Modeling of Low-Voltage Nanometer Merged MOS Devices

V. Rakitin
F. V. Lukin Scientific Physical Problem Research Institute , Moscow, rakitin@niifp.ru Abstract – This paper presents the simulation of the electrical characteristics of new type of low-voltage nanometersized devices concept called the merged MOS transistor (MMOS). The design and operation are described. The MMOS with a minimum topological size of 10 nm is simulated and shown operating at supply voltage of no less than 0.1V.

1. INTRODUCTION Various physical, technological, design and circuit engineering techniques can be used to reduce the relative sizes of semiconductor devices and to lower power supply voltage [1]. Some are already being researched and implemented: SOI CMOS, multi-gate (MG MOS, FINFET), nanowire (NW MOS) [2], Schottky barrier (SB MOS) [3], tunnel field effect (TFET) [4], etc. To reduce the supply voltage various operation modes may be used: subthreshold, bulk forward biasing, adaptive biasing, dynamic change of power, etc. Transition to three-dimensional structures may increase the density of elements. Thus a vertical nanowire gate-all-around (GAA) MOSFET occupies minimal area. Merged MOS transistors (MMOS) are designed for low supply voltage, which permits the creation of the most compact structure of devices and circuits [5]. The purpose of this paper is the modeling of low voltage nanometer merged MOS devices 2. MMOS CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION Merged devices are well known, and some of them are widespread occurrence. For example, a fourlayer p-n-p-n device (SCR) may be regarded as a combination of a n-p-n bipolar transistor with a p-n-p transistor.

Fig.1 Cross-section dual-gate nanometer MMOS with p-n junctions

The basic idea of MMOS is the merging of active domains of n-channel and p-channel MOS transistors (Fig 1). Gates and channels may be common. The latter makes sense if the conductivity of the active region is close to the intrinsic conductivity of silicon (or if the background impurity concentration is about 1e13 – 1e14 cm-3). Notably, the movement towards to the undoped channels is a general trend of nanometer MOS technology.

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The MMOS must contain a source of electrons and holes – merged source. The MMOS must contain a merged drain, which absorbs both types of carriers (Fig 1). A p-n junction, where the n+ region is at null potential, and the p+ region is at supply voltage Vs, is used as a merged source. At low voltages (Vs ≤ 0.6 V) p-n junction direct current is much less than transistor channels operating current. The MMOS may be considered as two MOS transistors: one n-channel and one p-channel, and the MMOS itself as amplifier, with the input electrode as a gate, and the output electrode as a merged drain. The middlezone metal gate MMOS (4.65 eV work function) is symmetric device. The electron and hole concentrations (as well as electron and hole currents) of the symmetric MMOS are approximately equal (Fig 2).

Fig 2: The density of electrons (a), holes (b), and the current(c) in the MMOS (at Vg=Vd=Vs/2=0.2 V)

If the gate voltage is close to the supply voltage (Vg = Vs), the concentration of electrons and the electron current dominate (Fig 3).

Fig 3: The density of electrons (a), holes (b), and electron current(c) (at Vg=Vd=Vs=0.4 V)

The presence of electronic conductivity between the n+ source and the n+ drain aligns their potential and the MMOS output becomes null potential. At the zero gate voltage the concentration of holes in the channel is high and the output potential is close to Vs. Thus, a basic MMOS acts as an inverting amplifier. The MMOS contains a forward-biased p-n junction (similar to CMOS with a direct displacement of the substrate), which causes direct diode current. Therefore, the relation of this current to MMOS operating

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current is fundamental. Fig 4 shows the MMOS current limited by the active load of the supply voltage circuits. It follows from Fig 4, that the value of MMOS operating current (which determines its speed) can be greater than the diode current by five to six orders of magnitude.

Fig 4: The ratio of currents of the MMOS and the parasitic diode

MMOS are allowed for a wide variety of designs: single gate and multi-gate, vertical and horizontal channels, planar and three-dimensional structure. MMOS with GAA can be created from nanowire. P-n junctions, Schottky contacts, tunnel junctions, etc. may be used as the merged source/drain. Particularly, the source can be a part of an area where carriers of both types are generated locally (e.g. photogeneration area). MMOS may be used in both linear and digital circuits. The implementation of complex logic functions is achieved by summation of gate potentials or summation of drain currents. The multi-gate configurations may also be used. 3. NANOMETER MMOS MODEL The nanometer MMOS modeling was performed by using DESSIS module of the ISE TCAD program package. Fig 1 shows a vertical MMOS, but the results are also valid for horizontal MMOS. The transistor body thickness ranges from 10 to 20 nm; gate length – from 40 to 100 nm; the effective thickness dielectric (silicon oxide) – from 1 to 2 nm. The transistor body width is 1 micron. The background impurities concentration is 1e13 cm-3. The recombination of carriers was taken into account by using the ShockleyReed-Hall mechanism. The minority carriers lifetime ranges from 10 to 100 ms and the surface recombination velocity ranges from 1e3 to 1e4 cm/s. The lows of these values are typical for conventional integrated appliances and are set in DESSIS by default. Both the p-n junction and the Schottky contacts are used in merged source/drain. In the first case, the used dopants are arsenic (n+ region) and boron (p + region) with concentration of 1e19 cm-3 for each type of impurity. In the second case, the Schottky contact parameters are defined by the metal work function. MMOS drains are combined to one another directly by overlapping the highly doped areas or by using a conductive connection. The n+source and p+source are separated and the area between them serves as the merged source. Metals with a work function ranged from 4.1 eV to 5.2 eV are considered as materials for the gate. When simulating a simple inverting amplifier MMOS the gates have been connected. In other cases, they were controlled independently or in accordance with the connection circuit. Additional gates were introduced for the analysis of more complex elements. Main static characteristics have been modeled; small signal parameters have been calculated; transients have been analyzed.

The following simulating results belong MMOS, whose the geometrical dimensions are the same as in Fig 1.
4. SYMMETRICAL MMOS CHARACTERISTICS The main static characteristics of the symmetric MMOS with supply voltage Vs = 0.6 V are given for consideration. The input characteristic of a basic MMOS – the dependence of drain current (Id) versus the gate voltage (Vg) at fixed drain voltage (Vd=0.3V) is shown in Fig 5a. It differs from the characteristics of an ordinary MOS in the fact that the operating current changes its direction depending on the gate voltage. At voltages greater than half the supply voltage, the current flows into the device, but at lower voltages it flows out of it. Fig 5a shows the direct current (Is) few orders of magnitude lower than the operating current.

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Fig 5: Input (a) and output (b) characteristics of the MMOS

The set of MMOS output characteristics (built with an incremental step of 0.1 V) shown in fig 5b is a superposition of -n and p-channel transistor I-V curves. The value range of negative and positive currents is defined by the metal work function of the gate. The maximum effective gate voltage of a symmetric MMOS is half the supply voltage, i.e. significantly lower than any of CMOS transistors has. In fact the MMOS currents are subthreshold and their amounts are relatively small which is a fee for low supply voltage. The supply voltage drop causes the operational and direct currents to decrease exponentially, as shown in Fig 6.

Fig 6: Dependence of operating and direct currents on MMOS supply voltage Vs

5. SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE OF ASYMMETRIC MMOS The usage of asymmetric MMOS (a-MMOS) may significantly increase the amount of operating currents. Various metals with different work functions were used as gate materials in a-MMOS. The influence of the gate work function has been studied; the suitable MMOS design has been chosen (gate 1 and 2 material work functions are 4.3 eV and 5.0 eV respectively). In this case, the electrons are localized within gate 1, and the holes - within gate 2 (Fig 7).

Fig 7: The density of carriers (a) and currents (b) where Vg=0 and Vg=Vs/2=0.2 V (c)

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The carrier concentration and current density become significantly greater as shown in Fig 7 The MMOS operating current increase is due to a reduction of the barrier between the source and channel. Since the barrier gap between n+ and p+ sources does not change, the amount of direct current remains the same (Fig 8). However, there is a parasitic leakage current (between the drain and source), which is particularly significant at low supply voltages.

Fig 8: Operating (1), leakage (2) and direct currents (3) in a-MMOS.

The results of simulating output and transfer characteristics of an a-MMOS at supply voltage of 0.4 0.1 V are shown in Fig 9 (the scale is partially shown). Transfer characteristics allow us to estimate the MMOS voltage gain factor, which is about 10, and may be increased by an order of magnitude through sophistication of the design (by adding a second gate layer that converts MMOS to the cascode amplifier). The simulation results show that it should be possible to use the a-MMOS in analog and digital circuits with supply voltage significantly reduced up to 0.2 V. The strong deterioration of the MMOS amplifying properties at a supply voltage of less than 0.1 V is due to the presence of significant leakage currents.

Fig 9: Output (a) and transfer (b) characteristics of the a-MMOS

The MMOS dynamic characteristics in high-signal mode have been simulated with an external load of about 1 fF (MMOS gate capacitance is about 0.2 fF). In such circumstances the MMOS satisfactorily transmits the pulse sequence with a frequency of 10 GHz at a supply voltage of 0.6 V (Fig 10a). The MMOS switching delay is less than 20 ps and it grows linearly with the increase of capacitance load. The operating frequency is reduced to 100 MHz at supply voltage of 0.2 V (Fig 10b).

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Fig 10: Transients in the MMOS: Vs=0.6 V (a), Vs=0.2 V (b)

6. CONCLUSION The modeling of the various MMOS designs demonstrates them operating at nanometer dimension level. The MMOS simulating with the minimal topological size of 10 nm has been made. The simulating results show that the basic MMOS keeps operating even at supply voltages near 0.1 V. It has voltage gain factor of 10 and above. Also it can operate at gigahertz frequencies. The MMOS parameters are sufficient for digital and analog schemes implementation where the size minimization under low supply voltage and high-speed performance are crucial. REFERENCES 1. A. S. Hanson et al. "Ultralow-voltage, minimum-energy CMOS", IBM J. Res. & Dev., 50, pp.469-490, 2006 2. J. Appenzeller et al. "Toward Nanowire Electronics", IEEE Tran. ED, 55, pp. 2827 2845 2008 3. J. Larson et al., "Overview and Status of Metal S / D Schottky-Barrier MOSFET Technology", IEEE Tans. ED., 53, pp.1048-1058, 2006 4. A. Seabaugh et al. "Low-Voltage Tunnel Transistors for CMOS", Proc. IEEE, 98, pp.2095-2110, 2010 5. V. Rakitin, "Merged transistors", Electronics Industry, pp.59-63, 2004

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