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Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006
Eng. Saleh Malkawi 2. Eng. Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 3 . Eng. Zaid Abdel-Sattar Jordan Valley Authority Royal Scientific Society Ministry of Agriculture Reclaimed Water Project / German Technical Cooperation Reclaimed Water Project / German Technical Cooperation We would also like to express our deep gratitude to all the university experts and the engineers from all relevant organizations for their valuable comments and experience. Fuad Hanna 7. Nayef Seder 4. Dr. Abdallah Nua’mat 9. which have enriched the Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines.Acknowledgment We would like to thank the following specialist engineers for their cooperation in modifying and reviewing these guidelines: 1. Eng. Artur Vallentin 10. Ahmad Bulad Mirza Water Authority of Jordan Water Authority of Jordan Jordan Valley Authority Jordan Valley Authority National Center for Agriculture Research and Transfer Technology 6. Eng. Wael Sulieman 8. Eng. Eng. Yousef Hassan 5. Ahmad Ulimat 3. Eng. Eng.
Furthermore the guidelines cover all unrestricted agricultural crops. As the Jordanian Standard (893:2002) for reclaimed domestic wastewater is concerned only with effluent from wastewater treatment plants. these modified guidelines take into consideration all water sources other than those mentioned in the Jordanian Standard 893. Jordan’s agricultural sector is a vital economic sector and consumes 65% of the country’s available water resources. As Jordan has a number of different water sources with different water qualities that have a varying impact on plants.. does not allow diluting or mixing this water with other fresh water sources and allows use only for restricted irrigation. These modified Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines were updated by subject matter specialists in the field of water quality and also take into consideration regional and international regulations and standards. it was necessary to delineate Jordanian recommendations that could ensure safe and sustainable use for irrigation water. I would to express my deep gratitude to the German Technical Cooperation for its continued support to the water sector. Secretary General of Jordan Valley Authority Eng. Furthermore.Introduction Jordanian-Germany Water Program. updated the Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines in 2006 to suit Jordanian irrigation water quality conditions. jointly implemented by the Jordan Valley Authority (JVA) and German Technical Cooperation (GTZ). several international references were reviewed and adapted in order to developed guidelines appropriate to Jordanian conditions that can serve as the foremost guidelines dealing with irrigation water quality in Jordan. soils and human health. Thanks are also extended to all our colleagues who contributed to reviewing these guidelines. Musa Dafi Al-Jamani Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 4 .
...... 19 Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 5 .3 m for Different Soil Types at Three levels of Soil Salinity to Reduce ECe to 2 dS/m .............. References Page 6 7 8 9 13 20 Annexes Annex A: Crop Tolerance and Yield Potential of Selected Crops as Influenced by Irrigation Water Salinity (ECiw) ..................................................................... Summary Table 3............. 14 Annex B:Approximate Pre-Irrigation Requirements to leach Salts in the Upper 0..... Abbreviations 2.............. Scope 4.......... 16 Annex C: Influence of Irrigation Water Salinity (ECiw) and SAR Levels on Soil Permeability 17 Annex D: Recommended Maximum Concentration of Trace Elements in Irrigation Water .........................................................................Table of Contents 1................ Impact of Parameters 5............................. Monitoring 6..................... 18 Annex E: Recommended Revised Microbiological Guidelines for blended water Use in Agriculture ...............
coli F Fe FOG HCO3 Hg K Li meq/l Mg mg/l Mn Mo Na NH4 Ni Ni NO3 P Pb pH SAR Se SO4 TDS T-N TSS Turbidity V Zn Aluminium Arsenic Boron Beryllium Biochemical Oxygen Demand (amount of oxygen required to oxidize organic matter in 5 days of incubation) Bromide Calcium Cadmium Chloride Cobalt Chemical Oxygen Demand (amount of oxygen required to oxidize inorganic and organic matter) Chromium Copper Dissolved Oxygen Electrical Conductivity Escherichia coli Fluoride Iron Fat.1. Abbreviations Al As B Be BOD5 Br Ca Cd Cl Co COD Cr Cu DO EC E. Oil and Grease Bicarbonate Mercury Potassium lithium milli-equivalent per liter Magnesium milligrams per liter Manganese Molybdenum Sodium Ammonium Nickel Nickel Nitrate Phosphorous Lead Negative logarithm of H+ concentration Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR = Na / ((Ca + Mg) 0.5/2)) Selenium Sulfate Total Dissolved Solids Total Nitrogen Total Suspended Solids Is a measure of the cloudiness of water Vanadium Zinc Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 6 .
7 0.7 .7.5 1.7 .coli Intestinal nematodes Boron sensitive Moderately Boron sensitive Moderately Boron tolerant Boron tolerant - mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l MPN/ 100 ml Eggs/ liter 0 .1.5 < 50 < 60 < 120 < 400 < 150 6-9 SO4 B Fe Mn Zn Cu E.0.5 > 7.5 . Summary Table Parameter pH EC - Unit Limit Value 6-9 Parameter NH4-N T-N Unit mg/l mg/l mg/l Limit Value < 16 < 50 < 960 Salt sensitive Medium salt tolerant Salt tolerant Highly salt tolerant dS/m dS/m dS/m dS/m mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l < 1.2.3 3 .3 3-6 <1 <2 <2 <1 1000/100 ml ≤1 TSS BOD5 COD Ca Mg SAR K HCO3 NO3-N mg/l mg/l mg/l < 80 < 520 < 16 Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 7 .7 1.
4. Cu. K. Na. concentration of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) in irrigation water (expressed in EC units). chemical. salt tolerant crops and disinfection of soils and irrigation water. The micro-biological parameters are: * Faecal Coliforms or Escherichia coli and * Intestinal Helminthes eggs. Zn. which may cause de-flocculation of clays in soils resulting in damage to soil structure and permeability (SAR). These include the use of drip irrigation. Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 8 . 3. 1 Blended Water: Mixture or dilution of fresh water and reclaimed water. which may be toxic to plants or have unfavourable effects on crops. types and permeability of soils and climate. Pb. biochemical and micro-biological properties. The relevant properties of a water source for use in irrigation can be subdivided into physical. pathogens. Therefore. plastic mulch. The suitability of water for irrigation depends on a variety of factors. Fe. The suitability of water for irrigation varies according to crops. HCO3. concentration of certain ions. Ni Organic compounds: FOG. NO3. SO4. Ca. TSS DO BOD5. SAR. 2. soils and public health. concentration of cations.3. Cr. Hg. leaching. P Trace elements / Heavy metals: B. What might be seen as poor irrigation water quality in one area or for a certain crop could be very suitable in other areas or for other crops. Scope These Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines deal with irrigation water that includes brackish water. neither universal guidelines nor absolute standards for irrigation water quality can be formulated. The physical. Cl. Mn. including climatic factors. which mainly affects crop yields. Cd. phenols. The most relevant and important are: 1. COD. special farming and irrigation techniques have been developed that allow for water of marginal quality to be used in productive agriculture. Mg. which may affect the health of humans and animals consuming contaminated crops or coming into contact with pathogens-contaminated water. In addition. 5. chemical and biochemical parameters are: * * * * * * * * pH value EC Temperature Turbidity. surface and ground water and blended water 1 that can be used in unrestricted irrigation. others. green houses.
Soils irrigated with this water will contain a similar mix but usually at a higher concentration than in the applied water. exceeding the upper limits of salinity tolerance for the different crops by 30% could possibly result in a productivity decline of about 10%. . expressed generally in Electrical Conductivity units (dS/m).Salt tolerant: EC between 3. acacia). cabbage. groundwater. lower pH values could influence plant growth positively. This does not mean a salt sensitive plant cannot tolerate being irrigated with a water of higher than 1.0 and 7. wheat.7 and 3. watermelon. cinchona. which could corrode or may develop a scale or precipitation of carbonates.g. but it does means that the productivity of that specific plant will decline by a certain percentage if irrigated with higher salinity water. casuarina.0 dS/m e. . lettuce.7 dS/m. cauliflower. barley. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). The extent to which the salts accumulate in the soil will depend upon the irrigation water quality.0 to 9. Generally. The different types of plants can only tolerate a certain salt content of irrigation water. losses in yield will result. irrigation management. Plants are classified into four categories: sensitive. Annex B shows approximate pre-irrigation requirements to leach salts in the upper 0.0 dS/m e. Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 9 .Salt highly tolerant: EC ≥ 7. strawberry. Boron concentration (B) and pathogens beyond the allowed limits is the most important factors affecting the safe use of irrigation water and crop productivity. cucumber. pepper. human and animal health. grapes. olive.Salt moderately sensitive : EC between 1.3 m for different soil types at three levels of salinity (ECe). . Annex A shows crop tolerance and yield potentials of selected crops as influenced by irrigation water salinity. asparagus. trees (tamarisk.5 dS/m e. onion. Irrigation water contains a mixture of naturally occurring salts.7 dS/m e.g. salt tolerant plants and salt highly tolerant plants. salt moderately sensitive. Impact of Parameters pH value Water with pH 6. The main pH impact is on nutrient availability for plants and in addition on irrigation equipment. soils.If we consider the quality of irrigation water in Jordan and the general impact of irrigation water on plants. Salinity Salt concentration and composition of irrigation water are the main factors determining the suitability of crops.g. . together with other factors such as soil and climate. citrus. the adequacy of drainage and the amount of precipitation. If salts become excessive. we find that the increase of salt concentration (TDS). 4. To prevent yield loss salts in the soil must be controlled at a concentration below that which might affect yield. carrot.Salt sensitive: EC < 1.0 generally has no significant negative impact on plants or soils. As most soils in Jordan are alkaline.g. date palm.
leading to a decrease in product quantity and poor crop quality. Only at very high concentrations (> 80 mg/l) does it reduce plant uptake of Ca. Na and Cl are the major salinity parameters in irrigation water. bicarbonate particles and others. it allows the development of the described negative anaerobic conditions in the root zone and its surroundings. the less the negative impacts of Na and Cl. Ca concentration of less than 400 mg/l and Mg concentration of less than 150 mg/l in irrigation water is recommended.Temperature Generally. anaerobic situations will occur only if irrigation water contains high organic matter concentrations and very low Dissolved Oxygen (DO) contents at the same time. The concentration of sodium and calcium are expressed in milliequivalents per liter (meq/l). Potassium (K) The available potassium in irrigation water is usually used as fertilizer. Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 10 . SAR of 6 . However. Suspension and turbidity are caused by fine soil and rock particles. no problems are to be expected for soils or plants. such as a decrease soil permeability. irrigation water should have a temperature of between 4oC to 30oC. remains of organic matter and iron oxides. precipitating and calcinations. the effects of Na and Cl are bound to the Ca content of the soil: the higher the Ca content. Sodium (Na) and Chloride (Cl) Generally. COD) Oxygen is necessary for plant growth and it must be present in the root zone or plants will suffer. Because of the above mentioned two reasons. Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) The action of Ca and Mg on soils and plants is directly connected to the pH value and concentration of Na as explained below (see SAR. However.9 may cause some problems to soils. SAR of more than 9 may cause clogging of soils. Na and Cl). When using sprinkler irrigation the suspended solids will precipitate on leaves and fruits. Turbidity and TSS may reduce soil surface permeability or may cause clogging of micro irrigation systems if filtration does not exist or regular maintenance is not carried out. Turbidity and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) As physical parameters. Biochemical/Chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5. When soils remain 100% saturated with that water for long periods of time. Values of up to 60 mg/l for BOD5 and up to 120 mg/l for COD cannot be considered as harmful to plants or soils. Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) When the SAR value is less than 6. The SAR can be used in conjunction with the salinity of the applied irrigation water (ECiw) to assess potential permeability problems as shown in annex C. such as clogging. the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) was developed to determine the suitability of water for irrigation. Excessive Na in irrigation water promotes soil dispersion and structural breakdown. a concentration of total suspended solids in irrigation water of more than 50 mg/l can have physical and maybe chemical impacts on irrigation systems.
Sulfate (SO4) Phosphorous (P) P is an essential element for plant growth.g. Nitrate (NO3) and Ammonium (NH4) NO3 and NH4 serve as a nutrient for plants but excessive concentrations may cause delayed maturity or poor crop quality. total nitrogen consists of nitrate (NO3). cucumber 0.7 e. gypsum crystals will precipitate on leaves and fruits and if SO4 concentration exceeds 300 mg/l it may cause damage to leaves and fruits. alfalfa. A maximum level of 16 mg/l NO3-N or NH4-N for irrigation water is recommended. cabbage.Bicarbonate (HCO3) HCO3 in concentrations of less than 520 mg/l are not known to have negative impacts on plants and soils.g. In natural water SO4 is not known to cause any harm to plants because it is generally of low solubility and it precipitates in soils. parsley.Born tolerant e. concentrations in irrigation water may go up to 960 mg/l without major effects on plants or soils. It is not known that the total P concentration in irrigation water can cause any adverse effects on plants and soils. High nitrogen concentration in irrigation water may cause excessive vegetative growth and delay in crop maturity. asparagus 3– 6 Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 11 . onion.7 – 1. garlic. strawberry. peach. bean .g. watermelon. potato. Boron (B) B is an essential micro-nutrient for plant growth but excessive concentration of Boron in irrigation water will adversely affect the plant. grape. pepper. celery. Plants are classified into 4 categories according to their sensitivity to boron in irrigation water. Nitrogen Compounds 1.5 – 3 e. lettuce. carrot. A maximum level of 50 mg/l as total nitrogen for irrigation water is recommended.5 mg /l mg /l mg /l mg /l . Nitrite (NO2) ammonium (NH4) and organic nitrogen.Boron moderately sensitive e. tobacco . Generally.Boron sensitive 0 – 0.Boron moderately tolerant 1. NO3 can also be reduced into gaseous nitrogen that escapes into the atmosphere. corn. Al and Ca.g. When using sprinkler irrigation. Generally. Examples for plants that are relevant in Jordan are: . wheat. PO4 can be absorbed by plants or fixed in the soil horizons in the presence of Fe. lemon. squash. Total Nitrogen Nitrogen is considered to be one of the major nutrients for plant growth. 2. tomato.
Hence Cu concentrations in irrigation water up to 1 mg/l will not produce any negative impacts on plants and soils. Some heavy metals in concentrations of a few tens of micrograms per liter in irrigation water are not known to cause harm to plants or soils. Within the soils they form insoluble salts or complexes. heavy metals may accumulate on leaves and fruits and may be adsorbed by them. Annex D shows recommended maximum concentrations of trace elements in irrigation water. Cu and others are essential for plant growth however. Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 12 . plants will suffer and their productivity will be reduced. if sprinkler irrigation is used. Fe in irrigation water precipitates in soils. which means deteriorating product quality and health risk to consumers. Zn. Up to 2 mg/l in irrigation water is not expected to cause any harm to plants in the alkaline soils in Jordan. Soils are generally good traps for trace elements and heavy and can tolerate irrigation water with high concentrations of them for tens of years. Concentrations in irrigation water up to 1 mg/l are not found to harm plants or soils. However. * Iron (Fe) in the presence of oxygen is not harmful to plants because it is readily oxidized to insoluble iron. Therefore. * Copper (Cu) is also an essential element for plant growth and plant survival. Mn. Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element.Trace Elements / Heavy Metals Fe. Concentrations in soils may reach a few hundred mg/kg before any negative effect takes place. Therefore. * * Zinc (Zn) is an essential micro-nutrient. up to 2 mg/l of Zn in irrigation water will not cause any negative effects on plants or soils. if their concentrations exceed certain limits.
However. Microbiological conversion occurs mainly in the upper layers of soils. a limitation on pathogens for irrigation water in general is not recommended. each one according to its responsibility. bacteria by adsorption and viruses by sorption to soil particles. The parameters type and the frequency of irrigation water quality monitoring programs depend on the characteristics of location and changes in irrigation water quality. For some time. inhalation or ingestion. chemical and biological parameters are analysed on daily. monthly and semi-annual basis. Therefore. Side Wadis and other water sources where physical. Protozoa and helminthes can be removed effectively by filtration. and particularly those who deal with several irrigation water sources. in cases where irrigation water contains reclaimed water a limit of maximum 1 Intestinal Helminthes egg per liter is suggested. The removal efficiency depends on a variety of factors. Farmers. 5. irrigation water containing treated wastewater may contain pathogens that could be hazardous to farm staff and the public if certain protection practices are not applied. the Water Authority of Jordan and the Higher Council for Science and Technology. Organic compounds Organic compounds are degraded chemically in the soil by hydrolysis. soils and human or animal health. Monitoring Irrigation with water that does not comply with these Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines might lead in the long run to a decrease of agricultural production and negative impacts on groundwater. in particular the Jordan Valley Authority. The relevant organizations in the field of irrigation water. Soil acts to remove pathogens. the Jordan and Yarmouk Rivers. As a consequence of the above mentioned factors. Recommended microbiological guidelines for blended water use in agriculture are given in annex E.Pathogens Pathogens present a risk to human public health and animal health through exposure by contact. the King Abdullah Canal. Cheap portable equipment available in local market could be used to verify the suitability of the salinity (EC) and alkalinity (pH) of irrigation water. In addition. the Jordan Valley Authority has been conducting irrigation water monitoring programs in the Jordan Valley. could used this equipment. Reservoirs.000 Faecal Coliforms or Escherichia coli as geometric mean number per 100 ml is recommended. including the physical and biological characteristics of soil and the surrounding environment conditions. Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 13 . Temperature is also considered to be a main factor affecting the survival of pathogens. are monitoring the quality of irrigation water sources through regular parameter analysis. Low temperatures (around 4oC) already allow bacterial survival for a long time and the growth rate doubles with each 10oC increase in temperature. These monitoring programs should be integrated in order to develop a national program in this field. photo-decomposition or redox-reactions. a maximum of 1. It is hoped that all relevant organizations and water laboratories will apply these guidelines alongside other references to evaluate the quality of irrigation water.
Yield Potential Field Crops Common Name Barley Sugarbeet Sorghum Wheat Wheat.4 5.7 2.3 1.1 2.1 6.1 1 1 0.7 3.7 50% ECiw 12 10 6.9 2. berseem Orchardgrass Foxtail.9 2. zucchini Beet.2 10 10 6. scallop Broccoli Tomato Cucumber Spinach Celery Cabbage Potato Corn.7 1. common Clover.8 8.5 2.4 3.7 6.3 9.2 4.2 5. meadow Botanical Name Hordeum vulgare Beta vulgaris Sorghum bicolor Triticum aestivum Triticum turgidum Glycine max Vigna unguiculata Saccharum officinarum Zea mays Vicia faba Phaseolus vulgaris Cucurbita pepo melopepo Beta vulgaris C.7 1.9 0. red Squash.3 2.2 5.1 2.5 2.2 2.9 3.7 1.9 5 5.8 3.7 4.7 2.7 6.3 13 9.5 4 3.5 3.2 8 21 15 13 13 8.5 5.4 3.1 5.8 6 5. fairway crested Barley (forage) Ryegrass.6 2. perennial Vetch.7 0.3 4.7 5.1 1.5 3.3 1.2 1.9 3.6 5 5 4 3.5 4.9 4.3 1.9 5 3.3 6.7 1.5 9 7.6 6. 1985. sweet Sweet potato Pepper Lettuce Radish Onion Carrot Bean Turnip Forage Crops Wheatgrass.7 13 16 6.1 1. cristatum Hordeum vulgare Lolium perenne Vicia angustifolia Trifolium alexandrinum Dactylis glomerata Alopecurus pratensis 100% ECiw 5.9 1.4 6.2 1.2 2.9 3.7 3. pepo melopepo Brassica oleracea botrytis Lycopersicon esculentum Cucumis sativus Spinacia oleracea Apium graveolens B.6 4.7 2 1 1 1 90% ECiw 6.4 4.9 4.9 4.5 2.Annex A Crop Tolerance and Yield Potential of selected Crops as influenced by Irrigation Water Salinity (ECiw).4 4.3 3.4 6.3 1.9 3.8 1 3.7 1.9 4.8 12 6.5 0% ECiw 19 16 8.8 0.8 3.6 2.2 3.7 0.1 1.5 3.3 1.7 75% ECiw 8.Adapted from Maas and Hoofman (1977) and Mass (1984) in: Ayers and Westcot.4 2.5 1.7 7.1 1. tall Wheatgrass.4 6.2 2.6 3.5 2.1 1 1.4 4.8 0.1 8.1 1.9 1.4 2.9 4 3.8 6.7 8.4 2.8 5 4.7 8.6 1.8 2.4 1.1 1.5 2.7 7.7 4 2.9 1.5 5 4. oleracea capitata Solanum tuberosum Zea mays Ipomoea batatas Capsicum annuum Lactuca sativa Raphanus sativus Allium Cepa Daucus carota Phaseolus vulgaris Brassica rapa Agropyron elongatum A.8 10 12 8.7 8 4.7 6.7 10 5 6 6.2 1.6 6 4.2 2.1 13 12 7.7 8.8 1.9 3 2.8 3.1 5 6.6 2.6 2.7 3.5 2 1.9 Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 14 . Durum Soybean Cowpea Sugarcane Corn Broadbean Bean Vegetable Crops Squash.1 0.4 4.3 6.
6 1.4 1.5 1. 100% ECiw 1 1 2.3 3. Prunus duclis Prunus domestica Rubus sp Fragaria sp.5 1.8 3.9 1. Prune Blackberry Strawberry Botanical Name Trifolium repens Trifolium fragiferum Phoenix dactylifera Citrus paradisi Citrus sinensis Prunus persica Prunus armeniaca Vitis sp.3 3.4 7.7 90% ECiw 1.9 4.5 4.3 4.5 1.7 0% ECiw 6.1 1.1 1.7 1.6 6. strawberry Fruit Crops Date palm Grapefruit Orange Peach Apricot Grape Almond Plum.7 2.8 2.4 5.2 1.7 1.8 12 3.4 1.Yield Potential Common Name Forage Crops Clover.9 1.8 2.3 0.8 7.5 2.7 1.2 2.4 2.1 1 1 1 1 0.2 50% ECiw 3.8 1.5 4. ladino Clover.3 1.2 2.3 2.6 1.2 1.7 Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 15 .7 4 2.9 1.6 1.9 2.9 75% ECiw 2.6 4.6 21 5.
3 m for different soil types at three levels of soil salinity to reduce ECe to 2 dS/m. Soil Type Sandy Loamy sand Sandy loam Loam Silt loam Sandy Clay loam Clay Loam Silt Clay loam Sandy Clay Silt clay Clay Water content at field capacity (mm) in 0. 2002.Annex B Approximate pre-irrigation requirements to leach salts in the upper 0.3 m depth 27 38 62 81 99 77 95 110 102 116 119 Pre-irrigation (mm) ECe = 4 42 53 77 96 114 92 110 125 117 131 134 Pre-irrigation (mm) ECe = 10 Pre-irrigation (mm) ECe =20 87 98 122 141 159 137 155 170 162 176 179 57 68 92 111 129 107 125 140 132 146 149 Source: adjusted from Western fertilizer handbook. Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 16 .
40 3 .1.0.40 0-3 0-6 0 .3 1.7 0.3 0.2 2-3 3-5 0 .2 1. 1998.3 0.2 .3 . Adapted from Ayers and Westcott.0.Annex C Influence of Irrigation Water Salinity (ECw) and SAR levels on Soil permeability (Asano.1.6 .20 20 .6 .7 .40 12 .0.40 20 .0. Degree of Effect ECw (dS/m) 0.0.40 0 .40 6 .6 0.12 6 .0.3 .7 .2 0.2 .2 2-3 3-5 5-6 0.20 12 .12 12 .12 3 . 1989).1.40 No Effect Slight to Moderate Severe Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 17 .3 SAR 0-3 3-6 6 .20 20 .2 .3 .6 0.2 .2 1.
Inactivated by neutral and alkaline soils.1 mg/l in nutrient solutions.025 mg/l and toxic to livestock if forage is grown in soils with relatively high levels of added selenium. If the water application rate greatly exceeds this.1 Can cause non-productivity in acid soils (pH < 5.5 mg/l for bush beans. Toxic to citrus at low concentrations (<0. beets and turnips at concentrations as low as 0.0 will precipitate the ion and eliminate any toxicity. mobile in soil. The values given are for water used on a continuous basis at one site. Conservative limits recommended due to lack of knowledge on its toxicity to plants. Can inhibit plant cell growth at very high concentrations. Not generally recognized as an essential growth element.1 0. Toxic to tomato plants at 0.05 0.1 mg/l in nutrient solution. Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 18 .2 5 0. the maximum concentrations should be adjusted downward accordingly. An essential element to animals but in very low concentrations. reduced toxicity at neutral or alkaline pH. Acts similarly to boron. No adjustment should be made for application rates less than 10 000 m3 per hectare per year.05 mg/l for rice. Can be toxic to livestock if forage is grown in soils with high concentrations of available molybdenum.01 0.02 0.5 0.1 0. Not toxic to plants at normal concentrations in soil and water. Conservative limits recommended due to its potential for accumulation in plants and soils to concentrations that may be harmful to humans.1 1 2. Adapted from National Academy of Sciences (1972) and Pratt (1972). ranging from 5 mg/l for kale to 0. ranging from 12 mg/l for Sudan grass to less than 0.0 mg/l. but more alkaline soils at pH > 7. 2 The maximum concentration is based on a water application rate that is consistent with good irrigation practices (10 000 m3 per hectare per year). Tends to be inactivated by neutral and alkaline soils. Toxic to many plants at relatively low concentrations. Toxic to beans.5).Annex D Recommended Maximum Concentration of Trace Elements in Irrigation Water1 Recommended Maximum Remarks Element Concentration2 (mg/l) Al (aluminium) As (arsenic) Be (beryllium) Cd (cadmium) Co (cobalt) Cr (chromium) F (fluoride) Li (lithium) Mo (molybdenum) Ni (nickel) Pb (lead) Se (selenium) V (vanadium) 1 5 0.075 mg/l). Toxicity to plants varies widely. Tolerated by most crops up to 5 mg/l. Toxic to plants at concentrations as low as 0.5 mg/l to 1.01 0. Toxic to a number of plants at 0. Toxicity to plants varies widely.
Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 19 .Annex E The following WHO (2000) table can serve as orientation with regard to microbial guidelines.
Directives No (4/g) 2004. Review 1. Amman / HK of Jordan UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. Davis / California U. EPA (1992): Guidelines for water reuse. (ed. EPA/625/R-92/004.6. Amman / HK of Jordan MAAS (1984): Salt tolerance of plants. Washington / USA         WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION. USDA. U.reclaimed domestic wastewater (JS 893/2002). 1998. 9th edition  GERMAN TECHNICAL COOPERATION (GTZ) / JORDAN VALLEY AUTHORITY (JVA): Reclaimed Water Project (2006): Guidelines for reclaimed water irrigation in the Jordan Valley. Committee of Consultants (1974): Guidelines for interpretation of water quality for agriculture. Rome / Italy GERMAN TECHNICAL COOPERATION (GTZ) / JORDAN VALLEY AUTHORITY (JVA): Brackish Water Project (2003): Guidelines for brackish water irrigation in the Jordan Valley. Boca Raton / Florida MAAS (1990): Relative salt tolerance of herbaceous crops. Volume 10. brackish water and saline water for agricultural practices. issued acc.S. in: Handbook of plant science in agriculture. Water Quality Management Library. WHO (2000): Guidelines for the microbiological quality of treated wastewater used in agriculture. U. Amman / HK of Jordan  Takashi Asano. treated wastewater. Amman / HK of Jordan JORDAN INSTITUTION FOR STANDARDS AND METROLOGY.R.S. Geneva / Switzerland  Western Fertilizer Hand book (2002). References   AYERS/WESTCOT (1985): Water quality for agriculture. Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse. JISM (2002): Jordanian Standards: Water .). FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29. to Article (15/c) of the provisional Law of Agriculture No 44/2002. CRC press. USDA. Salinity Laboratory Agricultural Research Service MAAS (1990a): Boron tolerance limits for agricultural crops. Salinity Laboratory Agricultural Research Service MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE (MoA): Directives and regulations regarding the usage of wastewater. Special Theme – Environment and Health. Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines –December 2006 20 .S. Christie B. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.