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Sarah Pekoc Reflection 2 Possible research ethics issues can come up in any type of research.

However, ethics is an acknowledged and widely debated topic within the social sciences. Rules are necessary when conducting research; otherwise the researching world would be somewhat of a free for all. It is necessary that there are reviewers, the Institutional Review Board, and professional rules of conduct in order to uphold the codes of ethics for each specialized researcher. A researcher often has his/her own opinions of what is or is not ethical, which is why the Institutional Review Board (IRB) comes in handy. If I were collecting my own data, ethics would be a very important issue to address. First hand data collection can be a very slippery slope in regards to ethics. However, although I am only analyzing secondary data, ethics is still a matter that should be considered. Unethical issues can arise in any type of research at any point in time. I will address the types of issues that may stem from analyzing secondary data, specifically in my study: Linkages between Self-Regulation and Delinquency During Early Adolescence in low-income children. These issues include the ownership, protection, and sharing of data. As the Introduction to the Responsible Conduct of Research stated, ownership, collection, storage and sharing of data should be carefully considered when conducting research (Steneck, 2007). This is an important area of concern for the research I am conducting because I have not collected the data, nor does my mentor own it. As confusing as this may sound, my mentors mentor (who is at NYU) owns the data, which we are using for my study. Although my mentor does not own the Three City Study data, she does however have access to it granted through her mentor. Under Dr. Li-Grinings consent, I am enabled to use the data for my own research purposes, since she is my mentor. This is an example of the researching and data ladder discussed in class last week. Research and data may be passed down from one to another, but

Sarah Pekoc Reflection 2 there is still one sole owner. For example, when I graduate and move onto a PhD program, I will not be allowed to bring this data with me unless I am granted access to it from Dr. Li-Grinings mentor. Another example where an ethics issue is related to my project is data storage, protection, and confidentiality. The data I am using is securely protected on a private server, which I do not have access to. The only people at Loyola University who have access to this data are Dr. LiGrining and the SEEDS lab manager. I have to request access to this data whenever I need to use it. It is protected under a password and username, saved on a specific server. This is to ensure the datas integrity, as well as to keep the participants confidential responses secure. Not only is the data inaccessible to outside eyes, but also the participants are coded under random codes in order to further protect private information. Although the participants names are now deleted, we still have access to personal information such as addresses, salary, and responses to questions that participants may wish to remain confidential. If we did not take these necessary precautions to protect participants identities, it is possible that several ethics issues may arise. Considering research ethics and the possible populations that my research may effect, as researchers, Dr. Li-Grining and I are obligated to share our findings when they are beneficial to the public. As of now, we only have preliminary findings, so this obligation is not yet in effect. However, further research may have significant findings, in which case we would be obligated to share it and benefit the public need. There are several implications that may stem from significant findings in our research. Firstly, the populations that my research may benefit are endless. We are focused on selfregulation and delinquency, an important topic in this day in age. Delinquency is becoming a further debated issue in the recent years. Researchers want to find an explanation for

Sarah Pekoc Reflection 2 delinquency, however one has not yet been found. The importance of finding an explanation is crucial; it is widely known that children who are delinquent are more likely to be offending adults. Specifically, minority groups are often categorized more highly as delinquents than nonminority groups. Boys are more often described as delinquent than girls. The assumption that there are certain groups that are more often categorized as delinquent than others leads us to believe that there is a cause; and that we should investigate this cause. Why is it that minority groups and boys are more likely to be delinquent? These are the unanswered questions that deserve further investigation. Assuming we find significant results in the future, we could suppose that one of the causes of delinquency is a lack of self-regulation; or dysregulation. Perhaps minority families do not instill the same self-regulating techniques in their children as non-minority families do for their children. It is possible that girls in general, are better at regulating their emotions and behaviors than boys are. These are all questionable possibilities; however, if we found a significant relationship between dysregulation and delinquency, several implications would be in store for these populations. Perhaps a prevention tactic in early childhood could be developed to prevent childhood delinquency, therefore preventing a majority of adulthood offending. This prevention could target self-regulating behaviors such as aggression, attention, and delay of gratification. Not only could preventions be developed, but interventions as well. An intervention may consist of taking the children who are already participating in delinquent behavior, and teaching them several selfregulating techniques.

Sarah Pekoc Reflection 2 According to Introduction to the Responsible Conduct of Research, research has no value unless it is shared (Steneck, 2007). If one day we do have these findings, we must share them with other researchers, policy makers, and the public in order for these implications to take place. Without a continuous sharing of data, policy makers would be unable to implement the practical applications of research.