NGC 6302

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NGC 6302

Observation data
(Epoch J2000)

Right ascension

17h 13m 44.211s[1] -37° 06′ 15.94″[1] 3.4 ± 0.5 kly (1.04 ± 0.16 kpc)[2] 7.1B[1]

Declination

Distance

Apparent magnitude (V)

Apparent dimensions (V)

>3′.0[2]

Constellation

Scorpius

Physical characteristics

Radius

>1.5 ± 0.2 ly[3]

Absolute magnitude (V)

-3.0B +0.4
−0.3
[4]

Notable features Other designations

Dual chemistry, hot central star Bipolar Nebula,[1] Bug Nebula,[1] PK 349+01 1,[1] Butterfly Nebula,[5][6] Sharpless 6, RCW 124, Gum 60, Caldwell 69[7]

See also: Planetary nebula, Lists of nebulae

NGC 6302 (also called the Bug Nebula, Butterfly Nebula, or Caldwell 69) is a bipolar planetary nebula in the constellation Scorpius. The structure in the nebula is among the most complex ever observed in planetary nebulae. The spectrum of NGC 6302 shows that its central star is one of the hottest stars in the galaxy, with a surface temperature in excess of 200,000 K, implying that the star from which it formed must have been very large (cf. PG 1159 star). The central star, a white dwarf, was only recently discovered (Szyszka et al. 2009), using the upgraded Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The star has a current mass of around 0.64 solar masses. It is surrounded by a particularly dense equatorial disc composed of gas and dust. This dense disc is postulated to have caused the star's outflows to form a bipolar structure (Gurzadyan 1997) similar to an hour-glass. This bipolar structure shows many interesting features seen in planetary nebulae such as ionization walls, knots and sharp edges to the lobes.

Contents
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1 Observation history 2 Characteristics 3 Central star 4 Dust chemistry 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

Observation history
As it is included in the New General Catalogue, this object has been known since at least 1888.[8] The earliest known study of NGC 6302 is by Edward Emerson Barnard, who drew and described it in 1907 (Meaburn et al. 2005). Since then it has been the focus of many works and displays many interesting characteristics worthy of study. Interest in recent years has shifted from discussions over the excitation method in the nebula (shock-excitation or photo-ionisation) to the properties of the large dust component. It featured in some of the first images released after the final servicing mission of the Hubble Space Telescope in September 2009.[9]

Characteristics
NGC 6302 has a complex morphology, which may be approximated as bipolar with two primary lobes, though there is evidence for a second pair of lobes that may have belonged to a previous phase of mass loss. A dark lane runs through the waist of the nebula obscuring the central star at all wavelengths (Matsuura et al. 2005). Observations of NGC 6302 suggest that there may be an orthogonal skirt (or chakram) similar to that found in Menzel 3 (Meaburn et al. 2005). The nebula is orientated at an angle of 12.8° against the plane of the sky. This planetary nebula contains a prominent northwest lobe which extends up to 3′.0 away from the central star and is estimated to have formed from an eruptive event around 1,900 years ago. It has a circular part whose walls precisely follow a Hubbletype outflow (where outflow speed is proportional to distance from the central source). At an angular distance of 1′.71 from the central star, the flow velocity of this lobe is measured to be 263 km/s. At the extreme periphery of the lobe, the outward velocity exceeds 600 km/s. The western edge of the lobe displays characteristics suggestive of a collision with pre-existing globules of gas which modified the outflow in that region (Meaburn et al. 2005).

Central star
The central star, among the hottest stars known, had escaped detection because of a combination of its high temperature (so that it radiates mainly in the ultraviolet), the dusty torus (which absorbs a large fraction of the light from the central regions, especially in the ultraviolet) and the bright background from the star. It was not seen in the first HST images (APoD 2004). But the improved resolution and sensitivity of the new Wide Field Camera 3 of the Hubble Space Telescope revealed the faint star at the centre (Szyszka et al. 2009). A temperature of 200,000 Kelvin is indicated, and a mass of 0.64 solar masses. The original mass of the star was much higher, but most was ejected in the event which created the planetary nebula. The luminosity and temperature of the star indicate it has ceased nuclear burning and is on its way to becoming a white dwarf, fading at a predicted rate of 1% per year.

Dust chemistry
The prominent dark lane that runs through the centre of the nebula has been shown to have an extraordinary dust chemistry, showing evidence for multiple crystalline silicates, crystalline water ice and quartz, with other features which have been interpreted as the first extra-solar detection of carbonates (Kemper et al. 2002). This detection has been disputed, due to the difficulties in forming carbonates in a nonaqueous environment (Ferrarotti & Gail 2005). The dispute remains unresolved. One of the most interesting characteristics of the dust detected in NGC 6302 is the existence of both oxygen-rich material (i.e. silicates) and carbon-rich material (i.e. polyaromatic-hydrocarbons or PAHs) (Kemper et al. 2002). Stars are usually either O-rich or C-rich, the change from the former to the latter occurring late in the evolution of the star due to nuclear and chemical changes in the star's atmosphere. NGC 6302 belongs to a group of objects where hydrocarbon molecules formed in an oxygen-rich environment (Matsuura et al. 2005).

Position of NGC 6302

Notes
1. ^ a b c d e f (SIMBAD 2007) 2. ^ a b (Meaburn et al. 2005) 3. ^ Radius = distance × sin(angular size / 2) = 3.4 ± 0.5 kly * sin(>3′.0 / 2) = >1.5 ± 0.2 ly 4. ^ 7.1B apparent magnitude - 5 * (log10(1040 ± 160 pc distance) - 1) = -3.0B +0.4 −0.3 absolute magnitude 5. ^ (APoD 1998) 6. ^ (APoD 2004) 7. ^ O'Meara, Stephen James (2002). The Caldwell Objects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82796-5. 8. ^ Many sources credit its discovery to James Dunlop in 1826. E.g. (1) Wolfgang Steinicke, Nebel und Sternhaufen: Geschichte ihrer Entdeckung, Beobachtung und Katalogisierung- von Herschel bis Dreyers, 2009, p.429. (2) Universe Today; (3) Stephen James O'Meara, The Caldwell objects. Cambridge University Press, 2002, p.274.. (O'Meara argues that Barnard credited it to Dunlop - but may have been mistaken.) 9. ^ News Release Number: STScI-2009-25: Hubble Opens New Eyes on the Universe [1]

References

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APoD (June 2, 1998), Astronomy Picture of the Day, NASA and Michigan Technological University (MTU), http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap980602.html APoD (May 5, 2004), Astronomy Picture of the Day, NASA and Michigan Technological University (MTU), http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap040505.html Szyszka, C.; Walsh, J. R; Zijlstra, A. A.; Tsamis, Y.G. (2009), "Detection of the Central Star of the Planetary Nebula NGC 6302", Astrophysical Journal, Letters 707: L32-L36, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApJ...707L..32S Gurzadyan, Grigor A. (1997), The Physics and Dynamics of Planetary Nebulae, Germany: Springer, pp. 3, ISBN 3-540-60965-2 Meaburn, J.; López, J. A.; Steffen, W.; Graham, M. F.; Holloway, A. J. (2005), "The Hubble-Type Outflows from the High-Excitation, Polypolar Planetary Nebula NGC 6302", The Astronomical Journal 130 (5): 2303–2311, arXiv:astroph/0507675, Bibcode 2005AJ....130.2303M, doi:10.1086/496978, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2005AJ....130.2303M SIMBAD (January 11, 2007), Results for NGC 6302, SIMBAD, Centre de Données Astronomiques de Strasbourg, http://simbad.u-strasbg.fr/simbad/simid?protocol=html&Ident=NGC+6302 Kemper, F.; Molster, F. J.; Jaeger, C.; Waters, L.B.F.M. (2002), "The mineral composition and spatial distribution of the dust ejecta of NGC 6302", Astronomy and Astrophysics 394: 679–690, arXiv:astro-ph/0208110, Bibcode 2002A&A...394..679K, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20021119, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002A%26A...394..679K Ferrarotti, A. S.; Gail, H.-P. (2005), "Mineral formation in stellar winds. V. Formation of calcium carbonate", Astronomy and Astrophysics 430: 959–965, Bibcode 2005A&A...430..959F, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041856, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005A%26A...430..959F Matsuura, M.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Molster, F.J.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Nomura, H.; Sahai, R.; Hoare, M. G (2005), "The dark lane of the planetary nebula NGC 6302", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 359: 383–400, Bibcode 2005MNRAS.359..383M, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2005.08903.x, http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005MNRAS.359..383M

External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: NGC 6302
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NASA News Release Discovery of the star ESA/Hubble News Release SIMBAD Query Result NGC 6302 on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Astrophoto, Sky Map, Articles and images

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Sharpless catalog
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Sh2-1 Sh2-2 Sh2-3 Sh2-4 Sh2-5 Sh2-6 Sh2-7 Sh2-8 Sh2-9 Sh2-10 Sh2-11 Sh2-12 Sh2-13 Sh2-14 Sh2-15 Sh2-16 Sh2-17 Sh2-18 Sh2-19 Sh2-20 Sh2-21 Sh2-22 Sh2-23 Sh2-24 Sh2-25 Sh2-26 Sh2-27 Sh2-28 Sh2-29 Sh2-30 Sh2-31 Sh2-32 Sh2-33 Sh2-34 Sh2-35 Sh2-36 Sh2-37 Sh2-38 Sh2-39 Sh2-40 Sh2-41 Sh2-42

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Sh2-43 Sh2-44 Sh2-45 Sh2-46 Sh2-47 Sh2-48 Sh2-49 Sh2-50 Sh2-51 Sh2-52 Sh2-53 Sh2-54 Sh2-55 Sh2-56 Sh2-57 Sh2-58 Sh2-59 Sh2-60 Sh2-61 Sh2-62 Sh2-63 Sh2-64 Sh2-65 Sh2-66 Sh2-67 Sh2-68 Sh2-69 Sh2-70 Sh2-71 Sh2-72 Sh2-73 Sh2-74 Sh2-75 Sh2-76 Sh2-77 Sh2-78 Sh2-79 Sh2-80 Sh2-81 Sh2-82 Sh2-83 Sh2-84 Sh2-85 Sh2-86 Sh2-87 Sh2-88 Sh2-89 Sh2-90 Sh2-91 Sh2-92

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Sh2-93 Sh2-94 Sh2-95 Sh2-96 Sh2-97 Sh2-98 Sh2-99 Sh2-100 Sh2-101 Sh2-102 Sh2-103 Sh2-104 Sh2-105 Sh2-106 Sh2-107 Sh2-108 Sh2-109 Sh2-110 Sh2-111 Sh2-112 Sh2-113 Sh2-114 Sh2-115 Sh2-116 Sh2-117 Sh2-118 Sh2-119 Sh2-120 Sh2-121 Sh2-122 Sh2-123 Sh2-124 Sh2-125 Sh2-126 Sh2-127 Sh2-128 Sh2-129 Sh2-130 Sh2-131 Sh2-132 Sh2-133 Sh2-134 Sh2-135 Sh2-136 Sh2-137 Sh2-138 Sh2-139 Sh2-140 Sh2-141 Sh2-142

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Sh2-143 Sh2-144 Sh2-145 Sh2-146 Sh2-147 Sh2-148 Sh2-149 Sh2-150 Sh2-151 Sh2-152 Sh2-153 Sh2-154 Sh2-155 Sh2-156 Sh2-157 Sh2-158 Sh2-159 Sh2-160 Sh2-161 Sh2-162 Sh2-163 Sh2-164 Sh2-165 Sh2-166 Sh2-167 Sh2-168 Sh2-169 Sh2-170 Sh2-171 Sh2-172 Sh2-173 Sh2-174 Sh2-175 Sh2-176 Sh2-177 Sh2-178 Sh2-179 Sh2-180 Sh2-181 Sh2-182 Sh2-183 Sh2-184 Sh2-185 Sh2-186 Sh2-187 Sh2-188 Sh2-189 Sh2-190 Sh2-191 Sh2-192

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Sh2-193 Sh2-194 Sh2-195 Sh2-196 Sh2-197 Sh2-198 Sh2-199 Sh2-201 Sh2-202 Sh2-203 Sh2-204 Sh2-205 Sh2-206 Sh2-207 Sh2-208 Sh2-209 Sh2-210 Sh2-211 Sh2-212 Sh2-213 Sh2-214 Sh2-215 Sh2-216 Sh2-217 Sh2-218 Sh2-219 Sh2-220 Sh2-221 Sh2-222 Sh2-223 Sh2-224 Sh2-225 Sh2-226 Sh2-227 Sh2-228 Sh2-229 Sh2-230 Sh2-231 Sh2-232 Sh2-233 Sh2-234 Sh2-235 Sh2-236 Sh2-237 Sh2-238 Sh2-239 Sh2-240 Sh2-241 Sh2-242 Sh2-243

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Sh2-244 Sh2-245 Sh2-246 Sh2-247 Sh2-248 Sh2-249 Sh2-250 Sh2-251 Sh2-252 Sh2-253 Sh2-254 Sh2-255 Sh2-256 Sh2-257 Sh2-258 Sh2-259 Sh2-260 Sh2-261 Sh2-262 Sh2-263 Sh2-264 Sh2-265 Sh2-266 Sh2-267 Sh2-268 Sh2-269 Sh2-270 Sh2-271 Sh2-272 Sh2-273 Sh2-274 Sh2-275 Sh2-276 Sh2-277 Sh2-278 Sh2-279 Sh2-280 Sh2-281 Sh2-282 Sh2-283 Sh2-284 Sh2-285 Sh2-286 Sh2-287 Sh2-288 Sh2-289 Sh2-290 Sh2-291 Sh2-292 Sh2-293

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Sh2-294 Sh2-295 Sh2-296 Sh2-297 Sh2-298 Sh2-299 Sh2-301 Sh2-302 Sh2-303 Sh2-304 Sh2-305 Sh2-306 Sh2-307 Sh2-308 Sh2-309 Sh2-310 Sh2-311 Sh2-312 Sh2-313

See also: Stewart Sharpless  RCW catalog  Gum catalog  Nebula

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RCW Catalogue
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RCW 1 RCW 2 RCW 3 RCW 4 RCW 5 RCW 6 RCW 7 RCW 8 RCW 9 RCW 10 RCW 11 RCW 12 RCW 13 RCW 14 RCW 15 RCW 16 RCW 17

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RCW 18 RCW 19 RCW 20 RCW 21 RCW 22 RCW 23 RCW 24 RCW 25 RCW 26 RCW 27 RCW 28 RCW 29 RCW 30 RCW 31 RCW 32 RCW 33 RCW 34 RCW 35 RCW 36 RCW 37 RCW 38 RCW 39 RCW 41 RCW 42 RCW 43 RCW 44 RCW 45 RCW 46 RCW 47 RCW 48 RCW 49 RCW 50 RCW 51 RCW 52 RCW 53 RCW 54 RCW 55 RCW 56 RCW 57 RCW 58 RCW 59 RCW 60 RCW 61 RCW 62 RCW 63 RCW 64 RCW 65 RCW 66 RCW 67 RCW 68

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RCW 69 RCW 70 RCW 71 RCW 72 RCW 73 RCW 74 RCW 75 RCW 76 RCW 77 RCW 78 RCW 79 RCW 80 RCW 81 RCW 82 RCW 83 RCW 84 RCW 85 RCW 86 RCW 87 RCW 88 RCW 89 RCW 91 RCW 92 RCW 93 RCW 94 RCW 95 RCW 96 RCW 97 RCW 98 RCW 99 RCW 100 RCW 101 RCW 102 RCW 103 RCW 104 RCW 105 RCW 106 RCW 107 RCW 108 RCW 109 RCW 110 RCW 111 RCW 112 RCW 113 RCW 114 RCW 115 RCW 116 RCW 117 RCW 118 RCW 119

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RCW 120 RCW 121 RCW 122 RCW 123 RCW 124 RCW 125 RCW 126 RCW 127 RCW 128 RCW 129 RCW 130 RCW 131 RCW 132 RCW 133 RCW 134 RCW 135 RCW 136 RCW 137 RCW 138 RCW 139 RCW 141 RCW 142 RCW 143 RCW 144 RCW 145 RCW 146 RCW 147 RCW 148 RCW 149 RCW 150 RCW 151 RCW 152 RCW 153 RCW 154 RCW 155 RCW 156 RCW 157 RCW 158 RCW 159 RCW 160 RCW 161 RCW 162 RCW 163 RCW 164 RCW 165 RCW 166 RCW 167 RCW 168 RCW 169 RCW 170

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RCW 171 RCW 172 RCW 173 RCW 174 RCW 175 RCW 176 RCW 177 RCW 178 RCW 179 RCW 180 RCW 181 RCW 182

See also: Emission nebula  HI region  HII region

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Gum Catalog
Colin Stanley Gum  Gum 1  Gum 2  Gum 3  Gum 4  Gum 5  Gum 6  Gum 7  Gum 8  Gum 9  Gum 10  Gum 12  Gum 13  Gum 14  Gum 15  Gum 16  Gum 17  Gum 18  Gum 19  Gum 20  Gum 21  Gum 22  Gum 23  Gum 24

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Gum 25 Gum 26 Gum 27 Gum 28 Gum 29 Gum 30 Gum 31 Gum 32 Gum 33 Gum 34 Gum 35 Gum 36 Gum 37 Gum 38 Gum 39 Gum 40 Gum 41 Gum 42 Gum 43 Gum 44 Gum 45 Gum 46 Gum 47 Gum 48 Gum 49 Gum 50 Gum 51 Gum 52 Gum 53 Gum 54 Gum 55 Gum 56 Gum 57 Gum 58 Gum 59 Gum 60 Gum 61 Gum 62 Gum 63 Gum 64 Gum 65 Gum 66 Gum 67 Gum 68 Gum 69 Gum 70 Gum 71 Gum 72 Gum 73 Gum 74

          

Gum 75 Gum 76 Gum 77 Gum 78 Gum 79 Gum 80 Gum 81 Gum 82 Gum 83 Gum 84 Gum 85

See also: Gum Nebula

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Caldwell catalogue
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List

C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 C18 C19 C20 C21 C22 C23 C24 C25 C26 C27 C28 C29

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C30 C31 C32 C33 C34 C35 C36 C37 C38 C39 C40 C41 C42 C43 C44 C45 C46 C47 C48 C49 C50 C51 C52 C53 C54 C55 C56 C57 C58 C59 C60 C61 C62 C63 C64 C65 C66 C67 C68 C69 C70 C71 C72 C73 C74 C75 C76 C77 C78 C79

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C80 C81 C82 C83 C84 C85 C86 C87 C88 C89 C90 C91 C92 C93 C94 C95 C96 C97 C98 C99 C100 C101 C102 C103 C104 C105 C106 C107 C108 C109 Messier Catalogue Catalogue of Nebulae General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters New General Catalogue Index Catalogue Revised New General Catalogue Herschel 400 Catalogue
 Book:Caldwell catalogue Category:Caldwell objects Portal:Astronomy 

See also

Commons:Caldwell objects

Coordinates:

17h 13m 44.211s, −37° 06′ 15.94″

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=NGC_6302&oldid=520111835"

Categories:
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Planetary nebulae Scorpius (constellation) NGC objects Caldwell objects Sharpless objects

Source Material: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bug_Nebula