gains methodic clarity and sharpness within modern physics. Braunschweig 1896. The unity of the scientific view of the world. Stallo. There is a circle in attempting to explain the relativity of for this interaction knowledge from the thorough-going interaction of things.306 the effect is SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION exerted. in so far as it neces21 und 22 Helmholtz. but rather that we can only reach the category itv. (Vortrage JKeden. properties do not signify in a negative sense that residuum of things. that account for the continual transformation of physical theories. Vself-existent kernels. that knowledge posits in the sensuous manifold in order to unify it. is rather only one of those ideas of relation. In a short sketch in his treatment of the unity of the physical world. Die neueren Fortschritte in der Theorie des Sehens. to which we ascribe objective validity. Sensation as such contains an anthropomorphic element. they too contain an unmistakable ontological element. 131. cf. meaning . A characteristic example of it is lately offered by a prominent physicist in his exposition of the progress and general goals of the physical method. but they are the first and positive ground of the concept of reality. 186 ff. p. Planck has defined the general points of view. definitions is marked by the fact that If the we of sensation directly in the concept.

what in the first naive view appears in mere conjunction and unre this tendency is carried through. that are absolutely incomparable from the standpoint of sensation. Leipzig 1909.) was already completed when Planck s lecture appeared. there was a special picture for each class of natural phenomena. It is so much the more welcome to me be cause our own result is confirmed in all essential points in the philosophical part of Planck s treatment and is thereby illumined from another point of view. While science renounces the wealth and varied multiplicity of immediate of the world for these lost contents? its What positive there at the basis of significance sensation. what compensation scheme tage soon is is offered by the scientific advan and necessity? It is made clear that the required compensation cannot be based on anything material. as such has a definite meaning for observable nature. of the development of the conceptual constructions of natural science in the fourth chapter (cf.THE CONCEPT OF REALITY 307 sarily involves a relation to a definite sense-organ. it regains its apparent loss in content through increased inner heterogeneity of the impres unity and completeness. so that fields. entirely coincide with See Planck. lies now be conceived as members of the same total plan The peculiar value of the scientific in construction this alone: that in the scientific construction there appears as connected by continuous conceptual intermediates. conversely. Die Einheit des physikalischen Weltbildes. as developed here. 164 ff . perfectly we see that the old system of physics was not like a single picture. That will not be possible in the future physical picture of the world. No single feature will be able to be left aside as un each is rather an indispensable element of the whole and essential. each observable physical phenomenon will and must find its cor responding place in the picture. thus to a specific human organism. esp. 23 It physiological structure of the pomorphic element is : must now be asked. How this anthro constantly forced into the background. but purely on a formal moment.&quot. the investigation fulfills its task. the more we look more closely. and. We see that the characteristics of the true physical theory. the history it entirely disappears in the ideal plan of physics of natural science furnishes a single continuous example. one of them could be removed without affecting the others. lated.If but rather a collection of pictures. 23 The exposition . p. The more purely &quot. so that of this. can The and in reciprocal connection. And these various pictures did not hang together. sions has disappeared along with their individual particularity.

. This &quot. unity in respect of all places and times.real ism.&quot. In opposition to the phenomenalistic view. unity with regard to all investigators. that the content of the concept of the object is established. Planck can justly characterize his view as &quot. The realization of all these demands is what constitutes the real meaning of the concept of the object. which remains with the data of mere sensation. Planck requires as the condition of any physical theory: &quot.realistic.308 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION the criteria of empirical reality.&quot. all nations. For the independence of the physical object of all particularities of sensation shows clearly its connection with the universal logical principles. is not the opposite but the correlate of a rightly understood logical idealism. all civiliza tions.unity in respect of all features of the picture. however.&quot. and it is only with reference to these principles of the unity and continuity of knowledge. as shown by epistemological analysis.

. or are they mere constructions of thought? things revealed in them. The problem seems shifted. The end of the enquiry leads us back to the same point at which we began. &quot. 309 . analysis of knowledge ends in certain fundamental relations. The pure relations also under the same question. These functions themselves form a fixed system of conditions. per manence and change. At any rate. as well as concerning the ego or subject. by virtue of which both must necessarily agree ultimately in fundamental sensations character? The universal functions of rational and empirical knowledge. and thus valid only for consciousness and the sphere of its contents? Or does there exist a mysterious pre-established harmony between mind and reality. that can be established in it and by it. Are pure relatiqji8&quot. but merely in the universal functions of rational and empirical knowledge. ground for resolving the opposition of thought and being exists. for only within them are thought and its seem as if we object possible. But to state the problem in this way shows that it has been over come in principle as the result of the preceding enquiry. or are they only the universal forms of expression of our consciousness. but not solved. and only relative to this system do assertions concerning the object. which rests the content of all experience. persists as sharply as ever.an element of Is the nature of being. There is no objectivity outside of the frame of number and magnitude. Thought cannot go The on further than to these universal relations. gain an intelligible meaning.CHAPTER SUBJECTIVITY VII OF AND OBJECTIVITY THE RELATIONAL CONCEPTS The problem of the subjectivity and objectivity of relational concepts. and thus The same point of all reality. causality and interaction: all these determina tions are only the ultimate invariants of experience itself. that was previously directed upon and presentations.common&quot. And yet with this answer it may have moved in a circle. for the opposition of the subjective ancTthe objective fall still . Yet this common ground is not to be sought in an absolute ground of all things in general.

. 1 For all the determinateness.being&quot. as to this origin. tion.matter&quot. 1 Cf. is itself only a certain form of logical relation.310 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION Without a temporal of view directly includes consciousness itself. for example. we seek the origin of one factor in &quot. Beilrage zur Erkenntnistheorie u. the conception of the ego has no meaning or application.things. 1. Der philosophische Kriticismus (esp.&quot.whence&quot. for the &quot. p. of knowledge. &quot. and of the other in the unity of consciousness._ai:e. Analysis teaches us very definitely that all these relational forms enter into the t5nce]pt of as into that of &quot.beginnings established in their meaning. every reduction of the fundamental forms question to an action of things or to an activity of mind would involve an obvious petitio principii. belongs to it only relatively to some possible order and thus to a formal serial concept. 1906. that we can ascribe to the &quot.form&quot. we can seek out the origin of particular objects and processes with their help and with the guidance of experi It is hopeless. as when.hes^j^]^tiojQS. Melhodenlehre. On the following. Kant Studien XIV. Riehl. question regard to relations in general. of its content. p. of knowl edge from by referring them each to a different origin in absolute being.) and also the treatment by Honigswald. finally without the possibility of distinguishing relatively constant conditions from relatively changing ones. it exists only as a serial member and only as such result not can be truly conceived. and &quot. Thus the possibility disappears of separating the its &quot. my criticism of this writing.form&quot. we can only ask what they are meaning. qualitatively specific sensation gains its character only by distinction from other contents of consciousness. of knowledge.-they &quot. The reciprocal relation of the &quot. on the problem of constant magnitudes. Lpz.__^fter J. above p. nor whence they have their origin. In fact.matter&quot. and not as to the manner in which and the from which they have arisen. a changing empirical existence. to seek to trace them to more ence. Abstraction from this condition would merely in a greater or less &quot.indefiniteness&quot. as is done with ultimate beginnings. cf. II. without the possibility of combining them into certain unities and of separating them again into certain pluralities. to psychical or physical in their logical &quot. 285 ff. cf. but it never shows i(s how .forces.thought.&quot. every are combined. 91-98. sequence and order of contents.matter&quot. all With If causality is once understood as a rela as to the causality of relations in general disappears. The particular. 230 ff.&quot. on the contrary.

and the &quot. neither matter nor form has any &quot.subjective&quot. while form. (See above p. 1907. . This limitation. constitutes the true &quot.ideality&quot. which are assumed to exist and to act in separate themselves. particular constants is also needed. Matter is only with reference to form. The material particularity of the empirical content can thus never be adduced as proof of the dependence of all objective knowledge on an absolutely transcendent&quot. of a value. On the contrary. what are the forms of judgment and it 2 Cf.&quot. Lpz.existence. it means ultimately nothing but the proposition. fixed value always remains in the sphere of that concept of being. on the other hand. seems to press anew for solution when we enquire as to what are the instruments of knowledge. foundations. Mythenbildung und Erkenntnis. by which the concept of knowledge is first completed. if the problem as to whether they are to be deduced from the mind or from things or from an interaction between the two comes to nothing. which as such undeni ably exists. But while the question as to the metaphysical origin of these conditions proves to be a miscon ception. hence the particular. F. p. the old opposition of the &quot. concerning whose ground and origin we could enquire. is valid only in relation to matter. but only by correlation with the universal principles truth. Still it is not evident how these con stants attest to experience. more than the empirical reality of the objects of its or how they reveal anything regarding of a absolute law presupposes this law and is only intelligible with reference to it. 296 f. that universal rules of connection and universal equations of natural phenomena do not suffice for the construction of experience and the constitution of its object. is nothing but a characteristic of knowledge itself. that is defined and limited by the universal principles of mathematics. has not yet been removed in every sense. If we abstract from their correlation. such as can only be gained by experimental observation. now especially: G.SUBJECTIVITY AND OBJECTIVITY OF CONCEPTS but would absolutely annihilate lation withstands every it. however. Such ideality cannot be established by correlation with the presenta tions and acts of thought of psychological individuals.) For the particularization and conditions of scientific The existence of the ^eternal truths&quot.objec tive&quot. ground for this determinateness. but the knowledge of . Lipps. 154 ff. 2 311 This indissoluble logical corre attempt to explain the relation here by two causal factors. If we give it its most purely scientific expression.

thus forming an ideal whole. in which we bring the content of these propo sitions to intuitive or conceptual presentation. Mitteilungen aus Leibnizens ungedruckten Schriften. The concept of truth of modern mathematics. in actual empirical experience. surfaces is we mean. Lpz. 21 f. in pure timeless validity of the ideal to reject this question entirely also. in no case is it these proper ties. principles. of Leibniz Hauptschriften zur Crundlegung der Philosophic. It is especially the modern extension of mathematics.. For example. necessary sequence. the negation of any merely psychologi cal foundation is expressed with the greatest clarity. can be perfectly deduced and expressed without going back to the psychological acts. of relating thought. as they issue from each other in a strict. Juris et aequi elementa (Mollat. they connect the validity of certain conclusions with the validity of certain premises. p. without asking whether there are individuals in whose thought the transition from the found premises to the consequences is ever actually made. These eternal truths merely repre sent hypothetical systems of consequences. that has fully revealed this fact objects physical or psychical contents.312 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION which we can present to ourselves temporally. 504 f. These classi cal writers all incline to the same thought. that lines. whatever its properties may be. my ed. even if there was noth 3 ing that could be counted nor anyone who knew how to count. The truths of pure arithmetic would remain what they are. p. of and angles. when we speak of the objects of geometry. is such as belongs to concrete merely their reciprocal being determined. &quot.propositions and truths in themselves. the We may be Leibniz declares (in close conjunction with Plato).) 3 .&quot. indeed. The &quot. it affirms an objective dependency in the realm of what is thought of. of truths is logically independent of the fact of their being thought. Lpz. cf. II. In the real classics of idealism. tempted for the sake of the strictness and purity of the logical foundation. without considering whether examples of these abstract connections can be in the world of empirical things. the meaning of the propositions of pure geometry. but See Leibniz. 1893. No matter whether these acts are different in different individuals or whether they are uniform and have constant properties.subsistence&quot. that has found paradoxical expression in Bolzano s conception of a realm of &quot. that we ascribe to these no sort of temporal reality.eternal are valid in complete independence of every fact of reality. that the truths&quot. but no actual causal connection in the realm of thinking. The being. 1904 ff.

an objective content. of which we can of the mathema have merely empirical knowledge? Are the tician nothing else. Keyser.SUBJECTIVITY AND OBJECTIVITY OF CONCEPTS 313 and has thereby prepared the ground anew for the logical theory that rests upon it. 25 f.&quot. implications. That world is not the product but the object. 4 4 C. however. on the contrary. Just as the astronomer. its intimate ontological make-up. and implications. . with which the general theory of the manifold is concerned. propositions. are the true and complete objects of mathematics. the mind of the mathe matician goes forth into the universe of logic in quest of the things that are there. p. which is set over against the psychological activity But does this content of of thought as an absolutely binding norm. so. a lecture delivered at Columbia University. being no more identical with thinking them than wine is identical with the drinking of it. The constitution of that extra-personal world. and have they no other meaning than those. not the creature but the quarry of thought. unalterable way. in structure ranging from the very simple to the endlessly intricate and complicate. there is no room left for any arbitrary activity of thought. J. and this necessity constitutes a peculiar entity. for example. without going into the complex and difficult psychological problems as to in what intellectual processes we present to ourselves the mean ing of the infinite totalities here under consideration. The necessity of universal mathematical connections must remain undisputed. &quot. is logic in its essential character and substance as an independent and extra-personal form of being. there is a world that is peopled with logic says. ensembles. it as you will. other student of objective science looks abroad in the world of sense. for classes. Further. since all the properties of these groups are fixed by their original concept and belong to them in a necessary.phrase &quot. truth stand on the same plane as sensuous reality. the physicist. relationships. . &quot. relations. Mathematics 1907. the geologist. on the positive as well as on the negative side. or . . These structures can be fully developed.For. in endless variety and multiplicity. These propositions define the problem very sharply. New York. These structures.facts&quot. ideas. . exploring the heights and depths for facts ideas. not metaphorically speaking but literally. and their conceptions first represents mathematics in its full extension. the entities composing it propositions. thought is resolved entirely into its object and is determined and as a modern representative of mathematical guided by it.&quot.

in a new sense.&quot. the similarity or dis similarity. the particular &quot.^knowing. ~ .impres sion&quot. ii The relational concepts and the activity of the ego. to define the concept of &quot. which it opposes to itself. the truth can only be brought to consciousness by these acts of cognition and through their mediation. Thus there exists a deeper and more intimate mutual between the object and the operation of thought than between the wine and the drinking of the wine. as to the intellectual operations. cannot as such be absolutely found holds only for the moment for &quot. and thus signifies an empirically unique fact. But this sort of appropriation is denied. on the basis of the concept of &quot. more particularly Ch. has implicit in general characterization of the it the answer to which we reach out decisively. These j operations can indeed never blend indistinguishably into what is known by them the laws of the known are not the same as those of . . Necessities cannot be simply described.314 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION example. Nevertheless. while on the other hand. is never itself 6 something that is seen or touched. the two types of law are related to each other. in the customary sense of naive dogmatism. The wine and the drinking are not exactly correlated but every pure act of cognition is directed relation . for what is merely which it is The question hend these I established. One aspect above all stands As long as the object was simply the &quot.thing&quot. 5 Everywhere we must go Cf. thus presses anew for solution. in which we compre necessities. or mere sum of such impressions might grasp it and copy it. in so far as they represent two different aspects of a general problem. VIII. the identity or difference of the seen or touched. Hence it is necessary. which the comparative anatomist and zoologist establish The in the description and comparison of various bodily structures? very logic of mathematics and of mathematical physics definitely forbids any such identification of the exact and the descriptive methods. on an objective truth.sub jectivity&quot.objectivity&quot. the question as to what are the intellectual means and methods by this knowledge. The object. resulting from such analysis.found. when the validity of certain logical relations is established as the necessary condition and real kernel of the concept of the object. For pure relations can never be represented in mere sensuous impressions. gained from the analysis of scientific principles.

r concept realized. and with it the content of seems once more to be in flux.is&quot. can only come to consciousness in the change. There is no act of knowledge. requires reference to &quot. according as we choose our standpoint at the conceived limit or within the series and its progress yet each of the two aspects . but a strictly regulated and constrained activity. This limit it is although for us and exists in definite determinateness. Knowledge realizes itself only a series that must be run through -so^ that we may become aware But if this series^ is to of the rule of itsjjrogress. on the other hand.&quot. view of knowledge is not opposed to the demand for permanence.. then we must conceive the series as converging toward an ideal limit. and only in their \ unification is its in a succession of logical acts. A different results. But this &quot. in order to be defined psychologi an independent activity of consciousness. The progress of the judgment according to law is the correlate of the unification of relations according to law in the object of knowledge. We may conceive the idea of the thing as a complex of sensuous properties to have arisen through these properties having been perceived for themselves. The functional activity of thought finds its support in the id&^structure of what is thought. therefore.being. The content of truth. truth by intellectually regenerating it. in successively-.SUBJECTIVITY AND OBJECTIVITY OF CONCEPTS 315 back from the passive sensation to the activity of judgment. while the constancy. and having com bined of themselves by virtue of an automatic mechanism of &quot. knowledge contains a static and a dynamic motive. All of our intellectual opera tions are directed on the idea of a &quot. But necessary connection. a structure that belongs to it once for all independently of any particular. &quot.fixed and permanent&quot. be grasped as a unity. is not arbitrary. requires the other for its completion. in which alone the concept of logical connection and of logical truth is adequately expressed. For the activity of thought. we can only realize what a certain cally. by allowing it to develop before us out of its particular conditions. for according to this whole view. not attainable save by means of the particular &quot. members view of the series and their change according to law. which L .associa tion. as an expression of an Identical reality/ which is defined the more exactly the further we advance. realm of It is evident. i.&quot. The two elements of structure and function in their interpenetration determine the complete concept of knowledge. that all objectively necessary relations.is&quot. Constancy and change in knowledge.e. The change is directed toward constancy.genetic&quot. to which we here recur. temporally limited act of thought.

ject to stants&quot. among the &quot. p. the general tendencies by giving up If all &quot.ths qf the thinkinciafrsubrectr* At dominating present opistemologiOn the one hand. the difference between them is sharply revealed again. I. op. Whatever can be thought of has being. 451.316 is SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION not directed on some fixed content of relations as its real object. while._Not &quot. in grasping these truths. on pain of. But now Mathematics is able to answer. 33. in cognizing a definite system of inferences as sense is according to the ordinary view all in the perception of sensuous objects. op.. this point. 427. that have only gotten into science Thus all closer relation is The mind is as completely passive receptively as given material.&quot.&quot. p.objectivity&quot.objects. and Philosophy answered by introducing the totally irrelevant notion of mind. 7 of being &quot. cit.&quot. and we no more create numbers than he created the Indians. The Principles of Mathematics. so far at least as to reduce the whole of its propositions to certain fundamental notions of logic. it is rather em phasized that the mind. Russell. /The independence o/L2aaicaL. made to maintain the pure objectivity of the logical and the mathe matical. Cf. 4: Philosophy asks of Mathe it mean? Mathematics in the past was unable to answer. mere delusion.entirely meaningless&quot. of its being 8 The &quot. reach absolute but always only relative objects. 37. Here number. and its being is a precondition. by the help of philoso lacking between the ideal truths of mathematics and logic and the activity of thought.entity. of pure concepts and truths is thought accordingly put on a plane with that of physical things.v .thinking mind. this concept of the subject does not belong to the field of pure logic and mathematics. it is rather to be accounted one of those &quot. urged. not a result. p. this content can only be verified and com prehended in acts of knowledge. axioms and con theorems. attempt is cal discussion divide most distinctly. receives them only phy. this we do not find the concept of the thinking sub which whole system given.laj. Neverthe less. but is an entity which may be thought of.In short.&quot. cit. The number 2 is not purely mental. matics: What does 7 8 Russell. when we recall that in the sphere of logic and mathematics we cannot knowledge must be recognition. we analyse the reference in principle to thought and to the ideal structure of mathematics and if we clearly represent the it is whole of is its definitions. Therefore. Russell. 6 conceptions.logical that ultimately remain.. but rather the numbers constitute a true &quot. . on the other hand. arithmetic must be discovered in just the same sense in which Co lumbus discovered the West Indies.

on &quot. there arises for thought a permanent logical product.&quot. yet a movement which is no mere change of presentation. a reaction will ensue such as to endanger the constancy of logic itself. law of it^construction. In order to comprehend a series and thus to penetrate into its systematic needed not merely a single apperceptive act (such as which reciprocally con Thus a movement of thought is always demanded. . What has been advanced in defence of this view is clad almost entirely in a rhetorical and i when we attempt to translate it The very concept of utility defies all attempt at exact definition: now it is the particular individual with his special wishes and inclinations. elements from its system of the .pure logic. and melts away into the sober language of logic. From this general motive.the individual gains its meaning and content only from the whole. a single element of it is stressed one-sidedly. In so far indeed relation if as pragmatism consists of nothing but the identification of the con cepts &quot. in order to be truly aipvftyed. but. there is is considered sufficient for the perception of a particular thing of sense). must be grasped and in the _ ^determined the number series as nature. which tainty and definiteness. Thus from the activity itself flows the recog dition each other.pragmatism&quot.truth&quot. the possibility of exact scientific knowledge. it cannot avoid if it is to gain cer The problem of pragmatism.. we can perhaps most easily understand the attack.&quot. The case leaves unsolved precisely the decisive problem. of thought is thus not the opposite but the necessary correlate of &quot. If this fundamental between spontaneity and objectivity is not fully grasped.anthropomorphic&quot.&quot.spontaneity&quot. The &quot. body of truths. but always a manifold of such acts. now it is some common. with reference to which first utility is defined and measured. that has been made by &quot. polemical style. we can confidently abandon it to the general fate of philosophical catch-words.SUBJECTIVITY AND OBJECTIVITY OF CONCEPTS . Within the act of production. which can only be reached by means of it. but in which what is first gained is retained and made the starting-point of new developments. and is rather directed on the exclu sion of all purely &quot. but this whole cannot be presented like a quiescent object of per ception. and &quot.utility.objectivity.. for a science of nature is no more constructed from individual feelings and tendencies than from individual sensations. in so far as thought is aware that this act does not proceed arbitrarily but ac nition of a fixed cording to constant rules. generic structure of \ man.

which stands constantly before us as an ultimate goal and directs our The truth of any particular proposition can only be cognition.) However. but where certain consequences are connected with certain presuppositions. in which is in fact presupposed.practical&quot. edited by Dewey (The Decennial Publica tions of the University of Chicago. SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION above p.utility&quot. For. 9 and harmoniously shaping the originally 9 Cf. our investigations and experiments are &quot. to it in popular philosophical discussion. Our inferences become the pure and complete expression of and conclusions. which it produces in the tendency toward progressive unification. such considerations do not more subtle interpretation that pragmatism has affect the finer and received especially from Dewey and his school. above p. not because they are necessarily directed on gaining an outer purpose. fixed reality a proposition not because it agrees with a all thought and all possibility of thought. but because it is verified in the process of thought and leads to new and fruitful consequences. by what it contributes to the progressive unifi cation of the manifold.&quot. but merely in the sense that it is the unity of all thought. that pragmatism is concerned with the relation to be assumed between the objectively valid propositions of science and the activity Truth and of thought. (Cf. measured by what it contributes to the solution of this fundamental problem of knowledge.&quot. the &quot. Ill. There is &quot. Studies in Logical Theory. Chicago 1903). Its real justification is the effect. we can only ask as to the function it in the structure and interpretation of the totality of experi ence. We can never set a judgment directly over against the particular outer objects and compare it with these. First Series.true. Vol. thus the whole concept of being. We beyond intellectually organizing isolated sensuous data.&quot. 284 f . The standpoint being of utility is and a definite order of process. everything does not issue arbitrarily from everything. only intelligible and applicable inside of (Cf. as closer examination shows. .) In the second case.practical. 306 is ff. fulfils as things given in themselves. Each hypothesis of knowledge has its justification merely with reference to this fundamental task. assumed having a permanent organiza which develops under conditions themselves possessing objec tive laws. thought has here &quot. only in a world. a constant psycho-physical subject tion. Here the problem is freed at least from those obscurities and ambiguities that attached Here it clearly appears. which should be deduced.doing.318 world. it is valid to the degree that it succeeds in call &quot.

that pragmatism is accustomed to attach to it. They are not grounded by pointing out a particular sensuous being. both are only different expressions of the accomplished is no refutation of &quot.&quot. above The recognition of this fact.) the consequences. p. Thus. logical criterion of truth. however. The &quot.practical.&quot. concepts do not gain their truth by being copies of realities presented in themselves. that The will. New York 1907. too. same fact. for example. It is clear that the assumption of such &quot. just as we are bound to the properties of our sensuous impressions in our knowledge of facts. they principles.SUBJECTIVITY AND OBJECTIVITY OF CONCEPTS 319 The critical concept of truth.coercions of the ideal order&quot. this consequence has occasionally come to light very clearly. but a new problem. so our thought is determined by an &quot. that is here to be satisfied.instrumental&quot.&quot. unity and continuity. the */\ . by these develop ments. does not differ from the assumption of an objective. The critical view of knowledge and of its relation to the object is not affected.realities. involves none of p. hundredth decimal of the number T is ideally predetermined.&quot. under penalty of endless inconsistency and frus 10 tration. be such realities concrete or abstract. Pragmatism. be they facts or be realities. is nothing but the The direction of the progress of knowledge is not will to logic. in spite of all the ambiguity in the con cept of the &quot. however. that &quot. even &quot.given. What is 10 James.ideal compulsion&quot. which the critical view has recognized and taken as a basis from the beginning.Our ideas must agree with if no one has actually calculated it. 209 ff. but by the universal intellectual postulate of means.corresponds&quot. such as vary from one subject to another. is to be sought with purely theoreti with a purely theoretical goal. meaning cal we are obviously concerned here of scientific hvpotnyaesL. which physics affirms. but by being recognized as the instruments of strict connection and thus of thorough-going relative determinateness of the &quot. in the field of pure logic and mathematics.. to them.pure logic. . For the critical view. No matter how-far we may grant and urge the &quot. (Cf. but at any rate a further development of the thought on which it It is not a new solution that is offered. 164 ff. determined by any sort of individual needs. James himself emphasizes the fact that our knowledge is subject to a double compulsion. rests. In fact.&quot. have no meaning beyond that of being ordering concepts. for in them a thought is merely spun out. but by expressing ideal orders by which the connection of experiences is established and guaranteed.

and since therefore we can never compare our astronomical constructions with these motions them and thus test them. It is empirical being itself that we seek to grasp in the form of rational mathematical orde^f That this demand is never ultimately and definitely satis For the material. selves &quot.freedom . where we renounce all that enter into the relation. 11 attempts to assert anything regarding the reality of the elements. 319 im System f.. since we do not go from one stage to another but according to a definite law. 1907. arbitrariness.truth&quot. finished as a complete store of and in the process constantly observations and investigations. and only holds to the turns extent that this condition is satisfied. assumes new forms. section 5 ff. in the possible transformation that it can undergo through new that is here subjected to mathematical treatment.facts. it seems to separate itself from the real foundation of its certainty. that since the absolute motions of the heavenly bodies are not given to us in experi ence and can never be given to us. but a variable datum and is to be comprehended in its variability.from existence. It is argued.&quot. . results from the nature of the task itself. more immediately related to each other. cf. there is no meaning in granting to any one system (for instance. arbitrarily It is customary to appeal especially to the purely relative validity of our astronomical system of the world. Their apriority is The based on their &quot. Uber die Stellung der Gegenstandstheorie der Wissenschaften. two types of knowledge. in order to prove the relativ ity of the concept of empirical truth. For in mathematical first . is never found but is only shaped in the process. fied. the Copernican) the merit of above all others. It is no constant. The moment thought to the empirical existence of the objects. however unavoidable it may appear at from a methodological standpoint for the mere possibility of a mathematical science of nature contradicts it. first in the general attempt to ground universal truths of logic and mathematics are not only deprived of any empiristic grounding. &quot. All systems are equally true and equally real. Nevertheless we cannot hold to this unconditional separation. but they also seem to lack any relation to the world of empirical objects. True insight into the necessity of a connection can only be reached. But this variability is of the essence of the empirical and involves no element of &quot.&quot. Meinong. The change is itself determined and necessary.subjective&quot. Lpz.320 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION such as could be neglected at knowledge. science of nature the are oripe . 11 See above p. that are here opposed.

but allows it to remain in a new interpretation. on the one hand. while space and time. for the abolition of an absolute standard in no way involves the abolition The latter of differences in value between the various theories. The claim of any such connection.) Going back to such supreme guiding principles insures an inner homogeneity of empirical knowledge. little as this unity ever appears as complete. The one reality can only be .objective. This rule.projected unity. thus the particular configurations in space. is given by relations. The demand itself is what is fixed and permanent. The spatial order is called &quot. has been constructed by us in accordance with tion and the requirements of the law of inertia. Yet of empirical knowledge.g.) Further there are also certain material features of the system. by virtue of which all its various phases are combined in the expression of one object. however. above p. above p. Both system and convergence can be mediated and established.&quot. but by certain supreme principles of the knowl edge of nature. 266 ff . is plain. (Cf. is not measured with respect to things themselves. much as it remains rather a &quot. although they are connected and conceived in a nejsr way. number and magnitude are retained as instruments of any construction. analogously to arithmetic. entirely by comparison of the serial members and by the general rule. The is thus exactly as true and as necessary as the logical unity &quot. of the fact that the form of experience persists. all strictness in so far as the general presupposition is retained that the changing phases of the concept of experience do not lie absolutely outside of each other. which they follow in their progress. but also no truer or more necessary. 183 ff .SUBJECTIVITY AND OBJECTIVITY OF CONCEPTS since they are all equally remote 321 from the absolute reality of things and signify only subjective conceptions of phenomena.. while every form of its realization points beyond itself. its concept is none the less definitely determined.&quot. which we take as a basis for our construction system of the world. that the presupposi e. that are retained as logical norms. but are connected by logical remain in The system and convergence of the series takes the place an external standard of reality. observations of Tycho de Brahe enter into the system of Kepler. that are unaffected by the transition from one stage to of the the following: the variation does not absolutely cancel the earlier All the stage. (Cf.object&quot. vary. The defect of this inference. however. that corresponds to these principles. which can and must differ according to the choice of the intellectual and spatial standpoint.

In the realm of rational knowledge. in spite of their opposition. As long as we remain in the field of purely logical and mathematical proposi tions. yet the assumption of this limit is not arbitrary.322 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION indicated and defined as the ideal limit of the many changing theories. In the process of knowledge. not the objectivity of absolute things. concrete problem of in a unitary . are ultimately united t type of knowledge. If it did not possess a certain stability. it can be supplemented by others being added to it. astronomical system. but it cannot be transformed in its own import. but inevitable. given being. the same problem is set. as in that of empirical. but rather the objective determinateness of the method of experience. Thus the instrumental character of scien little &quot. it is different today from what it was yesterday. Each proposition is always what it once is.true&quot. not in that they copy a fixed. We The reconciliation of permanence and change. seems in principle to be deprived of this determinateness. Pure empirical truth. to which knowledge penetrates. only in the way in which this affirmation is proved is founded the difference of the different levels of knowledge. since only by it is the continuity of experience established. The affirmation of such a constancy is essential to every act of thought. It is only in abstraction that we can separate the absolutely permanent element from the changing and oppose them to each other. corresponds therefore to the active form of thought in general. that remain self-identical and unaffected by the accidental. that leads to the unity and thus to the truth of thought. that remain unchanged. cosmic order. no sure and permanent use of it would be possible it would break at the first attempt and be resolved . the Copernican as can be taken as the expression of the tific concepts and judgments is not here contested. and merely signifies a temporary hold. but in so far as they contain a plan for possible constructions of unity. No single as the Ptolemaic. however. must be in itself fixed and secure. temporally varying conditions of psychological appre hension. into nothing. the conception is established of a body of ideal relations. The real content of the object of thought. we have a fixed whole of truths. which must be progressively verified in practice. The genuine. These concepts are valid. And still both motives. but only the whole of these systems as they unfold continuously according to a definite connection. in application to the empirical material. need. But the instrument. that we gain amid the flux of presentations only to relinquish again.

by which experience is orientated in its scientific shaping. if there were fixed. and is verified through all change in the accidental material of experience. see ff. Ziele des Erkennens. and thus gating broadening and deepening its concept. &quot. istic function of the intellect and represent this function in its full scope. sal theoretical laws. of the given and the demanded is established by our investi the given in the light of the theoretical demands. Difference and change are not points of view in principle &quot. changeableness of the empirical material proves in no way to be a hindrance.). constancy and change appear from this side also as correlative logical moments. 107 . Lpz. 1908. esp. it is not so much constancy in being. The opposition between mathematical theory and the totality of observa tions known at any time would be irreducible. when we become aware of the con ditional character of our empirical cognitions and thus of the plastic The ity of the empirical material with which knowledge works. but rather a positive furthering of knowledge. unchanging data involved on both sides. as rather constancy in logical use.alien to x2 but belong in their fundamental meaning to the character thought. as has been shown but reveals its true meaning in its necessary progress from one element to another. The the realm of change. The possibility of remov ing the conflict only opens up. still in the constant assimila tion between them consists the whole movement of knowledge. If this correlative 12 double form of the concept (&quot. Cohn. To establish an absolute. but that of thought. This function of these con nections as is their identical permanent and indestructible value. but also and especially a dynamic meaning. For thought is not limited to separating out the analytically common element from a plurality of elements. The double form of the concept. real opposition between them would be to cancel not only the concept of being. is misunderstood. Identity and diversity. The becomes a means for gaining a foothold in The changing is considered as if it were when we attempt to understand it as the result of univer permanent. Voraussetzungen u.SUBJECTIVITY AND OBJECTIVITY OF CONCEPTS 323 knowledge is to make body of eternal truths the permanent fruitful for the changing. then Jonas For the concept of alienation from thought Denkfremdheit&quot. The difference between the two factors can never be made to disappear entirely. The ideal connections spoken of by logic and mathe matics are the permanent lines of direction. The constancy of the ideal harmony forms has no longer a purely static.

it is nevertheless exactly and consistently deduced from the assumed explanation of the intellect and its But this explanation requires a limitation. but are deter mined only in it and by it. efforts which all natural science unconsciously owing to the fact that reality withstands the of thought and sets up certain limits.sphere stitutes the ultimate goal to approaches. in its multiplicity and changeableness. as a manifold and changing whole. is What thought demands thought requires the standpoint of diversity no less than it requires the standpoint of identity. that cannot be bridged. The peculiar function.. toward which thought progressively tends. identity. but the identity of functional orders and correlations.&quot. Thought does not tolerate any inner heterogeneity and must from which it constructs its form of being. It is not the manifold as such that is cancelled.reason. sensuous 13 See E. i. but is grounded in the character and task of scientific &quot. do not exclude the element of diversity and change. The con eternally homogeneous. Identite el R6alite. of the temporal flow of events is transfixed by thought into the per manence of ultimate constant magnitudes. When analysis resolves the given. however. p. We reach once more the fundamental view of Eleatic metaphysics. must arise between knowledge and phenomenal reality. consequence may seem. substituted in scientific explanation for the sensuous is not the extinction of plurality in general. the mathematical manifold manifold. esp. To explain nature is thus to cancel it as nature. . but its mastery by the mathematical con and change In establishing this continuity. tinuity of serial laws and serial forms. it is concluded that we destroy it in its real nature. that it cannot transcend. of Parmenides&quot. which has had in fact an interesting and signifi cant revival in modern criticism of knowledge. . which is itself nothing else than the hyposchange in the elements. physical qualities of things are resolved into the one concept of the other. is not the iden tity of ultimate substantial things. that being itself does not 13 Paradoxical as this disappear in the perfection of knowledge.e. Inorder to understand reality by our mathematico-physical concepts.324 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION a gap. that reality maintains it is itself against the logical leveling of its content only by such opposition from reality. 229 ff. Meyerson. These functional correlations. The manifold The living intuition tatization of empty space devoid of qualities. but only one of another dimension. It is only motionless &quot. The former also is not absolutely forced upon it from without.

but that it also leads in the reverse direction. thought thus reestablishes the harmony of being.impression&quot. then it is &quot. when the reality of the becomes the reality of the &quot. Only by thus setting aside the simplicity of the perceptual things can we reach the new meaning of identity and permanence.SUBJECTIVITY AND OBJECTIVITY OF CONCEPTS 325 qualities into a wealth of elementary motions. but contains the condition and stimulus for its progressively complete solution. which The complete concept of lies at the basis of scientific laws. from motion to rest.&quot. . The inexhaustibleness of the problem of science is no sign of its fundamental insolu bility. and that the setting aside of the appar ent constancy and simplicity of perceptual things is no less neces sary.vibration. seen that the path of investigation does not merely consist in going over from plurality to unity.

What these relations are in their purely logical meaning. as long as we are concerned with under standing the pure system of foundations and deducing it in its truth. has led us to a totality of relations. From this. progress ultimately It is evident. must be subordinated. 326 . that contains the presupposition of the intellectual opposition of the &quot.CHAPTER VIII ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RELATIONS Logical relations and the problem of self-consciousness. that are continually raised from the side of science. it can only be comprehended in judgment and thus in the activity of thought. on the other hand. the This totality knowledge judgment. it can in no way do justice to the problems. that the proposition thus gains within the whole of possible knowledge. The development the of science itself urges us to leave this question in background. The question. requires new psychological means for its Thus the general demand for a psychology of relations description. and the &quot.subject&quot. Science advances from one objectively valid proposition to another for which it claims the same form of validity. indicates the measure of its certainty.&quot. that in so far as psychological analysis proceeds from mere sensuous experience and seeks to remain in this type of experi ence. and the position. that science presents to us as distinct and certain. as to how this whole is realized in the knowing individ uals. it is evident that the characterization of this totality is subject to a double method and can be attempted in a twofold way. can only be learned from the meaning they gain in the total system of science. Each particu lar proposition is bound and connected with another within this customary separation is seen to be impracticable. The object. objective. instead of leading us to a metaphysical dualism of the subjective and the objective worlds. in so far as all the constancy of empirical rests upon it as well as the whole possibility of objective is system. The prob lem of knowledge. without being diverted from this path by psychological considera And yet precisely this independent tions and psychological doubt.object. creates a new problem for psychology also. while. Confronted with this totality.

there is a strange anomaly in this. in pure pure geometry and arithmetic. &quot. which f takes place between our body and the material things of its environ ment. Unity . of nature. With of scientific psychology goes back historically to Plato. Plato.ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RELATIONS 327 leads to a transformation of psychological methods in general. There is no path that from mere perception as such to the new concept of the For perception seems a mere part of the processes is to be established. it is It is clear that here. perception by Empedocles and all the older philosophy seems nothing else than the adjustment. really constitutes its historical beginning. which Plato has given the proposition the Theatetus. &quot. of Protagoras in development. and receives peculiar and independent features. which has in it the and self-movement. but can only grasp in their reciprocal determination by each other. and are related as two forms of motion directed on each other. this view is still plainly re-echoed. as represented of nature. has already made logic as well as in &quot.object&quot.self. but leaves is concerned with the analysis of behind when he turns to the analysis of the reac pure concepts.&quot. For a long time modern psychology seemed completely to have lost sight of the peculiarity of the pure relational concepts.Subject&quot. Only in relatively recent times and by remark round-about ways. The conception science. has it begun to approach them again. is only possible owing to the fact that Plato soul is principle of its preservation sure of his necessary intermediate terms. the In the soul must be of the same nature and constitution as they. the concept of the soul emerges for the first time from the general concept of nature. however. equality and tion now has to be abandoned. for a short space as long as he it sensation. the type of conceptual construction. This msformation in the principles of psychology constitutes a weighty lem of epistemology. From a historical point of view. Plato s psychology of relations. This transition. as in other fields. these forms of njoiion we can never separate in their purity and independence. for what the modern psychologist may easily consider the end of his able. Plato conforms to analyse it into its real components. The image and analogy of physical action and and diversity. The no longer the mere breath of life. without being able To this view. that undergoes a charac teristic change. We always grasp only the result. In order to know the corporeal things in perception. but the soul passes over from this general meaning to that of self-consciousness.

in which they are presented to the ego.soul. that each of them is. ff. identity and opposition are objectively necessary elements of every assertion. similarity and dissimilarity. 184 C. The true concept of the self is connected with the concepts of the one and the many. pressing in upon us with corpo The manner. the warm and the cold. rather the soul gains them purely itself in free construction. It is knowl edge when we say of color or tone. . but the whole of knowledge is never exhausted in the totality of such sensuous differences. being and non-being. but nothing is found that refers them to each other and combines them into an identical self. inequality are not corporeal objects. For just this is their function. that they go beyond the particularity of sensuous contents in order to establish a connection between them. These universal elements neither require nor are from connected with any special organ. the like and the unlike. and it is this connection. &quot.soul&quot. Theatetus. But although being and non-being.328 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION real forces. as it were. they cannot be represented by any content of perception. The concept of the unity of con sciousness here first we rest in the content of the particular sensation. esp. the latter can be pointed out directly in neither of the two particular elements as such. that one of them is different from the other. 1 Cf. If gains a firm foothold and sure foundation. whether or not we designate this unity as The is thus. The fundamental problem of psychology is defined with reference to the fundamental problems of purejogic and mathematics. The eye may distinguish the bright and the dark. is fundamentally new and characteristic. The relation between the heterogeneous fields of sense-perception could not be attained. The perceptions are packed 1 together in us like the heroes in the wooden horse. we combine them into one idea.&quot. if there were no structures which remained outside of their special characters and thus outside of their qualita tive oppositions. unity and plurality. and finds its true realTzalibfr only in these. When we comprehend the perceptions under these concepts. and while both the sensuous contents participate in this connection in the same sense. which definitely frees the Platonic concept of the soul from the Orphic speculation and that &quot. and touch may distinguish the light and the heavy. or that both of them united are two. conceived and postulated as the unitary expression of the content and as the systematic arrangement of pure relational concepts. nothing is offered us but a chaos of particular experiences.

we correlate the white with the sweet or oppose them to each other.common sense&quot. which are found uniformly in a plurality in it of objects. can never be completely grounded 2 Cf. here appears as a power at once abstract and sensuous. These concepts represent something truly &quot. while touch includes indeed a plurality of qualities.and althcugh they are-formed on the occasion of sense-impressions. modern psychology makes only isolated attempts to reach a new interpreta tion of the problem. 2 Thus what was conceived by Plato as a spontaneous and free function of &quot. in an inclusive meaning. form and motion). At first. psychological view of Aristotle s corresponds to his fundamental logical view. a univer organ must correspond to the universality of the object. (in particular. which the traditional doctrine ascribes to the &quot. Aristotle starts In his division of sense-perceptions. III. tone as such. but is related to each of sense is related to its specific content. an tdiov belongs to hearing. it is necessarily s. wherein is combined This all in which the different types and fields of perception ag^ee.ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OP RELATIONS of the philosophy of nature with 329 which it at first seems closely view is un but already connected. &quot. in modern psychology. . center of gravity has shifted. For with what other faculty could we grasp contents of purely sensuous nature? But here sense no longer functions in any special capacity. As Aristotle further concludes. 426b. 41Sa. When. 2. To this common sense. all the individual data of perception are referred.concept&quot. Leibniz harks back directly to Plato when he urges. 6. Thus color belongs to vision. as nothing but a sum of sensuQUS properties.ense itself that sality of the receptive performs this act of comparison. for example. as mere vision or mere taste.&quot. especially Aristotle. Trep^xns II.consciousness itself.common. but as a &quot. to be collected and related to each other. that reaches beyond all particular differences. are ideas of the pure understanding:. peculiar to it alone and distinguishing it from all the other senses. extension.common sense&quot. that the contents. when we are determining the psychological correlate of rest. concepts like motion and magnitude and number. the &quot. from the fact that there is a particular content belong ing to each sense. them But in the same way as any this sort of relation does not suffice. Aristotle s doubtedly its Doctrine of the KOLVOV.&quot. The Platonic influential in Aristotle s doctrine of the KOLVOV .Thoughts of relation&quot. it rests on the view of.

All the weapons of ridicule are sum against the assumption of an independent. although they seem at first to occupy a special They possess truly positive content only in so far as they can be expressed im position.objectivity. no matter how much it may be Like a ghost of uncertain nature and origin. these ghosts cannot be laid to rest. which prove effective and fruitful in actual scientific matter how much one may of mal magnitudes use. Locke s schema is dominant throughout. when we are able to show the simple sense-contents out of which it is compounded. unlimited intellec tual progress. on the whole. without properties. This reliance on a perceptual criterion appears most clearly in the concept of the infinite. has by no means freed itself from the presuppositions it struggles against. which Locke attacks most sharply and thoroughly.some thing&quot. it is Tetens especially. but subsists merely with reference to a possible. takes up this suggestion and develops it into a theory of the pure &quot. For within this psychological view no adequate expression has been discovered for the validity and peculiarity of relations. it mixes repressed. with Berkeley. of . who In modern German psychology. which is criticized for no other reason than because it clear that what it means is never realized in actual presentations.&quot.bearer&quot. are never contained in those elements that the psychological view recognizes as the unique bearers of &quot. mediately in individual.&quot. tently cance of such The concept however. finally are measured by this standard. The concepts. from the standpoint of logic and mathe is matics. perceptually given presentations.thoughts of relation. rests in the fact that psychological criticism is moned the concept of substance. among No ridicule. separate &quot. The concept.330 in them. Analysis here strikes an ulti mate remainder.&quot. Even if. nevertheless.reflection&quot. the clear. The signifi scientific concepts rests on the fact. The deeper ground of this conflict. from the psychological view. this rule carries the stamp of the merely negative. also.ghosts of departed quantities. But. which is assumed to be the &quot. and according to it a concept can only be taken as truly understood and deduced. the infinitesi mathematics as the &quot. that they persis transcend the type of reality that is here taken as a pattern. certain impressions of perception and memory. Nevertheless the thought of these relations constantly returns. the general rule of this progress constitutes the existence and truth of the infinite. The ideas of &quot. which it can neither comprehend nor set aside. of substance.

is 331 He shows repeatedly that the real validity of overthrown by the assumption of substance.&quot. What is not this Nor does fiction gain psychology tried for a long time to avoid the skeptical consequences it of Hume s doctrine.ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RELATIONS sensuous qualities. which are established subsequently between the particular contents. but not an objective connection of things themselves. &quot. there de- . The doctrine of the &quot. without submitting the premises on which rests to a thorough-going change. &quot. After. is made the conceptual and properties. mere associative connections of presentations take the place of both. The substance of the ego seems now explained away like the substance of the thing. has in it the general category of of all truly knowable Only the applications of this substantiality in its decisive meaning. Locke believes he has struck the real kernel of all metaphysics and of all scholastic explanation of And after Hume has transferred its result from outer to reality. In its own concepts.form-quality&quot.soul&quot. form a mere addition of the mind. the work of criticism seems ended. while all connections. in modern psychology. A mysterious &quot. They thus only express an arbitrary tendency of the imagination. is by be any inner value through the fact that it appears to and established with a kind of based in the &quot. This result the were. as it copies of objects. category have been changed. as before. which stands that only that is truly position unnoticed. that is constructed on these foundations. of the mind universality and regularity under definite conditions. the conviction prevails. inner experience. substantialistic view still possesses in spite the attempt is made to conceive the pure concepts of connection not as impressions and (in particular the concepts of cause and effect) constitutes. for it lives on in the substantiality of the sensuous &quot. Modern their logical import disappears. the view of physical and psychical reality.I know not qualities what&quot.real&quot. &quot. the negative proof of the stability that When of everything. and the ground of the real. while it itself retains its old rank and is only ap The substantiality of the parently done away with.impression&quot. since what knowledge is best known to us and most certain from the standpoint of experi ence is explained by means of something entirely without content and unknown. In this po ground lemic against the concept of substance.impression. that very fact a mere fiction. for itself alone and is intelligible purely of itself as an isolated exist Here what is unchanging and essential in known reality lies ence.nature&quot. In spite of all this. before us.

&quot.psychologist s fallacy.reality. at first all the content present to it seems to consist in the perception of the particular tones. I. remains ambiguous in spite of everything. on the other hand. however. which we can conceptually discriminate become the absolute atoms out But this being of which the being of the psychical is constituted.. out of which each The ultimate parts state of consciousness is to be compounded. and we can replace them by others without ceasing to retain and to recognize the melody itself as a unity. The further introspection advances and the further it follows its own way without prejudice. etc. Here it is shown in specially striking examples that not every spatial or temporal whole.simple&quot. that cannot be explained and de duced from the mere summation of the particular parts. Thus. . Principles of Psychology. We can. can be represented as a simple aggregate of its particular parts. Properties and charac teristics constantly appear in it. The means used to represent a definite psychical fact and to make it communicable in a simple way were taken as real moments of this fact itself. The same 3 Cf.&quot. At first they are formulated only from a limited viewpoint and a special interest. were directly taken as properties of the psychical object. 278 ff.332 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION which was at first veloped a new form of &quot. naively and con All the peculiarities of psychological analysis fidently accepted. in so far as these elements are different from each other in their relative sequence. there resulted that self-deception discovered and described by James as the &quot.. The questions. Imperceptibly. by transition into another kind of tone. the more do new problems come to light. that experience offers us. James. view is the doctrine of the &quot. since the melody remains change of this particularity. which are combined in psychology under the concept of the form-quality. that such a description does not touch the real fact. furnish the first stimulus to a renewed revision of the general concepts. Closer observation shows. elements. When our consciousness follows and apprehends a simple melody. Two entirely different complexes of tone-sensations can give us the same melody while. the stand point of analysis and reflective observation took the place of the 3 A typical example of this whole standpoint of real experience. allow all the individual tones originally in the melody to disappear. two complexes of elements having the same content in spite of all can lead to entirely different melodies. 196 ff. Its specific character and properties thus cannot depend for us on the particularity of the elements.

XIV u. But in the explanation of this fact it is by no means necessary to introduce entirely new elements along with the ordinary elements of sensa To form a whole tion and presentation and as added to them. while the members of the relation undergo the most various transformations. esp. Uber Gestaltqualitdten. As the psychological examples adduced always show. Not only Cf.form-quali p. no matter from what theoretical pre suppositions one may interpret it. ties&quot.ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RELATIONS 333 thought can be carried over from the unity of the &quot. Zur Psychologic der Komplexionen Relaiionen. But a new function is found here embodied in an independent structure of definite properties.. (1890). is not to be found in these contents themselves nor in their mere coexistence as an aggre gate. at least a special psychological designation. but from the reciprocal It is objected and is not to be action they exert on each other.&quot. which is particularly characteristic and of fundamen tal importance for wide fields of mathematics. p. What connects the manifold presenta lar elements requires. would doubtless have been of more general significance. Physiologic der Sinnesorgane II (1891). 93 ff. Such a theoretical interpretation disputed. if it had gone into the corresponding logical problems more closely. to the unity of the &quot. that the melody appears as an independent content as opposed to the particular tones which enter into it.simi to each other and conceive them as identical according to their lar&quot.) The possibility of retaining a relation as invariant in its meaning. fur Psychologie u. Ill. when one to explain the unity of the complex psychical structures. The concept of form-quality contains this designation. if tional contents into one psychological form. 249 ff. In space. though at first it only defines the problem without giving it a definite solution. the identity of wholes that differ from each other in all their particu not a special explanation. Zeitschr.tone-form&quot. mere geometrical concept even though they are built out of qualita This consciousness of tively wholly different spatial sensations. means psychologically nothing 4 else than to act as a whole. the concern here is with a general process of liberation and separate consideration of the relational content. The psychological explanation of the problem of the &quot.. is only illumined and established from a new side in purely psychological considerations. Philos. attempts not from the mere coexistence of their parts. The existence of such a structure and of the peculiar increase in content given with it is to be recog nized as an empirical datum. Ehrenfels. f. (See especially Ch. Vierteljahrschr. . we call certain figures &quot. also Meinong. that immediately present themselves here.spatial form. 245 ff. wiss. 4 is already found. p.

the equality or inequality This explanation seems in its general application to render unnecessary any assumption of special relational presenta It is again the simple perception. Zur Psychologic der Zeitanschauung.334 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION the parts as such. XXI.g. XVII ff. we discover at once the epistemoThe totality of pure relational logical circle that it involves. but which also informs us of unity and plurality. we can measure the length of the intervening pauses by each other and accordingly speak now of a more rapid. now for the special intellectual act is needed of temporal intervals. For a criticism of Schumann. of a definite color. Just as a certain ether vibration produces in us the impres stimuli. (1899) p. virtue of these effects. rather. so a certain composition and connection of sion stimuli affecting our consciousness produce in it an impression of Thus. which proceed from the complex and are thus dependent on the order of the elements within it. Meinong s treatment. but the simple assump &quot. 5 Schumann. Uber Gegenstande hoherer Ordnung u. but also their whole complex always produces And it is by definite effects upon our feeling and presentations. while however the mere application of the standpoint of cause and effect involves a special relational thought.. concerning the similarity or dissimilarity. Psychol. Psychol. f. smell and taste. 106 . esp.comparison&quot. that we judge of wholes. if we follow this greater distance between the tones. conversely. which decides not only regarding sensuous properties such as color and tone. Ztschr. e. der en Verlidltnis zur inner en Wahrnehmung.effects&quot. and of the temporal sequence and the temporal persistence of contents. f. (1899). It is not the case that we can be led from the knowledge of certain causal connections to the understanding of relational concepts in general. tion suffices that a certain effect issues from the complex of rapidly of a slower succession. of change or permanence. No succeeding tones. that is different from the effect produced with a 5 However. For all these determina tions are distinguished from the simple sense impressions only by the not of single stimuli. is reduced to an actual effect resulting from certain mani thoughts folds. attempted explanation to the end. different tone sensations are aroused in us at definite temporal dis tances from each other. but of complexes of fact that they are &quot. cf. p. Ztschr. of permanence and change. tions and relational concepts. what these concepts mean must be already presupposed When in order to be able to speak of causal connections of reality. 236 ff. when similarity or difference.

similarity and difference. is in general is recognized that our actual experience and our Just real empirical psychological knowledge prevent its realization. The ideal of conceptual that was here taken as a standard. &quot. One way prefer honest poverty to the appearance of wealth. while its individual components have only the value of hypothetical assumptions. Only the total result itself is in the sense of experience and of psychological process. such a manifold as can be separated into particular elements merely by abstraction. such as unity and plurality. is not the particular elements. but it is rather always a manifold variously divided and ordered by relations of all sorts. p. so that the attempt to deduce the pos sible ways of connection from them moves in a circle. it has already taken for granted everything the logical justification of which stands in question.ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RELATIONS 335 the psychological explanation proceeds from the factual elements and the action which they exert in the whole psychic process. 1905. 2nd ed.&quot. The elements never &quot. for it actually only reestablishes the order of problems that was perverted in the first approach to the problem. spatial coexistence and temporal duration. retained. Ebbinghaus s physiological account of relations. 462. reality could and should be deduced out of simple sensations as the unique data of pure experience. at the starting point of its con while it had appeared at first as if this whole kind of sideration. &quot. we must recognize also as fundamental and irreducible data of consciousness certain specific relations.but things.&quot.explanation. outside of every form of connection.&quot.subsist&quot.Naturally this does not mean to explain it means to &quot. .. What is truly known and given in the field of consciousness. Grundzuge der Psychologic. The question here can never be how we go from the parts to the whole. as we must assume certain classes of simple sensations as ultimate &quot. Their value and justification acc is to be measured by whether they are able to represent and recon struct in their combination the totality of the phenomena. It places a world of things. but how we go from the whole to the parts. empirically which then compound themselves into various observable effects.&quot. Lpz. in which various objective relations prevail. a representative of this view remarks.real&quot. 8 Ebbinghaus. it is now explained. but it facts so. This reversal is indeed not strange. itself Thus within psy to chological investigation the speculative attempts deny the peculiar character of pure relations and to replace them by mere complexes of sensations gradually die out. without the assumption of any other element.

. in so far processes is &quot. for which a corresponding community is to be demanded in the appropriate physiological processes.&quot. they form a unity in so far as they are all built up out of the same material. out of nervous elements according to certain uniform principles. 442 f. those processes must be like or similar. time. but only in the common characteristics of these processes. .If as the physico-chemical properties of the stimulus and the function At the same of the receiving apparatus adapted to it are different.common sense. according to circumstances.are yet cannot be indicated more first 7 closely. thus prove to be a common con dition of sensation.. This agree ment in the physical foundations of each perception. can easily be pointed out. then the called forth in them must naturally be different. nevertheless. which as of space &quot. which are uniformly found with all sensations regard less of their qualitative difference. loud. What denied to the purely psychological type of consideration here seems to receive a physiological explanation. Criticism of the physiological explanation of relational concepts. special organ at our disposal for p. apprehending Ebbinghaus. as bright. that we sense their mental effects as something entirely disparate. hearing and tasting. that we are aware of these impres is sions as permanent or intermittent. bitter. in which the connection of the stimuli into a whole in the outer world mode of and the of the nervous matter within the sense organ and the properties It general principles of its construction are the same owing to the special character of the stimulations involved in seeing.&quot. nevertheless in principle it leads &quot. that lie at the basis of the and change. that would permit us to resolve the conceptual manifold of relations into the unity of a single causal origin. &quot. and time.intuitions&quot.&quot. of unity and plurality.336 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION seems still to remain. this explanation seems to operate wholly with the means of modern true 7 scientific investigation. external stimuli affect them. At glance. us back to the Aristotelian doctrine of the is It we have not a cit. no matter to what particular field it may belong. but they are not found in all features. The general relational determinations. At first the sense organs and their appropriate nervous centers appear to be very differently built and differently equipped apparatuses. it is due to the agreeing features of the same stimulations. op. The nervous processes. as changing etc. of constancy thus found entirely in the same processes that are correlated with sensations.

a field that was at first neglected and subordinated. those categorical determinations that are drawn out of it in the course of the psycho-physiological subsequently deduction. In contrast to the psychology of sensation. ii Meinong s theory of &quot.absolute&quot. tion. and the &quot. Such a psychology is dominated from the first by an entirely different formulation of the problem. appears the psychology of thought. tions of unity and difference can never be dispensed with or be re demand placed by reference to the objective physiological causes. the actually different must be conceived as different for there to be that separation of the ^general content from the particular content of Thus the pure conscious func sensation. organs of perception. assumed at the central outset. which is here assumed.ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RELATIONS relations. The is that they be represented by a type of explanation that remains within the field of the psychical phenomena themselves. of value between the &quot. However. general problems receive sharper expres- . Further. The truth of these determinations has to be presupposed. The involved in the theory of the &quot. then it would also involve that For in vffrepov Tporepov in itself.&quot. it all although the manner in which they reach the consciousness of the individual subject may be open to an indeed only hypothetical explanation.rela elements of consciousness. The physically like must be recognized and judged as like. which we have previously met. Thus from all sides we are directed with increasing clarity to a second great field of psychological investigation. order to explain the presentation of equality or difference. as 337 we have for the particular sense qualities. of identity or similarity.founded contents. if this causal explanation is meant also to be a logical deduction of the validity of the relational concepts.form-qualities&quot. such an account must obviously go back to similarity or difference in things. without going back to their hypothetical grounds. already contains in more specifically in the peripheral and The concept of being. and by a new order tive&quot. every purely physiological representation of the matter must leave in obscurity the point that is above all in ques An identity or community in the outer stimuli never suffices to explain the correlative expression of these relations in conscious ness. exists a sort of common organ by which we but yet there take up into our con I sciousness the real relations of outer objects.

does not exclude a complete independence in their characteristic meaning. but cannot be reduced to them. there are built &quot. without the real meaning being thereby affected.subsist&quot. difference or unity can be predicated. there is opposed the other case. as concept or judg ment. in which the type of dependency between the two elements a and b is determined and exactly prescribed by the &quot. judgments are possible that do not need to be tested by different successive cases in order to be grasped in their truth. there is further a characteristic opposition in the value of the cognitions relating to these objects. Wherever the judgment refers to an object of actual reality and is meant to designate a particular determination of it. These latter objects are borne by the elementary contents and require them as supports. The uni versally valid relations do not exist as temporally or spatially bounded parts of psychical or physical reality. without thinking of equality or difference. indeed. as odor or taste. speak of equality or difference. opposed to each other. Over the simple sensations and qualities of the different senses.objects&quot. but which are recognized once for all by insight into the necessity of the connection. but to an inner trans &quot. absolutely by virtue of the necessity which we recognize in certain assertions. relations Thus in general. in their psychic existence. plurality of something.objects of higher orders. although he claims a certain objective truth and validity for his judgment regard ing the numerical relation. it can appear as color or tone. theory of clearly Here it is shown that the questions thereby introduced into psychology do not tend to a mere extension of its field.338 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION which this doctrine sion in the transformation has undergone in the Inhalte). of all of which. but they &quot. Whoever represents to himself four real objects does not represent fourness as a particular piece of reality along with them. (fundierten formation of definitely Two forms of psychic &quot. as it were. of or plurality. are now its concept.&quot. To this case.founded contents&quot. . of the members. unity unity or But this something may vary arbitrarily. thus to an assertion of merely empirical validity. which seems to belong to pure relations in their actual occur rence and. Thus the depend ence. there appear pure ideal and corresponding to this distinction. We cannot.nature&quot. the judgment is necessarily limited to the here and now. in contrast to the relations: between existences. Concerning ideal relations of this sort. in which we merely ascribe to an individual thing an individual property known by experience.

cannot be separated from whatever perceptual elements they may be founded in. are always determinable and determined only as foundations of possible relations.. there are &quot.&quot.relation. In order to 8 and &quot. there are thus priori&quot. p. analysis fixes a relation of strict correlativity. the latter for their part are characterized by the in themselves. Naturphilosophie. 182 ff. objects. Meinong. What deceives us at first is the fact.objects Cf.&quot. 75 ff . considers this b from the standpoint of. Z. of higher order&quot.^ of a superordination and subordination of contents. without thereby losing all meaning. their being or non-being adds nothing to the existence of the elements. more particularly on the theory of &quot. so the elements no less require reference to a form of relation.. that all the relational determina inferius tions into it which an individual can enter are somehow contained in but in no way actually realized from the beginning. The &quot. also Hofler. . However energetically this theory may strive to extend the field of psychological problems beyond the usual it is still under the influence of the traditional theory of the limits.objects of a higher order&quot.founded contents&quot. In place of the mere establishment of a fact. like equality and similarity. Sharper analysis. On the other hand. that are made with consciousness of timeless and necessary validity. Just as the relation requires reference the^~eTements. in which alone they gain fixed and constant meaning.inferius&quot. however. judgments concerning &quot.a judgments connected with the &quot.aet.&quot. fact that they exist for themselves alone and rest entirely The relations. destroys this last appear ance of the independence of the simple. like color or tone. 8 &quot. there appears the systematic whole of a rational connection with elements that reciprocally demand and condition each other.inferiora.foundations&quot. concept at one point.superius&quot. which are built up over the perceptual elements. the converse of this proposition does not hold. f. is necessarily referred to the &quot. Each conceptual assertion regarding an &quot. while the &quot. and can neither ground nor imperil it. In place of a succession. Psychologic XXI. While the psychic &quot. which we correlate with the content in question. can simply be established in its occurrence and properties as ja. cf.&quot. The &quot. Zur gegenw.founded objects.Objects of a higher order.metaphenomenal&quot. It starts with the simple sensational contents as recognized data in order to proceed from them to the more complex structures. some.ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RELATIONS 339 Along with the empirical judgments concerning objects of experience.phenomenon. appear as a subsequent result.

is it a peculiar spiritual activity that leads to these determinations. and an attempt is made to solve both of these completely heterogeneous problems at the same time and by means of each other. a content from this or that conceptual determination. two which unnoticed are identified with each The logical separation of the moments of by a temporal separation in the occurrence of certain psychic contents. The existence of consciousness is rooted merely in the mutual correlativity of the two elements.metaphenomenal&quot.first&quot. which first act of perception implicitly as elements? different standpoints.340 transform the there is SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION &quot. There are. their longer or shorter temporal duration are properties just as immediate as the differences of the sensations themselves. whether their unity and in the plurality. which can be of spatial-temporal or conceptual connection. as it were. or are they directly given in the first sensations. exhibits some form nativism. which appear with the sensations are immediate properties of the sensations. it is believed that the logical value of the connections has therewith been reduced to that of mere sensation. such as plurality and number. knowledge is replaced assumed or conceived. and of consider ing it before this determination. the smells and tastes to be removed.empiricism&quot. new light falls on the old psychological controversy between point. It is asked whether common determinations. This controversy we see is also rooted &quot. and &quot. that even the earliest state of consciousness. but also if we conceived the &quot.&quot. not only if we conceived the sensu ous phenomena. logical import into &quot. imprints a definite form on the unordered perceptual material? In other words. It is concluded that there is in the same way that there an immediate consciousness of relations is an immediate consciousness of colors .nativism. When it is shown from the standpoint of other in these questions. and neither is to be pre ferred to the other as &quot. and original. objects. however.actual&quot. Consciousness as con sciousness would be extinguished.potential&quot. identity and difference to be removed. needed a series of involved intellectual operations and con But the possibility of separating stantly renewed conceptual work. From this stand conflict between empiricism and nativism. must not lead us to divest it of all forms of determination in general. such as the colors and tones. and are apprehended at the same time as or do they form a later product of mental comparison. The an unclarified statement of the problem. their spatial arrangement. import.

the converse inference holds.if&quot.finding&quot.&quot. The fact that there is no content of consciousness. 9 we I. unnecessary. . that this involves within If itself the elementary forms of intellectual activity.given. .ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RELATIONS or tones.&quot. and &quot. which is not shaped and arranged in some manner according to certain rela tions proves that the process of perception is not to be separated from that of judgment. Thus it may be that when we consider the pure temporal relation. esp. in mere &quot. &quot.&quot. judgment does not signify such an arbitrary act. it is correct that even the most elementary psychic state in cludes the general elements of form. but is rather the form of objective determination in general. 244 f. by which a particular content is distin guished as such and at the same time subordinated systematically From this form. relations will be to a manifold.found&quot. on the contrary. no temporal and Only analysis can discover tinction in the originally unitary material of the &quot. nevertheless very &quot. which belong to it prior to all logical activities. judgment itself is is understood only in the external sense of a comparing activity. In its real form.&quot. II. 341 We apprehend in inner perception. at the same time as the sensational contents. What is all is this: that the element of order relation of before this dis related to the element of content in after.therefore&quot. it is true. just as truly as we or gain information by perception concerning the content &quot. the meaning of &quot. 9 If we would be critically just to this conception. however. which subsequently adds a new predicate to a &quot.blue&quot. for everything that it was to produce is in fact already contained in the first data of perception. &quot.and. is not thereby justified.feeling. of earlier or later. that these elements therefore belong to the mere passivity of perception.cold. The inference. 148. losing all &quot.&quot. already fixed and Such an activity appears indeed as accidental and arbitrary. Whether or in contrast to the material with which it is connected. not such an activity takes place. Where this is denied. we cannot abstract without thereby the qualitative differences in content. James. The Principles of Psychology cf.but. this material remains what it is and retains the properties. On the contrary.subject&quot. It is by elementary acts of judgment. consider these forms removed. In this sense. The actus purus of the understanding thus proves to be &quot. we must in from the special way meant to be emphasized above ruling is it which distinguish the general tendency it is worked out. that the particular content is grasped as a member of a certain order and thereby first fixed in itself. given.

when its consequences are consistently traced. cannot be pointed out in our actual experience.simple&quot. We and connections are always essential. when it undertakes to deduce the origin of spatial order from the mere material of perceptions and the simple forces of associative connection. reveals some primitive form of the &quot. The fate of the ever. but then we have already placed in sensation determinations. then there is nothing in principle to prevent us from carrying through the same explanation different theories origin for all the different types of relation in general. that the apprehensionoi definite relations between objects is necessarily connected psychologically. The psychology of the idea of space. It is no longer the abstract &quot. that has always been the center of discussion between. it shows not the passivity of the ego in apprehending these thoughts. If it is possible to deduce space from absolutely non-spatial sensations differing only in their quality and intensity.1 the clearer when we consider the special problem. Each experience. Einheiten und Relationen. how does not stand for itself alone. Eine Skizze zur Psychologie der Apperception.342 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION all possibility would thereby disappear of further application of the concept of consciousness. that go beyond the isolated impression.coexistence&quot. However. of the &quot.. that belongs to every process of perception in so far as it but belongs to the whole of conscious can. Lpz. it would not be present. to which. whatever its properties may be. still unordered content of consciousness. For there can be no doubt that such an origin. in fact. 10 Thus the inseparable correlation of sensations with thkjmre relations. ness and experience. of particular elements and thus the specific element in which every spatial con10 Cf. attempt to deduce the rela tions from sensation.apperception of unity. above all the treatment by Th. empiricism and nativism. For the self comprehends and constitutes It is always with certain types itself only in some form of activity. Whatever the content might be or mean in and for itself. sensation. for the unity of the self.&quot. Lipps. is obliged to be untrue to its own methodic ideal. but it rather signifies merely the initial. This is a^. 1902. but conversely the element of activity.for us. it is at once evident that the empiristic theory. . definite relations is decided by the question as to the psychological and the psychological meaning of the idea of space. leading from it to other elements. if indeed it is to be assumed. implies th^opposite of what was initially deduced from it.

that are not strictly differentiated. p.ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RELATIONS struction.foundation&quot. absolutely unlocalized perception. from other orders. it would be dangerous and misleading to misunderstand them as an expression of concrete facts.. is originally rooted. theories of space in modern psychology (especially by Stumpf and James) is in the right. 270. 343 no matter how complex.) Two different points of view. although it is also to be remembered that the dependence is throughout reciprocal. No mere repetition if and arrange ment of contents could give them spatiality. we must recognize every where a special absolute content with reference to which the order is found. spatiality were not already 11 somehow placed in them. on which it is built. as we know of a particular function of the soul. so that the &quot. Stumpf in particular explains. 11 But here again the temporal James. but for temporal order and further for all sorts of quantitative or qualitative comparison.&quot. are combined in this argu. by which it is distinguished from other orders. It may be accepted thai-every relation is the relation of something. If we attempt to go behind this psychological fact. 275. p. Here the criticism of the &quot. cf. and therefore presupposes some &quot. in so far as it urges that mere &quot. &quot. of associationistic its peculiar character. as there are ways of connecting the content with. etc. A specific perceptual quality would be demanded not only for spatial order. and referring it to. The effects of the general schema psychology are also shown in its critics.. some means of conscious- . adjacency (Nebeneinander). that the spatial order would not be intelligible without there being a positive. which goes beyond the limits of experience in two directions.&quot. For if we assumed this. II. order &quot. e.foundation.&quot.empiristic&quot. as such can produce no new psychic content. 279. But in general it is not obvious how a mere difference in the content of the compared elements should serve to define and separate the various possible types of relation..g. if we attempt to show how order itself arises and evolves out of the absolutely unordered. How ever we may judge of the methodic value of such concepts.qualities&quot. chologischen Ursprung der Raumvorstellung.inferences. in the fact that they can only affirm the originality of the spatial order by condensing it into a peculiar and original content of perception.&quot. however.association&quot. If two orders are distinguished as orders. 15. which transforms the previously formless into a form. distinguish the various orders from each other. others. op. cit. This content first gives the spatial Cf. Empirically we know just as little of a simple. But this does not involve that what constitutes the peculiar character of a definite principle of order must be able to be pointed out as a property of the ordered elements. requires the relation just as much as the latter requires the ment . we surrender ourselves to an hypothesis. we would finally have to ascribe to the content as many special &quot.To And thus space also is not a mere order. absolute content at its basis. but is precisely what distinguishes the (Uber den psy- spatial order.foundation. on the basis of unconscious &quot.

however. e. constructed according to unitary rational principles. that are related to each other. or merely consider the universal relations subsisting between these particular elements. The tendency of the process only becomes clear in its final result. different propositions arise. so if-Hsyntheses (R. R . itself. The original lence. cf. it does not require the conception of a real separateness of the two in some mythical stage of consciousness.. ness must be given such. it is not obvious how we can deny it the same capacity in the case of the various original functions of order.) ill Just as we are here forced to recognize an original plurality of diverse relational etc. without finding their expression in any particular quality of sensation. as in the ordinary conception of logic. cannot trace and survey this conceptual division in its totality. identity is taken as an expression of the relational form in general.. p. and seeks to reduce all types of connection and inference ultimately to identity. Voraussetzungen und Ziele des Erkennens. that are not mutually reducible to each other. According to whether we emphasize the moment of a particular sensation (the blue and red. If. but not the content of what is thought. has destroyed the basis of this view. that the judgments based and constructed on these forms of relation have a characteristic validity of their own. . (For further particulars. connection of the two factors in no When the criticism of unitary content is differentiated.344 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION way proves their logical equiva knowledge distinguishes the spatial and temporal form from the content of sensation and treats it as an inde pendent problem. psychological consideration must ultimately recognize differences belonging to the manner and way of &quot. by which the type of connection can be grasped purely as and distinguished from all others. which is denied to mere assertions regarding the existence of the sensation given here and now. in its traditional form.V however. when we recognize it as the start ing-point of two different systems of judgments. within the limits of its task. Logic. which are separated according to their dignity.g. it has shown with increasing distinctness that it is impossible to reduce the di verse forms of judgment to the single type of identity.apperceptive connection&quot. the rough and smooth.gt. etc. R&quot. Jonas Cohn. The modern form of logic. Psychology. only the fully developed system scribes of geometry. then the diversity of relations (which in any case must be explained) can be founded merely in the content of the elements.). &amp. since psychology merely de and analyses thought as a temporal process. What it affirms and defends is merely the simple thought.). is founded on the thought of identity. If we ascribe to consciousness the capacity of distinguishing the simple data of perception from each other. The deeper ground of the difficulty here seems to lie not so much in psychology itself. indeed. 85 ff. specific belonging to thoroughly different types of grounding.

of which the assertion holds. it becomes constantly clearer that it is not the intuitive factual presentations. that bear and support this process of the understanding. Lpz. it. is in which psychological investigation has reached this indeed noteworthy enough. The separation of the element of relation from the element of content. The understanding and grammatical structure of the simplest proposition in its definite logical requires. remains. The effort more and more is to apply the method of experiment not only to the facts of sensuous perception. can vary greatly or even wholly disap pear. Empfindung und Denken.remainder&quot. The conceptual connections. if it is to be apprehended as a proposition. for 12 it. to which psychology is forced. but with its help to discover the complex processes of conceptual 12 But in applying the understanding in their fundamental features.Thought&quot. Its own treatment of the problem of it with inner necessity to a point where a new type and direction of consideration begins. The manner.ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RELATIONS 345 contains the definite characterization of the elements of space. is not conceived and activity. without the apprehension of the unitary meaning of the proposi tion being endangered. not further reducible factors of every intellectual apprehension. proleptical in tion in a broader field. new relation. but the attempt is made to establish its peculiar character in the reception of a finished content from without. so to speak. elements. 1908. and only receives full illumina- The psychology of thought. historical dependence of the methods and problems of psychology. is what is really first A neat and synoptical treatment of this tendency in is gation psychological investi given by Messer. . Accordingly. in which this The meaning is rooted. relations leads . must therefore be represented for consciousness in peculiar categorical acts which are to be recognized as independent. than as a positive and pletely The criticism of knowledge reverses this characteristic function. Even the purely empirical-experi mental view of mental phenomena significantly reveals such a tendency of the problem. that are absolutely removed from intuitive representation. the factor thus gained appears rather as a paradoxical. method of experiment here. and it further signifies the insight. But although psychology cannot establish this characterization. observed here in its independent &quot. that problematic &quot. it need not contradict it at any point. incom understood remainder left by analysis. not the direct perceptual images. pictorial presentations of the concrete objects.

and is the point of departure. It does not study where thought merely receptively receives and reproduces thought the meaning of an already finished judgmental connection.346 SUBSTANCE AND FUNCTION &quot. the initial opposi tion of methods is more and more resolved into a pure correlation.intelligible&quot. seek their solution in logic and in their application to science. in the concrete totality of its productive functions. Psychology in this sense gives the approach to which must . When psychology pursues this line of and enquiry and considers thought equally problems. but where it creates and constructs a meaningful system of propositions.

SUPPLEMENT EINSTEIN S THEORY OF RELATIVITY CON SIDERED FROM THE EPISTEMOLOGICAL STANDPOINT .

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The bibliography. even in purely epistemological matters. con cerning which they are still widely separated. which follows. will be gathered from the exposition.AUTHOR S PREFACE The following essay does not claim to give a complete account of the philosophical problems raised by the theory of relativity. . to keep myself in close contact with scientific physics and that the writings of the leading physicists of the past and present have everywhere essentially helped to deter mine the intellectual orientation of the following investigation. here I am merely concerned with beginning this work. in it only such works are adduced as have been repeatedly referred to and intensively con of sidered in the course of the exposition. in contrast to the un certainty of judgment which still reigns. how ever makes no claim to actual completeness. University of let it and gave it go out without ERNST CASSIRER. with stimulating discussion. I cannot expressing my hearty thanks to him. and. guiding it into definite methodic paths. where pos sible. That I was concerned. The purpose of this writing will be attained if it succeeds in preparing for a mutual understand ing between the philosopher and the physicist on questions. Albert Einstein read the above essay in manuscript the benefit of his critical comments. Hamburg. I am aware that the new problems presented to the general criticism of knowledge by this theory can only be solved by the gradual work both physicists and philosophers.

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has been so much the more advantageous for the parts of philosophy concerned. which we can make in philosophy. is only striving to attain certainty and clarity. Now nothing can be more helpful for this than if one can borrow proved data to take as a basis for one s several data. but these are passed by and one sets his trust merely on the ambiguous consciousness of the concept. e.&quot. which beyond his field have little truth in them. The celebrated Euler. which concern the most general properties of space.CHAPTER I CONCEPTS OF MEASURE AND CONCEPTS OF THINGS &quot. but it seems more comfortable to remain with sideration of motion in connection 351 . this science.g. by the fact that they applied the doctrines of mathematics for their purposes.. &quot. where it might perhaps have borrowed a sure founda tion for its considerations. Metaphysics seeks. It is not evident that the first has to date been of much use.g. The second use. that space does not consist of simple parts. These. however much advantage was originally in the imitation of its promised from it. Kant wrote in the year 1763 in the Preface of his Attempt to Introduce the Concept of Negative Magnitudes into Philosophy. on the contrary.The use. has rather often armed itself against them and. however. One can easily decide where the advantage will fall in the conflict of two sciences. among others. are only doctrines belonging to the theory of nature As far as metaphysics is concerned.consists either methods or in the real application of its proposi tions to the objects of philosophy. we see it concerned with making out of the concepts of the mathematician nothing but fine imaginings. instead of utilizing a few of the concepts or doctrines of mathematics. sufficiently Geometry offers with knowledge of space furnishes many data to guide the metaphysical speculations of the times in the track of truth. the other of which. has given some opportunity for this. however.. e. have raised themselves to a height to which otherwise they could make no claim. which is conceived in a wholly abstract fashion The mathematical con from somewhere consideration. of mathematics. of which the one surpasses all others in certainty and clarity. to discover the nature of space and the supreme ground from which its possibility can be understood. which.

to deprive the fundamental laws of dynamics above In such an all the law of inertia of any real physical significance. of an absolute space and an absolute time as soon as the reality of both can be shown to be an immediate consequence of the validity of the fundamental laws of motion. 698. means. mathematical physics and contrasts it with the concept of truth of the metaphysician. .possibility&quot. illuminating as it appears and fruitful as the methodic stimulus of Euler proved in the development of the Kantian problem. cf. Reflexions sur I espace et le temps. which are hard to than to enter into con nection with a science which possesses only intelligible and obvious insights. however. What these laws demand. This essay sets up in fact not only a program for the the former construction of mechanics but a general program for the epistemology It seeks to define the concept of truth of of the natural sciences. as Euler explains. This demand. pher must withdraw his suspicions concerning the &quot. II. 703 f. it is the business of thought to accept the exist ence of motion and its fundamental rules instead of attempting to prescribe to nature itself from abstract considerations concerning what can or cannot be conceived. To deny these realities on philosophical. which appeared in the year 1748 among the productions of the Berlin Academy of Science. the outcome cannot be questioned the philoso alternative.. For more detail concerning Euler and Kant (7). it exists in the highest sense and highest degree of objectivity which is attainable for our knowledge. on general epistemological grounds. For before the reality of nature as it is represented in motion and its empirical laws all logical doubt must be silent. in the Philosophiae : &quot. Materially. Kant believed that he possessed in Newton s fundamental work. however.. s relation to him. to s which Kant here refers the metaphysician. a fixed code of physical 1 &quot.&quot. 1 becomes problematical when considered from the standpoint of modern physics and epistemology. but as true physical realities.is&quot. The essay is of Euler. obscure abstractions. Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Erkennt- nisproblem 472 ff.352 EINSTEIN S THEOKY OF KELATIVITY test. also and it is. however.truth&quot. Newton s concepts of absolute space and absolute time are here to be revealed not only as the necessary fundamental concepts of mathematico-physical knowl edge of nature. the considerations of Euler rest entirely on the foundations on which Newton had erected the classical system of mechanics.

The laws. of matter and motion. we can master a certain region. ever more comtoday that the Archimedean point on which Kant supported himself and from which he undertook to raise the whole system of knowledge. view of the world has been more and more superseded and replaced by the electro-dynamic view. Galileo s Dialogues on the Two Systems of the . and which. in short. which receives its decisive s motives equally from epistemological and physical considerations. And if we turn to contemporary physics with the old philosophical question as to the &quot. Newton count s con and absolute time may still many among the &quot. since in modern physics the &quot. The general theory of relativity seems herein to be only the ultimate consequence of an intellectual movement. at most. those laws in which they believed to be defined the concept of the corporeal world. appear to us today to be only abstractions by which. but they seem definitively removed from the methodic and empirical foundations of physics. as the example of the general theory of relativity seems to show. And geometry in their applications. A glance at the history of physics shows that precisely its most weighty and fundamental achievements stand in closest connection with considerations of a general episte mological nature. which all claim for themselves the same intellectual necessity. instead of the one geometry of Euclid.philosophers. no longer offers an uncondition since changed fundamentally. The factum of geometry has lost its unambiguous find ourselves definiteness.mechanical&quot. of nature itself. a definitely limited part of being. which Newton and Euler regarded as the wholly assured and im pregnable possession of physical knowledge.factum&quot. pellingly do we realize ally fixed basis. of space and time.essence&quot. of mathematical natural science as he here found it but the relation between philosophy and exact science has Ever more clearly. in their the system of classical mechanics has undergone an even greater transformation.CONCEPTS OF MEASURE AND OF THINGS 353 and believed that he could . s The working together of the two points of view has always come adherents to light with special distinctness at the decisive turning points in the evolution of theoretical physics. can rival the system of classical fruitfulness for physics. we receive from it precisely the opposite answer to that which Euler gave the question a hundred and cepts of absolute space fifty years ago. definitively ground philosophical knowl edge on the &quot. we facing a plurality of equally justified geometrical systems. and describe it theoretically in a first approximation. as if by a lever.&quot.

much on 4 In this physical as on its general systematic value. 8). midst of his considerations on the structure of the world. f. to the regulae In more recent times. &amp. 2 3 but its value and real cogency Helmholtz (29. Sect. theory of relativity is such that its advantage over other explana such as Lorentz s hypothesis of contraction. Kepler lays the foundation for his work on the motion of of the world in which he gives a complete methodo Apology for Tycho. 4). comes back to the most general norms of physical knowledge. Einstein (17. Cf. Mars and for his chief work on the harmony his in the causal principle as the universal presupposition of all &quot.Cf. with a consideration of work. p. Uber der Erhaltung der Kraft (1847).&quot. that what is new in the work and what alone he values is &quot. a decisive significance. an account by which he really created the modern concept of physical Newton also. Helmholtz introduces his philosophandi. II. to no single new by which it was absolutely demanded to the exclusion of all &quot. But all these great historical examples of the real epistemological problems and physical are almost outdone by the way in which this connection problems has been verified in the foundation of the theory of relativity. Ein inner connection between especially in the transition from the special to the of relativity appeals primarily to an epistemological general theory stein himself motive. 4 See below. along with the purely empirical and 3 And even the special physical grounds.354 EINSTEIN S THEORY OF RELATIVITY filled World are with such considerations and his Aristotelian oppo nents could urge against Galilei that he had devoted more years to the study of philosophy than months to the study of physics.comprehensibility of nature. 5 The Copernican view could point.the order and arrangement of the whole. logical account of hypotheses and their various fundamental forms.fact&quot. not so tions. or. p.&quot. Cf. in the theory and gave it a definite concrete content. thus the logical. p. to which he grants. if one will. and Heinrich Hertz expressly asserts in the preface of his Prinzipien der Mechanik (1894). when it appeared. connection the comparison holds which Planck has drawn between its the theory of relativity and the Copernican cosmological reform. is based not so much on its empirical material as on its pure logical form. earlier astronomical explanations. Planck (68).. H. p.gt. Hertz (31. 117 . XXVII). the philosophical side of the 2 subject.

mathematics and the exact natural sciences furnish the criticism of knowledge with its essential material is scarcely questioned after Kant. which. as opposed to the classical system of mechanics. in which there can be only relative. stands to experience and order to be taught by it: but nature: it must approach nature &quot. Epistemology. That the sciences. which it spread over the whole of the knowledge of nature. stopping points. we would have to advance beyond Kant. in particular. In the same way. the theory of relativity. works on Kant urged repeatedly If Kant as Hermann Cohen all s and proved from angles intended to be the philosophical systematizer of the Newtonian natural science. the theory of relativity. but here this material is offered to philosophy in a form. must face the problems which are presented to it by the latter. offers a new scientific problem by which the critical philosophy must be tested anew. according to the Kantian account. then the time would have come when. and must not all changes in the latter react directly on the form of the fundamental doctrines of the critical philosophy? Or do the doctrines of the Transcendental Aesthetic a foundation. but from its very beginning. with complete methodic independence. even of itself. also that of modern physics? The future development of the criticism of offer If it is will depend on the answer to these questions. shown that the modern physical views of space and time lead in the end as far beyond Kant as they do beyond Newton. but to open up knowledge for it the &quot. Thus. not absolute. For the purpose of the Critique of Pure Reason was not to ground philosophical knowledge once for all in a fixed dogmatic system of concepts. however. closely as its own fate is connected with the progress of exact science. along with the structure of the Newtonian mechanics.understanding&quot. taking its start in a criticism of the concept of time. but as an appointed judge. who compels the witnesses .CONCEPTS OF MEASURE AND OF THINGS 355 lay in the fundamental and systematic clarity. who agrees to everything the master to answer likes. It stands to physics in precisely the relation. on the basis of Kant s presuppositions. extends into the field of epistemological problems.in not in the character of a pupil. which is broad enough and strong enough to bear. in which.continuous development of a science&quot. is not his doctrine necessarily entangled in the fate of the Newtonian physics. the &quot. not merely in its applications and consequences. involves a certain episte- mologi^al interpretation and treatment.

For epistemological reflection leads us everywhere to the insight that what the various sciences call the starting-point is nothing given in itself. different ways of referring the manifold to the unity of a concept and ordering and mastering the manifold by it. fixed once for all.. assumes inevitably for epistemology the form of a question. What are we to understand by the physical objectivity.things. what the naive view of the world led to a negative in no case can it is accustomed to regard as the reality of things. etc.356 EINSTEIN S THEORY OF RELATIVITY the questions which he himself proposes. because there are contained in all &quot. in what the individual sciences offer us as their objects and &quot. It is thus always necessary to recognize. p. be exactly defined. The object of mathematics is different from that of mechanics.the last remainder of physical objectivity&quot.physical we are first coincide with Whatever this objectivity may mean. for example. Each answer. the object of abstract mechanics different from that of physics. are distinguished from this reality . When. For the objects. by which the sciences are distinguished from each other. from feature. first these sciences different questions of knowledge. as the reality of objects of sensuous perception. this answer of its the physicist contains for the epistemologist the precise formulation of his real problem. Thus the content of each particular knowledge is determined by the characteristic form of judg ment and question from which knowledge proceeds. there arise for thought various classes and various systems of objects. but that it is determined by some standpoint of knowledge. definite explanation of the concept of this standpoint. 13). are first defined. Each science has its object only by the fact that it selects it from the uniform mass of the given by certain formal concepts. According to the changes of this ideal standpoint.object&quot. &quot. which is To the physicist physical objectivity here denied to the concepts of space and time? may appear as a fixed and sure and as an entirely definite standard of comparison. if we field of attempt to gain a objectivity&quot. must ask that its meaning. that what is to be expressed epistemology by it. is taken from space and time (17.&quot. Einstein gives as the essen tial result of his theory that by it &quot. the specific logical conditions on the ground of which they were established. In the form of judgment and question the particular special axioms. which physics imparts concerning the character and the peculiar nature of fundamental concepts. of which scientific physics treats and for which it establishes its laws.&quot. which are peculiar to it.

If we start from this general insight. but of abstract intellectual symv L. but the oretical assumptions and constructions. For things of this sort. no copies of particular contents given in perception: this scarcely needs any further explanation. tEe brings to this world as postulates of thought. That concepts. the magnetic or electrical even concepts. That physical objectivity is denied to space and time by this theory must. The property of not being thing-concepts. which it does not take . What we possess in them are obviously not reproductions of simple things or sensations. like those of pressure or of temperature.hypotheses.&quot. or from the world of sense.&quot. that is. if. after all That the epistemology of physics itself has established concerning the meaning and origin of these concepts. may appear completely sufficient from the standpoint of physics from the standpoint of epistemology.principles. not of existing things or properties. as is now seen. &quot. even the simplest.object of physics.&quot. space and time are also to it must be shown that they are removed in special logical position. such as those of mass and force. it involves the problem of discovering the fundamental conditions of this measurability and of developing them in systematic complete\ness. into an object for physics. space and time share with all other genuine physical have a concepts. we must have left behind us at the threshold of exact scientific physics.&quot. a step further from the ordinary thing- . in the formulation of its first judgments and propositions. but which &quot.. ~T5ols7wnicn serve to express certain relations of magnitude and measure. which within physics itself has been made very clear.&quot. mean some thing else arid something deeper than the knowledge that the two are of the theory of relativity not things in the sense of &quot. reality of the physicist stands over against the reality oflmmediat it perception as something through and through mediaj. that every thing that can be measured exists. which are intended to trans form the merely sensible into something measurable.axioms. certain functional coordinations and dependencies of phenoma&a. the same direction as these. but pure \ concepts of measurement. the atom or the ether. and thus into an Planck s &quot. especially by Duhem s analysis of the physical construction of concepts. measurement must rest on certain theoretical presuppositions on certain &quot.CONCEPTS OF MEASURE AND OF THINGS 357 by their general fundamental form. neat formulation of the physical criterion of objectivity. potential. the problem gains its full logical definiteness.e4i &s a system. are no simple thing-concepts. . For any. In this sense.na ive realism. in contrast to these.

concepts and forms of measurement of an order higher than the first order. Ever does it believe that the truth and the meaning of the physical concepts of magnitude of philosophy and of exact science. a must be universal methodic principle of transformation and permutation To each objective measurement. of the ether. which makes known its particular conditions and only when this has taken place can it be used along with others in the scientific construction of the total picture of reality. which have been gained from diverse systems of reference.matter&quot. of energy. from which the theory of relativity starts. to this one motive.358 EINSTEIN S THEORY OF RELATIVITY concepts. in the determination of the laws of nature. which result from measure ment from resting and moving systems of reference. What is gained by this reflection on the conditions of physical measurement in a pure epistemological regard appears as soon as one remembers the conflicts. to a certain extent. and be combined with these others into a unitary result. etc. there must be given. relative measures. but also of force. which have (tilted from the lack of this reflection in the course of the history It seems almost the unavoidable^&quot. but they are ultimately raised to the rank of that which is alone real. fate of the scientific are assured only spond to them. can be compared with each other. and that they thus represent. approach to the world that each new and fruit ful concept of measurement. these temporarily ultimate intellectual instruments of measurement. The ultimate constants of physical calculation are not only taken as real. but also always the particular conditions of measurement. should be transformed at once into a thing-concept. goes back from the standpoint of epistemology. of the atom. that the physicist does not have only to hold in mind the measured object itself. of the concepts of new the ether and of energy offer the typical proof and examples of this. and it emphasizes the fact that before determinations. The theory distinguishes between physical determinations and judgments. The fact appears even in the first considerations. which it gains and establishes. All materialism and there is a materialism not only of &quot. lates when it permits certain absolute realities to corre Each creative epoch of physics discovers and formu characteristic measures for the totality of being and natural but each stands in danger of taking these preliminary and process. added a certain subjective index. The development of idealistic philosophy itself is not able to escape this . The history of the concept of matter. as definitive expressions of the ontologically real..

in which the same step from the logico-mathematical to the ontological concept has been repeated in the development of modern energetics. it follows. is never directly related to things and relations things. we are finally took it up into itself completely. but all must be conceived and .physics of principles&quot. value of energetics is not founded on a new be substituted for the old concepts of but on the gaining of equivalence-numbers. This rule proves to be the really permanent and substantial: the epistemological.prin trast to the physics of pictures and mechanical models. For the concept of as a fundamental measure.&quot. that mathematics and nature. phenomena energy belongs in conception to that general direction of physical thought. 237 ff.&quot. Since only extension offers us exact and distinct concepts and since all clearly comprehended truth is also the truth of the existing. (Cf. Physical thought is always concerned at with establishing a characteristic standard of measurement in Then in a certain natural constant. as a measure which of motion. however. For. 145.&quot. which pictorial representation to &quot. and more clearly the constructive element that is contained in any such original constant.force&quot. whatever particular properties they may have. such as were expressly demanded and discovered by Robert Mayer as the &quot. with understanding more it is concerned.foundation of exact investigation of nature. here concerned with a metaphysical by-way. which has been called the &quot. the system of measure- same time the founder vments and the totality of material existence. Here. and with becoming conscious of its own first an objective physical concept. after energy has been discovered is not limited to the but spans equally all physical fields. as well as the physical.matter&quot.matter&quot. in his view.CONCEPTS OF MEASURE AND OF THINGS tendency. 359 Descartes as an idealistic mathematician was at the of the &quot. but is meant to establish a general rule for complex functional dependencies and their reciprocal connection. in the further development. throughout runs parallel to the movement in epistemology that mediates and passes to and from between the &quot.mechanical view of the world. &quot. and But on the whole. it was made into an all-inclusive substance.object&quot. is known. 52. The manner. p. and the of knowledge. which rivalled &quot. and &quot.subject&quot. of ciple. in con A &quot. which has not seduced science itself from its sure methodic course. no constants are immediately given. conditionality. must be identified.) Even in these two examples we can learn that through the whole history of physics there is a certain intellectual movement.

others finally here a common relation. But the of its meaning requires no such pictorial unity. that we add. not an absolute minimum of minimum of measure. Nicholas Cusanus. in the kinetic theory of gases. but the function of the atom as the temporarily ultimate unit of measurement remains. the electron. its character as a pure principle. Fundamentally..greatest&quot. which compre hends not only the mechanical but also the optical and electrical phenomena. in the which as such can be contents. and in the doctrine of light and heat radiation. It was one modern philosophy. matter to the consideration of the ether. the atom of matter becomes the atom of electricity. In recent physics. etc. it is satisfied. with true speculative profundity. The atoms were postulated by Democritus as ultimate constants of nature long before thought possessed any means of concretely realizing this postulate. on the coincidence of the &quot. when we seek a unity. there appears further.form&quot. into a unitary picture.360 EINSTEIN S THEORY OF RELATIVITY One of the most sought before they can be found in experience. particular realization of the concept of the atom in the law of mul and still others and the concept of the atom